A Maine Island retreat

Material Information

A Maine Island retreat
Alternate title:
Maine Island retreat, Chebeague, Maine
Brown, E. Scott
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
107 unnumbered leaves : illustrations, maps (some folded), plans (some folded) ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Spiritual retreats -- Designs and plans -- Maine -- Chebeague Island ( lcsh )
Spiritual retreats ( fast )
Maine -- Chebeague Island ( fast )
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )


Includes bibliographical references (leaf 84).
General Note:
Cover title: A Maine Island retreat, Chebeague, Maine.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
E. Scott Brown.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
13783512 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1986 .B756 ( lcc )

Full Text
e>R0W A/
DRAWINGS51/4" 1-0; SITE PLAN51/20-1L0

The Thesis of E.
Scott Brown is approved.
Principal Advisor

Maine I si and Retreat
E.Scott Brown
An architectural thesis, presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture.
Spring, 1986

Introducing The Thesi

Introducing The Thesis

It is becoming increasingly necessary in today's world to create places, remote from the maddening crowd, that facilitate the rediscovery of the soul. Although true for everyone, this is of great importance to those engaged in creative endeavors. A painter, a writer, a composer, all need from time to time, to retreat from the urban sensory overload that continually threatens to short-circuit the spark of inspiration and that constantly interferes in the exchange of ideas with fellow travelers. By contrast, then, a retreat in a tranquil and meditative environment relaxes the mind, reverses the ill effects of stress, and renews the muse. This thesis project will attempt to create such a retreat.
The islands of Casco Bay, off Portland, Mainfc.,provide a good location for the project. Accessible only by boat, the journey across the water emphasizes the sense of remoteness and removal from everyday life that is essential to the psychology of a retreat. This transformation, however, can be effected within a short period of time, thereby creating a willingness to return.
Travel time from Newark Airport, in the Greater New York Metropolitan Area, to the site on Chebeague Island, is two hours. This is reasonable, even for a stay of a few days.
When a site for a thesis is chosen, much more than just a place to put a design project, or set of ideas rather, is acquired. The apparently simple act of saying "My site is here", no matter where here is, immediately provides a mass of information. This information is vital to the creation of architecture on that site. A site is like an ancient Egyptian tomb, filled with hier-

oglyphic artifacts -- just so much junk to a grave robber or developer -- but to an architect with Rosetta Stone eyes, that site can be read and will reveal its wealth of encyclopedic revelation.
Although there is a heirarchy to the Five Ways of a Site and also a destination for them, their paths are intertwined and related, sometimes lost and discontinous in the passage of time. Dominance and influence of each fluctuate with the times. The First Way of a Site is the Geologic Way. The tectonic forces within the earth have acted over the eons to form the actual land foundation of your site and its area. Although the ebb and flow of the continental land masses is indiscernible, that action brought your site to where it is today.
The Second Way of a Site is the Way of Climate. It is the climate that has carved the site to the topography you see. Climate exerts a continuous and significant influence on your site. Its effect on the generation of design parameters cannot be overstated. Climate creates the environment that allows, or does not allow, vegetation to flourish, which, in turn, detemines which, if any, kinds of animal life, including man, can flourish there.
The Third Way of a Site, then, is Man, herself. What has humanity wrought upon the land, on, in, and around the site? Did he build a city? Did he destroy a city? Did he have to abandon a city? Were the people agriculturists? Were they manufacturers? Did they eat corn? Did they eat fish?
What are they doing right now? As can be easily seen, the human condition is profoundly diverse. To us, as architects, the most interesting aspect is the possibility of a built environment on our site.

After people live with a site for a certain period of time, working and building over the years, the Fourth Way of Site begins to develop.
The Fourth Way of a Site is History. History is a peculiar thing. On any given day, like today, we don't set out to "make history" yet in twenty-five or thirty years what we did today will be history. So, by building today, we are creating a past for the future. After this has gone on for a while, we are lead to the Fifth Way of a Site.
The Fifth Way of a Site is the Way of Context. Now context, considered broadly, can include all the previous four ways, or considered narrowly, can include only that part of the built environment that is of significant and substantial stature to be thought influential on a design. Context, then, can fluctuate, depending on the whim and sensitivity of the architect, and it also varies in relation to the richness of the other four ways.
My first impression of the site was one of primeval forest. The day was rainy, the cloud cover barely above treetop level, and wisps of fo^ stranded through the branches. There was the sound of dripping water throughout the verdant thicket. The primordial feeling was further reinforced by the initial route I took into the site, which was a little bit clear of the arboreal canopy at the upper or southeastern end of the site and hence the scrub-brush, ground cover, and wild berry had proliferated into a dense, waist-high, and soaking wet tangle, virtually impenetrable to all but the most determined of explorers, in this case, me, who, naturally, promptly got completely soaked. In retrospect, had

I proceeded fifty yards further down the road, I would have found tall trees with no undergrowth, and easier, drier access.
At any rate, I bumbled about on the site, pushing further into the woods, until I realized that I had probably lost any sense of where the road was and had, in effect, become somewhat disoriented, although at this time I refused to admit the possibility that I might actually be lost, having only been there about twenty minutes. This did, however, seem to be a good moment to pursue a plan that I had made some time ago, that being to climb a tree in order to determine at what height various views of the surrounding terrain could be attained.
Happening upon a magnificent and stupendous pine with numerous lower branches, I started up. Picture, if you will, a person with two 35 mm cameras around his neck in addition to a 210 mm telephoto lens case draped across his back, in a knee-length, bright yellow raincoat, wearing a green tweed baseball cap, making his way slowly up a ladder-like pine tree in gently pouring rain. Up and up I went -- fifteen feet, twenty feet, tweniy-five feet, thirty feet -- this is one tall tree. At about forty feet, I lost sight of the ground, I lost usable branches, and I lost my nerve. To my amazement, even at this height, no view of anything but forest was attainable in any direction, and the cloud shroud was close. Acquiring a slick, but temporarily secure foothold, I braced myself for photographic endeavors while batting mosquitos away and keeping lenses relatively transparent with a sopping blue bandana. Needless to say, this escapade necessitated a somewhat sodden and bedraggled, though none the

less hasty, retreat to the bar at the hotel, followed much later by, as I recall, a most delicious crab casserole and soon after that by a thorough night's sleep.
Having settled somewhat into the slower and more relaxed pace of the Maine Islands by Tuesday, I looked forward to a more coherent and perhaps even systematic exploration of the environs on that day. Tuesday morning was spent on a walking tour of the northern end of the island, observing and photographing many houses, elements, details, and landscapes. Stick and shingle architecture predominates in a few variations. Most of the finer houses date from the late nineteenth century or later, but I did see one marked 1835. Straight lines and rectangles abound.
There is very little evidence of the curved line. Windows are mostly two over two, single hung. Gable roofs, many with a ninety degree peak angle are most common, although hips are to be found too. There are some Victorian houses, evidenced by gingerbread, bay windows, and mixtures of clapboard siding and shingles, some fish-scaled. Porches abound in dozens of configurations, the ones on houses with a water view quite well developed. Good rhythms of elements can be seen on porches between roof, rafter tails, posts, railings, balusters, deck and base.
Tuesday after lunch was spent on the veranda of the hotel, compiling notes and Budweisers. I took a swim at the beach just off the golf course.
I then procured a bicycle, a "Popular Special-Sports Model", "Made in England", in weatherbeaten blue, ladies style, from the hotel's selection of unique and somewhat derelict, certainly all in need of lubrication, machines. Strapped once again with cameras and lenses and with map in pocket, I set out on a perimeter tour of the island in a southwesterly

direction. Much was encountered on this particular jaunt, which seemed, in retrospect, to have been about six or seven miles in length. A distance, I must add, which taxed the limit of both the Popular Special and her rider. Native housing of a less elegant nature seemed to prevail in the heavily wooded middle portion, with the more fastidiously maintained houses of "permanent summer residents" emerging once again at the foot of the island, where water views were once again spectacular.
(At this point, I have remembered something a bit out of order, but since the recollection is upon me, I will relate it now: I was, at one point in my wanderings, on a woodsy lane near the beach, when two women of unmistakably suburban origin, in stretch bathing suits, the older in puckered, the younger in smooth, happened by in what proved to be a confused and bewildered state. "Can you tell us the way to a main road?", they asked. As you can well imagine, opportunities like this are presented only rarely in the course of one's life, and I shall be forever thankful that I had my wits about me enough to recognize this one, and I promptly replied, "But madam, you are on a Maine road!")
(At Wednesday dinner: A natty, older genTleman just passed my table and inquired if I was writing or working on my thesis. When I told him that it did, indeed, relate to my thesis, he asked what was my major. I told him it was architecture and he said, "Architecture!, well perhaps you can tell me then, why, of these three sets of French doors, two sets open in and one opens out and why the one that does open out has bumpers on the wrong side?")

(My waiter just described this island as being another country. He feels like he is returning to the United States when he takes the ferry to the mainland.)
Classical Japanese design embodies what I consider to be the total response, the fulfillment, the culmination of architectural consciousness. Everything (or, for that just so touch of Zen, almost everything) is thought about -- from the stones of a pathway to the planning of a city. I find the deceptive simplicity of Japanese architecture very intriguing. I also think it beautiful. There is a wonderful sense of order and discipline under what at first appears to be a somewhat haphazard arrangement. Spaces ease into each other effortlessly, and yet then there is the surprise: a garden path turns and suddenly a crane wheels into flight; the translucent rice paper shoji screen slides away to reveal a breathtaking landscape scene, perfectly natural, perfectly constructed. The landscape becomes an intimate part of the spatial experience, softening transitions, creating transitions, forming spaces of its own, to be appreciated equally with buildings, not merely a setting of backdrop.
The meditative tranquility created by this architecture is ideal for a retreat environment. It is the intention of my thesis to try to respond to the Maine Island site in a way that will utilize Japanese architectural concepts. I do not think for a minute that I will be able to
recreate the totality of the Japanese experience, but I do hope that by
using some of their techniques and knowledge I will learn something about

how their philosophy of architecture and landscape produces such beautiful and harmonious spaces.
It may seem redundant to say, but I wish my thesis to address the idea of space. You may react by saying, "Isn't that the basic premise of architecture, space?" Indeed it is, yet how often is space overlooked in the quest for "ARCHITECTURE" as a Holy Grail? Oust like that Grail, however, space is elusive and hard to grasp. It is not separate from the fabric of reality. One cannot perform a lengthy series of laboratorylike procedures, titrations, distillations, cyclotronic bombardments, and catalyzed reactions and at the end say "Eureka! I have isolated pure space!" Spaces interlock, they fold and blend into each other, one stops and always another begins. We spend our lives in their shifting and merging embrace.
So, what of it, what about this space, this primal frontier? The action then, that I would like to explore is travel through space, both physical and psychological, and the changes that might or might not occur. My site is remote, but when I have gone there I have found it interesting to note that I feel I am entering that space long before I arrive. So, when you are anticipating, you begin to shift perception sooner than being engulfed by the actual physical space.
A closely related concept is that of sequence. Here is a large scale scenario to illustrate that idea: you have been wanting to visit the site; you decide to go and set a date; even at this point, before traveling, you may be, from time to time, in that space; you board on

eastbound plane and just by getting on that plane, having made the conscious decision to go, you have become very much closer; the plane lands, you get on another, northbound this time; you land in a faraway state, it is foggy and rainy; you rent-a-car and drive north, the sense of going away has now been almost entirely replaced by that of heading toward, arriving supercedes departing; you turn eastward and cross a bridge onto an island, drive down a dirt road and stop at a wharf; you board a ferry and slowly cruise across the bay; (a few miles over water is so vastly different from a few miles traveled by automobile that you can hardly believe it); you arrive, the Stone Pier, and are now almost completely enrapt in the new space; you walk the final three-quarters of a mile and you are there.
It is my desire to examine these same two concepts, passage through space and sequence, with their associated events, at the smaller scale of person and building, beginning this time, of course, at the entrance to the project.
The first sign that you are entering the space of the retreat will be on the dock at Cousin's Island, the point of departure for Chebeague.
The form and nature of this indication is not yet determined, but it might be a lantern, small statue, or symbolic sculptural form. This will be seen again on the Stone Pier when you land on Chebeague, again on the northeast corner of South Road and Capps Road, and once again where Capps Road crosses into the site. At that point, a more substantial announcement that a different space is being entered will be made.
When you turn left off Capps Road onto the site proper, there will be a gate and a fence and you will enter a courtyard. This courtyard serves

as a drop-off point for people arriving, provides a parking area for the vehilces owned by the retreat, and it sould begin to create the spirit and feeling of the center. It is this forecourt that will start to in-itiaite the change in state of mind: where wordly concerns drop away, where hard surfaces begin to erode, where, perhaps, West meets East. Adjacent to this forecourt will be the Director's House.
Next in the sequence will be a porch, then the entry hall and "front desk area, where the functional aspects of registering and directing people will be handled. Adjacent to this lobby will be receptionist, director's office, toilet rooms, janitor closet. 1000 S.F. is allovedfor this space A small reference library and a lounge will be nearly, 850 s.f.
The main dining room is designed to accommodte 60 people at one sitting. 1200 S.F. has been allowed. Adjacent to the dining room is the kitchen with 750 s.f., which includes an office for the cook and assistant. A laundry, 400 s.f., is planned. There is an employees room with lockers, toilets, and a kitchenette: 400 s.f.
There will be one large conference room of 1000 s.f., designed to hold 50 people, the maximum that can be housed at the complex. Additionally,
4 smaller conference rooms are provided to accommodate smaller meetings. 1000 s.f. total is allowed for these. Adjacent to the conference areas are audio-visual preparation rooms and small telephone offices. 600 s.f. total is allowed for these support spaces.
Housing on the site is provided for 50 guests, the director with family, and the caretaker with family. Guest housing is of three types: double

rooms, single rooms, and apartments in clusters, roughly divided in the following way: 20 singles at 400 s.f., 12 doubles at 500 s.f., and 6 apartments at 600 s.f. All have private baths.
The director is provided with a house or large apartment, with garage, of about 1500 s.f., to be used during the operating season only.
The caretaker is provided with a fully winterized, year-round residence of at least 1500 s.f.
There will be a chapel or meditation space at the water's edge of approximately 700 s.f.

The raw clay sits in the bin, damp and dark. The potter comes,
prepared to work. He removes a piece of clay and begins to
knead it. As he wedges, the pot he intends to make takes form in. his mind. The clay, responding to his touch, becomes compact, dense, obedient.
Wedging done, the potter hefts the lump of clay and begins to see the finished product. The clay is till mute, but it will not remain so for long.
The potter throws the clay down onto the wheel head, sits down and kicks the flywheel into motion. At this moment the clay begins to speak, adding its side to a dialogue of struggle, all of a sudden telling the potter what it wants to be.
The clay acts on the potter. The potter acts on the clay. Once
spinning, it will take all the will of the potter .to coax,.the clay into resembling the finished pot he envisioned at the start.
It is the skill of guiding without dominating, of creating without stifling, that enables the project to express its essence as drawn out by the potter. It is that interplay then, and the growth of both the doer and the done, that proves to be ultimately rewarding.









coast, especially near the mouths of the Androscoggin and Kennebec Rivers. Other tracts of flatland, often marshy, lie near lakes. Large acreages that are not too rolling are suitable for agricultural development. Aroostook County, especially, has vast tracts of agricultural land. In total, Maine has about 2,000 square miles now used as farmland. Erosion can be a problem, especially in the Saint John Valley, but improved farming methods and reforestation help to control this problem.
The coastal portion of the State has many inlets, bays, channels, fine harbors, rocky islands, and promontories which provide a treasure of scenic beauty. The extreme irregularity of the coast stretches the total coastline to about 2,400 miles, more than 10 times the distance from Kittery to Eastport. The southwestern portion of the coast has many fine beaches. The mid-coastal portion has many rugged hills and small mountains, some of which rise abruptly from the water, such as Mount Desert Island. The coastal portion adds much to Maine's scenic appeal.
More than five-sixths of the State is forest land. Much of this, especially in the north, remains without settlements or highways other than a few private logging roads. Game in the unspoiled forests and fish in the lakes and streams attract sportsmen from near and far.
Maine's chief climatic characteristics include: changeableness of the weather; large ranges of temperature, both diurnal and annual; great differences between the same seasons in different years; equable distribution of precipitation; and considerable diversity from place to

place. The regional climatic influences are modified in Maine by varying distances from the ocean, by elevations, and by types of terrain. These modifying factors divide the State into three natural climatological divisions. The Northern Division contains a slightly more than one-half of the State's area, with its southern boundary nearly parallel to the coast. It represents that area of the State least affected by ocean influences and most affected by higher elevations. In contrast, the Coastal Division is a strip roughly 20 to 30 miles in width. It is most affected by maritime influences and has the lowest average elevation above sea level. The remainder, known conveniently as the Southern Interior Division, covers nearly one-third of the State's area.
CLIMATIC FEATURES Maine lies in the "prevailing westerlies" the belt of generally eastward moving air that encircles the globe in the middle latitudes. Embedded in this circulation are extensive masses of air originating in higher or lower latitudes and interacting to produce storm systems. Relative to most other sections of the country, a large number of such storms pass over or near Maine. The majority of air masses affecting this State belong to three types: cold, dry air pouring down from subarctic North America; warm, moist air streaming up on a long journey from the Gulf of Mexico and from subtropical waters eastward; and cool, damp air moving in from the North Atlantic. Because the atmospheric flow is usually offshore, Maine is influenced more by the first two types than it is by the third. In other words, the adjacent ocean constitutes an important modifying factor on the immediate coast,

but does not dominate the climate statewide.
The procession of contrasting air masses and the relatively frequent passage of storms bring about a roughly twice-weekly alternation from fair to cloudy or stormy conditions, often attended by abrupt changes in temperature, moisture, sunshine, wind direction, and wind speed. There is no regular or persistent rhythm to this sequence. It is interrupted by periods of time during which the same weather patterns continue for several days, infrequently for several weeks. Maine weather, however, is distinguished for variety rather than for monotony. Changeability is also one of its features on a longer time scale; that is, the same month or season will exhibit varying characteristics over the years -- sometimes in close alternation, sometimes arranged in similar groups for successive years. A "normal" month, season, or year is indeed the exception rather than the rule.
The basic climate,as outlined above, obviously does not result from the predominance of any single controlling weather regime, but is rather the integrated effect of a variety of weather patterns. Hence, "weather Averages" in Maine usually are not sufficient for important planning purposes without further climatological analysis.
TEMPERATURE The average annual temperature ranges from near 40 F in the Northern Division, to 44 F in the Southern Interior Division, and to nearly 45 F in the Coastal Division. Within the large Northern Division, there is a range from near 37 F to about 43 F from north to

south. Temperature averages vary within the three Divisions from causes other than latitude. Elevation, slope, and other environmental aspects, including some urbanization, also have an effect. The highest temperatures reach 105 F while the lowest drop to -48 F.
Summer temperatures are usually cool and are reasonably uniform over the State. The July long-period average temperature reaches 70 F only at a few stations, mostly in the Southern Interior Division. Hot days, with maxima of 90 F or higher, are extremely rare along much of the immediate coast. From 2 to 7 days is the average number of hot days elsewhere, with the greatest number in the western portion of the Southern Interior Division. Frequency of days with 90 F temperature varies from year to year from none in the coolest summers up to 25 days at the warmest stations in the warmest summers. The average daily temperature range in the wintertime is approximately 20F over much of the State. In summertime, the average temperature range is greater, 30 in the central portion of the Northern Division; the range may exceed 40F during cool, dry weather, especially in valleys and marshes. Frost may be a threat even in the warmer months in these susceptible areas.
Average temperatures vary from place to place much more in winter than in summer. They range in January from less than 10F in the extreme north to over 20 F along the Atlantic Coast. Midwinter temperatures in Maine vary little from those at similar latitudes in the North Central States. An exception is the Coastal Division where temperature averages compare with those found 200 miles or more farther south in the central

part of the Nation. Days with subzero readings average from 40 to 60 per year at the colder stations in the Northern Division to only 10 to 20 at stations in the Coastal Division. Along the immediate coast, subzero occurrences are even less frequent.
The average length of the growing season for vegetation subject to injury from freezing temperature is about 140 to 160 days in the Coastal Division, 120 to 140 days in the Southern Interior Division, and 100 to 120 days in most of the Northern Division. An average freeze-free growing season of slightly less than 100 days occurs in extreme northern and northwestern Maine. Marshes or other susceptible low areas may have a shorter season than indicated above. The average date of the last freezing temperature in spring is near the end of April at coastal stations and near the end of May in extreme northern Maine. The freeze-free season usually ends in September, except in the Coastal Division where it extends into October.
PREC1PTATI0N Maine has precipitation rather evenly distributed throughout the year. The distribution is most regular in the Southern Interior Division. Along the Atlantic Coast, summer thunderstorm activity is somewhat suppressed by the effects of the cool ocean, while winter precipitation is increased by coastal storms or "northeasters." These combined effects give this coastal area more precipitation in the winter than in the summer months. Monthly totals are about 4 inches during the winter as comparedto 3 inches during the summer.
In the

Northern Division, these effects are reversed with increased thunderstorm activity in summer and with very little effect of coastal storms in winter. Precipitation totals in this Division are greater in summer, with the difference being about 1 inch. The averages for each winter month are about 2-1/2 to 3 inches compared to 3-1/2 to 4 inches for each summer month.
Storm systems are the principal year-round moisture producers. Such systems are less active in the summer, but bands or patches of thunderstorm or shower activity take over much of this function. Though brief and often of small areal extent, thunderstorms produce the heaviest local rainfall rates for short intervals. Many stations have received from 1 to 2 inches in an hour. Minor washouts of roads and soil erosion may occur during such storms.
Variation in precipitation totals from month to month or for the same month in different years may be extreme. Monthly totals range from negligible amounts up to 10 inches or more. Totals may also vary within the State in the same month. In August 1958, for example, Rumford recorded only 1.52 inches, while Caribou had 8.45 inches, setting a new record for a monthly total for the latter station. Such large fluctuations are rare, however, as most monthly totals fall in the range of 50 to 200 percent of the average amounts. Prolonged droughts are infrequent; irrigation water is available for use during the fairly common short dry spells in summer.
Total precipitation averages near 40 inches yearly in the Northern

Division, slightly higher in the Southern Interior Division, and over 44 inches in the Coastal Division. Local influences cause considerable variation in totals from station to station, even within a Division. A valley station may receive several inches less than one situated on a slope. Moisture-bearing winds, when forced upward by the slope, drop increased rainfall.
Winter precipitation occurs mostly as snow, except in the Coastal Division where considerable rain or wet snow falls; stations in this Division, more than stations farther inland, are subject to occasional glazing, or "ice storm" conditions. Freezing rain coats streets, roads, and all exposed surfaces; on rare occasions, a heavy load of ice builds on trees and wires, causing extensive damage.
Measurable amounts of precipitation fall an average of 1 day in 3 over much of the State. This frequency increases to near 1 day in 2 over the extreme northern portion. For example, at Caribou, the average is over 4 days in 10. However, amounts as great as 6 inches of rain in 24 hours are rare occurrences in Maine. Many stations have never recorded that much in a single day. Brunswick, however, received 8.05 inches from Hurricane Edna on September 11, 1954.
SNOWFALL As a rule, average seasonal snowfall amounts increase northwestward from the coast. The Coastal Division snowfall totals range from 50 to 80 inches. The Southern Interior Division receives from 60 to 90 inches. The Northern Division totals range on the average from 90

to 110 inches. The largest long-period average for any station with official records is a 27-year average of 118 inches at Jackman in northwestern Maine, between Moosehead Lake and the Canadian border. Stations in extreme northern Maine tend to receive slightly less snow than those in the southwestern portion of the Northern Division. Local topography has a marked influence on snowfall, causing large variations within a short distance. In general, an increase of 1 inch of seasonal snowfall will be measured for each 25-foot increase in elevation.
The number of days with 1 inch or more of snowfall varies from about 20 in a season at stations near the coast to as high as 30 or more at some northern stations. Most winters will have several snowstorms of 5 inches or more. Storms of this magnitude temporarily disrupt transportation and communications. On December 29-30, 1962, a single storm dropped 46 inches at Ripogenus dam (Piscataguis County). Heavy individual snowstorms, dropping up to 30 inches of snow, have occurred along the coast. Many stations through the State have experienced over 20 inches in a single day.
January is usually the snowiest month. Many stations average over 20 inches of snow in that month. The snowfall season usually begins in late October or in November and lasts into April and sometimes into May. Seasonal totals in the north do not vary as markedly as along the coast. In the north, the seasonal totals for those years with the heaviest snowfalls are usually less than double the least. Greater fluctuations occur near the coast. For example, Eastport has recorded 30 inches or

less in some seasons. However, in the 1906-07 season, 188 inches of snow was measured, over six times more than that of the lowest snowfall total recorded in a season.
Snow cover lasts throughout the season in the north. Along the coast, however, the snow cover may melt entirely in midwinter and then be replaced by a new cover. The average length of the longest continuous cover of 1 inch or more ranges from about 50 days near the coast to more than 4 months in the northwest where prevailing low temperatures and wooded terrain prevent rapid melting. The average date of the maximum snow depth varies from early February along the coast to late February or even to early March in the extreme northwest. These dates range widely from winter to winter along the coast where the greatest snow depth may come at any time during the season. Water stored in the snow cover provides the State's watersheds with an important part of their annual water supply. Melting is usually gradual enough to prevent serious flooding.
FLOODS Rivers flow generally in a southward direction from the mountains in the interior of Maine, from the Canadian border, or from New Hampshire to the Atlantic Coast. The principal rivers are- the Saco, Androscoggin, Kennebec, and Penobscot Rivers. The Saint John River, rising in northern Maine, forms the border between Maine and the Canadian province of New Brunswick for a distance before the river enters Canada. The State is generally forested and contains extensive areas of

lakes and ponds which tend to retard flood runoff.
Widespread major flooding is relatively infrequent. The greatest frequency of floods occurs in the early spring when substantial rains and melting snow combine to produce heavy runoff. Because the rivers flow from north to south and because the coastal areas have decidedly higher springtime temperatures than the elevated and forested headwater areas, the rivers in the lower reaches are usually free of ice and the snow is depleted before thawing starts in the upper reaches. Thus, in most years, the spring runoff occurs without serious flooding. The very destructive flood of March 1936 was caused by several days of excessive rainfall upon a heavy snow cover.
In addition to the 1936 flood, major springtime floods occurred in 1895, 1896,1917, 1923, and 1953. Although not of such general magnitude, rather widespread floods occurred as the aftermath of heavy rains alone during the fall of 1907, 1909, 1927, and 1950. Occasional flash floods occur on small streams during the summertime from thunderstorms, but usually these floods have little effect on main stream flows.
OTHER CLIMATIC FEATURES The amount of possible sunshine averages from 50 to 60 percent in most of the southern one-half of the State. This percentage varies along the coast from near 50 to Eastport to 60 percent at Portland. At higher elevations and over much of northern Maine, the average is near 45 percent. The average annual number of clear days ranges from 80 to 120 days in the southern one-half and from about 50 to

90 days in the northern one-half of the State.
Heavy fog is frequent and sometimes persistent along the coast, particularly in the eastern portion of the coast where it may occur on an average of 1 day out of 6. Fog frequency and duration generally diminish inland, but short-duration heavy ground fogs of early morning occur frequently at susceptible places inland. These, plus a few occurrences of heavy fog, may produce a frequency at some inland locations aproach-ing that along the coast. The number of days with heavy fog varies over the State, ranging from about 25 to 60 days in a year.
Prolonged dry spells, which occur frequently in late summer or fall, create serious forest fire hazards. Low humidites and lack of precipitation during some late summers cause the forest litter to become extremely flammable. The hazard is particularly great in resort and recreation areas. In recent years, serious fires have occurred.
WINDS AND STORMS On a yearly basis, the wind direction is mostly from the west, while during winter, north to northwest winds tend to prevail. In the summer, they are more often from the southwest or south. Topography has a strong influence on the prevailing direction. Parts of a major river valley, for example, may have a prevailing wind paralleling the valley. Along the coast in spring and summer, the sea breeze is important. Onshore local winds, blowing from the cool ocean, may come as far inland as 10 miles. They tend to retard spring growth, and are pleasingly cooling in summer.
Coastal storms or northeasters sometimes seriously affect the Coastal

Division.They generate very strong winds and heavy rain or snow, sometimes glaze or "ice storm conditions." They can produce abnormally high tides, affecting beaches and coastal installations. In winter, these storms produce some of the heavier snowfalls along the coast. Occasionally, in summer or fall, a storm of tropical origin affects Maine. Usually the storm will be similar to the northeasters and some may retain near or full hurricane force. For example, in 1954, two hurricanes affected Maine within a period of less than 2 weeks. The first, Carol, traveled northward along the Maine-New Hampshire border on August 31. Wind speeds were no longer at full hurricane force, but substantial property and crop damage resulted in western Maine. Then Edna entered the coastline near Eastport on September 11. The principal damage from Edna occurred as a result of heavy rains and flooding. Ordinarily, maximum loss is concentrated along the shore. Fortunately, storms of tropical origin do not affect Maine at all in most years. Two or more storms in 1 year can be expected about 1 year in 20.
Tornadoes are a phenomena not common in Maine. Yet, they are not as rare as have been generally believed. It is likely that several occur on the average each year. Fortunately, most tornadoes are very small, affecting a very localized area. Because of the preponderance of forests or other unsettled areas, a large percentage of tornadoes in Maine are unseen and unrecorded. As a reminder that these storms can and do visit the State, a huge tornado occurred in the Alagash region of northern Maine on August 15, 1958. The funnel winds devastated the

forest in that region along a path 20 miles long and 300 to 400 yards wide. Had this storm occurred in urban areas, it could have rivaled the famous Worcester, Mass, tornado of 1953. About 80 percent of Maine's tornadoes occur between May 15 and September 15; about 90 percent strike between 1 and 7 p.m. The peak month is July, and the peak hour of occurrence is from 2 to 3 p.m. However, the chance of a tornado striking any given spot is extremely small.
Thunderstorms and hailstorms have a similar frequency maximum from midspring to early fall. Thunderstorms occur in a range from 10 to 20 days a year in the Coastal Division and from 15 to 30 days a year elsewhere. The most severe storms are attended by hail. Hail can inflict bodily injury, ruin field crops, break glass, dent automobiles, and damage other vulnerable exposed objects. Fortunately, the size of an area pelted by hail is usually small. Glaze and ice storms of winter can produce perilous conditions for transportation. These storms are usually of brief duration, although a few widespread, prolonged ice storms have occurred. Besides affecting travel and transport, they break trees and limbs, utility lines, and utility poles. In designing structures such as steel towers, designers must consider the possible ice load. An ice load also magnifies the wind stress by increasing the area exposed to the wind.
CLIMATE AND ECONOMY Activities in Maine are profoundly influenced by climate. Tree growth is especially favored. About 85 percent of the State is covered by forests which constitute a major scenic attraction

and provide material for a major forest products industry. This includes lumbering, papermaking, wood products manufacturing, and related industries. The amply supply of rainfall provides water for the growth of trees, for a system of waterways to transport the felled timber, and for the huge amounts required to meet the needs of wood products manufacturing. Other major industries include textiles, shoes, and ship-building. A great diversity of smaller industries also takes advantage of the ample water supplies.
Climate plays a significant role in the State's agriculture by favoring the production of high-value specialized crops. Maine ranks very high in the Nation in cash receipts per acre from farm marketing. The principal crop is potatoes, with Maine producing more annually than any other State. The long summer days, favorable precipitation, and temperature combine with large tracts of suitable soil in Aroostock County to make this the Nation's leading potato-producing area. Other important farm products include peas for freeezing and canning, corn, oats, and hay. Many truck gardens are found in the coastal plains. Blueberry production is on a large commercial scale, especially along the eastern portion of the Coastal Division. Apples are the most prolific of the tree fruits. The production of quality apples is an important commercial pursuit. Top-quality maple syrup is produced in commercial quantity. Poultry raising, especially broiler production, is a principal activity, exceeding dairying in importance.
Climate is particularly important to the tourist and vacation trade, a

major industry. This trade amounts to more than one-third of a billion dollars annually. Much of this trade is concentrated in the summer months when pleasant temperatures prevail at coastal and lake resorts. Abundant game and clear lakes and streams also draw sportsmen. Skiing and other winter sports have developed into an important winter attraction, made possible by the abundant snowfall in the State.
In summary, the climate of Maine contributes greatly to its industrial, agricultural, and vacation activities. Its climate is a rich, natural asset favorable to further economic development of the State.

Insolation and Temperature Data
Maximum Minimum Average
* Daily Daily Monthly
Temp. C Temp. C Temp. "C
Jan -0.44 -11.27 -5.83
Feb 0.72 -10.83 -5.05
Mar 4.88 -5.11 -0.11
Apr 11.55 0.27 5.94
May 17.55 5.38 11.50
June 22.88 10.61 16.77
July 26.16 13.83 20.00
Aug 25.33 12.88 19.11
Sept 21.05 8.55 14.83
Oct 15.66 3.33 9.50
Nov 8.61 -1.27 3.66
Dec 1.61 -8.66 -3.49
Ann 12.94 1.50 7.22
Maximum Minimum Average
Daily Daily Monthly
Temp. -F Temp. F Temp. #F
Jan 31.2 11.7 21.5
Feb 33.3 12.5 22.9
Mar 40.8 22.8 31.8
Apr 52.8 32.5 42.7
May 63.6 41.7 52.7
June 73.2 51.1 62.2
July 79.1 56.9 68.0
Aug 77.6 55.2 66.4
Sept 69.9 47.4 58.7
Oct 60.2 38.0 49.1
Nov 47.5 29.7 38.6
Dec 34.9 16.4 25.7
Ann 553 34.7 45.0
Portland, Maine
Heating Cooling Total Global Global Kt
Degree Days Degree Days Radiation Cloudiness
Base 18.3 C Base 18.3 C kJ/mJ Index
749 0 5110.0 0.389
655 0 7739.0 0.417
571 0 11004.0 0.421
371 0 14798.0 0.437
211 0 17788.0 0.450
58 12 19425.0 0.462
15 66 18829.0 0.461
30 55 16580.0 0.457
111 6 13140.0 0.448
273 0 9333.0 0.435
440 0 5212.0 0.351
676 0 4118.0 0.353
4165 140 11923.0 0.436
Heating Cooling Total Global Total Global
Degree Days Degree Days Radiation Radiation
Base 65 "F Base 65 F Btu/ft* Langleys
1348 0 450.3 122.1
1179 0 681.9 185.0
1028 0 969.6 263.0
668 0 1303.9 353.7
380 0 1567.4 425.2
104 22 1711.6 464.3
27 119 1659.1 450.0
54 99 1460.9 396.3
200 11 1157.8 314.1
491 0 822.4 223.1
792 0 459.3 124.6
1217 0 362.9 98.4
7497 252 1050.6 285.0
LATITUDE: 43 39 N LONGITUDE: 70 19'W ELEVATION: 19 meters (62.3 feet)

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- tf




inStmy and Legend
From material com piled by
Philadelphia and New York

Christopher Levett, who sailed from England in 1623 at the head
of an expedition to the New World, was one of the first white
men to stand on some of the islands in what he called "Cascoe" Bay. This
Levett, beloved of Samoset and the sagamores, is a man to whom our modern
hearts instinctively warm. Tracing his journeys along the coast of Maine,
we feel we know him well.
What he looked like we do not know, so we are at liberty to make our own picture of this English seafarer, captain in His Majesty's Navy, explorer and colonizer in the New World. Perhaps he was lean and fair and blueeyed. He was almost certainly young when he landed at the Isles of Shoals in the autumn of 1623, bearing from Sir Fertfinando Gorges a grant of 6,000 acres at a location to be chosen by himself. We know that he had a sober and responsible head, for he had been appointed to the New England Council, whose power extended from the 40th to the 48th parallel, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and was almost absolute, even to control of shipping on the high seas.
From the Isles of Soals Levett sailed up to one David Thompson's small colony at the mouth of the Piscataqua, and thence on a journey of exploration with his fifty men. It must have been winter then, or close to it. but their training in the British Navy would have made Levett and his men tough enough for almost anything; these were not like the later settlers who came to the wilderness fresh from their mild English winters and cultivated land.

Still, it was hard enough for Levett and his men, that winter when they exploded the York River, the Kennebunk, and the Saco. Then they set out from what is now Biddeford Pool and went along the coast to what is now Portland harbor, and here Levett discovered a perfect harbor formed by four islands; today they are Cushing, Peaks, Diamond, and House. He called the region Quack, which was as near as the Indians could get to York, his native shire.
He explored the territory as far as the Sagadahoc, and rowed up the Fore River, which he named Levett's River. (Let us hope it was spring by that time.) While he was exploring the Presumpscot, which, he said, had a "bigger fall than the fall of London Bridge," he met the Indians of the place. They received him hospitably; he must have been the sort of person to give the best possible impression of the white man, so that they did not see him as the harbinger of the destruction of their way of life.
So here is a young Englishman living in the home of the chief, Skittery-gusset, learning the language, eating the food, as much at eas as if he were walking the quarterdeck of his ship. Other chiefs traveled long distances to see him, bringing furs to barter, and they must have been satisfied with their trading. The great Samoset gave him a beaver skin as a gift, and this was a great respect and admiration; it was also the gesture made by one strong man to another whom he considered his equal. In the dark and bloody history of the whites and Indians, Levett' meeting with the red men reads like an idyll.

Like a miniature Roman wall wandering over the face of Scotland, the stone wall that marked the three-mile width of Great Chebeague in the days when the island belonged to two men can still be traced from the outer shore, in and out of woods where it is sometimes briefly lost, and thence to the inner bay and the faint hollow that is the cellar hole of the first house on the island.
There are supposed to be 365 islands in Casco Bay, one for every day of the year, but by actual count there are only 222. One could perhaps sneak in some ledges, but to be absolutely an island it must have enough room for a man to stand on. One must draw the line somewhere. There is no doubt about Chebeague, however, which is one of the largest. It is five miles long from stem to stern; like most of the other islands that lie like ships at anchor in Casco Bay, it heads into the prevailing southwesterly winds and tails to the northeast. In winter it takes an hour and a half by boat to cover the seven or so miles out to it from Portland.
According to one source, the island's name is Indian for "Cold Spring Water" another holds it to mean "Island of Many Springs." The island has been inhabited from so far back that there is no history of those who first came to it; some of the curious artifacts that have been turned up are inexplicable in terms of the Indians who used it in the period just before, and contemporaneous with, the first white explorers.

By comparison with these strange objects, the tools and weapons of the later Indians seem almost modern.
Chebeague has its ancient graves also, raising further questions about those whose feet trod this turf and these rocks so many hundred years ago. Were these who were laid away on Chebeague some who died there during summer encampments or in battle? Or were their bodies brought in ceremony across the waters, and laid away with the prescribed rites of mourning in these places sanctified as burial grounds? And were the places taboo afterwards, and did later Indian children dare each other to walk near them? Did young men try to prove their courage to the girls -- unknown to the elders, of course -- by visiting the old burial grounds at midnight during the fragrant summer darkness?
One civilization tops another here, as seven cities lie one above another on the site of Troy. English and French fishermen once came trapping and fishing on Chebeague, though not simultaneously, unless these common men -- no, uncommon men, who wandered the Atlantic as casually as gulls in vessels that didn't look as functionally tough as a gull's wing --established a policy of live and let live that was impossible between their home governments. Later there were permanent settlements, as permanent as anything could be when death came so swiftly in one form or another, and the old cellar holes and cemeteries dimly remain along the shore near Johnson's and Chandler's Coves, and in other places too.
Now all the island shipping uses Chandlers Cove as home harbor. It is

free of ice. One year is achieved a kind of fame when President Franklin D. Roosevelt anchored his yacht there. What a fascinating game for the mind to play, imagining all the residents from the days of pre-history onward, clustering around the shore to watch the goings-on. There might be among them a band of more or less familiar souls, for a company that was part of the 1745 expedition against Louisbourg camped on the island one night. And we can only hope that if the young man in the treasure story who was tied up in knots put in an appearance, he would be untied.
This story may be apocryphal, but it is true to the same extent as many others: practically every one of the Casco islands is supposed to have been visited by the pirates Teach or Kidd. Judging by all the legends they must have buried, between them, enough treasure to pay off the national debt and make it possible to suspend income taxes for five years.
One day long ago a leathery and ferocious old party with one eye is said to have landed on Chebeague, and during a rum spree in the ordinary confided that in his fairly innocent youth he had once sailed with pirates, and that his captain had buried a magnificent treasure, gold and silver and precious gems, on this very island. As the story got around, the community was pretty excited, but there was something about that one frightful eye that discouraged friendly advances. So old Gimlet Eye stumped around by himself, until one ambitious young man saw a chance to make a quick fortune.

He wasnt able to trail the old man, but finally he approached him with an offre of assistance in return for a share of the take. He was ordered out of the way with a fine lot of tarry curses. This did not scare him. Try never was beat,as they used to say in those days, and in no time at all the bold young man discovered the retired pirate digging vigorously amidst a sizable excavation.
Another thing they used to say in those days was that discretion is the better part of valor; so the hero returned home for help.
When Gimlet Eye was surprised at his dig, he let go with a really poetic and imaginative stream of profanity in several languages, and awed everyone into a respectful and admiring silence. But when he had to stop for breath, the young man jumped brazenly over the rope barrier into the pit to look things over. Then Gimlet Eye cursed him.
"I call on Almighty God,' he roared, "and all you looking on, to witness that in less than a year this young nitwit will be tied in knots even as this rope is now."
This was considered uproariously funny. The next morning Gimlet Eye had disappeared, and the sand and rocks had been tumbled back into the hole. But one of the village playboys said that on his way home from the pub the night before he had seen three men lugging a heavy chest down over the beach to a boat, which then pulled away into the foggy dark.
Of course he might have had a touch of the poet, and dreamed this up

as a suitable ending to the affair, but one can't help hoping old Gimlet Eye really did find his treasure.
There was a sequel, however. A year hadn't passed when the rash hero of the escapade fell overboard from his fishing boat, and came down with chills and fever. Soon his arms and legs were doubled up in cramps, and they were so when he died. In a sense he was tied up in knots. The final macabre touch to the story was that his bones had to be broken before he could be laid in his casket.
In those days and for many years afterward Chebeague was one of those self-sufficient little worlds of salt-water farms. Men lived off both the sea and the land. Then it was possible to see the water from almost any point on the island, for the virgin forests had been cleared away to make room for pastures and raising crops. As the day of the horse passed, and fewer people kept cows where every family had used to have at least one, the woods stole back their own; poplars shimmer and white birches gleam where once fields of oats rippled like a green sea. The old farms have disappeared.
Times have changed in other respects. Once there were more than a thousand people in the town, and more than one industry. "Stone slooping," the building and manning of vessels to carry granite from the quarries up the coast, once made the island rich. Clams were so plentiful there was a canning business on the island. Now stone slooping is a part of the past when we were a nation of creators rather

than consumers. Green crabs and lack of conservation practices have done away with clams. The great schools of herring bypass Chebeague for deeper and colder waters farther north, as the cod have done.
Chebague today is a part of Cumberland, but it has an independent air of living its own life all year round, and the two hundred or so islanders go fishing as they always have. What if there are golf links, a hotel, boardinghouses, cottages, boats for rent, and fishing parties? They are merely so much froth swirling on the surface of the deep-running waters of daily existence.
Still the islanders tell proudly of the great old oak tree on Indian Point, cherished by Wentworth Ricker in 1791 and still standing after the hurricane of 1938, a monument to its own presistence and the loving care of many men. Chebeague is one of the islands that has kept up an unbroken continuity with its past. The community is vigorous in its living, in its religious and social and educational llife. Many summer people have now become permanent islanders, finding there some answer to a long-felt need. There is something about having a moat around one, whether it is a half-mile wide, or seven,
or ten!

Project Spaces
Space: Lobby/Registration Area 1000 s.f.
Uses: Collects and directs the flow of people arriving and departing; front desk provides information.
Capacity: 30-40 people with luggage.
Times of Use: Dawn to dusk; peak uses will coincide with arrivals and departures of ferry boat to mainland.
Adjacencies: Directors office, public restrooms, front porch.
Quality of Light:
Acoustical Considerations:
Furnishings and Equipment:

Project Spaces
Space: Director's Office w/Secretary 400 s.f.
Uses: Administration area of the retreat, records, scheduling, bookkeeping, correspondence.
Capacity: Outer office for secretary and small waiting area; inner office for Director and maybe 4 conferees.
Adjacencies: Lobby/Registrati on Materials:
Quality of Light:
Acoustical Considerations:

Project Spaces
Space: Reference Library 400 s.f.
Uses: Reading, research, writing, a quiet place to study.
Capacity: 5-10 people
Times of Use: Throughout the day.
Adjacencies: Undetermined at present. (30 Nov 85)
Materi als:
Quality of Light:
Acoustical Considerations:
Furnishings and Equipment:
Notes: Primarily a reference facility.

Project Spaces
Space: Large Conference Room, 1000 s.f.
Uses: This room is designed to hold 50 people, the maximum that can be housed at the retreat. Uses include: large group meetings, presentations of various kinds, and possibly performances. Capacity: 50 people.
Times of Use: Day and/or evening.
Adjacencies: Courtyard, A.V. prep rooms, small conference rooms Materi als:
Quality of Light: Variable subdued: views to exterior courtyards regulated by sliding screens.
Acoustical Considerations:

Project Spaces
Space: Small Conference Room, THERE ARE 4, VARIES 200-400 S.f. Uses: Gatherings for seminars, smaller presentations, discussion.
Capacity: 20 people maximum Times of Use: Day and/or evening.
Adjacencies: Large conference room, A.V. prep room, exterior courtyard. Materi als:
Quality of Light: Variable subdued, views regulated by sliding screens.
Acoustical Considerations:
Furnishings and Equipment:

Project Spaces
Space: A.V. Preparation Room 200 s.f.
Uses: Preparing slides, films, or other type of electronic presentation media.
Capacity: 4 people maximum.
Times of Use: Throughout the day.
Adjacencies: Large conference room, small conference room. Materials:
Quality of Light:
Acoustical Considerations: Acoustic isolation is necessary, due to
sound checking and equipment noise.
Furnishings and Equipment:

Project Spaces
Uses: A&Z- &Z&XVE AwP> CXM?>\tO PH&StoTHg:
Capacity: ^
Times of Use:
Adjacencies: f'b&a.ODUKC Ahlt> l££&{'/^isfirfelWr/^ AF&K
Materi als:
Quality of Light:
Acoustical Considerations:
Furnishings and Equipment:
A simple i^me^tic jSfestCeMT'A)- &wem&4t

Project Spaces
Space: C&3£\ME&> UOU=£- IS00 &f=?
Uses: Y&N2' ExWD P AND FHAIi-Y
Capaci ty: 4-t Pecae Time of Use: ALL
Adjacencies: gPILOlsJCf . A^SS*
Qua!ity of Light:
Acoustical Considerations:
Furnishings and Equipment:


Project Spaces
Space: O-JiHSi 112 oO
Uses: £>itCdU4nI DJMINfr MAXIMUM OF ££>
Capacity: fcO
Time of Use: McoH^FTA'j 6FM-SFn
Adjacencies: |^TC.HgM, ^JS^T, jlJflftiaoeCOJCn^PO
Quality of Light: \/ielj into couerrY'
Acoustical Considerations: ^DP^CIS^T ALEVEL. It?
ihito&e.tae tcIA&e Pja^T
Furnishings and Equipment:

Project Spaces
_______________________________________~750 &.Ff
Uses: fcoD
A^COT "75 F&sR-E' MAA
Time of Use: PT^A ^ /.-
Qua!ity of Light:
Acoustical Considerations: jCiTcH^A Hci&e. ertULD not Leak
ihto D'^1^ ^oDrA
Furnishings and Equipment:


Project Spaces
Space: C\UeST 6UILWH6 'QaJQ&. ffxr\S Uses: Hct&MO* Pac.iuty'
Capacity: (2 J^CO@£- 6tCf^£> 2^
Time of Use:
Adjacencies: couetY^t1 i 1JA^CUKf
Materi als:
Quality of Light:
Acoustical Considerations:
Furnishings and Equipment: | (JTf-'/ h4 ,
Notes: ffc^S-V i\ Tt^
^OOO S.F5.

Project Spaces
Space: ^tUesr aF^tmemts 3<00 s.*
Uses: j-j ^T^11 UI'TV
Capacity: | C>£"2
Time of Use: Al-L C^^'T"' )/^
Adjacencies: UNESTfeeMiHS? MKf ^
Materi al s:
Qua! i ty of Light:
Acoustical Considerations:
Furnishings and Equipment: Mill HkV£ *cn£HEMC.-nEM> P'^' Notes: -ff)g££ S£ gOiuT AS t^&'FBPATE UMITS
t>opuef£>-iht&MDED PoK oE MoE£


Ching, Francis, Architecture: Form, Space, and Order. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1979.
Climates of the States. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Narrative Summaries, Tables, and Maps for each State, with Overview of State Climatologist Programs. Second Edition. New Material by James A. Ruffner. Volume One: Alabama North Dakota. Gale Research Company, Booktower, Detroit, Michigan, 48226, 1980.
Climatological Data -- National Summary, 1980 Annual Summary, Volume 31, Number 13. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Data and Information Service. National Climatic Center, Asheville, North Carolina.
Holborn, Mark. The Ocean in the Sand. Shambala Publications, Inc., Boulder, Colorado. 1978.
Kazuo, Nishi and Kazuo, Hozumi. What is Japanese Architecture? Kodan-sha International, Tokyo. 1985.
Knapp, Connie L, Stoffel, Thomas L, Whitaker, Stephen D. Insolation Data Manual. Long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days, and global K-t for 248 National Weather Service Stations. Solar Energy Information Bank, Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado, 80401. 1980.
Lym, Glenn Robert. A Psychology of Building. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 1980.
Moore, Thomas. "Pole House inthe Treetops". Fine Homebuilding, Number 15, June/July 1983. The Taunton Press, Newtown, Connecticut.
Pena, William. Problem Seeking. CBI Publishing Company, Inc., Boston, 1977.
Process: Architecture, Volume 25, Japan: Climate, Space, and Concept. Process Architecture Publishing Company, Ltd., Tokyo, 1981.
Scully, Vincent. The Shingle Style Today. G. Braziller, New York, 1974.
Sloane, Eric. An Age of Barns. Funk and Wagnalls Publishing Company,
New York, 1967.
Walker, Les, and Milstein, Jeff. Designing Houses. The Overlook Press, Woodstock, New York. 1979.

DRAWINGS5 W-1'-0; SITE PLAN51/20-1L0








Uniform Building Code Summary
Construction Element
Type V
Exterior Bearing Wall One Hour
Interior Bearing Wall One Hour
Exterior, Non-bearing One Hour
Structural Frame One Hour
Permanent Partition One Hour
Shaft Enclosure One Hour (Section 1706)
Floor One Hour
Roof One Hour
Exterior Door/Window One Hour (Section 2103b)

Uniform Building Code Summary
Exi t Requi rements
the exit width in feet shall not be less than the occupancy divided by 50.
Maximum distance to an exit shall not exceed 150 feet (200 feet in a sprinkled building). Distance may be 250 feet if the last 150 feet is within a protected corridor.
Exits must be separated by one-half of the maximum diagonal of the floor or area served.
Corridors serving an occupant load of 10 or more shall not be less than 44" in width.
Door swings shall not obstruct required width by half.
Walls and ceilings serving an occupant load of 30 or more shall not be less than one hour fire resistive construction, unless the building is sprinkled.
Stair widths: 44" for 50 plus people 36" 10 to 50 30" less than 10
Stair landing: equal to width of stair or 5 feet when door opens over landing.
Stair enclosures not required when serving two levels only, or within individual dwellings.
Ramps required by Table 33-A shall not exceed a slope of one on twelve. Other ramps, one on eight.
Maximum rise: 7 1/2"; maximum tread: 10".
3305g,h 3308a 3306c 3305c

Uniform Building Code Summary
Space Square Feet/ Occupant Barrier Free Code Reference
Conference Room 7 Yes Table 33-
Dining Room and Lounge 15 Yes Table 5-A
Kitchen 200 No
Offices 100 Yes
Library 50 Yes
Guest Housing 200 Ground Floor

Uniform Building Code Summary
Code Construction Area
Chapter Type Allowed
Conference, B-2
Residential R-3
Facili ties
7 Type V
18,000 s.
12 Type V 1 Hour
Uniimi ted
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Area: 30.920 sq. ml. 139)
Population: 1,124,660 (38)
Dimensions: N-S 310 miles. E-W 210 miles Highest Point: Mount Katahdin 5,268 ft., A-7 Capital: Augusta, G*5*
Largest City : Portland, J-3 Index page 122


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