Platte River Place, the shops and transportation museum

Material Information

Platte River Place, the shops and transportation museum
Brady, Thomas M
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
156 unnumbered pages : illustrations, charts, maps, plans ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Planned unit developments -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Marketplaces -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Transportation museums -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Marketplaces ( fast )
Planned unit developments ( fast )
Transportation museums ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )


Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Thomas M. Brady.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
15535096 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1986 .B67 ( lcc )

Full Text
Platte River Place
the shops and transportation museum
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, the University of Colorado at Denver, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture.
Date Due

£^^Tental design auraria library
M. Brady

The Thesis of Thomas M. Brady is Approvsd
Committea Chairman'
Principle Advisor
The University o-f Colorado at Denver
Decemberp 1986

To Blue

Thomas M. Brady
1013 Shsrman St. apt.10S
Denver, Colorado
<303) 863-8921
The -following is a project description of the Architectural Thesis I propose for the Degree of Master of Architecture at the University of Colorado at Denver.
One issue of architecture which I am very interested in exploring is the revitalization of a city. Denver is a perfect city to use as a model because of it's small size and great History. The area in which I am interested in is the Lower Downtown. It is my belief that this area is where the future growth of Denver is heading.
The subject I intend to study is the rejuvenation of the old, combined with the addition of the new to create an activity center for the city. The place created will serve as an inviting entertainment element for Denver.
The site I have chosen is at the confluence of Cherry Creek and the South Platte River. The site is a very important factor in the redevelopment of Denver's lower downtown.
The project will consist of the renovation of the Denver Tramway Power Company Building (the Forney Museum), which will include new specialty shops on the south side of the building. In addition to the redesign of the old building, a series of new restaurants opening out to a plaza will enhance the existing site.
The total square footage of the Forney Museum is 85,000 sq. ft. The major portion of the existing will house a new train and trolley museum. A series of small shops and restaurants will be housed on the south side of the building.
Below is an approximate square footage breakdown of the

total complexi
Tramway Buildingi train museum 42,200 sq. ft
shops 19,000 sq. ft
offlea 6,800 sq. ft
Newi restaurants 20,000 sq. ft
88,000 sq. ft

Table of Contents
1 Statement
2 Zoning
3 Codes
4 Climate
5 Hi story
6 Activities
7 Spaces
a Analysi s
9 Independent Study
10 Si te
11 Powerhouse
12 Images
13 Si bl i ogr ?.phy
14 Pr esen t a t ion

Architecture is anywhere and everywhere. It is used by everyone at anytime. History is -full of architecture and architecture is full of History. There is good and bad, old and new.
The object of my thesis will be the study of how people use spaces and how to apply traditional and new people oriented elements to a design.
It is the interaction of people which turns a building, site or location into a place. A dramatization of a space will provide dynamic excitement and give the people a reason to want to return to.
Different people want different kinds of experiences.
A versatile site will attract a variety of people. A place which is designed specifically with people in mind will be used and appreciated by all. People are curious, they want to see and be seen.
The site I have chosen is at the confluence of Cherry Creek and the South Platte River. It is the meeting of water and land. A perfect gathering place for people.
It is the site where Denver began. In the beginning a place was created, with magnificent views. A perfect 1r>catior* for a town to start to grow.
One of the strongest elements of the site is the Denver Tramway and Power Co. Building. It is a very significant piece of History for Denver. A portion of nostalgia that will spark interest in people and give them an opportunity to look at their past.
The site is a perfect setting for the interaction of nature and man. It is also a setting for a combination of Landscape Architecture, Architecture, and Interior Design.
A composition of all aspects of design will create a special place for the city of Denver.
Within the old tramway building will be a new train and

troll ay museum. In the west portion o-f the building there will be a series of new shops and restaurants. Adjacent to the tramway building will be a new restaurant with an outdoor cafe.
The image of a train always contains the movement of people. We use the train and trolley to get to a destination for a reason. People are either leaving other people or meeting other people. Some very significant moments remembered are from train stations. A train and trolley museum will be a special place for people to reminisce about ways in which this enjoyable type of transportation helped them.
A new restaurant as well as new shops and cafes within an old building will attract people. There will be an outdoor plaza with sitting areas to eat, read, think, or Just talk. The focal point of the plaza will be a bandstand. The location and theme will provide a chance to look at the blending of the past with the present.
Across the South Platte River there is an existing outdoor amphitheater. The new design will connect this very important component of the site together with the new plaza. During the spring, summer and early fall the amphitheater will provide concerts and plays which will act as a major attraction for people.
Confluence Park has the potential for being a very special place. The image created is very important. The social interaction of people and the psychological effects architectural elements have on spaces is very important to the design.
In this Master of Architecture Thesis I will explore and study the different ways in which people use spaces.
Most important is the exploration of how designing a versatile architectural complex will trigger fine experiences which in turn will create a place.
The theme of the train and trolley will provide a very good foundation for the entire complex. It is a people oriented idea from the beginning. It will act as a tool in creating a special place for the city of Denver. A chance

to actually -faal lika a part of tha city*a graat History

The site is currently zonad Historic preservation district 24 which is the site on which the Forney Transportation Museum nowstands. This district is within an 1-1 zone. The site is within the green belt which runs along both the Platte River and Cherry Creek.
Directly across -from the Forney Museum, the confluence of the Platte River and Cherry Creek forms a trianglular site which is presently used as an outdoor amphitheater.
This portion of the site also within the green belt and within an 1-2 zone.
The site will play a very important role in the future of the Central Platte Valley. Because of the versatility of the project, a Planned Unit Development will be incorporated into the design in order to enhance the nature of the site.
Planned Unit Development :
The P.U.D. district is specifically intended to encouragei diversification in the use of land and flexibility in site design with respect to spacing, heights and density of buildings, open space and circulation elements. More efficient use of of land and energy through smaller utility and circulation networks! development patterns in harmony with the goals and objectives of the comorehensive plan for the city.
The P.U.D. is a development which is unified when there is a site with mixed use, shared open space and different land uses. The benefit of the P.U.D. is that the site is designed to support itself as a whole through its mixed use.
City agencies and neighboring residents have considerable input concerning the sites development in the P.U.D. zone. Site plan reviews include both subdivision and zoning regulations and are taken care of through a rezoning process. The specific P.U.D. will then become a separate district for a specific area and use. It is approved and later enforced by the City Council.

One* approved in the P.U.O. zona district planf a P.U.D.district shall psrmlt any uss which is a permitted use in any zone district of ths city.
Raquiradi a writtan statement ganarally dascribing tha proposad P.U.D. and tha markat which it is intandad to sarvai it's ralationship to tha comprehenslva plan and how tha proposad P.U.D. district is to ralata to tha use of naighboring property.

Project name: Con-fluence Park
Location* At the con-fluence o-f the South Platte River
Cherry Creek, Denver, Colorado. The mite will include the lot occupied by the present Forney Transportation Museum located between the 14th st. viaduct and Water St.
Applicable Code Names Denver Building Code
Dates 4/11/86
1. Fire Zone: 3 1601
2. Occupancy Classifications B3, F1 511
Principal occupancy: Others: Train Museum B-3 Restaurant F-l
3. Occupancy Separations requi red: 513 No separation required
4. Construction type: 2101
S. Maximum allowable floor area: (in fire zone 3, 33*/) 157,000 sq. ft. table 5c 59-242
if adjacent to open area on two or more sides: floor area may be increased at a rate of 5% for each foot by which the minimum width (100' exceeds 20' 506b3 )
if over one story: 314,000 sq ft 505b
if sprinklered* (2x)
628,000 sq ft

10. 11. 12.
table 3d
uniimited uniimited
2103 table 17b
Maxi mum allowable highti
f sat i
Fir* resistance o-f exterior walla (aee occupancy typa and conatruction typa)i
Openings in exterior walla (sea occupancy type and construction type):
B-3 zone 3
F-3 zone 3
Windows required in rooms:
window area:
Minimum ceiling height in rooms:
1 hr if < 10' from prop, line
2 hr if < 5' from prop, line
1 hr i f < 10' from prop, line
table 17c
10' setback 10' setback
min. 30" clear (smallest dim.)
type IV type IV
Minimum -floor area of rooms:
Fire resistive
requirements: hours
B-3 F-l
Exterior bearing walls 1 1
Interior bearing walls 1,2* 1 *
Exterior non-bearing walls 1,2* 1 *
Structural frame 1 1
Permanent partitions 1 1
Vertical openings 1 1
Floors 1 1
Roofs 1 1
Exterior doors 3/4 3/4
table 17a

tnote: openings not permitted in exterior wells located<5* from adjacent property line
Structural requirements! one hour fire resistant noncombustible construction
1707 ch 21
aluminum, steel, reinforced concrete, masonry
stairs (noncombustible)
stairs and landings serving mezzanine floors may be of wood of at least 2" nominal thickness
floors: 1 1
noncumbustible except that wood flooring may be applied over concrete slab
roofs: 1 1
noncombustible materials
parti ti ons:
noncombustible materials or fire redardant treated wood, except that combustible partitions and ceiling assembly of 1 hr fire resistance shall be permi tted
occupancy load!
museum medium concentrated use 10 sq. ft./occ
restaurant low concentrated use 15 sq. ft./occ

actual loadi museum -rastaurant
100 sq -ft /occ 15 sq ft /occ
900 people 333 people
number of exits required:
B-3 museums F-l restaurant mezz.> 2000 sq ft
501 999 occ 1 501 occ
3 exits 2 exits 2 exits
minimum width of exits: museum restaurant
900 / 50 333 / 50
exit separation arrangement: when more than 1 exit required from a portion of a building, at least 2 of the exits shall be remote from each other and constructed so that a fire will not block both stairs. An occupant should be able to go in both directions to separate stairs.
minimum dead end corridor: 25'
maximum allowable travel distance to exit: 100'
(with sprinklers 200')
allowable exit sequence: no dead end pockets.
exit from a room may open into adjoining room provided the adjoining room is accessible to area served and direct mans of onr^s tr
exit cannot pass through kitchens, storage, restrooms, closets, hvac.
exit doors:
swing in direction of exit travel
minimum width: 3'-0" wide £'-S" high
maximum leaf width: 4'-0"
width required for number of occupants: museum 18'
restaurant 6'
exit corridors: 44"

maximum allowable widthi
raquirad to hava exit at and of corridor? yes
dead end corridors allowed? yes
maximum length 20
wall fire resistance required! 1 hr
doors and frames fire resistance required! 1 hr
15. Stairs: 3305
minimum width! 44" occ load of +50
36" occ load of -50
30" occ load of -10
maximum riser allowed: 7-1/2"
minimum tread allowed! 10
are winders allowed? no
minimum sizei equal to width of stairs 44"
maximum size required! no more than 5 on straight run maximum vertical distance
between landings! 126
minimum vertical distance between landings!
required height of
railings: no less than 30" or more than 34"
handrai1 si
required at each side! no
intermediate rails required
at stairs: if B8" or more
maximum width between
intermediate rails: 88"
exceptions applicable! no
height above nosing: no less than 30" or more than 34 balusters required:

intermediate rail requireda maximum post spacing allowed:
yes if> 88" 6"
handrails return to
wall at ends: in posts or sa-fety terminals
handrails extend beyond staira 6"
stair to roof:
stair to basement restri cti onsa
access to roof required?
stair enclosure required? horizontal exit requirements: (all openings 1 hr rated)
maximum slopea handrails requireda
if 4 or more stories (unless slope> 4a12)
barrier required to permit people from continuing to basement
yes 1 hr
la 12
1 side at least 32"
3' X 6*8" hinged vertical door
exit signs requireda balcony railsa where requireda height required: balusters or intermediate rails requireda
Toilet room requirementsa toilet room facilities shall not be required in accessory use buildings when these facilities are available within 300 of building
fixture count requirementsa 509
men: 50% basis actual
1avatori esa water closets: urinals:

woman 9 50%
lavatories* water closetsi
drinking -fountain requirements! showers requiredi handicapped requirementsi
per -f 1 oor no
table 64d fig 20,21 22,23,24
sec 510i fig 22 new construction
fig 22a or 22b in renovation width 36" depth 56"
17. Use of puplic property*
doors prohibited from
swinging into city property* yes
restrictions on marquees, canopies, etc. 4505
marquees* 8'above public way supported by the
building. Roof may be skylight if saftey glass. Roofs drain towards the structure, other projections* canopy
canvas* 8 above public way
valance: 7* above public way

Climatic Analysis
Denver, Colorado
Latitudei 39.45 N
Longitudes 104.52 W
Altitudes 5,280 ft
Average yearly precipitations 14.53 in
Average yearly temperatures 50.2
degrees F
Average Relative Humiditys 40 V.
Degree Dayss
heatings 6016
coolings 623
percent possible sunshine: 58%
Denver is located along the South Platte River on the eastern slope o-f the Rocky mountains in Colorado. It is characterized climatically by low relative humidity, moderate winds, average temperatures and a high degree o-f solar radiation. Temperature swings vary from a July average of 73 degrees, to January's average of 34 degrees. Annual snowfall averages 62", however, persistant snowcover is unusual.
Due to the inversion factor from the mountains, Denver frequently experiences severe pollution, a result of the large quantity of traffic coming in and out of the city.
This increase in air pollution has altered Denvers climate, effecting both temperature and quality of solar radiation.
With it's high degree of solar radiation, Denver offers excellent opportunuties for solar heating. With it's relatively mild climate, it also offers excellent opportunities for outdoor spaces, such as terraces, cafes, parks, etc. Attention should be given to the strong northwest winds, which affect both the structure and the desireabi1ity of northwest oriented spaces.

J f m a m j j a 5 o n d
s iH IvXv.'i j.v.v.v !l ,V.V.v rr" V.'.v.'.v r : ; Xvav/!
TOTAL= 59.0"




Month Mean Wind Speed (reph) Freval1lnp Direction Maximure Wind Speed tierorded (mphl Direction Associated with Maximum
Jan 9.2 S 53 N
Feb 9.4 s 49 NW
Mar 10.1 s 53 NW
Apr 10.4 s 56 NW
May 9.6 s 43 sw
Jun 9.2 s 47 s
Jul 8. S s 56 su
Aug 8.2 s 42 sw
Sep 8.2 s 47 NW
Oct 8.2 s 45 NW
Nov 6.7 s 48 w
Dec 9.0 s 51 NE
Annual 9.1 s 56 NW
50CHCE: U.S. Deprisicnt of Corc-trcts i S


Denver was born at the confluence of Cherry Creek and the South Platte River. Enterprising pioneers saw the potential princess that would someday become the Queen City of the Plains.
Historians and others have ^counted the changes and progress of Denvers first century of exislance. Where once stood tents, !( g cabins, Conestoga wagons, now rise multi-million dollar office and residential towers, where on :e ran dirt trails carrying miners and adventurers into the Rockies, now stretch concrete freeways; /here once huddled a handlul of hardy pioneers, now reside more than a half-million citizens seeking their welfares in a myriad of different enterprises.


Birth of a Great City
The history of Denver starts at what today is Confluence Park, which commemorates the coming together of Cherry Creek, the South Platte River and the many different peoples who made Denver happen.
Historians usually assign the city's hir-thdate as 1859, when the fabled "Cherry Creek Diggins' launched the Pike's Peak Gold Rush and transformed the sleepy Platte Valley into an overnight boomtown. The Confluence location had long been a favorite campground for Plains Indians, who found a sheltered oasis there from the harshness of mountain and plain. The Americans who followed them turned the same advantages into a headquarters for the settlement and commercial development of a huge intermountain wilderness.
A total of five different towns had sprung up in the Confluence area by i860. By 1861, enterprising young Denver City had absorbed them all. But the Cherry Creek Diggins were soon exhausted and attention turned to much larger new goldfields upstream in the mountains. Denver then became what its smartest pioneers always knew it would be; not a goldstrike. but the supply depot for the development of an entire region.
Many cycles of boom and bust have
followed since then to test the city's durability. Denver City almost expired when the first transcontinental railroad bypassed it to the north. But during the 1870s. thanks to some far-sighted entrepreneurs. it became the most important rail hub between Chicago and San Francisco. Denver's golden age of railroading saw the central business district move further east as the Platte Valley became a thriving center of industry, warehousing, transportation, and shipping.
Denver's great railroad era climaxed during World War II. and ended with the installation of Denver's first freeway in the 1950s. The Valley Highway (now 1-25) opened up the city to the new trends of high-speed trucking and suburban commuting. The City's once-greal streetcar system gave way to the omniverous automobile. As the city grew, however, commerce in the valley languished Residential neighborhoods virtually disappeared. The valley itself became a barrier to the transportation excellence that Denver had once enjoyed.
Today. Denvers Platte River Valley suffers the worst of two worlds; blighted by the era of railroading and an obstacle to the era of driving. The future of the city's heartland cries out for a new era of mass transit and dedication to renewal.

The building now known as the Forney Museum was completed in 1901 by the Den\r Tramway Power Company and contained the most advanced electric generation system of its day. The power generating machinery evolved rapidly and one of the most extensive tramway systems in the United States evolved here in Denver. The company ovned 156 miles of railway comprising the entire city system. This required the construction of one centrally located power station.
The structure was built in the popular style of the period, and as areindustrial building it was an architectural masterpiece of its day. The walls are solid sixteen inches thick with load bearing brick pilasters. The building is 102 feet wide by 206 feet long with a boiler room (39 feet wide) and an engine hall (59 feet wide) divided by a fire wall down the length. From the floor to the bottom of steel trusses it is approximately 41 feet high. A crane rail along each side of the engine hall at the 28 foot level carried a heavy crane to install and service the massive engines. Additions to the equipment were made until 1911. The plant had the capacity for cars, often pulling trailers, the hub of a rail system which covered the entire Denver area from Golden on the west to Fairmont Cemetery on the east, south to Englewood and north of Westminster.
After 1950, the boilers and turbine generators of the Platte River Powerhouse were sold. The building stood empty for several years until a dry milk plant located to the northeast used the old engine hall for storage and evaporation of buttermilk. International Harvester Company used part of the building as a warehouse and, between 1939 and 1940, the river end of the basement was used as a rifle range by a Denver gun club.
The building, in a state of disrepair for many years, is ripe for remodeling. The only funds which have been available for repairs and maintenance have come from public admission fees to the displays and from approximately $55,000 in contributions. And Mr. Forney, who spends much of his time on the project, has contributed greatly to preserving it from the ravages of time.
The Platte River Powerhouse, located at the confluence of Cherry Creek and the South Platte River, marks the spot where the very first settlers came to what is now Denver. The structure is a fine example of the architecture of the 1890's, and its contribution to the growth and welfare of the area mark it as a building worthy of preservation as part of our historical heritage.
After World War I a new addition to the Power House was required for the installation of larger boiler and steam turbine generators. This is now the Platte Street end of the building, which is 108 feet wide and 144 feet long. Requirements of the new equipment changed the building, but, insofar as possible, a design compatible to the original structure w-as maintained. This installation began operation in 1924 and remained the heart of the trolley system until it was shut down on July 15, 1950. From this time until the late 1960's the building stood empty or was used as a warehouse.
At about the time the Power House was shut down, Mr. and Mrs. J.D. Forney' began collecting antique cars As the collection crew, a nprmanpnt location tor thp*p vintage auto* was needed, and (iieoid Denver Tramway tt^vernouse wa sr-ectea. The DENVER TRAMWAY POWERHOUSE, now the rORNEY MUSEUM, was designated as a structure for preservation by the City and County of Denver Landmark Preservation Commission in 1972, and was classified as a tax exempt public foundation.
Today, however, the opportunities go far beyond historic preservation: The Platte River Powerhouse could become a monument to the impact of transportation on Denver's evolving urban scene, claiming once more a legitimate role in the heart of our city.
Goff Enterprises is exploring alternatives for renovating this one-of-a-kind American Treasure, transforming it into a showcase of history through complimentary mixed uses a center bustling with retail shops, offices, restaurants, entertainment and a teleconference center, drawing consumer traffic
i-or further information contact Lloyd Uort, 1020 Ibth street, Denver, Colorado 80202 or phone (303) 573-0252.

Castle of Commerce
Diane Lauen
River Front Park on the South Platte
John Brisben Walker, an eastern entrepreneur, turned up in L^enver about 1876 saying that the U S. Secretary 01 *grwuj|. ture had asked him to find out whether alfalfa was a good crop to grow in the rarefied air of the West. This He easily proved on the 16,600 acres of land he bought near present Berkeley Park. His success was not surprising to Colorado men who had been growing alfalfa for years.
Walker disposed of his farm land at a handsome profit. Some of the land, however, he gave awayto the Roman Catholic Church for Regis College, and to the city of Denver for Inspiration Point.
Near MorTison, Mr. Walker then bought some red sandstone rocks and planned to turn the Garden of the Angels into a Coney Island for Colorado." Between the two biggest rocks a green field sloped down to a sandstone platform. On this, one day in 1910, Mary Garden stood and sang. Her voice easily filled the natural amphitheater, proving what Walker had been telling the citizens of Denverthat the acoustics of the place were perfect. His idea materialized eventually into the present theater at Red Rocks Park.
Years before this Morrison project and much nearer Denver, John Brisben Walker promoted an amusement park. The year was 1887 and the park was the River Front Park. It ran along the east bank of the South Platte River from 15th to 19th
Streets. Rising from the bottom land, a gray stone building with a square tower and silt The cowboy tournament held in connection with the Exhibition at River Front Park in October. 1887 is said to have been f
one of the earliest rodeos in the West.
In both 1887 and 1888 professional baseball games were played at River Front Park. During one of the games between the Chicago White Stockings and the All-Americans, a fielder made a "bandstand play. He jumped up the steps of the bandstand to catch the ball.
The bandstand, on which the ball player teaped, was unusual in that it was movable. It was made in 1888 especially for the incomparable Gilmore and his fifty five piece band. Horsecars earned patrons across the railroad tracks directly to the entrance of River Front Park and waited right there until after the performance to carry them back again. Carriages drove into the park.

Operas and Toboggans
John Brisben Walker fancied himself a judge of horses and provided a quarter-mile race track at River Front Park. The races were between trotting horses hitched to sulkies, but that does not mean that the excitement of the betting was any less than if jockeys had been riding running horses, as today.
In 1869 Walker booked a fireworks specialist, the famous Pain of New York and London, to stage a series of spectacles at River Front Park. Being fireworks, they were night events. On the opposite, or west, side of the Platte River, the scenery 12,000 square yards of canvaswas hung on an iron structure. The program was varied but every night the audience was urged to keep their seats until after the final bouquet of 500 rockets fired simultaneously.
Summer was a busy time at River Front Park with fireworks, racing, band concerts, baseball games and pleasure cruises. John Brisben Walker hated to waste the winters. Knowing that January in Denver was often open and very cold, he built a toboggan slide, like those used in Canada. Some of the Denver belles who rode it wore toboggan caps and even genuine toboggan suits just like the Canadiennes.
The slide lowered fourteen feet higher than the grandstand. You walked up a flight of stairs. From the top you saw ten electric lights on the slide itself and bonfires that illuminated the Park. Far off twinkled the lights of the city. From such a height the horsecars looked small.
Ten feet wide, the slide was covered with felt. Every midnight the felt was soaked with water, which froze. Presumably the ice lasted until the next night. There were three tracks and three toboggans side by side. The young men tucked the fairer sex into the front seats then sat protectively behind them. The guide threw himself upon his stomach on a back platform and the attendant pulled a lever. With merry cries of 'Now for a race the toboggans sped downward."
Perhaps a chinook ruined the toboggan business, or for some other reason the restive Walker lost interest in River Front Park. The papers reported that he sold the Park in 1891, and again in 1903, this lime for a million dollars.
Since Walkers time the land has been used by circuses, like Ringling Brothers, and roadshows like Dr. W.F. Carvers. In 1897 Sells Brothers Roman Hippodrome played at River Front Park. Revivalists, also, have pitched their tents on this land by the River.
In 1898 and for a few years thereafter, the Womans Club of Denver gave the children in the lower part of town a place to play in the summer by running a day camp, complete wth
Itfirvlprgaf-tort l?m<-tnade School of domestic <"ipnre In
the Caaiie they hung Perry prims. Each child was allowed iu choose one to take home for a week.
Walkers Castle was used for many things in its sixty odd years of life. In 1893 the Ramblers (bicycle) Club held their smokers there, but presently it was housing the laundry for Pullman car linen, and then was a washroom for the men who worked on the Moffat Road. In it the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad stored many records. They were there, along with tons of hay, in November, 1951, when the Castle burned. The fire was so hot that bits of rock popped from the gray stone. The wreckage left by the fire was removed in 1952. Nowall that remains of the Castle of Culture and Commerce is a small pile of rubble below and a little to the north of the 16th St. Viaduct.
From bull-boat to fiberglass canoe, the South Platte has floated various kinds of craft, but none more amazing than the side-wheel paddlers of 1887. On this pleasure craft, for the reasonable price of fifty cents each, a man could take his family to Brighton and back The steamship sailed at three p.m. from the wharf at the foot of 16lh Street in River Front Park. So said the advertisement but the length of the voyage was almost immediately shortened when the craft was shoaled on a sand bar far upstream from Brighton.
Om**T Public librvr. Vnitm Hn tepennwni
Platte River Showboat
The owners of the ship thereupon dammed the South Platte River at 19th Street. The water backed up to 15th Street. On this lake, the sidewheel paddler puffed. Of a summer evening families took the watery air from its deck while the bands music floated to the fine houses on the North Denver bluffs.
One summer the boat was actually a showboat just like the Mississippi crafts. It was converted into the H.M.S. Pinafore, and on its deck a traveling company rollicked through Gilbert and Sullivan's nautical opera every evening except Sunday. And on one Sunday! That evening the police courteously wailed until after the performance (they probably wanted to see the show) to board the ship. They arrested the manager and treasurer and "all hands were piped off to the police station," where a fine was imposed for breaking the Sunday blue law. The steamship was part of the entertainment offered in the River Front Park by its owner, John Brisben Walker.
For a final story of River Front Park in the old days, there is the tale of an armada on the River Platte. The date1893. The timesummer. The reasonthe silver panic had hit Colorado. Mine owners found it unprofitable to run their mines. Daily, other unemployed drifted into the capital city.
Here they found no jobs. On the street comers they joined Denver men who had lost their jobs in stores and hotels. The papers reported holdups by hungry men and suicides. Denver was frightened.
The city decided to establish a refugee camp. John Brisben Walker contributed the land at River Front Park. The National Guard furnished tents for almost 400 men, another 200 slept in the grandstands. The city fed between 500 and 1,000 each day for over two weeks, starting July 27, 1893.
Ar the same time, the c:t'' fathers were m^Uing strennm.n efforts to get the destitute men out of town. Railiuaus leuuceu fare to six dollars to the Missouri River, and then to nothing. Trains pulled out of the Union Depot with standing room onlypassenger coaches, not cattle cars.
Among the unhappy men at River Front Park who watched the waters of the Platte Flow toward the Missouri River were those who knew about boatsrivermen. They wanted to float downstream. The City of Denver furnished them with lumber from which they constructed rude flalboats and the armada pushed off. Many were wrecked, some of the sailors were drowned but some of the boats reached Plaltsmouth. Here some of the men joined Coxey's Army. This was the army of unemployed who marched on Washington in 1894. Demanding relief from the president, they even camped on the White House lawn.
These were turbulent times in the country, and in Denver, just as they had been in 1859 when men standed in the middle of the Great American Desert were desperate enough to try boating on the shallow waters of the non-navigable river, the South Platte.
Taken from Denver in Slices by Louisa Ward Arps

The building now know as the Forney Museum was completed in 1901 by the Denver Tramway Power Company and contained the most advanced electric generation system of its day. The power generating machinery evolved rapidly and one of the most extensive tramway systems in the United States evolved here in Denver. The company owned 156 miles of railway comprising the entire city system. This required the construction of one centrally located power station.
The structure was built in the popular style of the period, and as an industrial building, it was an architectural masterpiece of its day. The walls are solid sixteen inches thick with load bearing brick pilasters. The building is 102 feet wide by 266 feet long with a boiler room (39 feet wide) and an engine hall (59 feet wide) divided by a fire wall down the length. From the floor to the bottom of steel trusses it is approximately 41 feet high.'A crane rail along each side of the engine hall at the 28 foot level earned a heavy crane to install and service the heavy engines. Additions to the equipment were made until 1911. The plant had the capacity for cars, often pulling trailers and for a rail system which covered the entire Denver area from Golden on
the west to Fairmont Cemetery on the east, south to Englewood and north of Westminster.
After World War I, a new addition to the Power House was required for the installation of larger boiler and steam turbine-generators. This is now the Platte Street end of the building which is 108 feet wide and 144 feet long. Requirements of the new equipment changed the building but in so far as possible a design compatible to the original strucutre was maintained. This installation began operation in 1924 and remained the heart of the trolley system until it was shut down in July 15, 1950. After this time, the buidling stood empty or was used as a warehouse until the late 1960's.
About the time the Power House was shut down Mr. and Mrs. J.D. Forney began collecting antique cars. As the collection grew, it became necessry to seek a permanent location for it. The old Denver Tramway Power House was selected. The DENVER TRAMWAY POWER HOUSE, now the FORNEY MUSEUM, was designated as a structure for preservation by the City and County of Denver Landmark Preservation Commission in 1972 and classed as a tax exempt public foundation.
Historic Overview
Fig. 1 1871 1886
City horse car on Colfax east of Broadway -Second horse used to pull car up steam hills.
Fig. 2 1892 1910
Cherrelyn Horse Car Operated on S Broadway. Horse pulled car uphill and rode down.
Soon aft a its settlement in 1858, the lust for gold made Denver the supply center and jumping off point for the gold fields of the Rocky Mountain Area. Immediately, there became a need for public tmasportation; but not until 1871 was construction completed for two miles of rails laid from 7th and Larimer to 27th and Champa Streets for cars drawn by horses and mules. By 1804, the Denver City Railway Company served the City with fifteen and one half mile of Track, forty-five cars, two hundred horses and mules and one hundred men. (Figs. 1, 2, and 3)
With the development of the cable and electric rapid transportation systems rapidly progressing in the Eastern Metropolitan areas, beginning in 1879 and 1880, a group of Denver businessmen headed by Rodney Curtis, formed the Denver Electric and Cable Company February 5, 1885. Knowing that it would be necessary to use horses and mules before the electric system could be perfected, they also chartered the Denver Railway Association to use animal power. These two companies merged into the Denver Tramway Company on May 4, 1886.
Purchasing exclusive rights to an electrically powered car built by Professor Sidney H. Short of the University of Denver (Fig. 4), the Denver Electric and Cable Railway Company laid 3,100 feet of railway track on 15th Street. On July 31, 1886 the electric cars were put in service, making this the second operating electric street railway in the world. (Fig. 5).
The project was theoretically sound but there were several problems to be solved.
First The current was picked up from a slot between the rails and as the street construction was poor, lacking good drainage, in wet weather people and animals touching an outside rail and center slot received a shock. Fortunately, it was only 100 Volts, but enough to make a mule give a swift kick.

Fig 3 1884
Old Union Depot with horse car barns and horse cars on right.

Fig. 4
Detail drawing of Sidney H. Short Tram.
Fig. 5 July 1886
Professor Shorts Electric Tram Cars operated on 15th St. for approximately 6 mos.
Fig. 6
Cable car at Coilax and Broadway power house in background
Second There was no way of controlling the power, so the motor was mounted in the car and had a chain drive to the axle with a crude gear arrangement which caused constant mechanical difficulties. The alternate method was to run the car at full speed, the result can be imagined!
Third The length of the line was limited by the use of D.C. power which can be transmitted only one or two miles, therefore many power stations were required. So in early 1887. it was back to the mules.
The Denver City Cable Railway Company and the Denver City Railway Company, successor to Denver Tramway Company competed intensely for the now popular cable line construction. As both companies wanted Broadway rights of way, two sets of track were laid with one company using the inside pair and the other the outside pair. Thus, by 1890 Denver had a cable car system more complete than any city of its size. (Fig. 6)
The limitations of the cable length, constant speed and turning ability, forced attention again to electric operations in 1890.
By this time, the Balitmore system using two overhead wires with power gathered by a Troller" running on the wires and the Montgomery, Alabama, system using one trolly pole and one overhead wire with the rail being the return circuit had been in successful operation. In Richmond, Virginia, the rheostat was first used to control the flow of power so the motors could be placed directly on the axles. The Richmond trolley line is regarded as the first successful large city system. It began operation in 1888.
The Denver Tramway Company completed conversion of the Larimer Street line on June 3. 1890 and a short overhead line on South Broadway, completed 6 months earlier by a competitor was absorbed.
In September 1893, several minor Railway and Cable Companies were brought together with the Denver Tramway Company to form the Denver Consolidated Tramway Company with all lines to be converted to electric operation. On March 3, 1099, the Denver City Tramway Company was incorporated to consolidate the remaining cable operation of Denver City Traction Company and the Denver Consolidated Tramway Company. This Company now owned and operated 156 miles of railway and the entire city system.
By 1900, ail cable lines had been converted to electric power and the Denver had one of the most modern and efficient and speedy tranist systems of the day.
Car on old 16th St. Viaduct built of wood by Denver Tramway Co. and City of Denver.

Now the problem was how to generate the power for the new and expanding electric railway system.
Remember that Thomas Edison had not Invented the electric incandescent lamp until 1879 and only in 1882 had started the first central power station in lower Manhattan with D C. power and 59 customers; it is astonishing how quickly, with such foresight, enterprise and risk, cities of the time undertook to develop electric rapid transit systems that were reliable.
The cable cars had used steam reciprocating engines for power with an endless cable running in a slot between the rails and passing over a shaft in the power house. The dynamo principle of generating electricity was not developed until the early 1870s and it was not until around 1900 that it was practical for the transmission of power for any distance through A.C. current of high voltages. Transformers, converters and later rectifiers were required in the substations of power plants to 0 convert the A.C. current to 600 Volt D C. current required of the motors which, in the beginning, was found most satisfactory for its starting ability and use of lighter motors.
The power for the Denver Electric Tramway lines was first generated in a power house at Blake St. and 32nd built in 1892. It remained in use until 1911 when the efficiency of a new plant made it obsolete.
In the late 1890's, Steams-Roger Engineering Company was commissioned to design a new power house at Platte and 14th. This plant incorporated the newest and finest equipment of the era. In fact, development of electric power was so rapid, the building must have been constructed without knowing exactly what equipment it was to house. (Fig. 7, 8, & 9).
The older part of the Denver Tramway Power Company Building was completed in 1901 and its engines began producing
The structure was built in the popular style of the period with tall arched windows and doors in the lower walls and half round windows above a heavy cornice. Round windows were set into an arched cornice facade at each end and another heavy cornice at the side wall rooflines incorporated the gutters. As an industrial building, it was an architectural masterpiece of its day. (Fig. 10)
The walls are solid sixteen inch thick, load bearing brick with pilasters three feet thick by three feet, three inches wide on approximately nineteen foot centers. The building is 102 feet wide by 286 feet long, divided into a boiler room 39 feet wide and an eninge hall 59 feet wide by a one foot six inch fire wall down the length. From the floor to (he bottom of steel trusses in these areas it is 41 feet six inches high. There was a crane rail along each side of the engine hall at the 28 feet height carrying a heavy crane to pull and service the seven engines which was eventually placed in the hall.
Fig. 7 1911
River end of Power House showing extensive cables, steam exhaust and hot water return to river.
Fig. 9 1915
Main engine hall showing old reciprocating generators with huge flywheels.
Fig. 10 1911
Power house lr>tn F'arte River xh-'wing new switch gear and engine hall on right

Fig. 11 1915
Full length of boiler room showing stokers and feeders for all 19 boilers
Fig. 13 1911
View from Nth St. Viaduct showing 2 water tanks, car platform and ash d.sposul.
Fig. 14
14th and Platte power house. !nstl!at;on of Engine No. 6.
Fig. 15
Engine Hall looking South generator in foreground.
1915 ,rbme-
Fig. 12 1912
Draft fans above boilers.
Each engine was served by two boilers in the boiler room. Coal was delivered to the boilers by stokers fed from an overhead conveyor. (Fig. 11 & 12) This conveyor was fed by coal dumped in a bin below a tower on the same side of the building and thence by a vertical conveyor to the overhead feeder. Beneath each furnace in the basement were two ash pits. The doors of these opened onto a conveyor at the floor for the removal of ashes out of the river end of the building to a railway track located there. (Fig. 13)
Coal from valuable mines being developed north west of Arvada at Leyden was brought into the plant by the Denver and Northwestern Railway. Both the railway and (he Leyden Coal Comapny were controlled by the Denver City Tramway Company.
Cooling water for the condensers came from an intake structure 200 feet upstream on the bank of the South Platte. A large conduit on the southwest of the building carried the water from the river through the cooling system of the engines, then it was returned to the river by a discharge canal on the other side of the building. Make-up water for the boilers came from treated water from the river or from the city water system. Twenty five foot diameter tanks were constructed for reserve water storage and emergency use. One still exists.
At one time, a nine hundred foot deep artesian well was drilled near the reserve storage tank in the hope of maintaining a more stable water supply. This water contained so many dissolved minerals that it corroded the pipes and machinery through which it passed and the well was soon abandoned.
Cleaning spindle of Turbine No. 6.

Fig. 16 1^27
New turbine generator No. 10 in new section of building.
Fig. 17 1942
Power house from 14th and Platte Sts. with 3rd addition of transformer and switchgear building on the left. Coal gondolas in west yards.
Fig. 18 1949
Westside of power house showing coal freight train unloading in rower on one of the last
After 1950, the boilers and turbine generators of the Platte River Power House were sold. The building stood empty for several years until a dry milk plant located on the northeast used the old engine hall for storage and evaporation of buttermilk. International Harvester Company used part of the building as a warehouse and between 1939 and 1940 the river end of the basement was used as a rifle range by a Denver gun dub.
The building was, and still is, in a bad state of disrepair and in need of remodeling. All work on it and displays to this time have been paid for by admissions charged and $55,000 in contributions, but mostly by Mr. Forney who also spends much of his time on the project.
Due to its fine example of 1890's Architecture, its situation at the confluence of Cherry Creek and the South Platte River, (the area of the first Denver settlements) and its history of contribution of service to the growth and welfare to the area, it well deserves to be placed among the buildings to be preserved as part of our Historical Heritage. But more than that, it could serve as a monument to illustrate the evolution of our urban environment as determined by and shaped through transportation.
Goff Enterprises is exploring alternatives for renovating this one-of-a-kind American treasure into a showcase of history with complimentary mixed uses in retail, office, restaurants and entertainment. For information see Del Webb
Denver Tramway Powerhouse as it is today.
View of Denver Tramway Powerhouse at 14th and Platte Strs. on left Highland Hills in foreground, Denver skyline in background.
Boiler room showing coal feeders from conveyor above and stokers.

Activities Descriptions and Patterns
The Train Museum
The new Train Museum will be housed in the old Denver Tramway Power Company Building. It will serve as the main attraction for Confluence Park.
Included in the overall site design will be a new outdoor plaza located on the west side of the Tramway Building. The plaza will include fountains, walkways, gazebos, and eating pavilion.
Located across the South Platte River is an existing outdoor amphitheater. The project will include a redesigned pedestrian and bicycle path which will serve as a connection between both sides of the river.
The museum itself will represent a major element in Denvers History; the train. Hours of operation will be Monday through Friday from 9 a.m. to 7 p.m., weekends 9 a.m. to 9 p.m.
Located on the west portion of the building will be small shops and restaurants. Hours of operation will be 9 a.m. to 2 a.m. everyday.
1. entry
how long: volumes:
hours of operation
as an experience
short term
2. gift shop
vi si tors
hours of operation

wherea how i
how longi volumes:
near entry browsing short term 40X o-f visitors
3. waiting
who* when i wherea how a
how longa volumes:
hours of operation near entry to meet people short term 10% of visitors
4. theater
whoa when: wherea how a
how long: volumesa
vi sitors
hours of operation (twice a day)
near entry
beginning of tour
1/2 hour
5. conference room
who: when a wherea how:
how long:
voi urnsc:
rented out to public
hours of operation (plus nighttime hours) adjacent to parking, access at night public / private meetings 1-2 hours 100 300
6. office
how long volumesa
hours of operation (possibly after hours) adjacent to entry telephone calls, business 8 hours a day 2-3 employees
7. storage

how long: volurnes:
B. shop
how long: volumes:
9. toilets
how long: volumes:
10. entry
how long: volumes:
11. shops
how long: volumes:
semi permanent
exhibit material
short long / long term
employees hours of operation northeast addition exhibit setup and repair varies
large machinery, shop tools
public and employees, (handicap)
hours of operation
near entry
as required
short term
low traffic flow
museum visitors, and open to public
9 a.m. 2 a.m. every day
west portion of building
enter from plaza or museum
short term
heavy traffic flow
museum visitors, and open to pupilc
9 a.m. 2 a.m. every day
west portion of building
variety of stores
1 hr each average
heavy traffic flow

12. restaurants
Mho: when: where: how: how long: volumes: museum visitors, and open to public 9 a.m. 2 a.m. every day west portion of building cafes, take out food to plaza 2 hr each average low traffic flow
13. toilets
who: when: where: how: how long: volumes: CAFE 14. cafe public and employees hours ct operation near market entry as required short term low traffic flow
who: publi c
when: 9 a.m. 2 a.m. everyday
where: located on plaza between the shops and Water St
how: people take out food to plaza
how long: 1 hr average
volume: heavy traffic flow
15. restaurant
who: public and employees
when: 9 a.m. 2 a.m. everyday
where: located above cafe on plaza
how: as an attraction element for people

how longi 2 hrs averagi volume* low traffic flow
16. kitchen
who* employees
when* 7 a.m. 3 a.m. everyday
where* located on cafe level near delivery area
hows to service cafe and restaurant
how long* 8 hour shifts
volume* low traffic flow
17. toilets
who: public (including handicapped), employees
when* hours of operation
where: public near entry, employees near kitchen
how: as required
how long: short term
volumei low traffic flow
18. janitor
who: employees on duty to clean
when: hours of operation
where* within kitchen area
how: slop sink storage of cleaning tools
how long: short term

1 person
19. mechanical
whoi mechanical equipment
when a hours of operation
wherei ground floor within kitchen area
hows all services to building
how longs PLAZA hours of operation
20. eating pavilion
whos when: where: St. museum visitors, public, abd employees anytime west portion of site between building and Water
how: how long: volumes: take out food from the market, or bring own food 1 hr average large groups of people
21. trains (museum exhibit)
who: when: where: how: how long: volumes: museum visitors hours of museum operation north iest portion of site actual trains of Denver 1 hr average low traffic flow
22. bandstand
who: when: where: hows how long: volumes: band plays for public shows; lunch time, evenings,- weekly near eating pavilion lunch time or evening crowd enjoys band 45 minute sets large groups of people need seating

23. amphitheater
who: when: where: how: how long: volumes: museum visitors, and public shows; every evening weather permitting triangular site between the river and the creek outdoor concerts 2 hrs average 5000 people capacity
24. pedestrian and bicycle path
who: when: where: how: how long: volumes: museum visitors and public anytime along Cherry Creek and across river the river to bring public to the site varies moderate traffic flow

Spatial Requirements
The Train Museum
The new Train Museum will be located in the ground level of the old Denver Tramway Company Building no the east side of the ground floor. In the basement there will also be exhibit space. Also outside of the building the train exhibit will be set up.
On the west portion of the building, on the ground floor, there will be a series of small shops and restaurants. A new mezzanine level will be added to this side of the building.
On the west portion of the site, between the powerhouse building and Water St there will be an outdoor plaza. Included in the plaza will be an eating pavilion, a bandstand, gazebos, and seating areas.
1. entry
space descriptions a celebration of entry is a design
number required! 1 major entry with various side entries sizes 20' x 40', 800 sq ft
2. gift shop
space descriptions gifts smal 1 shop with souvenirs, books, and
number required! 1
sizes 40' x 40', 1600 sq ft
3. waiting

space description: waiting small sitting area for tour groups or
number required: 1
size: 4. theater 20* x 20*, 400 sq ft
space description: trains for short film on History of Denvers
number required: seating for 50 people
size: 20* x 40*, 800 sq ft
5. conference room
space description: meeting place to be rented out to publi
number required: seating for 300 people
size: 6. office 40* x 60, 2400 sq ft
space description: for bookkeeper and owner
number required: 2 small offices
size: 7. storage 10 x 10, 100 sq ft each
space description: room for storing materials and exhibits
number required: spaces 1 major storage room and small storage
size: 20* x 40', 800 sq ft
8. shop

space description! Jobs room for repairing exhibits and small
number required! 1 space with access for large exhibits
sizei 9. toilets 20' x 40', 800 sq ft
space description! for public including handicapped
number required: 1 toilet room for each sex
sizei THE SHOPS 10. entry 2 at 10' x 13, 300 sq ft
space description: Important design element as an invitation
number required! plaza 1 major entry and small entries from
size: 11. shops 20' x 20', 400 sq ft
space description! small retail stores and novelty shops
number required: 10 stores
sizei 12: restaurants 1000 sq ft each average
space description: cafe type with access to eating pavilion
number required: 6 restaurants
size: 1000 sq ft average
13. toilets

space description! for public including handicapped
number required: 1 toilet room for each sex
sizet CAFE 14. cafe 2 at 10* x 15, 300 sq ft
space description! small eating area and carry out counter
number required: 1 space
size: 15. restaurant 50' x 23', 1250 sq ft
space description: above cafe with views of entire site
number required: 1 space
size: 16. kitchen 50' x 30', 2300 sq ft
space description: 2nd fl required equip, with access to 1st and
-iur'be- required: common for cafe and restaurant
size: 17. toilets 20' x 30', 600 sq ft
space description: employees for public use (handicapped) and
number required: 1 for each sex (public), 1 for employees
size: 10' x 15'(public), 7.5x 8, 350 sq ft
18. janitor

space description! slop sink and storage
number required! 1 room
slzei 19. mechanical 7.3* x 8', 30 sq ft
space description! telephone, h.v.a.c., plumbing, electrical
number required! 1 room with mech. shafts as required
size: PLAZA 12.3* x 12.3', 250 sq ft
20. eating pavilion
space description: trees seating integrated with fountains and
number required: various spaces
size: 21. trains 30,000 sq ft
space description: trains exhibited creating nostalgia
number required: 20 trains
size! 22. bandstand integrated with site
space description! for band to play to people at the plaza
number required! 1 as a focal point for the plaza
size! AMPHITHEATER 20* radius, 300 sq ft
23. amphitheater

space descriptions existing number requireds 1 sizes 3000 people
24. pedestrian and bicycle path
space descriptions existing to be redesigned to go behind stage
sizes 10* wide


Spatial Analysis, Quality, Guidlines
The Train Museum
The major attraction for the new Confluence Park will be the new Train Museum, therefore the image must be very powerful.
An image of nostalgia will create a feeling of how the site was in the beginning. At one point in time Denver was a city which took advantage of its fine mass transportation system. The museum will show the History of the citys train and trolley system and the impact it had on the people.
The new plaza will serve as a stage for the theatrical events that will occur at the site. A series of cafes will provide food as an attraction element for people to use the outdoor pavilion.
A bandstand will be a major focal point for the plaza, providing music and and entertainment for all who might visit the site. The sound of two rivers converging plus, the addition of a series of fountains, will create a soothing feeling for the people.
Across the South Platte River the existing amphitheater will provide a stage for nightly entertainment. A redesigned pedestrian and bicycle path is a very for the Cherry Creek entrance to the site.

Analysi s
1. entry
reason -for spacei quality o-f use: special features: finishes: mechanical, etc.: codes: security:
2. gift shop
reason for space: quality of use: special features: finishes: mechanical etc.: codes: security:
3. waiting
reason for space: quality of use: special features: fini shes: mechanical etc.: codes: security:
4. theater
reason for space: quality of use: special features: finishes: mechanical etc.: codes: securi ty:
to provide a welcome for the people
very rich, warm feeling
first image of nostalgia
warm colors, fine detailing, wood
average h.v.a.c.
exit doors swing out to plaza
locks on doors, cashier checks visitors
to browse or shop for souvenirs good quality space
sitting area for browsing at books fine wood detailing, carpet average h.v.a.c., private phone typical
cashier, locks on doors
people to wait for friends or rest
very comfortable, soft feeling
sitting area with couches
fine detailing, carpet
average h.v.a.c., public phones
slide and movie presentation on trains good quality
good sound system, seating,and lighting comfortable seating screen room, average h.v.a.c. clear exit path, doors open out equipment storage locked

3. conference room
reason for spacei quality of uses special features* finishes: mechanical etc.: codes: security:
6. office
reason for space: quality of use: special features: finishes: mechanical etc.: codes: securi ty:
7. storage
reason for space: quality of use: special features: finishes: mechanical etc.: codes: securi ty:
B. shop
reason for space: quality of use: special features: finishes: mechanical etc.: codes: securi ty:
rent space for public meetings good quality to for rent probability stage with screen, seating for 200 comfortable seating, good lighting return air high
clear exit path, doors open out equipment storage locked
paperwork for museum, files average quality telephone, computer average
average h.v.a.c.
deliveries, small exhibits, equipment
low quality
minimal h.v.a.c. typical
equipment secured against theft
to repair and assemble small exhibits low quality
tools for assembly end repair minimal
average h.v.a.c. typical
equipment secured against theft

9. toilets
reason -For spaces quality of uses special features; finishes: mechanical etc: codes: security:
10. entry
reason for space: quality of use: special features: f i ni shes: mechanical etc.: codes: securi ty:
11. shops
reason for space: quality of use: special features: finishes: mechanical etc.: codes: securi ty:
12. restaurants
reason for space: quality of use: special features: f i nishes: mechanical etc.: codes: security:
average quality typical
tile floors, typical finishes exhaust fans, plumbing, electric Denver building code (plus handicap) minimal
welcome of people to building
fine detailing, celebration of entry
high ceilings, on axis
wood detailing, large doors
average h.v.a.c., public telephones
door locks
to provide a variety of merchandise very dynamic quality, very theatrical mezzanine level, access to plaza very good quality, paint existing steel above average h.v.a.c., telephone fire separation between shops stores secured against theft
to provide enjoyable dining for people fine detailing and good quality carry out food to plaza, dumbwaiter good quality, varies between spaces hoods fans for kitchen, high return air extra fire extinguishing system average

13. toilets
reason for spaces quality of use: special features: f i nishes: mechanical etc.: codes: securi ty:
14. cafe
reason for space: quality of use: special features: finishes: mechanical etc.: codes: securi ty:
15. restaurant
reason for space: quality of use: special features: finishes: mechanical etc.: codes: security:
16. kitchen
reason for space: quality of use: special features: finishes: mechanical etc.: codes: securi ty:
good quality typical
average quality, tile floors exhaust fan
Denver building code (handicapped) minimal
to provide food to enjoy on the plaza
very good quality
carry out counter, side cafe
good quality, colorful
average h.v.a.c.
secured at night
good food with great views very good quality
views of sunsets, city, and plaza fine detailing, high ceilings high return air doors swing out, D.B.C. secured at night
to service cafe and restaurant very clean di shwasher washable
hoods over ovens, high return air extra fire extinguishing system average

17. toilets
reason -for space: quality o-f uses special -features:
-f ini shes: mechanical etc.i codes: securi ty:
18. janitor
reason -for spacei quality o-f use: special features: f i nishes: mechanical etc.: codes: security:
19. mechanical
reason for space: quality of use: special features: finishes: mechanical etc.: codes: securi ty:
20. eating pavilion
reason for space: special features: f inishes: mechanical etc.: codes: securi ty:
average quality none
typical with tile floors
exhaust fans
slop sink and store cleaning tools
low quality
slop sink
low quality
to house h.v.a.c.,
low quality
services restaurant
telephone,electric and cafe
gathering place for people
variety of seating and views
brick with fine detailing

21 trains (museum exhibit)
reason -for spacei special -Features: f i ni shes: mechanical etc.: codes: securi ty:
22. bandstand
reason for space: special features: finishes: mechanical etc.: codes: security:
23. amphitheater
reason for space: special features: finishes: mechanical etc.: codes: security:
24. pedestrian and
reason for space: special features: f i ni shes: mechanical etc.: codes: security:
to create images of trains in plaza access onto trains
good quality, renovation of old trains
high security against vandalism
to provide focal point for plaza good sound system old style
good stage lighting
to provide entertainment at the park
lawn seating, stage
natural and natural colors
lighting at night and stage lighting
bicycle path
connection from amphitheater to plaza
path runs behind the stage
to match existing path (concrete)
lighting at night
as required


Designing For The Attraction of People
by Thomas M. Brady Jr.
An Independent Study for Professor Gary Long The University of Colorado Sept, 1986

Designing -for the Attraction o-f People
Do you ever wonder why you love that special place that you always go back to? There are places I love to go to time and time again, but Ive never asked mysel-f why, until now. Everyone loves to experience and when there is enjoyment, we want it to happen again. We want to return to a place and -find it just as we pictured it. But why do we return?
Li-fe is a journey through the natural and built environment. An exciting public space can be just as exciting as a walk along a colorful sandy beach or a refreshing stroll through a wooded path on a crisp autumn day. We take the exact same walk over and over again and find it just as exhilarating as the first time. Our memories are our foundations. They provide us with a base on how we perceive the world.
The following is a study of how architecture is designed with the attraction of people in mind. Methods of creating good enjoyable space will be dicussed. Examples of good public places will be used to compare the techniques designers use to attract people to a space and give them a reason to want to return.
The attraction of people immediately brings to mind the word place. People love places. As J.B. Jackson so simply puts it in Jhe_Necess^ty_Fgr Ruins: "This is how we should think of landscapes: not merely how they look, how they conform to an esthetic ideal, but how they satisfy elementary needs: the need for sharing some of those sensory experiences in a familiar place: popular songs, popular dishes, a special kind of weather supposedly found nowhere else, a special kind of sport or game, played only here in this spot. These things remind us that we belong or used to belong to a specific place: a country, a town, a neighborhood. A landscape should establish bonds between people, the bond of language, of manners, of the same kind of work and leisure, and above all a landscape should contain the kind of spatial organization which fosters such experience and relationships; spaces for coming together, to celebrate, spaces for solitude, spaces that never change and

are always as memory depicted them. These are some o-f the characteristics that give a landscape its uniqueness, that give it style. These are what make us recall it with emotion." C13
People love to go to places to see other people, and o-f course -for others to see them. The creation of public space where one goes for leisure fascinates me. People from all walks of life, with various backgrounds and professions, gather together in places to enjoy.
I am also very interested in urban revitalization in cities around Lhe world. For my thesis project I am using Confluence Park, a very significant site in Denver, Colorado, as a vehicle for my research. The main objective of the project is to create a festive atmosphere for the attraction of people. It is my belief that the Confluence, with its existing amenities, is a perfect site for the revitalization of lower downtown Denver. It is the place where the city began, and has to go back to.
A very important factor in the design of a large open public place such as Confluence Park, is the way people interact with each other. For this reason, I feel it will be in my best interest to take a theoretical approach to my thesis. An approach that will study human behavior in public places. This chapter in my thesis will serve as a basis for the design of the final project.
Research from various books I have read on topics such as architectural psychology, human behavior in public places, and recycling of old buildings, will be reviewed and discussed. This information will be used as the guideline in evaluating similar projects relating to my thesis design. Places that Ive personally experienced will be evaluated and used as case studies in support for theories about good design for people.
The main element on the Confluence Park site is an existing structure! the Denver Tramway Company Building. Thus, most of the information I have gathered relates to the re-use of old buildings and their relation to new architecture on a site. Information on human behavior in public spaces will concentrate on redeveloped sites and will

ba used to evaluate how peopls act in particular situations

Human Behavior in Public Spaces
The -following will summarize each book or article I have read and the relationship it has to my project. In most cases the information present here is just one author's opinion on such a vast topic, but gives positive support to my project.
Genius Locii the Spirit of Place by Christian NoroergSchui z
Norberg-Schulz starts off the book with his definition of Genius Loci as it relates to architecture: "Since ancient times the genius loci or 'spirit of place', has been recognized as the concrete reality man has to face and come to terms with in his daily life. Architecture means to visualize the genius loci, and the task of the architect is to create meaningful places, whereby he helps man to dwell." C 23
The author explains what goes into making a place; Architecture is a creation of spaces, but there has to be life in a space or distinct character for it to become a place. A person should identify with a place and have a sense of belonging to it. We identify spaces with prepositions such as over, under, or behind, but places are usually nouns such as the riverwalk, or the festival. To have character, a place is described with adjectives such as quiet, quaint or delightful.
There are many components that together will make a special place. For example, the materials utilized must have a substance. The shape, texture and colors used will give character to a building or group of buildings. Centralization, direction, rhythm and character will create an atmosphere at a particular site. a special place where people want to return to. To create a place, the goal of the designer should be to develop a site, using the meanings that the environment of that particular site provides.
In order for a place 'to have character', there is no

exact formula. For instance, Seattle has a special character due to it's rainy weather. Boston's excellent old buildings set the stage for a city that has great historic character. The designer can create a perfect place with good character if he or she composes the design properly.
NorbergSchulz discusses the ways people identify with an environment. He uses the term schemata C3D, which is what a child develops by experiencing hot, cold, hard, soft etc. The schemata of a person determines their world and gives them their identity. Each person can identify with a place that is special to them.
The articulation of a buiding will give it an identity. For example, the windows are the personality of a building. They describe how a building receives light. The components of the structure and the materials used will create a vocabulary and describe the spirit of the building.
Norberg-Schulz's theories are very important in the design of a special site such as Confluence Park. People are usually aware of a special site which they can identify with, and will come together in order to save a certain character found nowhere else. It will have to be a special place where the fine environment and good qualities are enhanced.

People in Places, experiencing, using, and changing the built environment Jay Farbstein and Min Kantrowitz
People in Places is a per-fect book on how we use space. This book is a very useful tool in -finding out why we like certain places and why we want to return to them. It explores the way one feels when he or she goes to a certain place and how we react to the settings around us.
The following quote from the authors describes their definition of places and why they are important to us; "Places are not just rooms, buildings, or outdoor spaces, but total environments made up of physical space together with people, furnishings, machines and actions. Places form the settings for all the significant and insignificant events of our lives. More than just containers, they are living, changing systems which support or hinder our actions, please or disturb our emotions. To understand places, we must become actively involved with the people and places around us." C43
Nostalgia plays a very important role in the way people use places. Of course, if the site already possesses an old building, the sense of nostalgia is very significant. To use the historical past as an advantage in the design will create an interest that will be enjoyed by all who might pass through. A place may remind us of an experience we had there. If it was a good experience we might return.
Memories of special places or events are very important to how people view the world. When someone enters a building or a site, past experiences are thought out and there is a reaction as to how to act in a new place. There are many similarities in people's reactions to a place and therefore certain places are used by certain types of people. People's attitudes might change and if that is the case the built environment will change.
Senses are very important to the way people use spaces and why a place is well liked. A person enters a room or a space and the senses begin a quick process of information. We see through our eyes how the light reflects or highlights surfaces. We can see colors, forms, materials, and other

people. We can -feel hot, cold, or even warm in a place. The noises we hear such as a -fountain will have an affect on the way we perceive a place.
Images give the meanings we have for places. The first impression we have of a building identifies it and gives us an idea of what to expect upon entry. For example an entrance acts as the transition from one place to another, and in most cases, gives us a hint as to what is on the other side. Our senses will give us a total image of a particular building or site. They will also help create a picture in our minds of what it was like.
When a site is developed, it begins to affect the surrounding context. People may begin using the new building at first, but eventually will go to an old building nearby. Soon people make special trips there and a gathering place is created. "Places contain activity, define movement, invite feeling and respond to change, making places means making experiences." C51

Meaning of the Built Environment, Amos Rapoport
Rapoport's knowledge on human behavior is brought out in this book in simple fashion. He talks about people's reactions to the built environment. The meaning to different people is very important in how a building is used. People like certain places in an urban environment and like what they mean to them.
The activities in a building relate to its success. According to Rapoport there are four components to the way in which activities work: a) the activity proper b) the specific way of doing i i. c) additional, adjacent, or associated activities that become part of the activity system and d) the meaning of the activity. (6)
When an architect designs a building, he or she, through experience or training, has certain insights and perceptions about how an activity should work. To them this is their meaning. The public on the other hand uses activities and responds to the environment in more associational terms.
Rapoport talks about how it is necessary to underdesign as opposed to overdesign. This will allow the people to personalize with their environment and communicate particular meanings. If the meanings begin to develop a pattern, the space might turn into a gathering place.
Semiosis C73, the process by which something functions as a sign, is useful in the design process. Signs, either directly or indirectly, tell us where to go. It could be as literal as an arrow or as subtle as a glimpse of something around the corner. People respond to signs and through their interaction, give meaning to a place.
Another term that Rapoport uses is Mnemonic, CBD which means something assisting or designed to aid the memory. The environment can be mnemonic by giving people cues on how to respond to a space. We respond to certain environments according to different roles and situations we are in at different times and locations.
Cues are not spelled out for us, but they are there.

If we are going to a certain place we either dress up or dress down, and we anticipate what it is going to be like when we get there. This theory is very important in the design of a public place. In the beginning of the project, there has to be a definition of how the overall is going to be, and how the people will respond.

Topophilia, A Study of Environmental Perception, Attitudes and Values. Vi Fu Tuan
Yi Fu Tuan has written many books on the subject of human behavior in architecture. This particular book deals with how we look at the natural and built environment, and how we evaluate it and use it.
"Topophilia is the affective bond between people and place or setting. Diffuse as concept, vivid and concrete as personal experience. 11 C9D Our perceptions of how we look at a space is very important. We respond to a situation with our senses and react in certain ways.
Attitudes are made up of perceptions. They vary from one culture to another. Through our attitudes we develop different interests and values which creates a belief system for each person. With our experiences, individual or social, we look at the world in certain ways.
When we look at a space we begin to evaluate it using our past experiences and values. It becomes a place when we get familiar and comfortable with it. We will scan the room upon entry and each pause will begin to create images in our minds. The images will begin to create a place for us, a place we would want to be.
Tuan talks about different types of topophilia and how it can vary. For instance, one can call a space a place because they are familiar with it and always return there. In this case it is a place for them. Sometimes a place is created because the experience is always the same and it brings back memories.
To design a special site the architect must have an idea of what kind of an experience should take place there. The type of people that are going to use the site and what type of lifestyle they are used to will give the designer an idea of how to compose the project.

Architecture in Context, fitting new buildings with old, Brent C. Brolin
In his book, Mr. Brolin discusses various situatii where new buildings were designed to fit into an exist context. Most of the examples are of successful desigi but to explain what not to do, he provides us with a cases which are bad. It is an excellent set of guidelii for the designer, as well as the community that might affected by a new structure.
The main objective in the design of a new build; adjacent to an old is to enhance the spirit of the place, new building can either contrast or blend together with existing building. For example, transitions can be used the junction of the old and new. Similar materials < cornice lines can also be designed to match the existii Sometimes the size of a structure is not compatible with i context. If this is the case, small scale detailing < ornament can be consistent with the neighboring buildings
Brolin uses the term 'visual connection C151 which when the eye and not the mind is convinced that i respective pairs belong together. A negative example uses is the National Gallery of Arts East Wing Washington D.C. by I.M. Pei. The new buiding uses some the same materials as the Gallery, but the detailing plain vanilla when compared to that of the old.
The specific context of any new building is extremi valid and Bhould inspire the designer at the very first s: visit. Buildings, unlike paintings, cannot be viewed as it were a piece of artwork. They are part of our da: lives. Visual cues on the context, and how the new build: is going to affect people, should provide clues to 1 designer as to how to create a responsive building, building should fit gracefully into its context as if were family.
There are many different techniques an architect < use in contextural design. For instance, motifs o-neighboring structure can be closely copied, such as 1 Frick Museum in New York City, or you can rearrange simi! forms Another method would be to invent new forms wh:

have the same visual effect as the old, such as the new shed addition at Quincy Market in Boston. A designer can even use abstracted original forms similar to what was done with the National Permanent Building in Washington D.C.
One of the most important factors in relating a new building to an old, is knowing when to respect a given context. First of all, an old building must be worth honoring for one reason or another. The new relationship of old to new could be achieved successfully by such methods as building setback, facade proportions, roof silhouette, massing, materials and color.

There are many books to read on the subject of human behavior in the built environment. It is my belief that the preceding reviews are some of the best examples on how to design for people. In order to apply this research to my project I feel it necessary to combine it with information about the re-use of old buildings and the redevelopment of special sites.
The following information was obtained from various books and periodicals that I have read on the subject. Examples study how old buildings relate to new, and how people will respond to what is created by the combination of the two.
William H. Whyte is a familiar face on the topic of human behavior and how it relates to architecture. One of his famous sayings is "if you want to seed a place with activity, put out food." Many of his studies included in
his book JheSacial____Life__of__Smal l_Urban_Sgaces, deal with
public plazas and how people behave in the environment.
Whyte discusses simple qualities a plaza must have if it is going to be successful. First of all you need access to sun and reasonable protection from the wind. People go to an urban plaza to experience it and participate in the action at the site. They love to hear the sound of running water or to feel the cool shade of an old tree.
Triangulation is a term that Whyte uses. It is "a stimulus that gives two people something to talk about." CIO! People will discuss an event that they just witnessed or a new sculpture that has been added to their park. There is a need for many interesting components on a plaza in order to make it exciting and successful.
In his book In Pra^se of Archi tecture, Gio Ponte has a very interesting statement. He says "the works of the past are not in the past; they exist in the present through our conception of the past." Cll] At present time, the conversion of old buildings is a very significant portion of new construction. We must respect the past, and do our best to enhance what already exists in order to create good urban design.

Lewis Mum-ford, as architect and planner, has given us -fine examples o-f good public architecture. He came up with a very interesting statement on the reuse o-f old buildings; "conservative surgery means to remove dead urban tissue with as little injury to the rest of the organism as possible and bolster it with a blood transfusion of new economic and social enterprises on a human scale and directed to human needs." Zi21
The design of an old building will have many constraints the architect must deal with that do not exist in the design of a new building. Clues should be left about the history of the building and how it used to work. A certain detail could make or break the character of a project. New details should be distinct from the old details, but at the same time should be aesthetically pleasing.
n a jury for new conversion projects, Denise Scott Brown felt the best solution depicted the character for the way of life of a project. She said "you need vitality all over the stage instead of under one small spotlight on a central core where all the actors are jammed together." C133 One of the ways to accomplish this is to work with the old buildings to give a sense of continuity and texture to the new work.
In an article on the design of old buildings reused, there was a discussion on what happens to the existing space adjacent to or in between existing buildings. This theory is the opposite of the figure ground idea in that it looks at buildings as landscape. "The negative field of open space becomes the positive element in urban composition and buildings become it's walls and openings, lending their color, texture, scale, and expression to the creation of place." C141

When there is a special site in the city, it is important to respond to each building, new or old, as if they were each part of the same composition. Each building will be a part of what our senses will respond to when we visit a site. The sounds we hear and the movements we see, as well as how certain buildings feel, will all be part of our image of a place.
The research I have done has provided me with valuable information on how people respond to a space, and what features in that space will be exciting enough for people to want to return to. I have used this knowledge as an architectural tool in evaluating the projects 1 have visited. Each one, in one way or another, is similar to my thesis project at Confluence Park in that it was an important site in the downtown area of a particular city.
There are countless projects throughout the world that consist of old buildings, a great location, and fine views. I was very interested in 4 projects that I found most exciting and useful. The following examples begin with a brief history of each situation, and explain the solution. Experiencing each one was fascinating, especially after reading so much on the subject of redeveloped buildings.

pike place market

location plan

3d view

Pike Place Market, Seattle, Washington
The History
The market was born in 1907 when the -farmers and consumers of the Seattle area were determined to get rid of the middleman. Originally, shed-like buildings were built in this downtown area of Seattle to provide shelter for the merchants selling produce, fish, etc. In a matter of time, space was scarce and new additions were put onto the old bui1di ngs.
In 1960 the success of the market began to go downhill. The quality of the neighborhoods adjacent to the site was very bad. As is the case in many cities, a plan to redevelop this area of the city consisted of highrise office towers and apartments. A group called Friends of the Market, led by the late Victor Steinbrueck AIA, was formed to save their site, and soon the area was named a Historic Di strict.
The Redevelopment
An architect named George Bartholick was chosen to begin the restoration of the market in 1972. The size of the project was 300,000 sq. ft. which included 22 acres of market area.
The main objective was to keep the character of the existing market, but to redesign certain areas of the site in order for it to function properly. Most of the original construction was conserved. To blend in with the existing, new construction was added with a flavor of the old.
People who use it
A very important addition to the site is the Pike Place Hillclimb, which brings 5000 people daily up from the ferry and through the site. Everyone uses the market, the old, young, rich, poor, yuppies and punks.
People are what give the market its vitality and character. One can hear a person with a radio walking past

or the shouting o-f a fish monger selling his goods. There are a large variety of spaces in the buildings and the different activities attract all kinds of people.
Most Seattlites pass through the market during the day if they are downtown. People on their way home will pick up something good for dinner. There are a few tourists but, the people of the city use it the most. It is a real place, a place giving a sense of nostalgia while walking through the exhilarating spaces.
Proximity to the Project
The location of Pike Place Market has a lot to do with it's success. It is just a short walk up the Pike Place Hillclimb, which comes up from a beautiful waterfront. There is an excellent boardwalk along the waterfront with commercial piers, such as Pier 59, along the way. A few tourist attractions line the water, such as the new Aquarium and the Museum of Ships and Sea.
Freeway Park, adjacent to the market, is a very pleasent spot for lunch or just relaxation. Here one might find office workers at noon, or undesirables just hanging out making the park seem like it has always been there.
Downtown Seattle serves as a backdrop and many of it's amenities are within easy walking distance, such as the recently redeveloped Pioneer Square with it's shops and cafes. There are various office buildings and hotels very close to the site which allow for an influx of people.
What is sold there
One can find just about anything at Pike Place Market, that is what makes the place exciting. The main element is of course the great variety of food available. There is everything from fruit stands to meat counters, but the ones with the most characteristic quality of Seattle are the fish stands.
Great restaurants with fine views of downtown and the harbor are scattered throughout the complex. There are fabulous outdoor cafes offering a choice of all ethnic

Various shops and carts provide a wealth o-f items such as; -flowers, art, books, clothes, and shoes. Mai king past the stores, is a colorful journey in a wave of fine goods. There is even a daycare center for the children of working fami 1i es.
Mhy it works
- 40,000 customers who visit the
reason the market is so successful is use was evaluated and enhanced, market adjusts to the different of ceiling heights and good lighting Victor Steinbrueck said; "the market has an anonymous quality an affective architectural space framed by people, and it has all the delights of an architectural experience." Cl 6 3
There are 25,000 complex in a day. The because the original Architecturally, the activities by the use
Rents in the market are kept relatively low, which adds to the spirit of the place and an old fasioned flare. The complex has a meaning for the citizens of Seattle. People have a sense of identity when they go to the market, it is their place.
One patron was quoted as saying the following, which begins to explain his identity with the market; "1 dont have to cross the street to get to the supermarket, but a supermarket is just a commercial thing: this is a social thing. I come down here often sometimes join the talk at the big table over there. Everybody gets a chance to say his thing, you know, its like an education. A place like this ought to belong to the people." C17D For someone to go to a public market as big as this one, to talk to his friends is great, a fine example of topophilia (Tuan).


ghirardelli square


3d view
location plan


Ghirardelli Square, San Francisco, California
The History
Ghirardelli Square is located at 900 North Point St., in downtown San Francisco. The existing complex consisted of a group of old chocolate factory buildings owned by the famous Ghirardelli family, as well as other factory bui1di ngs.
One of the oldest structures in the city, an 1850 powerhouse, was still standing on the site in 1961. The landmark of the complex, at that time as well as today, was the charming tower designed by William liooser in 1915. An old box factory was the only damaged building on the site.
The Redevelopment
In 1961, William M. Roth was the owner of the complex. He had a dream to redevelop one of the best sites in the city for the people. It was a mixed use plan that was to become one of the most successful re-use designs of its time.
The architectural firm chosen for the project was Wurster, Bernardi, and Emmons, Architects. Lawrence Halprin was chosen as the landscape architect. They worked very closely with Mr. Roth on the redesign of the entire complex.
The main objective in the design was to use the existing amenities such as the fine old buildings and the great open spaces. There was to be a 19th century atmosphere in the mix of old and new by the use of materials and form. New buildings and additions continued the spirit of the old by using such components as bay windows, domes, clerestories windows, and custom lights.
In the preliminary design Halprin sketched fast but with great care. He decided that there was a need for two main entrances to draw people to the center. This would allow the circulation to radiate outward. A series of walkways, ramps, and stairs led up to balconies and decks at the mezzanine and upper levels.

People who use it
San Franciscoans love their city and are very aware of their urban environment. They see Ghirardelli Square as an excellent addition to a very fine area of downtown. It is a place that the people of the city want to be and because it is an experience, it has meaning to them.
The square is used primarily by the residents, but tourists do flow up from the waterfront and other areas of the city. Most of the shops are on the expensive side of the spectrum and therefore attract a middle class crowd.
At lunch time, as well as after work, many of the small cafes are filled with office workers stopping for a bite to eat or a beer. The views are superb and are well worth one beer on a deck overlooking the square.
Proximity to the project
The square is located in an area of downtown with various attractions. It is within easy walking distance to Fisherman's Wharf, the Cannery, the Piers, the Transportation Museum, and the Fuller Glass Warehouse. A few blocks away is the Trolley Turnaround which brings a few more tourists to the site.
There are many office buildings nearby which provide easy access for the officeworkers during the day. The fine mass transit system in the city makes the Square very accessible at all times of the day.
What is sold there
There are a variety of specialty shops selling all types of merchandise from Gucci loafers to colorful flowers. The New Box Factory, on the site of the old, contains various small stores. A candy shop displays the old chocolate making machines and creates a sense of nostalgia on how the building used to be.
A variety of great cafes and restaurants are really what give the Square it's character. Different levels offer

excellent birds eye views o-f the Square as well as the Bay and Alcatraz Island.
Why it works
There are many reasons to what makes Ghirardelli Square work so well. Parking is convenient and therefore, takes the patron out of their car and surrounds him or her with shops and restaurants. The parking is underground and even the entrance to it is inconspicuous, which separates the pedestrian from the automobile.
Liveliness is in the air as one enters the complex. The excellent circulation path brings you past each shop, creating curiosity and inviting you in. Great mnemonic signage tells you what is beyind each storefront. Lighting enhances the spaces and especially at night, highlights the image of the Square.
An excellent tenant program allows for good organization of the entire complex. Each area is very well related to one another. The life of the Square occurs around the terraces rather than on them. In this case, the plazas are the positive space and the buildings the negative.
Triangulation works at the square very well. Some of the finest views in the city will trigger casual conversations. The components of the overall complex, such as the fountain, the tower, and the chocolate machines, create images in our minds which give us a sense of place. People who use the Square are familiar with certain features of the site and have many good memories which make them want to return.

quincy market

typical floor plan
1 Harbor Towers (India Wharf)
2 Parking Garaga
2 Haw England Aquarium 4 Charthouae (Long Wharf)
9 Customs Housa Block
Commarcial Wharf 7 Lawn Wharf
Tha Gallana (Sargaanta Wharf)
Commarcial Wharf West 14 Mercantile Wharf
11 Faneuil Hall and Quincy Market
12 Rehabilitation
13 Union Wharf
14 Proposed Office Building 11 Existing Bunding
14 Proposed Motel 17 Proposed New Housing 14 Waterfrom Park 14 Atlantic Ave 2D Proposed Elderly Housing
location plan