Citation
Denver Children's Center

Material Information

Title:
Denver Children's Center a day care facility for Denver
Creator:
Bravata, Evelyn
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
139 unnumbered leaves : illustrations, charts, maps, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Day care centers -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Day care centers ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 73-74).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Evelyn Bravata.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
12078045 ( OCLC )
ocm12078045
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1984 .B717 ( lcc )

Full Text
(\r$


DENVER CHILDRENS CENTER A Day Care Facility for Denver
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture
Evelyn Bravata r J 1 1 {
Fall 1984 j i i
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The Thesis of Evelyn Bravata is approved.
Gary Long, Committee Chairman
Jeff Sheppard, Principal Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver December 1984


To Evelyn, Dawn, Dena, and Tommy


CONTENTS
MASTER PROGRAM INTRODUCTION
Project Description Thesis Proposal Supporting Evidence PLANNING Zoning
Master Plan Proposals
FACILITY PROGRAM SITE
Character Analysis Soils
CLIMATE
Denver Summary
PROGRAM
Functional Spaces
Square Footage Recommendations
Occupant Load
Adjacencies
COMPONENT PROGRAM
REGULATIONS
Code
Minimum Rules and Regulations for Child Care Centers
DESIGN PROPOSAL
Drawings
CONCLUSION
RESOURCES
Books and Articles
Interviews
Acknowledgements
APPENDIX
Site Potential
Characteristics
Transportation


INTRODUCTION


PROJECT DESCRIPTION
This project is a proposed day care center of approximately 10,000 square feet located on 1101 Wazee Street, in Denver, Colorado serving Auraria and downtown.
There will be office space intended for the Auraria campus situated above the day care center. However, the design of the offices is beyond the scope of this thesis project.


THESIS PROPOSAL
I. We live in a changing world. The two most significant forces of change affecting this thesis project are:
1. The shifting patterns of family structure and
2. Tighter economic pressures.
As a result, more parents are working today. To facilitate this recent trend, children's day care centers are emerging in growing numbers. Child care has begun to assume an important position in our modern culture.
In this project, I intend to show in architectural terns, the fundamental role day care centers have assumed in our society. In addition, I propose to accentuate the new relationship between the worker's place and the child's place. This will be accomplished through the issues of accessibility, visual cohesion, and context in conjunction with identity.
II. Secondly, I propose to show that this project will reinforce Denver's revitalization movement. As a part of this movement, a link is required to function as an integrator of vital areas. The essential areas in this project are the Central Platte Valley Development (CVPD), the Auraria Campus, and downtown Denver. The linkage will be formed through the pull of a focal point, the day care center, drawing in the members of the 3 residential, business, and education centers. The pathways connecting those areas with the day care center will create a linkage network to strengthen Denver's cohesion.
The site is located on what will become a major arterial into downtown, the proposed Auraria Parkway. The site is also located on what is now the edge of the Auraria Campus. To the north of the site, the 500-acre Central Platte Valley is planned for development (and its housing is planned to be located close to


this project site). This day care center, then, by virtue of its service and its strategic location "between 3 vital urban axeas and on a busy transportation system will act as an important focal point for Denver. The resulting connection network will expedite Denver's revitalization process.
III. Thirdly, I propose to use the context of the
surrounding buildings to help determine the form of the day care center/office building.
Environmental forces influence people. The concern in this project is that quality architecture will improve the Denver built environment thereby favorably affecting Denverites and particularly motivating Denver children.
This goal will be implemented by responding to the contect of the area through such issues as materials, texture, color, and scale.


SUPPORTING EVIDENCE
"Every force evolves a form."
- Shaker proverb
Modern day economics coupled with the feminist movement has provided the force in western society for change. What new forms this force will help to create are varied and endless. The expression of that change through architectural means is only one possibility. As Alice Constance Austin has said, "new types of architecture should aries under fundamentally new conditions of living."
The most basic unit of "living" is the family.
It is within this unit that change in American life is most evident. The traditional nuclear family is no longer the average American family and probably will not be again in the near future. The Joint Center for Urban Studies of MIT and Harvard published a report entitled "The Nations Families I960 1990"* These are some of its findings for 1990:
Husband-wife households with only one working spouse will account for only 1^5 of all households, as compared with in I960
Wives will contribute about 40$S of family income compared to about 25?<> now
At least 12 separate types of households will eclipse the conventional family, including such categories as "female head, widowed, with children" and "male head, previously married, with children.
More than a third of the couples first married in the 1970's will have divorced; more than a third of the children born in the 1970's will have spent part of their childhood living with a single parent (and the emotional and financial consequences of this trend will be commensurately large)." John Naisbitt
Megatrends
New personal choices are now available to women.
Women are going to college, filling blue-collar jobs (2C$ of the 29 million U.S. blue-collar jobs in 1978), moving into professional occupations and starting their own businesses in record numbers. Today women make up almost 40% of America's workforce. And,
The national trend toward later motherhood is dramatic. From 1975 to 1978, there was a 375= rate of increase in the number of women from age 30 to 34 who had


their first child according to the National Center for Health Statistics. In 1982, this group accounted for 6.2% of all bahies born in the U.S. For women aged 35 to 39 the increase was 22?i.
Clearly our society has changed and continues to change toward the future. There is a definite need for childcare to accomodate older working mothers and families of other modern types. Even usually conservative corporations have begun to recognize and understand the ramifications of these statistics. Corporate childcare options are now on the rise.
In order for Denver to grow with the times, it must meet the demands of a changing community. The trend of exodus from downtown Denver toward suburban sprawl is in part a negative reply to an. unresponsive city. Reversing the outward flow is essential to Denver's continued success as a western American city-center. As an active ingredient of a revitalization strategy, adequate day care services can help to create a more
vibrant Denver.
To a large degree Denver's attraction to new urbanites will have to be in the quality of its envoron-mental form. Just as the l6th Street Mall has capitalized on the best of everything (i.e. location, good design, and strong concept) so, too, must the rest of Denver's built form draw on the best of everything. Albert Brisband has said, "the spirit of a society is stamped upon its architecture." The stamp of Denver's architecture should speak of quality and vibrancy. And, as the community impacts its architecture, architecture can influence all levels of its users. In the case of this project, the users constitute Denver community, parents, and their children. The focus should be on literally "building a community, fostering prode and self-sufficiency among both parents and children, and encouraging family solidarity rather than replacing it."
Special attention must be given the children, specifically,
The data are mounting, therefore, to suggest that the physical environment, and the built environment in particular,


exerts a powerful influence over the perpetual and social development of the child and young adult. Because in most cases these individuals have little or no control over the nature o of this environment, it is especially important that those adults who do have control exercise wisdom in selecting among alternative structures.
It is my hope that if this project were a reality, by its nature and its design it would give something special to Denver as a city, to its people and its children.


PLANNING
ZONING
MASTER PLAN PROPOSALS New Traffic Proposals Other Significant Proposals


ZONING
Presently, the site is under 1-1 zoning regulations, or is considered a light industrial area. However, the area is in transition and will be zoned more approximately to accomodate those future changes.


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5. 1634-1639 Morket St. Ord. 349(74),
1642 Market St. Ord. 349 (74), 7. I644-I650i | Market St. Ord. 349 (74), 8.1338 ' I
*"th St. Ord, 52 9 (7 8) 9. 132 2-1332 th St. Ord.349 (74), 10. 1635 17th St. Ord. 28(8 2 ), II. 1738 Wynkoop St. Ord.437(03)
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NEW TRAFFIC PROPOSALS
Auraria Parkway
A double 3-lane parkway is proposed following the existing Wazee Street.
It will begin as a viaduct to the South of this project and will touch down to ground level at 8th Avenue.
The two interchanges nearest the site will be 8th and Speer. Therefore, access to the site is close and convenient, but major traffic has been moved slightly away.
Auraria is pushing for landscaping and low speed limits to minimize the impact of the parkway on the surrounding area. The possibility of bringing in water from Cherry Creek has been discussed. The emphasis is on low scale and high quality. The traffic may be about equivalent to the existing Speer Blvd.
Wazee Street will remain as a local street.
Auraria
2000 2500 parking spaces will be lost after:.
... Auraria buildings are added to the campus ... Tivoli is allocated some parking ... the Auraria Parkway gets some property now used as parking
New parking spaces will be acquired from Mile High Stadium Lot. An Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) or a generic Monorail System will transport drivers and passengers from the lot to the campus.
Lawrence Street through Auraria will be closed to provide pedestrian areas through campus (instead of the present situation of a campus bisected by a major thoroughfare).
City of Denver
The Larimer Street Viaduct will be removed.
Traffic is to be rerouted to the Auraria Parkway and to Lawrence Street (except through the Auraria Campus between 8th and 12th Streets where Larimer will still pick up traffic).
Larimer Street through Larimer Square 'til its north end may be rerouted in the other direction. This is Dana Crawfords wish and it remains to be seen what the outcome will be.


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OTHER SIGNIFICANT PROPOSALS
RR
Burlington Northern and the Denver Rio Grande axe considering consolidating their tracks into one mainline track behind the project site. Burlington Northern, by fax the larger landowner of the two, is also considering acting as its own developer of the land behind the site.
Auraria
9th Street Park will be lengthened for more green space.
The campus axis will be changed to orient in the direction of downtown on one end, and the mountians on the other end.
Central Platte Valley Development
The housing portion of the CFVD is proposed for the area closest to this project site. Therefore, the day care center will significantly serve the needs of the CPVD residents.


MAJOR ROUTES
l
Freeway Ena Transit/Pedestnan Mall
Arterials 4m* Proposed Mainline Track
0000 Avg Vehicles/ Weekday, 1981
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RAILROADS
SUMMARY
Heavily used railroads currently traversing the Central Platte Valley could be consolidated into fewer tracks to minimize the negative impact on surrounding land uses.
PRESENT INVENTORY
- Rail and freight yards spread throughout the Central Platte Valley, on
roughly a north/south axis
- Central Platte Valley is a regional transit center, especially for coal
and "piggyback" goods
- Current trend is towards consolidation of mainline tracks to the east edge
of the Valley
- Increase of unit coal trains 30 per week
- Number of trains per day =
- Average length of trains
- Difficult to have automobile or pedestrian traffic cross train tracks at
grade because of high volume of train traffic (especially freight)
- Noise generation

OPPORTUNITIES
- Consolidation could open large areas of centrally-located land for development
- Potential for developing an interpretive historical site related to Denver's
train history
EVALUATION CRITERIA
- Compatibility of adjacent uses with rail functions
- Ease and safety of access points for autos and pedestrians across train
tracks
- Capacity of existing lines
- Necessity for using a particular train route rather than another
- Clearance needed over trains is 30 feet
PROBLEMS


ALTERNATIVE MAINLINE RAIL ALIGNMENTS
Source: Mile High Land Associates


Building Legend
Existing Buildings CZI
New Construction
Non-Campus Property
Auraria Master Plan
Phase 2
*-


SITE
CHARACTER
SOILS
cr: c~
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CHARACTER OF SITE
Wazee Buildings
The buildings along Wazee Street between 9th and 13th are turn-of-the-century red brick warehouses. There has been alot of renovation work done on the block. The architecture is appealing and will attract people. Presently, the buildings are furniture stores, offices, and one building houses the School of Business Administration (across the street from 1101 Wazee).
Open Space
Auraria playing fields axe located across from the site and provide an expanse of green. The fields will remain, but some of the openness will be decreased by the proposed UCD building to be built next the PE building.
Activity
This is a high activity area Student's Parking and using the playing fields. Business students use one of the Wazee buildings. Employees working in the other Wazee buildings provide extra activity. Automobiles also account for a great deal of the area activity. The site is surrounded by major streets, viaducts and 1-25* This site also feels the beginnings of the city activity.
Area Buildings
More distant buildings include the generic "red brick" campus buildings, the more lively Tivoli building rich in form and in history (and now also in people activity), and the edge of CBD buildings just across Speer Blvd.
Industry
Behind the site the RR district is less appealing. Some of the industrial section's impact will be decreased with the upcoming Central Platte Valley Development (which will add new architecture to the scene).
Commercial Centers
Commercial centers are numerous in the area and include the newly renovated Tivoli Brewery building, historic Larimer Square, the l6th Street Mall, the Tabor Center, and future Central Platte Valley Development business. These places attract people and help to enliven the area.
Residential Areas
The day care center can draw from these residential areas; downtown hi-rises (probably minimally due to the high percentage of households without children located there), Auraria housing coming as part of the proposed expansion, the Kalamath neighborhood, and mostly from the Central Platte Valley Development families.
Other Users
Other users might include Denver burbians with children who work downtown, Auraria staff and students, as well as downtown shoppers or errand-runners needing temporary child-care.
Other Amenities
Other important site advantages include the nearby Greenway System, The Children's Museum, and the view of the mountains, a natural wonder, and of downtown, a manmade marvel.


Ownership
The site is presently owned by Jeanne Krier and Headly Smith of 938 San Pablo Drive, Lake San Marco, California 92069.
Present Use
It is presently used as a parking lot for Desks Incorporated. My recommendation would be to buy parking rights at Mile High Stadium and use the AGT or at one of the Auraria parking structures should that deal fall through. The economic pressures will eventually move parking off the site (in its present form). A day care center is an appropriate use of the site.
Land Cost
Mile High Land Associates estimate the land costs of the area to be around $40.00 per square foot.'


V Jl
DISTRICT MAP s


STRUCTURES
SUMMARY
Man-made structures in the be categorized by visual c which relate to their diff
PRESENT INVENTORY
- Rail yards with many tracks and standing train cars
- Industrial buildings often have large, bulky, uneven shapes, soma
quite tall
- Warehouses are massive, uninteresting shapes
- Viaducts create two vertical levels of space crossing the Valley;
some are of significance historically -'Historic buildings mostly of brick with much architectural detailing
-Viaducts and railroads can be a link in one direction, but chop through the site in the other direction
- Area not currently built up enough for there to be much continuity
across the site
- Industrial and warehousing areas limit types of structures which
could reasonably be placed nearby
- Capitalize on architectural and railroad history evident in the
structures
- Viaducts can be positive visual elements because of their uniqueness
- Use new structures to connect in scale and materials to the
existing structures
- Some of unattractive structures are part of industrial strip extending
through center of the Denver region
- The area provides a link to Denver's past, as evidenced by many
buildings of historic significance
DISTRICTS '
- Regions exhbiting similar characteristics of structure are much the
same as the districts shown on the preceding map
EVALUATION CRITERIA
- Historic or cultural significance
- Massing, scale, building materials
- Impact on views
PROBLEMS
OPPORTUNITIES
LINKAGES


BORDERS AND NODES
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Nodes
Edges
Prominent Points
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SITE ANALYSIS


SOILS
A Soils Report was prepared by Chen and Associates for a proposed utility core for 1123 VJazee Street which is adjacent to 1101 VJazee Street, the site cf the project.
For foundation loads of 2 to 3 hips per lineal foot:
Conclusions: "The proposed utility core addit-
ion should be founded on spread footings placed on natural soils designed for a maximum soil bearing pressure of 3000 psf. Settlement relative to the existing structure should be less than 1 inch."
Generally, the subsoils encountered beneath the concrete pavement consisted of 1.5 to 2.5 feet of silty sand fill containing some debris underlain by fine to medium grained, clean to fine gravel. Standard penetration tests in the sand indicate that it is medium dense.
"Random lenses of clay less than 6" thick were encountered at depths of grea.ter than 11 feet.
Results of consolidation tests indicate that the
clay has a preconsolidation pressure of approxi-
mately 15,000 psf."
Free water was encountered at a depth of approx. 7f at the time of drilling. When checked 3 days later, both the holes were dry to the entire depth drilled. This indicates that there may be small local perched water conditions in some areas but the depth to the ground water table in the vicinity (l6 11 18^) is greater than the depth investigated..
Older flood plain studies finished before the Ghatfield Dam and Cherry Creek facilities were completed show the site in a hazardous flood plain. However, this is no longer the case.
The site is flat with no vegetation.
100 year storm: 8.3"/hour for 5 minutes
For more detailed information see the full report
in the Appendix.


CLIMATE
DENVER SUMMARY


SPECIFIC DENVER DESCRIPTION
LATITUDE: 39 i+5'
LONGITUDE: 10U 52'
ELEVATION: 5283F
Sun Angles :
SUMMER: 73
WINTER: 26
GENERAL DENVER DESCRIPTION
Denver has the mild, sunny and semi-arid climate characteristic of the Rocky Mountain Area. There is a low relative humidity, low average precipitation and considerable clear-sky sunshine. Winter is longer than summer resulting in more heating degree days than cooling degree days.
VJ inter storms arrive primarily from the NW, bringing 11% of the total annual precipitation. During the summer cumulus clouds provide enough shade to significantly decrease the temperature. Spring is the wettest, cloudiest and windiest season when 37$ of the annual precipitation
falls.
PROBLEMS SPECIFIC TO URBAN AREAS
Air pollution causing colder winters than surrounding areas due to solar radiation block (smog can lower the surface air temperature by as much as 10$).
Substantial building and paving mass.
TEMPERATURE
Annual cooling degree days = 625 Annual heating degree days = 6283 Annual number of days maximum T of 90 F and above 35 (in JJAS)
Annual number of days minimum T of 32 F and below 139 (in all but JJAS)
Colder than comfort temperatures are more frequent than warmer than comfort temperatures. A skin dom inant building will require heating. A load dominant building will require less cooling than if located in a warmer climate. There are high temperature swings from day to night.
PRECIPITATION
Annual number of days of 0.01" or more = 87 Heaviest precipitation in MAKJJA Relative Humidity:
Generally is in the comfort range of 2>0% 80$
The highest RH is generally recorded for October afternoons.
Denver is a fairly dry city.


AVERAGE DATA
Average Yearly Precipitation 14.53"
Average Yearly Temperature 50.2 F
Average Relative Humidity (Noon) W>
Degree Days
Heating 6016
Cooling 623
SUM
Annual percentage of possible sunshine = 67%
Denver is known for its sunny disposition. (Alot of sun sets up strong building shadows for contrasts).
WIND
The wind is predominantly from the W and the Stf with fairly strong gusts toward 50mph.


CLIMATIC DATA
AVERAGE TEMPERATURE (F I
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION | inches]
AVERAGE SNOWFALL {inches]
% POSSIBLE SUNSHINE |%]


HEm. pujnEE uiS, '6a r CC JG DEGREE DAYS-
HEATING AND COOLING CHART, DENVER, COLORADO

NORMAL HEATING NORMAL COOLING SUN ANGLE
DEGREE DAYS DEGREE DAYS
o-J
DATA SOURCE: U.S. WEATHER BUREAU 1941*1970, DENVER
SUN ANGLE


AVERAGE PRECIPITATION (inches of Precipitation)
AVERAGE SNOWFALL (inches of Snowfall)
PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE (%)
Total 7056


DENVER
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AVERAGE WIND SPEED
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WIND
INNUAL FREQUENCIES OF WINOS OF VARIOUS VELOCITIES At STAPLETON. AIRPORT, DENVER COLORADO
legend
Strongest Wind
--------------- ,
From northwest every month of year
wind speed
4'12mph
13-24mph cm
>24mph mm
North and northwest wind arctic air from Canada and Alaska
South and southeast wind warm, moist air from Gulf of Mexico
South and southwest wind warm, dry air from Mexico
West wind Pacific air modified by passage over Rocky Mountains.
The Primary Wind
From the south every month of the year
The Secondary Wind
From north-northwest in winter
From north-east In spring and summer
Denver is located in the belt of the prevailing westerlies.
From north in fall


BTU / S.F. / DAY
HOT and COLD DAYS
one day 4 less than one d
JF MAMJJASON D
SOLAR RADIATION
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DENVER


SOLAR CHART-DENVER
LAT. 3950'N L0NG10450'W
ELEVATION 5280 FT.


AIR QUALITY
PRESENT INVENTORY
- Central Platte Valley is a topographical sink, or depression, where tem-
perature inversions are common and air circulation is poor
- Air pollution is frequently a problem, the main pollutants being:
1. Carbon monoxide (CO), primarily from motor vehicles
2. Ozone (0^), generated when oxygen interacts with hydrocarbons from auto exhaust and nitrous oxides from all burning processes
3. Suspended particles (TSP, total suspended particulates), the "brown cloud"
PROBLEMS
- 30-50 days in past year on which carbon monoxide levels violated air
quality standards
- Ozone is at or above acceptable standards on most days
Total suspended particulates were twice the acceptable standards most days in past year
- Any development in the Central Platte Valley could worsen the existing air
pollution problem
OPPORTUNITIES
- Possible incentive to minimize auto traffic in the Central Platte Valley
development proposals
- Strong potential exists for extensive use of mass transit
DISTRICTING
- Pollution from the region can settle into the topographical sink of the Central Platte Valley
LINKAGES
- This is part of a large area in Denver which commonly fails to attain Environmental Protection Agency standards for acceptable air quality


EVALUATION CRITERIA
- Environmental Protection Agency standards for acceptable air quality*:
1. Carbon monoxide
Effects: deprives the central nervous system of oxygen
Standard: 9 parts per million averaged over 8 hours 33 ppm averaged over 1 hour
neither to be exceeded more than once per year
2. Ozone
Effects: impairs breathing
Standard: 0.12 ppm
not to be exceeded more than once per year
3. Particle matter
Effects: toxicity can enter lungs and throat, acid rain
Standard: long term: 75 micrograms per cubic meter
average over one year
short term: 260micrograms per cubic meter average over 24 hours
not to be exceeded more than once per year
*Source: Colorado Air Quality Data Report 1982, Colorado Department of Health, Air Pollution Control Division.


AIR QUALITY
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Acceptable


PROGRAM
GENERAL
PRESCHOOL ROOM TODDLER ROOM ISOLATION ROOM SHARED PLAY SPACE KITCHEN
HECHANICAL/SERVICE
OFFICE
SQUARE FOOTAGE RECOMMENDATION OCCUPANT LOAD
ADJACENCIES


The following plans for interior space utilization at the shared Auraria Child Care facility include these:
1. description of relared program
2. spatial implications
3. room design
Rooms to be included are;
Child oriented: 1. preschool room with some ideas for alteration
2. toddler play area with bathroom
3. crib area for toddlers
4. shared play space
5. isolation room
Auxiliary rooms: 6. kitchen
?. laundry
8. storage and mechanical
9. administration area including staff lounge
ASSUMPTIONS
1. Total capacity for the Center is 145 children.
It is broken down in this manner: 30 toddlers
ages 1-3 years and 115 preschoolers ages 3-6 years during the day, older ones during the evening hours.
2. By its nature, the physical plant as well as the staff and program must be flexible. Student parents will use the Center while they are attending classes or studying. Children from as many as 500 600 families will be entering and leaving the Center all day long. Many staff members will have staggered work hours.
3. The Center can also operate for training in related fields such as education, psychology, and nursing. Students with field experience in early childhood education will receive practical, firsthand knowledge which will relate to their future career in other full day programs. Their interest in children and cooperation with staff will benefit the child care program. As much glass as possible from hall to play areas for observation.
4. The center will be child-oriented from staff behav-


ior and program to the physical structure and equipment.
OPALS AND OBJECTIVES (some architectural responses
1. The Center shall meet the needs of student parents by providing high quality child care on a paxttime basis at a reasonable cost.
2. Provide channels of communication between parents and staff, encourage parent involvement. (Private meeting room(s), view in to children.)
3. Provide for the health and safety of each child and the group as a whole; provide for rest and relaxation, meet nutritional needs of children while they attend the Center. (Place for naps, kitchen.)
4. Encourage positive self image in each child by giving him or her love, understanding, and guidance where needed and by allowing each child to gain a sense of power and satisfaction by mastering new skills and making accomplishments on his own; meeting the
psychological needs, (individual children's place.)
5. Maintain an unhurried atmosphere where a child learns by doing and where value lies more in the joy of doing than in the finished product.
6. Provide plenty of time and materials and space for free, spontaneous play.
7. Provide for active play balanced with quiet activities, indoors and outdoors. (Quiet area, outdoor play area.)
8. Provide opportunity for small and large muscle coordination and development. (Running or activity space, indoor/outdoor.)
9. Offer mental stimulation through methods which are play oriented and suited to the maturational level of development of each child. (Variety of texture, surface, space, height.)
10. Provide opportunities for sensory stimulation. (Variety of texture, surface, space, height.)
11. Set rules to insure safety, protect the rights of individuals and protect property. (individual


storage areas.)
ADDITIONAL OBJECTIVES
1. Infart Care Satellite centers for infants, not included in the Center's license, can
be established. Parents can work out school schedules in order to care for each other's child. The Center's input can be in arranging parents from proximate neighborhood to meet and solve their mutual problems and in sponsoring a toy and book lending program. Home visits can be made on a regular basis to present parent education materials and offer assistance when needed. (Office/ storage which can be devoted to this activity flexibility.)
2. Licensed Kindergarten Many student parents with children of kindergarten age have difficulty in arranging their class schedules because their children are in a half day program. This means personal hardship such as costly extra driving and perhaps dropping
out of school for the whole year. With a qualified kindergarten teacher, one of the eight preschool rooms, already having five year olds, could be turned into a kindergarten room. Costs for pupils additional materials could be charged to grateful and pleased parents. (Flexible preschool room.)
3. Parent Education Parents hold the crucial key to the child's ability to learn. Lots of window glass around the rooms will encourage viewing
by parents. A bulletin board and book rack in the reception area plus an "open door" policy will help the administration carry out an all-important parent education program. In addition, the library materials can be made available to parents as well as staff. Parent interviews, fund raising and other get-togethers will contribute to this goal. (Orient glass to adult height from hall, place for adults in the reception area.)
4. Special Services It is hoped that the program


can provide for a comprehensive health care service including visits from such persons as a nutritionist, dental hygienist, pediatric nurse practitioner, and social welfare worker. Free visual and auditory testing as well as dental screening should also he offered.
(Part of isolation room.)
PRESCHOOL ROOM
1. Program
The enrollment of children ages 1 to 6 years will he limited to 115 during the daytime.
Each child will spend from two to eight hours per day at the Center; children will he coming in and out all day long.
While an unstructured program works hest in this environment and tends to make children more at ease and free to explore e.g. to learn, some regularities must he present. Sample sequence of events: (Adjacencies, pro-
gression important)
free choice of activities (accessibility)
morning snack (kitchen, eating space)
creative activities/outdoor play (multi-purpose room)
quiet time (quiet areas)
lunch (kitchen, eating space)
nap (sleeping space)
structured activities
p.m. snack (kitchen, eating space)
outdoor play
The creation of learning centers within each room allows each child the opportunity to follow his or her special interests. This implies he may work and play alone or in groups at any one center. It is hoped that staff behavior will he high in encouragement and low in restrictions. An atmosphere of permissiveness (where demands are situational rather than arbitrary) means freedom within limits. In addition, freedom to choose gives each child individual rights.


The program is complimented when each room is full of learning tools and materials in the areas of art, music, science and nature, language development, sensory discrimination, and dramatic play.
Proper equipment stimulates children in the direction of individual growth and deve-lopement.
Spatial Implications
The following centers should be planned for each room or shared by adjoining rooms:
a. dramatic play/housekeeping
b. quiet corner for reading or relaxing or looking out the window
c. art corner for tables, easels, display area and drying rack
d. science center plants, animals, display and bulletin board
e. wet area sand and water play and related smaller equipment
f. music center instruments, record player
g. carpentry corner table with tools
h. block center assorted blocks with small animals and vehicles for imaginary play
i. manipulative area puzzles, peg boards, math readiness toys with table
j. large muscle building area space for exercising, balance beam, etc.
In addition to these centers, there must be space in each room provided for stackable cots (blankets and sheets besides) and a teacher's cabinet for materials related to cirriculum, personal effects and first aid supplies.
Floor covering should be carpeted for quiet play and smooth surfaces for eating and messy play like arts and crafts. Plenty of wall space is needed for displaying children's artwork and
items such as chalkboards


TODDLER ROOM
1. Program
The enrollment of toddler (children between one and two and half years) is limited to thirty at any one time. These children will be divided between two play rooms. A combination of ages will probably work the best since older toddlers will act as models for learning to the younger ones.
Toddler programming can be more flexible then the preschools because meeting the individual needs of younger children may require more supervision and a greater variety of activities.
Regularity, that is, the same schedule around the serving of meals and taking naps should be kept wherever possible.
The ratio of stacff to children is 1:5 allowing for this extra attention and added duties.
The behavioral and physical development
of toddlers is at a drastically different level
than that of preschoolers. Nevertheless, similar learning centers and related materials and equipment are needed in toddler play areas in order to provide minor acquisition of new skills and techniques and to stimulate development.
Spaces must be allocated for group play like games and singing and solitary or parallel play places where a toddler sits and examines a new toy or book.
Spatial Implications
A low sink is needed for water play and water for arts and crafts. Tables and chairs nearby can be used for crafts and also for eating. Of course, near this area must also be high chairs for the youngest members. Floors in this area should be smooth and easy to clean.
A dramatic play area with soft dolls and playhouse equipment allow' a toddler to imitate scenes and events from everyday life. This acting out maxes a child more comfortable in his


surroundings. The child also develops an imagination using familiar props and plays on his own without parental intervention.
This playhouse can he a center into which children climb (breaking up the room and creating more interest) or it can be a separate structure resembling a small house.
Low cabinets for push and pull toys, musical instruments, cuddly animals, and blocks where toddlers have an easy access can. be arranged so as to divide the quiet play comers from the open spaces. Nature and science materials can be stored or displayed on top of cabinets or along shelves.
Higher shelves for the record player, special books, art supplies, and teacher materials are recommended.
A quiet comer for toddlers should include books. This ought to be a comfortable area with pillows, for instance, where an
adult and toddler can read together and relax during the all important times of learning through personal attention.
Puzzles and small manipulatives critical for toddler development can be at a table near the blocks or in a separate corner. A table is important in order that the adult can assist the child.
Toddlers are at a very critical stage in bathroom behavior. For those who are in the process of being potty trained, a toilet must be close at hand. A big door to open is a hinaerance. For those in diapers, a changing table and drawers for extra clothing and diaper storage need to be close to the sink and bathroom.
While part of the group will sleep in cribs, others will sleep on cots or rest pads. There must be space provided in each room for these. Storage space for sheets and blankets can be planned for in the crib room.


Cribs (2V x 5') must be two feet apart on all sides except when they touch the wall.
Due to the importance of rest time for toddlers, adults must be able to create a relaxed and homelike environment. Additional space in the crib room is recommended for at least three rocking chairs in which toddlers can be held, loved, and rocked to sleep.
ISOLATION ROOM
This must be as close to the office as possible so that there is a Qualified person to care for the child nearby and also a phone. Also, the records must be checked to discover the means to contact the parents. There must be cot space for the children who become ill while attending the center. Although we should be albe to locate parents in class quickly at least two cots should be provided. A bathroom is also a necessity.
A cabinet with first aid supplies and a file with a list of allergies and other health
problems should be in the isolation room. Blankets and bedding can also be stored in this cabinet.
A separate locked cabinet for medicine should be mounted high on a wall of this room. A list of medicines to be administered to children each day with dosage and times can be on the wall and checked by appropriate personnel.
SHARED FLAY SPACE
1. Program
There will always be inclement days when children cannot play outdoors but still need a place to run off extre energy. A shared play area can include large muscle building equipment on a smooth floor. Mats for exercises can be utilized here when needed. (Enough room to run.)
There are also activities of a quiet nature such as story telling, group singing, watching movies, and watching television which can occupy a "soft" side of the room. Teachers can reserve this space for certain periods during the day for their own group or with another teacher.


2. Spatial Implications
The program in this shared area implies half "soft" with an amphitheatre, and half "active" with movable large equipment and ropes for climbing from the ceiling. The walls in this area can be made more attractive for the children by covering them with colorful graphics.
Activities in the amphitheatre are varied.
A permanent screen on the wall eliminates mobility problems. A table for television can be up on the same platform used for storytelling. The table can also be used to place a projector on for viewing slides and films. Because dramatic play is such a vital part of the cirriculum, a portable or moveable curtain to one side of the structure would provide the opportunity for dramatic presentations. The steps on which children will be sitting should be carpeted.
If one area of the room is carpeted or
"soft" by puropse, the opposite side should be hard-surfaced. This is the large muscle-building side. It would be a good idea to suspend physical equipment such as climbing ropes and gym rings from the ceiling. When the room is used for any other function, these could simply be lifted out of the way. A basketball net on an adjustable column or platform would provide a multi-purpose activity, namely for muscle-building, hand-eye coordination, and social development with children taking turns at the basket. Thiss too is out of the way. In the main open space, creative jungle gyms, slide, climbing ladders and perhaps a trampoline could be installed. There will still be an abundance of space for running, riding big wheel toys, and exercising.
KITCHEN
1. Program
The kitchen will be the center for the preparation of two daily snacks and a hot lunch every day for 1^5 children and staff members. There will be


times when groups of children will want to all day long. A large double sink with a garbage
hake cooking projects in the oven or use disposal must he included. Counter space is
the other kitchen equipment. These projects needed for food preparation and for the dishing
and lists of needed equipment must he planned out of foods to he distributed to children's
for at least one week in advance. rooms.
Food will he served in individual rooms LAUNDRY, STROAGE, AND MECHANICAL
in family style. Aides from each room may The laundry facility is a must. Bedding and
he called on to assist in meal or snack pre- soiled clothes will have to he laundered constantly
paration or clean up. Aides can wheel food Items needing to be washed weekly include paint
service carts to their respective rooms. shirts, kitchen towels and cleaning rags.
Menus of snacks and meals must he made In this area, a washer and fryer are sufficient
out hy qualified personnel and posted in the for laundering. A table is needed for folding
reception area for the parents to see. and sorting of materials. Shelves above the
Spatial Implications machines can he used for laundry supplies; other
There must he a receiving entrance, and a shelves can he used for stacking of clean objects.
place for foods to he stored for either short Space must he provided for the soiled laundry as
or long term periods. A hell from the entr- well. Fresh air would he most acceptable. (Can
ance should ring in hoth the kitchen and he a compact space.)
the office. The storage area will have to house one or two
A heavy duty dishwasher will he cleaning large lockable cabinets for items such as audio-
snack and lunch glasses, plater, and utensils visual equipment. A rack for large rolls of


paper can bestored in this central location. Extra chairs for children and perhaps folding chairs for conferences and parent meetings may have to be kept in this room.
(Couple with storage area.) One central file on project ideas can be stored here or in the office area depending upon the accessabil-ity to the storage room. If perhaps there is a counter for boxes, drawers below this could be for the storage of scrap materials and other craft items. It would be better to have these in a central place than to force staff to look in every room for them.
Tools used for small maintenance projects could be kept here or in the mechanical area.
OFFICE RECEPTION ROOM
1. Program
Since each parent uses the Center during different hours, each must record these hours separately in a reception area. Billing
is done on a monthly basis. It is important that this area be near the administrative offices, where a competent person can answer questions, check schedules, and approve special requests.
Parent education will be an important part of the program. On phase is the parent-teaching conference. Space in the office area with a comfortable environment can be used for this function, and also for staff meeting and related conferences.
A library on child development as well as preschool activities is essential for staff development. Materials can also be released to parents whenever requested. Curriculum files and equipment catalogues are also part of such a library.
The many records on children attending the Center presently and in the past must be on file in the office. Business records and other correspondence which are part of the administration functions belong here too.


2. Spatial Implications
The sign-in area and parent education comer can be located near the entrance and administration room. There is no need to have the signing-in function occuring within the office though. These people need only be close by. A counter is needed for the sing-in book. A materials rack for parent education materials as well as a bulletin board are needed here.
The library can create a conference corner in the office area by its physical arrangement and heighth. Records in file cabinets can be close to the desks where they will be frequently used. Smaller spaces for a typewriter, adding machine, staff time
clock are mandatory.


SQUARE FOOTAGE RECOMMENDATIONS
CHILDREN'S AREAS SQUARE FEET
8 Classrooms at 600 SF each (includes toilet facilities) *4-800
2 Toddler Rooms at 600 SF each (includes toilet facilities) 1200
1 Crib Room 300
1 Multi-Use Room ADULT AREAS 1000
3 Offices at 150 SF each ^50
Reception Area 500
Conference Room 150
Staff Lounge 150
Parent's Area SERVICE AREAS 75
Kitchen 6oo
Mechanical Room 275
Electrical Room 50
Boiler Room 75
Storage 275
Janitors Closet 25
Laundry OTHER 75
Adult Bathroom's 150


SQUARE FOOTAGE RECOMMENDATIONS
OTHER SQUARE FEET
Isolation Room 50
Circulation 400
TOTAL 10,600


DAY CARE CENTER OCCUPANT LOAD
Children 150 Teachers and Aides (peak hours) 33 Office Staff 3 Cooks 3 Custodian 1 Parents (peak) 10 TOTAL 190




ADJACENCIES


ADJACENCIES


REGULATIONS
CODE
MINIMUM RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR DAY CARE


1979 DENVER BUILDING CODE SUMMARY
General Information to Both the Day Care and Office Functions
Assumptions!
Day Care Center is located on the first level at 10,$00 SF and the offices occupy the second through fourth floors at 10,500 SF each level.
Elevator(s) provided for access to upper floors.
Automatic fire sprinkler system for entire building.
Fire-resistive construction used (instead of non-fire-resistive construction).
Fire
FIRE ZONE = 3
Required separation between Day Care and office facilities = 1-hour fire-resistive construction.
FOUR STORY BUILDINGS: may use types 1, and 11 construction and Type 111 and IV 1-hour fire-resistive construction.
Exits
(For detailed definition of Exits see Section 3301-6 p. 33-1, and Section 3302-M p. 33-$)
MINIMUM TRAVEL DISTANCE BETWEEN EXIT DOORS 25F
HANDICAP EXIT: One required on the First Floor
CLEAR WIDTH OF EXITWAY 34"
DOORS
DOOR WIDTH = 3F minimum DOOR LEAF WIDTH = 4F minimum DOOR HEIGHT = 6F-8"
DOOR OPENING =90
DOOR SWING: Shall not swing into public way.
DOOR SWING: In the direction of exit travel away from a hazardous area or when serving an occupant
CORRIDORS
CORRIDORS = Foyers, lobbies, reception areas meeting construction requirements of corridors
CORRIDORS(When more than 1 Exit required): Access in either direction toward separate exits (except when dead end corridor is allowed).
CORRIDOR WIDTH = 44"
CORRIDOR HEIGHT = ?F
EXIT D00RE: May swing into 6F wide minimum corridors up to 1F
LOCKABLE EXIT DOORS from infrequently used rooms (i.e. Janitor's Room): May swing into corridor
STAIRS
STAIR WIDTH = 44" minimum STEP RISE = 7V maximum STEP RUN = 10 inches minimum


STAIRS
LANDING = WIDTH OF STAIRWAY (or 5F if stair has a straight run).
VERTICAL DISTANCE BETWEEN LANDINGS = 12F-6" maximum
STAIRWAY TO ROOF: 1 required
HANDICAP REFUGE AREA REQUIRED = 25 inches x 42 inches in each stairway enclosure
EXIT STAIRS: 2 required for each floor (serving occupant load of more than 100F
EXIT STAIR WIDTH = f minimum
REQUIRED STAIRWAY HEADROOM CLEARANCE = minimum
MAXIMUM TRAVEL DISTANCE from any point in "building = 200F to an exit
EXIT RAMPS
WIDTH = 44 minimum
SLOPE =1:12
LANDINGS = 5F long
HANDICAP PLUMBING FACILITIES
HANDICAP TOILET: One required per adult restroom
COMPARTMENT WIDTH = 36 minimum
(See Section 510 p. 5-10 for more detail)
GENERAL
FLOOR AREAS FOR DAY CARE AND OFFICE FACILITIES: Allowable minimums far exceed proposed square footages
LIGHTING REQUIRED: In areas occupied by human beings
CODES SPECIFIC TO THE DAY CARE PORTION OF THE BUILDING
BUILDING TYPE CLASSIFICATION = Group C, Division 1
SQUARE FOOTAGE
TOTAL SQUARE FOOTAGE REQUIREMENT = 10,000 3F MECHANICAL ROOM SQUARE FOOTAGE REQUIREMENT = 300 SF KITCHEN SQUARE FOOTAGE REQUIREMENT = 200 SF EXITS
DAY CARE EXITS REQUIRED = 2 MECHANICAL ROOM EXITS REQUIRED = 1 KITCHEN EXITS REQUIRED = 1
BUILDING LOCATION: Building must have access to a minimum 201, wide public street via a minimum 201' access right-of-way street. One exit is required to be located on the public street or access way.
CORRIDOR WIDTH = 6F minimum
FIRE
SPECIAL PROVISION: Day care centers located at ground (except in buildings of Type I construction)


FIRE
TYPE I CONSTRUCTION: Structural elements of steel, concrete, or masonry (See Section 18a for more detail)
REQUIRED FIRE RESISTANCE OF EXTERIOR WALLS = 2 HOURS LESS THAN f, 1 HOUR LESS THAN 10F
MINIMUM TRAVEL DISTANCE BETWEEN EXIT DOORS = 25F
MAXIMUM TRAVEL DISTANCE from room to exit = 110F
MAXIMUM TRAVEL DISTANCE from building to exit = POO*1
DEAD END CORRIDOR = 50F maximum
CORRIDOR WALLS = 1 hour fire-resistive construction
ROOMS USED FOR INSTRUCTION: 1 exit door required to outside or
1-HOUR-FIRE-RESISTIVE: Used throughout day care center
MINIMUM PLUMBING FACILITIES for adults WOMEN: 1 WC, 1 lavatory MEN: 1 WC, 1 lavatory 1 DRINKING FOUNTAIN
(See this book, SUMMARY OF RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR DAY CARE CENTERS FOR CHILDREN'S PLUMBING FACILITIES)
PARKING
17 PARKING SPACES
DROP OFF AREA REQUIRED FOR 10 CARS
CODES SPECIFIC TO THE OFFICE PORTION OF THE BUILDING
BUILDING TYPE CLASSIFICATION = GROUP F, DIVISION 2 EXITS
EXITS REQUIRED ON FLOORS 2, 3, and 4 = 2 (exits to be remote from each other)
FIRE
FIgE RESISTANCE OF EXTERIOR WALL = 1 hour less than
MINIMUM PLUMBING FACILITIES PER FLOOR WOMEN = 3 WC, 2 lavatories MEN = 2 WC, 1 urinal, and 2 lavatories 2 DRINKING FOUNTAINS PARKING
50 PARKING SPACES


SUMMARY OF MINIMUM RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR DAY CARE CENTERS
GENERAL
Space required for Parent/Staff conference
Available Emergency Car required
Separate Isolation Area required with plumbing facilities nearby (See A7M7.8 p. 86)
Space required for child's personal belongings
Separate storage required for indoor and outdoor equipment
KITCHEN
Meals required for children present for more than ^ consecutive hours
Kitchen required
Provide space for receiving, storage, and refrigeration
Readily accessible facilities required for kitchen staff
LIGHT AND VENTILATION
Each room of occupancy shall be well-lighted and adequately ventilated by exterior windows or by any approved air conditioning system.
If windows are used for ventilation, the total window area in each occupied area shall be equivalent to at least 105*5 of the floor area. One-half of the required window area shall be openable and all exterior openings shall be
screened, where necessary for insect exclusion.
INTEREST CENTERS
Space required to allow each child to be individually involved in separate play rooms or separate interest centers (See A-7M6.2 for a list of interest centers p.8o)
OFFICE
Separate office space required SLEEPING
U
Enough space required for cots or pads spaced 2 minimum on all sides
Cot/pad storage area required separate from required play space
SPACE REQUIREMENTS
(For more detail see A-7^l8.1 p. 88)
EXITS
No child of less than third grade school level shall be cared for in areas above or below the floor of egress.
Egress from each room shall be directly available without passage through another room to the exterior of the building or to a common hallway leading to the exterior
Each center shall have at least 2 approved, alternate


remotely located means of egress from each floor of the building or to a common hallway leading to the exterior.
Exits arranged to provide free and unobstructed egress from all points at all times.
STAIRS
Handrails within reach of children required for stairways used by children.
OUTDOOR SPACE
Outdoor play area required adjacent to or safely accessilbe to indoor facilities.
Total outdoor play area xeauired = 3750 SF
Natural or artificial enclosure required for outdoor play area.
All parts of outdoor play area must be visible and easily supervised.
Playground may not include ground depressions in which water could stand.
Two different types of surfaces required for playground.
Shaded area required in playground.
If outdoor pool is provided, protective fencing, winter coverage (excluding plastic or inflatable type domes) and 4^ surrounding non-skid surface.
Use of permanent wading pools is prohibited.
TODDLER NURSERY
Toddler Nursery located on grade level only.
Required minimum temperature = 72 at floor level.
SPACE REQUIREMENTS
Separate indoor and outdoor toddler facilities required.
Outdoor fenced play area required =75 SF/child.
Mimimum 45 SF/child in room used for both sleep and play.
Minimum 30 SF/child in each room in separate rooms for sleep and play.
In area of 15 or more children, portable screens shall separate groups of 14 (if toddler age limited to 2-year olds if not, separate by groups of 10).
Cribs = 2j^ x 4F minimum.
MINIMUM PLUMBING FACILITIES
Adult facilities separate from child facilities.
Separate child plumbing facilities.
1 lavatory and 1 flush toilet (with open-front seats) required per 15 children.
Total plumbing facilities required = 10 lavatories and 10 flush toilets.
Toilets for school age children shall be separeted by partitions.


MINIMUM PLUMBING FACILITIES
Laundry fixtures separate from food preparation area and toilet rooms
Laundry tray or slop sink required


RESOURCES
GENERAL
INTERVIEWS
INTRODUCTION
CLIMATE
GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


GENERAL
DeChiara, et al (1978) Tlmesavers Standards.
Palmer, M. (1981) The Architect's Guide to Facility Programming; AIA, Washington, D.C.
Pena, William (1977) Problem Seeking: An
Architectural Programming Primer; Boston, Ma.
INTER'VIEWS
Richard Paulin, Architect and Designer for the Auraria Child Development Center, 1975
Mary Jane Steiner, Director of Auraria Child Development Center
Rick Smith, Assistant Auraria Campus Architect INTRODUCTION
Who Cares for the Baby? Choices in Childcare. Harden Guckman, Beatrice; Bass Springer, Nesha Schoken Books, N.Y. 1978.
Hayden, Delores. Seven American Utopias. The MIT Press, 1976.
Megatrends. John Naisbitt, Warner Books 198^.
Who's Minding the Children The History and Politics of Day Care in America. Steingels, Margaret O'Brien, Simon and Schuster N.Y. 1973*
CLIMATE
Climactic Atlas of the U.S., U.S. Department of Commerce. Environmental Science Services Administration. Environmental Data Service. June 1968, 198
Regional Guidelines for Building Passive Energy Conserving Homes (for U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development) The AIA Research Corporation, Washington, D.C.
Climatological Surveys
GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY
Alexander, Christopher; A Pattern Language; Oxford University Press, N.Y. 1977*
Alexander, Christopher; The Timeless Way of Building; Oxford University Press, N.Y. 1979*
Baird and Lutkus; Mind Child Architecture; University of New England, Hanover, N.Y.
Coelen, Glantz, Calore; Day Care Centers in the U,S.:
A National Profile 1976 1977; ABT Books, Cambridge, Mass. 1979.
Cohen, Donald J.; 3 Serving Preschool Children; 197^+ U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
Hease, R., 1968. Designing the Child Development
Center, U.S. Office of Education, Project Head Start, Office of Economic Opportunity.
Kurz, Robins, Spiegelman; A Study for the Demand for Child Care by Working Mothers; Stanford Research Institute, Ca. 1975*
Lord, Catherine and Watkins, Renee Neu; Storefront Day Care Centers; Beacon Press, Boston, Ma. 1970.
Lynch, Kinard; Zoning for Day Care(from Models for Day Care Licensing), Day Care and Child Development Council of America, Inc., Washington, D.C. 1972.


GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY
Osmon, Fred Linn; Patterns for Designing Children's Centers, 1971. Davis-Delaney-Arrow, Inc.
Sanoff, Henry and Joan; Learning Environments for Children; Humanics Limited, 1981.
Sharpe, Deborah T.; The Psychology of Color and Design, 197^. Nelson-Hall, Chicago.
Travers, Jeffren and Goodson, Barbara Dillon; Research Results of the National Day Care Study, ABT Books, 1980.
STUDENT THESIS BOOKS
Particularly:
Ann Congdon Deborah Andrews Dan Jansenson Martha Carlson
HAPS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
The Central Platte Valley Workbook CCDD and UCD




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CONCLUSION
Through the process of design, the thesis ideas first proposed have become concepts tailored to this project's users. The concern of the project focused on the relationship between the worlds of the adult and the child.
1. Children must be integrated into the Denver urban environment. Children will benefit from a sense of belonging and identity, and Denver will be made more vibrant and wholesome.
2. Exposure to the perception, simplicity and creativity of children will improve the overall quality of adult potential.
3. Childhood and adulthood are two phases in the cycle of life and as such should be equally respected.
Only a follow-up study could determine the verdict of success or failure on concepts 1 and 2. However, the architecture does take its cue from those statements. For example, the idea of integrating children into Denver's urban environment is illustrated with the flow between the day care, the children's playground and the adult's playground.
The central cylinder anchors the building and from it grow the concentric rings of a tree (the orchard), or the ripples in a pond (the blue tile). The biological metaphors and ideas of integration originated from the third concept of life cycles. Continuing with this idea, the building describes the birthing process by giving life to a child's place in the city.
i
The second concept of simplicity and perception found form in the scraped and oversized front elevation'. In retrospect, I feel I might


improved my own adult potential by simplifying the eroded, fluid office facade to make the idea read more clearly.
My original attempt was to propose an architecture that would ask some questions of its viewers and participants. I feel I have accomplished some of this goal.


APPENDIX
SHE POTENTIAL Characteristics Transportation
Soils




r
<
HOUSEHOLDS BY INCOME LEVEL
r
i
(Current data is unavailable for households in lower downtown Denver because of major development which has occured since collection of 1980 census data)
Low Income Low Middle Income Upper Middle Upper___________
Total Number of Households


/--------------------------------------------------------------------\
EMPLOYMENT
V ____________________________________________________________________.
f *? -S*
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fef 'y ^1029 /
/*/ 43
23614<
1100
jl i i i: 1 i li !i ;! ,i I! I | I! INI j 1 J
! !! M !!|i! || | i 1; If i : li ll
Total Employment Retail Employment


DENVER NEIGHBORHOOD DATA
POPULATION. APRIL 1, 1980
'Statistical Neighborhood Total Percent Black Percent Spanish Origin Percent Under 18 Yrs. Percent 65 Yrs.+ Average Househol Income ($)
DENVER 492,365 120 188 22.5 126 19,579
Altunar Park 7,334 .6 31.7 24 4 120 18,776
Auraria-Lincoln Park 5,992 5.1 747 40 3 80 10,493
Baker 6,177 1.9 529 292 137 11,236
Barnum 4,717 1.2 433 285 133 15,931
Barnum West 4,928 1.2 39 4 282 89 19,462
Bear Valley 6,664 .5 86 208 58 27,419
Belcaro 3,520 6 1.5 144 277 48,590
Berkeley 8,738 .3 183 201 193 18,250
Capilol Hill 14,429 86 88 62 133 13.628
Central Business District (CBD) 2,030 50 110 18 262 11.930 1
Chaffee Paik 3,513 X 315 229 16 0 17,020
Cheesman Park 8,415 63 5.2 85 202 18,698
Cherry Creek 3,921 1.3 34 101 244 19,028
City Park 2,271 106 7.0 12.7 204 14,510
City Park West 5,437 412 109 196 196 11,098
Civic Center 751 56 312 126 119 8,646
Clayton 4,622 791 111 325 81 13,583
Cole 4,928 41.1 474 360 86 11,645
College View 3,910 26 353 310 83 13,493
Congress Park 11,003 76 54 148 116 18,121
Cory-Merrill 3,742 .5 24 14 0 225 21,244
Country Club 3,153 8 21 225 133 42,461
East Collax 8,736 225 79 227 83 15,912
Five Points 10,100 395 410 337 123 8,688
Fort Logan 7,504 .7 8.2 252 4.7 31,201
Globeville 3,654 98 529 366 119 11,280
Goldsmith 5,376 33 2.5 123 121 21,525
Hale 7,620 54 4.1 117 187 19,700
Hampden 13,731 58 33 18 7 58 29,179
Hampden South 14,136 52 28 21.7 48 29,614
Harvey Park 10,734 4 146 241 7.1 22,148
Harvey Park South 7,415 8 146 225 114 23.932 ,
Hiqhland 9,803 7 6lfi 296 130 1371541
Hilltop 8,048 24 1.1 180 19 4 39.413,
letterson Park ~TW 16 fix 35TT 79 1173721
Lowry Field 6,39(1 160 54 306 1 14,405
Mar Lee 10,325 1.2 230 276 10.7 18,995
1980
POPULATION. APRIL 1. 1980
Slallslical Neighborhood Total Percent Black Percent Spanish Origin Percent Under 18 Yrs. Percent 65 Yrs.+ Average Householr Income ($1
Monlbello 16,162 461 137 391 1.2 21.539
Montclair 5,690 5.1 34 166 218 22,602
Nodh Capilol Hill 4,326 15.6 183 98 187 8,510
Northeast Park Hill 8,198 92.5 3.1 359 54 16.243
North Park Hill 11,899 718 48 314 7.2 21,351
Overland 2,182 .5 251 242 12 4 14.243
Platle Park 5,647 .4 6.7 15 B 187 16,489
Regis 4,300 .4 13.7 178 16.7 18,684
Rosedale 2,521 .5 6.5 173 167 18,091
Ruby Hill 8,698 1.2 305 289 115 17.631
Skyland 3,620 899 3.6 26 7 11.7 17,145
Sloan Lake 7,863 1.8 29 2 230 20.1 16,723
Soulhmoor Paik 1,880 1.3 1.1 145 120 45,484
South Park Hill 9,260 137 45 267 12.4 28,388
South Plane 196 66 58.7 42.9 7.1 11,894
Speer 11,429 3.1 101 89 146 15,448
Stapleton 661 266 20 7 9 2
Sunnvside 10.615 11 584 299 138 15,339 I
Sun Valley 2,160 S7~ S5T 53 5 38 6,907
Swansea 5,258 7.2 604 339 10 8 14,850
Union Station 609 5.1 69 7 675 5^468 |
University 9,355 16 3.1 92 128 17,284
University Hills 6,181 1.0 22 198 128 23,481
University Park 6,860 16 2.9 146 153 21,020
Valverde 3,381 1.1 503 30 8 11.9 13,401
Villa Park 7,419 1.2 505 30 0 92 15,346
Virginia Village 13,374 25 35 15 4 103 22,358
Washington Park 6,909 4 27 14 7 197 24,931
Washington Park West 7,074 8 88 15.2 165 17,663
Washinglon-Virgmia Vale 11,070 56 42 153 85 22,080
Wellshire 3,341 4 15 15 6 160 47.807
West Collax 9,707 2.0 47 7 28 7 161 16,473
Wesl Highland 9,317 1.0 260 204 197 16,600
Westwood 11,882 2.0 48.5 339 76 15,357
Whittier 5,343 61.2 7.7 308 127 12,519
Windsor 7,567 4.7 21 68 44 7 18,942
Northeast Annexation Area 5 (na) (na) (na) (na) (na)
Southwest Annexation Area" 3,941 9 67 255 14 29,792
1980
Source: Denver Data, 2nd Edition, Denver Planning Office, July 1983


DISTRICTS
PRESENT INVENTORY
- West bank is primarily a commercial area with historic structures of
medium height, warm brick materials, many windows facing the streets; generally feels inviting to people
- Open space in central part of site allows distant views without
obstruction by building masses
- Warehouse district composed of massive buildings with blank walls,
streets which are difficult to maneuver, and many trucks
- Campus region of modern institutional buildings set in context of
, extensive open space and the expanse of parking lots; much
activity of both people and cars
- Industrial districts generally offensive to people because of
noise, smell, visual unattractiveness; not easily accessible because of rudimentary streets and many security fences
PROBLEMS
- Historic areas do not all contain viable functions, so people can
not enjoy their visual appeal
- Open space disrupted by railroads traversing the site
- Access is awkward to many of the areas
- Regions isolated from each other now by extensive open space, lack of
continuity from one area to the next
OPPORTUNITIES
- Developable open space provides opportunity to connect people-oriented
areas of the west side with lower downtown
- Revitalize fine historic areas for everyone's enjoyment
- Capitalize on the special views available into and out from the site
- Isolate offensive regions with visual buffers rather than just distance
LINKAGES
- West bank is continuation of northwest neighborhood fabric
- Lower downtown and campus evolve out of the Central Business
District
- Industrial/warehousing functions in center create gap between the two
sides


EVALUATION CRITERIA
- Dwelling units per acre*
8-20 units/acre: car can be closely associated with unit 20 units/acre: cluster housing, at least 1/3 on ground 40-60 units: stacked townhouses or apartments at 50 units/acre: go above 3-story height
- Square feet of open space per dwelling unit
- Open space as a percentage of total developed land
- Size of dwelling units
- Cost of dwelling units
- Compatibility with adjacent land uses
- Parking per unit (generally 1% spaces per dwelling unit)
- Traffic generation per unit**
8 people trips (includeing both by vehicle and by foot) per day per dwelling unit * '
6 vehicle trips per day per dwelling unit (Denver average)
* Source: The Form of Housing. Sam Davis, editor. 1977
** David Williams, Denver Planning Office.


COMMERCIAL
SUMMARY
The numerous proposed commercial developments in and surrounding the Central Platte Valley provide an opportunity to meet local and regional needs. The impact of increased automobile use is a critical factor in planning growth.
PRESENT INVENTORY
-On west side of Central Platte Valley, three major proposals for commercial development:
Water Street- Reiver development is allowed 1.6 million square feet of commercial floor area under existing zoning Platte Street "Westbank" project is allowed 900,000 square feet of commercial floor area under current zoning; developer wants to include 7,000 car parking garage for the "people mover"
15th Street Dora Moore Associates has applied for a PUD on this site including retail on first floor, office on 2nd and 3rd floors, and 180 units of 4-5 story, infill housing On the east side of the Valley 16th Street Mall
Union Station (proposed development)
Downtown office district Larimer Square retail district
PROBLEMS
- Proposals offered for development by several groups, with no overall master
plan
- Existing retail uses do not provide all services needed for residents,.
particularly in lower downtown
- Parking and circulation issues are unresolved
- Some of the adjacent uses not well suited to each other
- Viaducts can be a negative element to the uses occuring underneath
OPPORTUNITIES
- Create a unique retail/office environment relating to the historic
structures on the west side
- Create a unique retail/office environment in the Central Platte Valley
adjacent to the rivers
- Connect lower downtown with the neighborhoods via land uses and
urban design characteristics
- Provide jobs and services for the residential neighborhoods


COMMERCIAL LAND USE
Source: Platte Valley Landowners Association, from Denver Planning Office data


FIGURE-GROUND STUDY
(shows the relative size and spatial arrangement of structures when they are reduced to simply black shapes against a blank white background)


EVALUATION CRITERIA
- Population base within local area determines the need*
Facility Population Served Number of Students Radius Served
branch library 25-50,000 1-1 1/2 mi
pre-school 1- 2,000 60- 120 1/8 mi
elementary school 1500-7000 250-1200 1/4-1/2 mi
junior high 10-20,000 800-1600 1/2-3/4 mi
senior high 14-34.000 1000-2600 3/4-1 mi
Neighborhood Playground (active)
8 acres
serves 1,500 7,000
turf area for ball games 3.0 acres
hard surface area for ball games .5 acres informal play area .5 acres
circulation, landscaping, buffers 2.0 acres
Neighborhood Park (passive)
3-5 acres
Community Park and Playfield (2/3 active and 1/3 passive) .15-20 acres
serves 20,000 30,000 residents within 4 to 14 miles of residents
District Park (active and passive)
50-100 acres
serves 50,000 100,000 pop.
Urban and Design and Planning Criteria, Joseph DeChiara and Lee Koppelman, 1979.
*Source:


RESIDENTIAL
SUMMARY
Residential property in the area consists of largely rental property to the northwest, high rise apartments and housing for the elderly and handicapped in lower downtown Denver, leaving an unmet need for median income, owner-occupied housing.
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PRESENT INVENTORY
- North Denver, with about 4500 housing units buetween 38th and 20th Avenues,
Federal Boulevard, and Interstate 25
- Downtown Denver, with about 2300 housing units between 20th and Speer,
Champa and Wyncoop
- Neighborhood quality on the northwest side eroded by zone variances
- Noise and air pollution due to proximity to 1-25
- Lack' of sufficient owner-occupied housing, only a little over 30% in
Highland/Sunnyside/Jefferson Park (47% for all of Denver)*
- Lack of median income, owner-occupied housing in lower downtown
(40% elderly and handicapped, 40% rental apartments, 20% luxury condominiums)**
- Residents lack needed support services
- Current Valley zoning as industrial precludes residential uses
- Provide median income housing near downtown
- Create unique riverfront residences
- Provide stability with owner-occupied housing connecting to neighborhoods
- Provide rental units near Auraria campus for students
- Meet a citywide need for middle income housing
- Provide a linkage in scale between downtown highrises and residential scale
of Highland/Jefferson Park/Sunnyside
PROBLEMS
OPPORTUNITIES
LINKAGES
*Source: 1980 Census
** Telephone survey of major lower downtown housing developments.


RESIDENTIAL LAND USE
Source: Platte Valley Landowners Association, from Denver Planning Office.


LINKAGES
- Provide a ground level link through land use between downtown and
North Denver
- Provide an office environment unique in Denver
EVALUATION CRITERIA
- Accessibility from circulation system
- Parking requirements (current standard of 1 space/200 sq. ft. of retail,
1 space/500 sq. ft. of office, Ik spaces/dwelling unit, 1 space/600 sq. ft. of hotel)
- Compatibility of neighboring land uses
- Density and intensity of uses
- Integration of open space into the building schemes
- Traffic generation by land use*
Office: 11 vehicle trips/day/1000 sq. ft of office
Hotel: 9.2 vehicle trips/day/room
Retail:
Average: 42 trips/day/1000 sq. ft.
Convenience store: 575 trips/day/1000 sq. ft.
Discount store: 65 trips/day/1000 sq. ft.
Department store: 36 trips/day/1000 sq. ft.
Shopping centers:
50,000 sq. ft. or less, 115 trips/day/1000 sq. ft.
50.000- >-100,000 sq. ft., 79 trips/day/1000 sq. ft.
100.000- 200,000 sq. ft., 60 trips/day/1000 sq. ft. ~? Community
200.000- 300,000 sq. ft., 50 trips/day/1000 sq. ft. 7 Size
300.000- 400,000 sq. ft., 40 trips/day/1000 sq. ft._) Shopping
400.000- 500,000 sq. ft., 47.6 trips/day/1000 sq. ft. Center
500.000- 1,000,000 sq. ft., 34 trips/day/1000 sq. ft.
1 mill-Ik mill sq. ft., 31 trips/day/1000 sq. ft.
Over 1% mill. sq. ft., 26 trips/day/1000 sq. ft.
- Employment generation: 1 person/250 sq. ft.
- Existence of needed support base on the neighborhood, community, or
regional level:
King Soopers**:
Serve about a 2-mile radius
Need a population of at least 25,000 in trade area (the stores at 14th and Speer, and 9th and Coronoa together have a population base of about 133,000 between Federal Boulevard,
Alameda, Colorado Boulevard, and 1-70)
1. 20th and Depew: 42,300 sq. ft. total
30,500 sq. ft. sales floor
2. 14th & Speer: 56,300 sq. ft. total
43,000 sq. ft. sales floor
3. 9th & Corona: 26,000 sq. ft. total
18,500 sq. ft. sales floor
* Source: David Williams, Denver Planning Office, from Institute of Transportation Engineers standards
** King Soopers, Marketing Department


LOCAL PUBLIC FACILITIES
PRESENT INVENTORY
- Woodbury Library 48,000 volumes
- Elementary Schools Bryant-Webster, capacity of 690 students
Valdez, capacity of 855 students
- High school North High, capacity of 2100 students
- Career Education Center, enrollment of about 1000
- Parks Hirshorn Park, 2,2 acres
Columbus Park, 2.3 acres Jefferson Park, 5 'acres
PROBLEMS
- Insufficient population to support elementary schools
- Current inventory would be inadequate for extensive population growth in
Central Platte Valley
- No health facilities on west side
- No facilities in lower downtwon
OPPORTUNITIES
- New facilities to meet needs of both the neighborhoods and any new Central Platte Valley residents
LINKAGES
- Connected to city-wide provision of public service
DISTRICTING
- Needs are met on a neighborhood by neighborhood basis


BORDERS AND NODES
PRESENT INVENTORY
- Borders:
1-25 is a major barrier defining one edge
Train tracks create an obstacle at another edge
Speer Boulevard cannot be crossed except at ends, so forms the edge for two pieces of the Valley
- Prominent points:
Asbury Methodist, Riverside Baptist, and Mile High Stadium are all highly visible because of their scale in comparison to their surroundings
Numerous structures within the Valley are of historic as well as visual prominence
The Central Business District is the most commanding of all focal points visible in and around the Valley Nodes:
Traffic intersections are important functional nodes
Confluence Park is a node with aesthetic value
PROBLEMS
- All the edges are actually barriers to the Central Platte Valley
- Some points are highly visible yet unattractive
- Development could block some of views into or out of the Valley
OPPORTUNITIES
- Enhance good views with careful consideration to scale of new development
- Reduce the quality of train tracks as barrier between Valley and
downtown
- Use landscaping along roadways to enhance their visual appeal


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LOCAL PUBLIC FACILITIES
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