Citation
University of Denver Student Union

Material Information

Title:
University of Denver Student Union
Creator:
Berger, Debra
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
43 leaves : illustrations, charts, maps, plans (some color) ; 22 x 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Buildings ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

General Note:
On cover: University of Denver Student Center.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master's degree in Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Debra Berger.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09198477 ( OCLC )
ocm09198477
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1982 .B465 ( lcc )

Full Text
ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARIA LIBRARY


i
UNIVERSITY
or
DENVER
ENVIRONMENTAL design
AURARIA UBRAR.
STUDENT CENTER


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INTRODUCTION


INTRODUCTION
It takes only a short trip to the present student union at Denver University to be aware of the need for a new building. While everyone is friendly, many of the spaces in the building are inadequate and many are oppressive. The building itself does not provide any incentive for people to come to it. People are more apt to go home than come to the student union to mingle.
The University of Denver has been considering building a new union for quite some time. Michael Barber and Associates Architects are in the process this summer of final design decisions and working drawings for a new union. Construction will commence in late 1982.
Because of the varied spaces and importance of a student union this will be a challenging and exciting thesis project.


DENVER UNIVERSITY A BRIEF OVERVIEW
University of Denver a Brief Overview
The University of Denver was founded in 1864 as the Colorado Seminary and became the University of Denver in 1880. Today it is a coeducational accredited university with approximately 8,000 students of which 4800 are undergraduates. Eighty percent of the students come from throughout the United States and sixty countries are represented. Approximately 3,00 0 students live on campus.
Denver University's academic program integrates undergraduate and graduate education in the humanities, sciences and social sciences with professional education and research in selected areas.
Within the university are two undergraduate colleges; the College of Arts and Sciences consisting of the schools of Art, Education and Music and the College of Business Administration, which contains the schools of Accountancy and Hotel and Restaurant Management. The graduate programs are the College of Law, the graduate schools of Arts and Sciences, Business and Public Management, International Studies, Librarianship and Information Management, Professional Psychology and social work.
The DU Campus
The University of Denver is located in a well-established residential and light commercial neighborhood called University Park in southeast Denver (see map). The campus is located on 125 acres roughly bounded by Buchtel Boulevard on the north and Harvard Avenue on the south. On the east it extends past So. University and on the west it extends beyond So. High Street. The largest concentration of buildings is between High Street and University Boulevard but there are university buildings scattered throughout the area which range in condition, size, style and age.
2


Because there has never been a strong master plan; the buildings have been acquired or built as their needs and availability arose. Although many of the buildings make strong individual statements, there is architectural inconsistency and some physical and visual disunity (map of DU).
One of the largest problems concerning the university campus is the bisection caused by Evans Ave. Evans is a four lane major thoroughfare running east-west which has as daily traffic volume of over 20,000 vehicles. It is a danger to the students and faculty and is a physical and psychological division of the campus. One of the aims of the new student union will be to stress this problem.
The number of parking spaces is 3,300. There are 1700 on-street spaces and 1600 off-street.







WHAT IS A STUDENT UNION
Debating societies at Cambridge and Oxford Universities were the beginning of college unions. In the United States, Houston Hall at the University of Pennsylvania was the first union building and was founded in 1896. It was described in the school catalog as a place which provides "for all the students of the various departments a place where they may meet on common ground and furnish them with every available facility for passing their leisure hours in harmless recreation and amusement."
Unions play an important educational role in providing a place for informal interaction among students, faculty, and community and therefore providing the opportunities to learn how to interact with people.
Unions serve as an interdisciplinary resources complex, providing a place for students to meet, discuss, eat and drink. It is place to develop a sense of being to become a greater part of the academic community and to become aware of cultural, political, and civic issues. Unions are a tie between the community and the university.
4
I


THE EXISTING STUDENT UNION
The existing student union contains: a food service area, dining area, vending and pinball machines, ballroom, travel agency, student organization offices, and office of student life.
Because of the atmosphere of the building it does not fulfill the many roles of a union particularly that of interactor.
The present building will be renovated and used as part of the new Union complex. It is planned for the book store to be on the existing second level and the office of student affairs to be on the first level.
The are many possible ways to connect the existing building with the new building. Some sort of pedestrian link across Evans needs to be established.
5


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SITE
Since the new student union is to tie into the existing building the site must be in that general area. The link between the two buildings does not need to be a large connection but can be a walkway. This makes it possible to place the new building on the other side of Evans. The general boundaries are:
EAST: The commons area (which is a gathering place and a circulation route.
SOUTH: The existing student union.
NORTH: The General Classroom building and Business Administration.
WEST: Race Street.
As already mentioned, a strong desire of the University is to create some sort of bridge across Evans. This must be taken into account in the siting and design of the union. This general site is in the center of campus and has the potential for high visibility to provide an image for the university and a statement to the community.
Some of the problems of the site are noise and pollution from Evans.
6


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CODE


ZONING
Building Set Back Requirements
Front
Side
Rear
Maximum Lot Coverage
Floor Area Ratio: Required Open Space: 20%
30%
10 feet 7.5 feet 20 feet
3:1
1-3 stories 4 stories or more
Maximum Bulk Limits
7


Classification:
R3
Offstreet Parking:
Use
Classrooms
Theatres
Parking
Requirements Gross Sg. Ft. 1/600 30,800
1/200 38,285
TOTAL
Offstreet Loading:
1 space
10 feet wide 26 feet long 14 feet high
Number of Spaces Required
51
191
242


CODE
Group of Occupancy Table No. 5-A
p5-12
D.B.C.
Group A An assembly building with a stage and an occupant load of 1000 or more.
Basic Allowable Floor Area for buildings 1 story in height:
Type___Construction
I__________II________
A Unlimited 22,500 sq.ft.
Max. Height in ft. Unlimited 75 ft. high
Location (Sec. 603)
Building shall front directly upon or have access to a public street at least 20 feet in width. Exit Facilities (3302)
A. Building or floors, including basements, cellars, or occupied roofs shall have not less than two exits where required by Table No. 33-A.
9


Use Rooms 2 or More Exits Required When Occupant Load Exceeds Sq. Ft./Occupant Building, Floors Rooms
Assembly Concentrated Use Dance Floors 50 7
Halls and Banquet Rooms Theatres Meeting Rooms
Assembly Low Concentrated Use
Conference Rooms Dining Rooms Lounges 15 15
Classrooms 25 20
Reading Rooms 50 50
Kitchens 30 200
Office Buildings & Offices 30 100
School Shops 50 50
B. Mezzanines. Each mezzanine used for other than storage purposes, if greater than 2000 square feet in area or more than 60 feet in any dimension shall provide at least two stairways to the adjacent floor below.
E. 3 Exits. Every story or portion thereof which provides for an occupant load of 500 to 999 shall have at least 3 exits.
10 .


F. Four Exits. Every story or portion thereof which provides for an occupant load of 1000 or more shall have at least four exits.
J. Width of Exits, p. 33-4
K. Minimum travel distance between exit doors shall be 25 feet for a building or story.
L. Distance to Exits. Maximum travel from any point to an exit shall not exceed 150 feet unless the building is protected by an automatic fire sprinkler system and the distance may be increased to 200 feet.
M. Exits through adjoining rooms. Exits from a room may open into an adjoining or intervening room or area, provided the adjoining room is accessory to the area served and provides direct means of egress to an exit corridor, exit stairway, exterior exit, etc.
Exit Doors (3303)
A. Minimum 3' x 6'8
H. landing shall extend 2' beyond the edge of door.
Corridors (3304) p. 33-6
B. Corridors shall be 44" in width minimum and 7' minimum height.
Exceptions: 2) Exit doors may swing into the corridor a maximum of 1 foot when the cor-
ridor exceeds 6 foot.
F. Dead-end corridors may not exceed 20 ft. in length.
11


Stairways (3305) p. 33-8
B. Width. For occupant load of 50 or more minimum width is 44".
C. Handrails. Two handrails are required for stairs greater than 44" in width. Stairways 88" in width or greater shall have intermediate hand rail.
Ramps (3306)
C. Slope 1/12
D. Landings none required for slope 1/15 or less; otherwise an intermediate landing is required for each 5 feet of rise.
Seats (3314)
Standard Seating. Spacing of rows shall provide a space of at least 12 inches from back of one to front of other.
Continental Seating
18" clear for rows 18 seats or less
20" clear for rows 35 seats or less
21" clear for rows 45 seats or less
22" clear for rows 46 or more
Exits (3315)
12


B. Side exits every auditorium of a Group A Occupancy shall be provided with exits on each side.
C. Every balcony with occupancy of 10 or more shall have 2 exits.
Film Projection Rooms or Booths (4002)
Floor Area. Single projector requires at least 80 sq. ft. 40 sq. ft. is required for each additional projector.
Openings. All openings between projection room and auditorium shall be provided with glass.
13


SOIL


SOILS
Although exploratory test hole information is not available for the site, data is available for the site north of Asbury Street (Shwayder Art Building). The results show:
I- 7 feet below the ground surface - stiff, sandy clay w/a 10.7% water content
7-9 feet below the ground surface - stiff, weathered bedrock
II 7 feet below the ground surface - hard, claystone/sandstone bedrock
Free water occurred 15 feet below the ground surface.
14


CLIMATE


CLIMATE ANALYSIS
Denver, Colorado
Latitude s Longitude Altitude:
39.45N 104 52W
5285 ft. above sea level
Narrative Climatological Summary
"Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration .
Air masses from at least four different sources influence Denver's weather: artic air from Canada and Alaska; warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico; warm dry air from Mexico and the southwest; and Pacific air modified by its passage over coastal ranges and other mountains to the west.
The good climate results largely from Denver's location at the foot of the east slope of the Rocky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. During most summer afternoons cumuliform clouds so shade the City that temperatures of 90 or over are reached on an average of only thirty-two days of the year, and in only one year in five does the mercury very briefly reach the 100 mark.
In the cold season the high altitude and the location of the mountains to the west combine to moderate temperatures. Invasions of cold air from the north, intensified by the high altitude, can be abrupt and severe. On the other hand, many of the cold air masses that spread southward out of Canada over the plains never reach Denver's altitude and move off over the lower plains to the east. Surges of cold air from the west are usually moderated in their descent down the east face of the mountains, and
15


Chinooks resulting from some of these westerly flows often raise the temperature far above that normally to be expected at this latitude in the cold season. These conditions result in a tempering of winter cold to an average temperature above that of other cities situated at the same latitude.
In spring when outbreaks of polar air are waning, they are often met by moist currents from the Gulf of Mexico. The juxtaposition of these two currents produces the rainy season in Denver, which reaches its peak in May.
Situation a long distance from any moisture source, and separated from the Pacific source by several high mountain barriers, Denver enjoys a low relative humidity, low average precipitation, and considerable sunshine.
Spring is the wettest, cloudiest and windiest season. Much of the 37 percent of the annual total precipitation that occurs in spring falls as snow during the colder, earlier period of that season. Stormy periods are often interspersed by stretches of mild sunny weather that remove previous snow cover.
Summer precipitation (about 32 percent of the annual total), particularly in July and August, usually falls mainly from scattered local thundershowers during the afternoon and evening. Mornings are usually clear and sunny. Clouds often form during early afternoon and cut off the sunshine at what would otherwise be the hottest part of the day. Many afternoons have a cooling shower.
Autumn is the most pleasant season. Local summer thunderstorms are mostly over and invasions of cold air and severe weather are infrequent, so that there is less cloudiness and a greater percent of possible sunshine than at any other time of the year. Periods of unpleasant weather are generally brief. Precipation amounts to about 20 percent of the annual total.
Winter has least precipitation accumulation, only about 11 percent of the annual total, and almost all of it snow. Precipitation frequency, however, is higher than in autumn.
16


There is also more cloudiness and the relative humidity averages higher than in the autumn. Weather can be quite severe, but as a general rule the severity doesn't last long.
NOAA/Environmental Data & Information Service/
National Climatic Center/Asheville, NC
17


CLIMATIC DATA LOCATION: ODLO&&0 LONGITUDE: lCfc|0 5Z1 k| STATION: STN^-pN- NpfOfcrf LATITUDE: ELEVATION: 5265
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC MEAN TOT

Q% SUNSHINE -f 72- 71 70 67 <9 71 71 7a 75 73 45 4>6 70
q DD HEAT lost. ^02 06& 72? 253 80 0 0 I20 4o& 7^ 1034 4*314?
DD COOL 0 O O o 0 Wo 246 34 1 0 0 0 t
iij MEAN MAX. % 45.} 44.2 .| ao 70.) eOi| 67.1 258 77,7 66,6 53.3 44i7. 64.0
P MEAN 07 o A15 66.0 750 71.4, Ll% 5Z* 514 5Z.G 50. \
mean MIN. 114 53.0 35.1 434 51-1 58.6 574 Al 57.5 25.3 16.1 062
i
DAYS PRECIP (? 4? £> 1 10 1 1 6 A 5 3 3 80
MAX RAIN M4 I.6G 2.81 4.17 73| 4^1 (o.\ 1 n-/ 467 4-17 2.17 2.84
MEAN RAIN .47 1.21 '13 2.84 n> 111 U1 m ll> H ll
f^MIN RAIN < M 0| .1*3 .03 .0(> .14) 17 .06 T .05 .ol .03
If TH.STORM gMttciMJUNK 1.02. loi 1.46 3.5> 3.14 5.42 5.45 2-44 1.71 1-21 L*l
UJ MAX SNOW jf Moi^rHCY m |0.3 20,5 136 ,3 0 0 2I.5 312 37.1 3Q8
RH MAX 60 67 70 71 70 *1 64 66 68
RH MIN 45 42 40 55" 36 36 33 33 35 41 36


The Primary Wind
From the south every month of the year
The Secondary Wind From north-northwest in winter From north-east in Bpring and summer From north in fall
Strongest Wind
From northwest every month of year
North and northwest wind arctic air from Canada and Alaska
South and southeast wind = warm, moist air from Gulf of Mexico
South and southwest wind =* warm, dry air from Mexico
West wind Pacific air modified by passage over Rocky Mountains.
Denver is located in the belt of the prevailing westerlies.
N
s
ounce, uuo on 10 nui of data locctMuAi. ciMtuat.iMi-iMo.n
AOHM AC MO. OCPT Of ATHOVHCIHC AC1CMCC. COt-OAAOO STATE UMIVCRSTY (ACTCMMCC Ml.
lEflEHQ
SYMBOL Ml NO SPEED
| 11-34 mpt (4 12 mptt I
n 44-11.0 m IIS-24 mM I
^ > 11.0 mm (> 24 mM>
(oOUlfq&pf Of AMNSWIS.)
ANNUAL FREQUENCIES OF WINDS OF VARIOUS VELOCITIES AT STAPLETON AIRPORT, DENVER COLORADO


MONTHLY DIURNAL BIOCLIMATIC ANALYSIS
Denver, Colorado Afternoon Data (4 PM)
Month Hind (Mean fpm) Mean Rel. Humidity Averagg Temp. F Possible Z Sun Solar Radiation BTU/sq.ft. Avg. Sky Cover Avg. Monthly Precip.
Jan.' 906.4 64.8Z .7 34.2 i I 68Z ! ] 36.44 ' | 5.1Z 0.75 in.
Feb. 968 63.31 39.4 75Z 48.3 5.7Z 1.0 in.
Mar. 862.4 66.2Z 46.1 85Z 113.3 5.8Z 1.2 in.
April 932.8 62.6Z 57.5 78Z 150.27 5.7Z 2.1 in.
May 862.4 74.8Z 66.4 65Z 169.9 5.8Z 3.0 in.
June 976.8 69.5Z 74.4 68Z 184.4 4.5Z 1.75 in.
July 827.2 58.9Z 80.5 72Z 182.2 4.6Z 1.9 in.
Aug. 668.8 70.1Z 78.6 72Z 156.9 4.6Z 1.75 in.
Sept. 695.2 60.3Z 75.3 85Z 123.5 4.1Z 1.0 in.
Oct. 714.4 60.9Z 61.7 75Z 57.7 4.2Z 1.0 in.
Nov. 739.2 76.3Z 44.7 58Z 36.5 5.8Z 0.75 in.
Dec. 853.6 72.8Z 37.2 72Z 22.9 5.3Z 0.60 in.


MONTHLY DIURNAL BIOCLIMATIC ANALYSIS Denver, Colorado Night Time Data (A AM)
Month Wind (Mean fpm) Mean Rel. Humidity Averagg Temp. F Possible Z Sun Solar Radiation BTU/sq. ft. Avg. Sky Cover Avg. Monthly Precip.
Jan. 950.4 47.1Z 23.5 0 0 0.75 in.
Feb. 765.6 39.5Z 22.3 0 0 1.0 in.
Mar. 721.6 36.8Z 29.3 0 0 1.2 in.
April 836 33.7Z 38.6 0 0 2.1 in.
May 704 37.6Z 46.2 0 0 3.0 in.
June 959.2 33.8Z 52.5 0 0 1.75 in.:
July 739.2 27.0Z 61.0 0 0 1.9 in.
Aug. 660 35.7Z 58.6 0 0 1.75 in.
Sept. 633.6 24.2Z 50.0 0 0 1.0 in.
Oct. 668.8 29.0Z 39.8 0 0 1.0 in.
Nov. 642.4 46.3Z 31.6 0 0 0.75 In.
Dec. 616.0 42.7Z 23.7 0 0 md 0.60 in.


Month
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
April
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
MONTHLY DIURNAL BIOCLIMATIC ANALYSIS Denver, Colorado Evening Data (10 PM)
Wind (Mean fpa) Mean Rel. Humidity Average Temp. F Possible Z: Sun Solar Radiation BTU/sq.ft. Avg. Sky Cover
950.7 67.6Z 24.1 0 0
765.6 57.8Z 25.9 0 0
721.6 62.1Z 32.2 0 0
836 52.9Z 44.8 0 0
764.0 58.2Z 53.8 0 0
959.2 52.2Z 61.0 0 0
739.2 47.8Z 67.8 0 0
660.0 56.2Z 65.3 0 0
633.6 45.8Z 57.9 0 0
668.8 54.2Z 42.8 0 0
642.4 70.7Z 34.9 0 * 0
616.0 68.7Z 26.6 0 0 ...
Avg. Monthly Preclp.


MONTHLY DIURNAL BIOCLIMATIC ANALYSIS
Denver, Colorado Morning Data (10 AM)
Month Wind (Mean fpm) Mean Rel. Humidity Average Temp F Possible Z Sun Solar Radiation BTU/sq.ft. Avg. Sky Cover Avg. Monthly Precip.
Jan. 906. A 50Z 3A.6 68Z 116.8 5.1Z 0.75 in.
Feb. 968 A7.3Z 37.8 75Z 138.6 5.7Z 1.0 in.
Mar. 862. A A3.1Z A7.0 85Z 205.1 5.8Z 1.2 in.
April 932.8 A1.6Z 53.7 78Z 22A.1 5.7Z 2.1 t in.
May 862.A 50.3Z 62.5 65Z 2A5.A 5.8Z 3.0 in..
June 976.8 AAZ 70.9 68Z 262.5 A.5Z 1.75 in.
July 827.2 3A.9Z 80.3 72Z 263. A A.6Z 1.9 in.
Aug. 668.8 A7.A 77.3 72Z 2A0.3 A.6Z 1.75 in.
Sept. 695.2 A1.6Z 67.8 85Z 213.9 A.1Z 1.0 in.
Odt. 77A.A A5Z 55.8 75Z 165.6 A.2Z 1.0 in.
Nov. 739.2 61.5Z A2.3 58Z 117.3 5.8Z 0.75 in.
Dec. 853.6 51.3Z 35.5 72Z 100.7 5.3Z 0.60 in.


BIOCLIMATIC CHART
DENVER .COLORADO


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ANGLES
SOUTH 90 U WE ST
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1
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CLIMATE GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES
1. Orient spaces to best take advantage of daylighting.
2. South windows should be designed to be shaded by exterior overhangs; particularly in the summer. Wherever possible, use the building to shade itself.
3. Allow sunlight to enter exterior sitting areas and entrances in the winter to add warmth and prevent ice buildup.
4. Use light colored roofs to reflect sunlight.
5. Allow for cross ventilation within building.
6. If a fountain is designed, locate it so that breezes across it will aid in cooling.
7. Design building using daylighting with understanding that building with the least exterior surface area are generally the most efficient.
i
I
18


PROGRAM


FUNCTION OF THE BUILDING
The functions of the building fall into two main categories: service functions and educational functions. The service functions contain food service, recreation center, meeting rooms and campus activities. The educational function is! the ultimate justification pf the building. It
( | | i |
is the development of the students through social and cultural activities. It serves as a place to train students for social responsibility, leadership and it creates an environment which contributes to community sensitivities and university loyalty.
19


GOALS & OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDENT UNION
Objectives of the Student Union
1. Student center site concept should encourage intensive, spontaneous and planned student use.
2. Student center should eliminate the psychological and hazardous division of the D.U. campus that exists because of Evans.
3. The site concept should reinforce the diverse qualities of experience inherent to the student center program.
4. Student center should provide an image appropriate for the University of Denver.
5. It should provide a place for students to develop a sense of being part of an academic community.
6. Student center should provide a place for interaction informal contact among students and faculty outside of the classroom.
7. The building should provide a place for cultural exchange between community, students and faculty.
8. The new student center should be financially self-supporting reduce operational costs in the followings
a) staff and supervision
b) maintenance and custodian
c) utilities
d) damage prevention
20


9. Building should encourage people to interact
21


QUALITIES OF THE BUILDING
1. Must have air of informality and comfort and be bright and cheerful.
2. Feeling of warmth is desired through the use of textures, natural finishes, live plants, and interesting angles and variety of ceiling heights.
3. Must have a considerable amount of open space. Must be functionally and visually stimulating, open quality not foregoing security with security in mind.
4. High quality of interior design (first class) with quality finishes.
5. Use as much natural light as possible
6. Must be designed well acoustically by zoning activities and by using good acoustical techniques.
7. A high quality visual aspect should be carried throughout the entire building without monotony.
22


IMAGE OF BUILDING
Image of unity of campus across Evans.
Image of concern for people.
Image should be welcoming and reflect the nature of Denver University.
Image should have high visibility since it will provide information and be an activity center.
Style of Building
It could be in any of numerous styles in the older buildings brick and stone is most commonly used.
23


DESCRIPTION OF FACILITIES
A. Food Service Areas
A variety of dining possibilities is desirable, ranging from intimate coffeehouse to an informal eating/lounging area to a formal dining atmosphere in a meeting room to a speciality snacks area. Each area should have an atmosphere of its own and should serve a distinct purpose. The coffeehouse and the general dining area should be broken up with a variety of seating and table arrangements with a particular emphasis on two-person tables which can be readily pushed together to create space for any number of people. The coffeehouse, the general dining area, and the catered events will all be served out of the same central kitchen. Of course, a catering canel (food staging area) will be needed in the ballroom/meeting room area.
SPACE NUMBER NAME OF SPACE_______________SQUARE FOOTAGE
A-1 Pub (Coffeehouse) 2300
The functions of the coffeehouse will be dining, conversation, live entertainment, lounging, TV watching, movies, disco/dancing, and quiet games. The coffeehouse should possess a unique, intimate atmosphere. A variety of lighting is desirable. It should be adjacent to, but perhaps at a lower level than the general dining area. It must be readily accessible to the general dining area, because it must6 serve as both an overflow dining area at the height of the lunch hour as well as a distinctive evening hours dining, lounging, and entertainment area. As an entertainment area, it will require an attractive and durable dance floor, a small stage (perhaps portable), a quality house PA system, either a permanent or movable stage lighting system, and excellent acoustical treatment, including walls. Because the coffeehouse may operate as an independent (or even the sole) food operation during the evening hours, it is necessary that access (steps, ramps, etc.) from the general dining area to the coffeehouse be capable of being blocked off as needed. This area, as all food areas, will be served out of the main kitchen, but it may need its own unobtrusive, small food preparation and sale area for fry food operation, if
24


the technical difficulties of trying to operate the coffeehouse as the sole nighttime food operation (with food coming from the central kitchen) cannot be solved. The committee realizes that these technical difficulties are further exacerbated by our desire to have the coffeehouse relate not only to the general dining area but also to the recreation area. A multi-level coffeehouse may be an attractive alternative solution to part of this problem. A multi-level ceiling might add visual interest.
At times an entrance fee will be charged for events in the coffeehouse; hence, a method of controlling evening traffic into the coffeehouse is needed via a vestibule and ticket window area. The coffeehouse must have its own restrooms, have the capability of 24-hour accessibility, should relate to some storage area, and as mentioned, relate to food serving areas and should have a seating capacity of 150. Seating arrangements should be a mixture of chairs and tables of different sizes and shapes and lounge/coffee table type settings. The architects should consider the feasibility of a fireplace in this room. As in the rest of the building, speakers should be mounted in the ceiling with zoned on/off and volume controls.
SPACE NUMBER NAME OF SPACE____________SQUARE FOOTAGE
A-2 General Dining Area 6000
This 400-seat dining area should provide seating for breakfast, lunch and dinner. However, this space will become a common lounging area for between class breaks; hence, a mingling atmosphere for conversation and gathering should be attained. A number of different seating arrangements, including a variety of chairs, tables and booths, should be employed. Variation in ceiling heights should be considered. Speakers should be mounted in the ceiling with zoned on/off and volume controls. The general dining area should not be a huge expanse of space, but rather it should be broken-up into mini-dining/lounging areas with each mini-area having a different thematic approach. A mixture of floor finishes such as brick or tile and carpeting should be used. An outdoor seating, dining, lounging area should be provided.
25


SPACE NUMBER NAME OF SPACE______________SQUARE FOOTAGE
A-3 Kitchen Loading Dock 5000
It is absolutely essential that the kitchen layout, with which the architects will receive assistance from a consultant, lend itself to a smooth flow of goods from the central loading dock, past a shipping and receiving area, to the dry storage and refrigeration units, to the kitchen, to the consumer. Nothing should be built in, it needs maximum flexibility. the garage handling area and the large freight elevator should be near the loading dock. The loading dock needs a high pressure steam wand. Windows high up on the walls should allow natural light to enter the main work are. These windows should allow natural light to enter the main work area. These windows should definitely be screened and be capable of being opened. employees, upon entering, should pass a time clock, proceed to a locker/restroom area, and then continue on to their work stations. Showers are not needed in the locker rooms. The office for the unit manager should be glass enclosed and centrally located to permit visual supervision of the entire kitchen operation. The kitchen should be designed for maximum efficiency and with a realization of the wide range of menu items which will have to be prepared here (from fast foods to buffets to full-dress formal dinners).
SPACE NUMBER NAME OF SPACE_______________SQUARE FOOTAGE
A-4 Servery
The servery should be a well-lighted area with an easy-to-clean floor finish. A customer should be able to go to several different areas in the servery and receive full hotplate meals, fast food, or specialty food items.* However, the system should lend itself to a minimum of bottlenecks and to the concurrent free flow of customers. The architects and kitchen consultants should give thought to the possible merits of a scramble or modified scramble system in the
26


servery. The cashier's area needs to be capable of expansion or reduction, depending upon volume of business at any given point during the day. Special attention should be given to securing the cashier and servery area during times when the food area is not in use but the seating area is in use. Attention must also be given to electrical outlets in the cashier area. Also, checkout lanes must be wide enough to accomodate wheelchairs. The dish return area should be conveniently located for customer use and should be designed as attractively as possible, a major dishwashing facility will be needed. the architects should look very carefully at the entire problem of waste disposal.
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B. Meeting/Banquet Rooms
SPACE NUMBER NAME OF SPACE_____________SQUARE FOOTAGE
B-1 Ballroom 6500
This sizable area should be large enough to seat 500 people at "round-eight" table or 1000 people in auditorium style. The ballroom should be capable of subdivision into four usable spaces; however, the large room should be subdivided in a 60/40 or 65/35 ration and not just split down the middle. The ballroom will be used for meetings, exhibitions, banquets, dances, concerts, bazaars, etc. It needs to have portable staging, excellent lighting, ample heavy storage, plus storage for valuable music equipment (piano, organ, portable sound system), potential to be darkened (some "shadeable" natural light would seem to be desirable), central lighting control and first quality sound system run from a control booth which could also be used for movie projection, a large electrically-lowered movie screen, and superb acoustical treatment. Track lighting should be available to shine on these display walls. Each divided area should have controlled access to it and when all of the folding doors are closed, a nine-foot service island should remain in the middle for use by food service and for pedestrian traffic. Each of the divided areas of the ballroom needs to have the capability of being independent units in terms of lighting, sound, etc. An attractive and highly durable floor is desirable. Electrical outlets of varying voltage and amperage (such as could be used for "rock bands") need to be located at one end of the ballroom 220 lines must be located throughout the ballroom. Food service4 should have easy access storage nearby for tables.
SPACE NUMBER NAME OF SPACE______________SQUARE FOOTAGE
B-2 Meeting Rooms 2400
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t
There should be four meeting rooms in the following sizes 250 square feet, 400 square feet, 750 square feet, and 1,000 square feet. Each of these should be subdivisible, and with the exception of the smallest room, they should probably be subdivided into sections of two-thirds and one-third. Food will frequently be served in these areas, and it is important that the service of food not be forced to mingle with the pedestrian traffic in the building. Therefore, it is desirable that food service be able to set-up and enter the room from a rear area or from less heavily traveled area. Food service in these rooms will range, as in the ballrooom area, from coffee and donuts to full meals. It is important, therefore, to provide easy access from the kitchen area to the meeting room and ballroom area for the transportation of food in portable units. Electrical outlets for the set-up of warming carts are an absolute necessity and a food staging area (catering canal) in this part of the building is also necessary. Each meeting room should be a different size and should carry a different motif. Omni units should be hung on the end walls in appropriate decorator colors. The largest meeting room should have permanent furniture and should be nicely decorated, because it will also be used as a semi-formal dining room. If possible, this room should contain a fireplace. It is imperative in the meeting room area, as in the ballroom area, that storage be nearby so that the meeting rooms can be set up for row seating or with long conference tables or with round tables. A combination of incandescent and fluorescent lighting (rheostated) is desirable. Portable lecturns with built-in sound systems will be the sole sound systems in these rooms other than the building-wide PA system. All rooms should have a telephone jack. Of course, soundproofing between meeting rooms and between portions of the sub-divided meeting rooms is of the utmost concern. The walls should contain bulletin board strips for tacking things on the walls; chair rails along the walls to protect walls from the chairs, sufficient electrical outlets, and grooves either in the walls or ceilings for hanging works of art and other such items. These areas are, of course, to be carpeted and nice restrooms should be located nearby.
SPACE NUMBER NAME OF SPACE______________SQUARE FOOTAGE
B-3 Catering Canal 400
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This small meal staging area needs to be related to an elevator from the kitchen and to the ballroom and meeting rooms. The floor must be easy to clean and must contain floor drains. Of course, plumbing is necessary in this area as are a number of 220 outlets and pull-down coil outlets.
SPACE NUMBER NAME OF SPACE_____________SQUARE FOOTAGE
B-4 Theatre 4250
This 250 seat theatre will be used for movies and speakers, by conference groups, for choral presentations, and for non-amplified or minimally-amplified musical presentations. A 15 x 30 platform stage, fixed (continental?) seating, a rake floor, and theatre lighting capability are all expected in this area. The area needs a projection booth, a small storage area, an electrically-powered screen, a lobby entrance area where cokes, popcorn, etc., might be sold and coming attractions might be posted in closed bulletin boards, restrooms off the the lobby and ticket booths off the hall. This area needs a top quality sound system. Acoustically controlled backstage restrooms plus access to the stage from offstage is needed. Carpeting only the aisles and not under the seats would ease custodial problems, seats should be fully upholstered. Lighting and sound should be capable of control form the projection booth. An intercom system should exist for communication between the projection booth and the stage wings.
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c
Recreation Area
SPACE NUMBER NAME OF SPACE_______________SQUARE FOOTAGE
C-1 Recreation Area 300
Control Desk
The Central Control Desk will be the point at which equipment is checked out, money paid, and visual supervision maintained. It needs to have ample storage nearby for storage of extra table games and outdoor recreation equipment and appropriate electrical outlets behind the desk. It is imperative that the entire downstairs games area can be viewed from this desk. This requirement may necessitate that the Central Control Desk be somewhat elevated above normal floor level. The desk needs to contain a glassed-in case for trophies, equipment for sale, etc. All lights in the recreation complex should be controlled from the desk. A coil wall or other attractive device should be available for securing the control desk area.
SPACE NUMBER NAME OF SPACE_____________SQUARE FOOTAGE
C-2 Billiards 1400
This carpeted area should provide for 8 tables at 150-square feet per table. If the area were rimmed with a wide carpeted ledge, this elevated gallery area could be used for standing to watch exhibitions or tournaments, and for laying down books and other such items while playing billiards. Some form of seating and beverage caddies need to be located around this area. Pool cues should be stored in wall-hung racks. Above all, a "pool hall" effect is to avoided. A "clubby" effect is preferred over a billiards parlor atmosphere. Lighting over the tables should be rheostated so that certain tables can be highlighted during tournaments or exhibitions. Some form of seating needs to be located in the area, possibly close to the control Desk. It shall
31


have approximately 4 tables for students to play backgammon, cards, or general relaxation
SPACE NUMBER NAME OF SPACE______________SQUARE FOOTAGE
C-3 Table Tennis 600
Space should be provided for three tables with an allotment of 200 square feet per table. This area should have some separation from the other areas either through glass or a low wall to prevent the table tennis balls from bouncing all over the room.
SPACE NUMBER NAME OF SPACE______________SQUARE FOOTAGE
C-4 Electronic Games 600
600 square feet should be provided for a variety of amusement machines. Special attention must be given to electrical outlets, circuitry, breakers in this area, and acoustical control. This area of the recreation Center needs to be separated from other areas yet visible from the Control Desk.
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D. Lounges
SPACE NUMBER NAME OF SPACE SQUARE FOOTAGE
D-1 Central Lounge 1000
This area should be in a fairly high students, faculty, and staff. traffic area. It should be considered a meeting place for
SPACE NUMBER NAME OF SPACE SQUARE FOOTAGE
D-2 Lounge/Reception Area 700
This reception area should be located outside the meeting/banquet rooms, space when not otherwise being used meetings, banquets or conferences. It of registering conference groups and for "break times" during a meeting or It needs to be a study must have capabilities conference.
SPACE NUMBER NAME OF SPACE SQUARE FOOTAGE
D-3 Television Lounge 300
Since television viewing is an informal, non-participatory activity, this lounge should be a comfortable place where students can lounge in various bodily configurations to watch television on a giant screen TV (six foot "superviewer"). The lighting should be generally soft and the floor should be carpeted. This area should be physically removed from the noisy portions of the
33


recreation area. Late night: Activities
SPACE NUMBER NAME OF SPACE_______________SQUARE FOOTAGE
D-4 Music Listening 400
Lounge
This lounge would probably not face onto any windows and would have an intimate atmosphere. However, light controls for this room should be controlled from the supervised area. The architects should place outlets (or "listening stations") for plugging in stereo headsets around.
The Music Control Center should be a glass enclosed area to supervise, yet not disturb. Quite area.
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F
Campus Activities Center
This area needs to be totally self contained. It will house all major student activity functions and professional activity staff. Late night: activities.
SPACE NUMBER NAME OF SPACE_______________SQUARE FOOTAGE
F-1 Lobby Reception 1000
Area
This area will house two clerical stations to greet students, staff and faculty, and to disperse calls to designated offices. This area should branch into a small lobby area for informal gathering and a waiting area. Around this central lobby would be the various offices and work areas.
SPACE NUMBER NAME OF SPACE______________SQUARE FOOTAGE
F-2 Work and Storage 800
This area should contain a variety of cupboards and filing cabinets for up to fifty organizations. such storage and filing space would be assigned to any registered student organization upon request. The room should also contain a set of work tables in the middle and a bank of perhaps a half-dozen electric typewriters along one wall.
SPACE NUMBER NAME OF SPACE_______________SQUARE FOOTAGE
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F-3
Student Activities Offices
1500
Eight to ten 100 square foot offices (or flexible office space) are needed for student organizations and four permanent offices for professional staff of 125 square feet are needed.
SPACE NUMBER NAME OF SPACE______________SQUARE FOOTAGE
F-4 The Graphics Shop 500
In this area, students would use a linoscribe machine, paint posters, do silk screening, duplicating, ditto work, and other "messy" forms of communication preparation. The floor in the room should be sealed concrete with food drainage and a trough sink should be provided. Built-in cabinets for storage of materials would also be desirable. This area should have good artificial lighting and should be exhausted to the outside. Sufficient electrical outlets should be provided to plug in sign-making machinery. Work surfaces should be built in around the perimeter of the room and closed storage space should be provided beneath the work surfaces.
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G. Administrative Space
SPACE NUMBER NAME OF SPACE_______________SQUARE FOOTAGE
G-1 General Information 800
Desk
The actual central information desk area will require 500 square feet. This attractively detailed desk (U shaped?) should be centrally located in the building. it should have sufficient work space behind it. The customer-side of the desk should contain creative bins for distribution of campus newspapers, flyers, etc. The desk area should have its own coil wall security device (manually operated). Special attention must be paid to electrical outlets at the desk for cash registers, adding machines, etc. Under the counter should be a secured space for the daytime storage of a ticket rack. At night the ticket rack would be locked in the safe. Behind the desk should be a 200 square foot office containing a secured safe, a central sound system for the building, tape decks, tape storage, etc. for piping music to selected listening stations in the music listening lounges. Also in this are needs to be a night deposit for dropping of money. A small, private office should be designed into the area behind the desk. The desk will be used for visual control central ticket sales, change making, lost and found, and general information distribution. Above the desk could be a major information devise of some sort, be it a closed bulletin board or more unique devise for advertising current events in the building. It should be located in the same or close to area of the administrative offices.
SPACE NUMBER NAME OF SPACE______________SQUARE FOOTAGE
G-2 Administrative 1275
Offices
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This administrative office space should use the "core" concept. The central core should provide a reception area and clerical space for three clerical stations (roughly 300 square feet), plus a small waiting area. Off the main core should be two offices of 125 sq. ft. and 2 offices of 150 sq. ft. with a glass teller window, have space for storage, and one adjoining staff office, with the safe and a place to count money. Within this core should also be the business office. It should be 300 sq. ft. with a glass teller window and have space for storage, the safe, and a place to count money, and one adjoining office of 125 sq. ft.
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H. Commercial Shops
To produce additional revenue and provide sought after services, small retail areas are needed in a high traffic area (possible covered pedestrian walkway over Evans).
Six to eight small shops to be leased to service type businesses such as barbershop, travel office, dry cleaners, and branch banking facility, these shops could also be satellite operations for the bookstore (card shop, T-shirt set-up) and Food Service (deli, ice cream shop).
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SUMMARY OF INTERIOR SPACE REQUIREMENTS
Space Number
Name of Space
Square Footage
A 1 A-2 A-3
B-1 B-2 B-4 * B-5
C-1 C-2 C-3 C-4 D-1 D-2 D-3 D-4 F1 F-2
F-3
F-4
G-1
G-2
Pub (Coffeehouse) 2200
General Dining Area 6000
Kitchen Loading Dock, Food Storage 5000
Servery, and Dish Handling Ballroom 6500
Meeting Room 2400
Catering Canal 400
Theatre 4250
Recreation Area Control Desk 300
Billiards 1400
Table Tennis 600
Electronic Games 600
Central Lounge 1000
Lounge/Reception Area 700
Television Lounge 300
Music Listening Lounge 400
Lobby Reception Area 1000
Work and Storage Space for Student 800
Organizations
Student Activities Office 1500
The Graphics Shop 500
General Information Desk 800
Administrative Offices 1275
Total Assignment square footage with Theatre 37925


Total Assigned square footage without Theatre 33675
Storage 3325
Net 37000
Commercial Shops (400 sq. ft. each) 2400


GENERAL BUILDING DESIGN CRITERIA
Maintenance should be via a plaza with coinciding use of fountain.
Outdoor area should be provided off the main dining area.
Outdoor areas should be developed for lounging and recreation to maximize outdoor space and use.
10% of net sq. footage of building should be decentralized storage properly allotted to each area.
Building should be totally accessible to handicapped.
Elevators need to be kept to a minimum but elevators used should be large enough to handle large equipment. Elevator should exceed 8 ft.
Where fireplaces are designed provide room for storage.
Provide spaces for bulletin boards: closed and open.
Provide pocket lounges, sitting areas throughout building.
Circulation should be a minimum. Atmosphere of building should enhanced by the displaying of creative graphics, art work, wall hangings, and bulletin display areas throughout building. In doing this security needs to be taken into consideration.
Parking near building for handicapped students required.
A protected drive-up and drop off area is highly desirable.
Areas for bicycle parking must be provided.
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The major traffic flow areas contain
1) Food service operation
2) lounging
3) spontaneous programming.
Quiet areas
1) Meeting rooms
2) ballroom
3) theatre
4) administrative offices
When other areas are closed, areas to remain open are
1) Recreation center
2) pub
3) student activities
The walkway connecting the present and future facility needs to contain if possible commercial specialty shop, i.e., barber shop.
Outdoors areas around of the new center should be well developed and usable.
A protected drive up and drop off area is highly desirable.
A central loading dock should be provided and should be concealed.
Building should be primarily a walking building rather than an elevator building.
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