Tramway Plaza

Material Information

Tramway Plaza
Chreitzberg, D. Michael
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
82 unnumbered leaves : folded plans ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Plazas -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Urban renewal -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Real estate development -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Plazas ( fast )
Real estate development ( fast )
Urban renewal ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )


Includes bibliographical references (leaf 82).
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
D. Michael Chreitzberg.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
10445230 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1980 .C48 ( lcc )

Full Text
DEC. 17, 1980
l *t pv:;\

Table of Contents I. Preface
II. Project Description
III. The City of Denver
IV. History of the Site
V. Zoning
VI. Site Description and Surrounding
VII. Existing Buildings on the Site
VIII. IlcOg Proposal
IX. Site Analysis A. Circulation 3. Views C. Climate D. Geology E. Utilities
Vr ^ I-Iarket Analysis
"rT Financing
XII. Direction and Concepts
XIII. Design Proposal
XIV. Bibliography

When I finished my undergraduate degree in Architecture the common notion among professionals was that "those students can paint pretty pictures for themselves, but they can't put together real buildings." Although the school v/as ranked in the top ten nationally for its program, this statement characterizes the dramatic difference between Architectural Education and the practice of Architecture. Having played the role of an Engineer which is seen as the opposite extreme to Architecture, I have seen some of the truth behind this statement. There were Architects whose works were frequently published, but never quite satisfied the client or building's users. Then there were Archi tects who put up simple, straight forward buildings for thirty dollars a square foot and had people knocking on their doors, somewhere between, there is an appropriate compromise.
This is the direction I seek for myself as an Architect and I have tried to show it in my work for the past two years.
Hy Thesis Project is not intended to be a culmination of that goal, but rather a stepping off point with the promise that "this is what I can do."
"j. don't want to be a great Architect.
just want
to do rooa Architecture.
Hies Van De Rohe

The block of land on which the University of Colorado in Denver (UCD) is located represents the last parcel of land in the Skyline Urban Renewal Project for Denver, Colorado. In recent years, it has become somewhat of a stumbling block for DURA. Two-thirds of the block is currently owned by UCD, and the remainder has been used for parking. However, this arrange ment was initiated with the promise that UCD would provide landscaped public open space with the parking, to bring it up to consistent standards with the Skyline area. A second option was for UCD to be able to purchase the final third of the block for future classrooms or on the speculation of selling the entire block. Because of the university's inability to acquire legislative funds for either, DURA opened the site to proposals for private development.
An offer to sell has been awarded to Lawrence Street Ventures who, in association with McOg architects, have developed plans for a building which will integrate 46 condominiums with twelve stories of 160,000 square feet of office space and
5,000 square feet of retail space. There is also a second level open plaza with a bridge over Lawrence Street into the Dravo Plaza. The proposal is quite marvelous in its relationship to Cherry Creek and well above Skyline standards. However it is unfortunate that future development of the remainder of the block will surely be made more difficult. Because of the new building's strategic location on the block, it impedes

views to the west and complicates access to Cherry Creek for future development. Its proximity to the UCD buildings creates alleys at what is now the front door for the school. It will probably provide the necessary impetus for UCD to move across Speer onto the Auraria Campus. This leaves questions as to what will become of the remaining block.
The three existing UCD buildings now on the block are each of different type and appearance, common only in that they are joined in what is at most, a very haphazard manner. The Tower building is an eight story, redbrick, office structure reminiscent of the early character of downtown Denver. It is on the historical register and cannot, without difficulty, be anything else than renovated. To its northwest is the Bromley Building, a four story, tan brick structure which shares a common fire star enclosure. Although far less significant in appearance, it does offer more flexibility for reuse with its open plan.
The third building, presently used for classrooms, was once a warehouse for streetcars. It is only three stories in height but covers over a third of the block. Although it is closely identical to the Tower building in appearance and material, it offers only marginal possibilities for economic reuse. If any preconceptions exist about future development of the block, it is that this building be demolished. What further strengthens this idea is that any new building could be located to make use of the western views around the McOg project and also tie into that project and Cherry Creek.

As maybe guessed already, this thesis will study alternatives and make a final proposal for future development of the remaining land and existing buildings on the block, should UCD decide to move. Because it has an ideal location on the fringe of the downtown area, of primary concern is adding more housing to the block. Because of the limits to converting the existing Tower and Bromley buildings and their downtown orientation, office space is of first consideration for them. Possibilities for a lower level shopping arcade also come to mind. A third use for the site entails facilities for recreation or entertainment to support increasing numbers of residential units. In any case, future development must be integrated with both on and off-site surroundings. The very real opportunity arises to tie, by way of second level plazas, the McOg proposal and new or existing buildings on the block with the DCPA, Dravo and Cherry Creek. Air rights over Thirteenth Street and the triangle of land at the south end of the block may also be part of the proposal. Development should leave open the possibilities for a direct or indirect connection with the Auraria campus across Speer.
The beginning and success of such a project relies heavily on the economics of numbers a game every developer must play and every architect should understand. Costs versus income is an often delicate balance that must always swing to the latter. It involves intricate rules unique to the situation, developer and his financing. It is also a subject that is difficult to

broach, as those that know are hesitant to speak. However, it is an issue important to the future of every city.
The plight of the city rests in our ability to revitalize declining urban cores. To do this, we must stop and reverse the exodus of people to the suburbs. Commercial growth within a city must go hand in hand with housing, because both are mutually supportive of the other. People keep a city alive, but the current, eight-to-five weekday, mass transit of workers to and from the city creates an environment which is desolate and wasteful for the remainder of the week. This is not to mention the associated problems of pollution, depletion of our resources, and urban sprawl. Thus, the developer issue becomes one of a trade-off. How does he successfully compromise sure money making commercial investments for lower return housing with the knowledge that each will be economically conducive to the other?
Beyond the economics are architectural issues that also contribute to the success of a project. How are the different functions of housing, office, retail and recreation integrated within an urban setting? Further, how does this interface with existing buildings on the site and in the surrounding downtown? Can existing historical buildings be put to reuse? Lastly, can energy alternatives be developed for buildings in the city? Specifically, can residential passive solar techniques be applied to high-rise multi-family housing?

There are many advantages to the site toward which the project will focus. Most important is its proximity to key points in the city DCPA, the Convention Center, Cherry Creek, the Auraria campus, Larimer Square and Sixteenth Street mall.
Direct accessibility to most all of these provides quite an amenity. Secondly, while being in the center of activity, the site also has the distinction within the Skyline area of having a certain amount of privacy. Because it is on the fringe of downtown bordering Cherry Creek and Auraria, it commands permanent mountain views, solar rights, and access to public open space. For housing, the site is an excellent compromise to the advantages of living both in the city and in the suburbs. Admittingly, Speer Blvd. along the southwest is a sore thumb to the site. However, even it offers the advantage of providing quick access to major traffic arteries in the city. A city-long bike path in Cherry Creek also skirts the site. Therefore, the objectives of this project are to maximize the benefits that can be derived from the sites location.
Presently, no plans for future development have been made for the land or buildings where UCD is now located. Programming for the project will be original. Because the McOg proposal for part of the site is complimentary to the direction of the thesis, similarities will be drawn from it for programming. Barker, Rinker, Seacat has also set good precedent with Writer Square from which information can be obtained. It is also the intention of this thesis to approach the programming of the

project from economic issues. Local developers and their architects will be canvassed. It is from their feedback that square footages and functions will be determined. As stated earlier, the project will integrate housing, office, retail, recreation and their supplementary functions.
The thesis will study development of the entire block on the assumption that the McOg proposal will be built. Their building should be well into the design development stage by the fall of this year. The thesis will make, from a planning standpoint, a proposal for developing the remaining block and integrating it with the surroundings. Concentration will be on the preconceived idea that the existing east classroom building will be replaced by a new structure of housing, retail and recreation. It will make plaza and gallery connections to the McOg building and the existing Tower building. The Tower building will be renovated with office and retail functions. Planning for the existing Bromley building awaits further study at this time. Focus on the Tower renovation and new structure will result in an architectural solution completed to design development stage. Presentation will be on boards with supplementary slides and a finished model.

The method that I will use to approach the programming of the thesis is largely a process that has developed within me since I began architecture. Upon reading the "Problem Seeking Method" by William Pena, I found that the basis for this process is similar to it. They both involve the same steps, except that for this project their order is changed.
First there is the preparatory phase where some knowledge of what I am programming is developed. The second step is largely a continuation of the first. It involves the collection and analysis of facts in spatial, physical, biological, social, economic and political categories. The third step begins somewhere during this analytical period. It is one of establishing goals. What does the client want and why? The fourth step uncovers concepts. How does the client want to achieve his goals?
Within the last two steps, harmony must be achieved between the client's needs and desires and those of the architect. Admittingly, this should entail more compromise on the part of the architect and his philosophy than on the client. Because I am playing both the client and architect in the, thesis, this problem will not arise. However, to some degree my advisors will take on the role of clients.
The fifth step is to determine the needs of the client. It is a study into the economic feasibility of the project. Within a budget, a set of space requirements is established that will

satisfy the client's goals. Parameters are also laid within which the quality of spaces is defined. Having no budget on this project, it will be difficult to work within such guidelines. However, by using common sense and comparisons to existing projects in Denver, a certain appropriateness can be developed.
The last step is to state the problem. What are the significant conditions and the general directions the design of the building should take? There is only a fine line between this step at the end of programming and the beginnings of schematic design.

1. Learn to approach design from a programming direction rather than from intuitive thought by working from the general to the specific.
2. Develop a planning attitude that encompasses a broader analysis from problem seeking to problem solving.
3. Develop an awareness for the infrastructure within a city that is available to the architect as a source of information .
4. Broaden my understanding of the economic issues that confront a developer/client when he is initially programming a project.
5. Gain experience in working with renovations of existing buildings. Learn the pros/cons of dealing with historic buildings.
6. Broaden my knowledge of the workings of Denver, particularly the downtown area, so that I may apply it to the other cities in which I may later work.

III. The City of Denver
Denver is located in the center of an urbanised metropolitan area of over one and a half million people. The capital of Colorado, it is also the HUB for the Central Region of the United States. In an effort to free ourselves from foreign oil reliance, this country is turning to the production of oil from shale. The Rocky Ilountain Region will be the source for this energy alternative. Already Denver is feeling the developmental pressures as industry, government, and commerce moves into the area in anticipation of what may transform the city into the new energy capital of the country. At the same time, Denver is also experiencing swift urban expansion away from the downtown as residents move out into the suburbs. The city is searching for a plan to reverse this trend, because its continued vitality depends on its ability to sustain this downtown as both a living and working environment.
A good dovmtown is a center that is responsive to all the needs of the people who work, visit, live, play, shop, or invest there, because of Denver's size and present situation, the major issue becomes how to utilise its existing qualities in realizing its future potential. The city has made a commitment to build upon the activity and strength of its commercial core area. The strong retail district on Sixteenth Street parallel to the solid office and financial district on Seventeenth Street provides the vital spine for dovmtown. This linear high density core is an ideal arrangement for transit service, one that v/ill

soon see realisation in the Sixteenth Street Transitway Hall.
Consistent with this is another major interest, to encourage pedestrian activity within the city. Hew development is working towards establishing pedestrian linkages between important parts of the city. This is occurring not only at ground level but on elevated plaza levels with arcades that pass through blocks and over streets. As the role of the automobile lessens in priority within the city, people are beginning to see the advantages available to living within the city.
The Skyline Urban Renewal Project, a fully funded,
Federally assisted program is dedicated to bringing new life to
a twenty-seven block area of land in downtown Denver. Administered %
by the Denver Urban Renewal Authority (DURA), it has made land available for redevelopment to such uses as office buildings, retail/commercial complexes, entertainment facilities, hotels, and most important residential buildings designed to compliment the existing downtown retail and financial spine. The project area forms a "T" at the northern end of the spine and stretches east and west to the outskirts of the downtown. To the west it serves to connect the educational and cultural centers of the city with the commercial core. To the east it provides a gateway to adjacent residential neighborhoods. To the south of the commercial spine is the governmental district. Thus the city is becoming more unified in design and function while at the same time providing the diversity necessary for intense human activity
to make it

T? ry * -v\ t r "f* C* -J -j /y
W i 11 O O U 1 O -L U X u O
The block of land on which the University of Colorado in Denver is now located will soon be undergoing changes. The school, purchased two-thirds of the block and its existing buildings some years ago from the Denver Urban Renewal Authority, situated on Fourteenth Street between Lawrence and Arapahoe Streets, it is adjacent to the larger campus of the Auraria Higher Education Center with which they share facilities. Under prior agreement, the remaining portion of the block was left available to UCD on the promise that they would acquire the necessary funding for its purchase. Following seven years of unsuccessful attempts to complete negotiations, DURA opened the sale to public bids.
They recently awarded the land to Lawrence Street Ventures, a Denver development partnership that will build a multi-level, mixed use project on the site.
The university has for some time been considering moving onto the Auraria Campus. Students must now cross north and south bound lanes of a major city thoroughfare to attend classes of the different institutions. This incurs problems with both convenience and safety. The proximity of the new project to the present UCD buildings will create alleys at what is now the "Front Door" for the school. It will further complicate what is almost an unbearable situation. The Auraria Planning Department has begun initial programming for providing facilities for UCD on their campus. The Colorado Legislature has also shown interest in such a move and has indicated the possibility for budgeting

the necessary expense, what v,rill be the future ings UCD now uses.
Therefore, this leaves question as to of the remaining block and existing build'

Should the block be put up for public sale, possibilitie for development are almost limitless. The land is located in the Skyline Area Urban Renewal Project administered by DURA.
Any new development would be subject to the present zoning regula tions and design guidelines established by DURA for the project area. It is designated for general commercial development which allows for such uses as hotel, merchandise mart, retail shops, entertainment facilities, residential units, general and institutional office, or any combination of these uses. Basic building floor area permitted, excluding parking, loading and mechanical equipment is based on a floor ratio of 5:1 (five square feet of building floor area for each square foot of parcel area). Besides the basic floor area permitted, additional floor area may be allowed as a premium for the location of landscaped open space on an elevated pedestrian level as well as for arcade areas
which are accessible to and open for general public utilisation.
The Skyline Project and its associated zoning -will remain in effect until 19S5. At that time control will revert back to the city planning office and 3-5 Regulations will become jurisdictional. B-5 District Floor Area Permitted is based on an increased floor ratio of 10:1 with increases in premiums also. Uhile there may be some desire by developers to delay projects beyond that year, the present pressures of demand and rising costs far outweigh any advantage to be gained in the future. It is also expected that the city will wish to continue

the sane high standards of development currently used in the Skyline Area, and maintaining such relationships to surrounding
buildings dictate far less of a building area, height, and mass than allowed by 33-5 Regulations. Therefore, it is only realistic to assume that development at any near future date will recognize DURA's present Skyline Regulations.

"DURA Zoning Regulations" a. GENERAL COMMERCIAL
(1) Permitted Uses
For disposition parcels to be developed for General
Commercial uses, the following listed uses shall be
(a) Offices
(b) Transient housing-hotels, motels
(c) Residential housingmultiple unit dwellings
(d) Sale at Retail
1. Art works, equipment and supplies.
2. Business equipment and supplies.
3. Cameras, photographic equipment and supplies.
4. Drugs, medicines, medical and health equipment and supplies.
5. Dry goods, notions, tobacco products, gifts, novelties, souvenirs, luggage, jewelry, stationery, hobby supplies, toys.
6. Flowers.
7. Groceries and food products: baked goods, candy, nuts confectionary, dairy products, eggs poultry, meat, fish, seafood, fruit, vegetables
S. Hardware, wallpaper, paint.
9. Husehold furniture, furnishings, equipment, appliances.
10. Liquor.
11. Music, musical instruments and equipment,

recorded music, radio, television.
Newspapers, magazines, books.
Sporting goods.
Wearing apparel and accessories.
(e) Repair, rental and servicing of any article the retail sale of which is a permitted use.
(f) Service and Convenience
1. Ambulance service.
2. Automobile parking.
3. Beauty and barber shops.
4. Blueprinting, photographic processing, photostating .
5. Dental and medical clinics and laboratories.
6. Eating places, restaurants, catering service.
7. Health treatment.
8. Interior decorating.
9. Laundry and dry cleaning collection and distribution.
10. Mortuary.
11. Pawn shop.
12. Photographic studio.
(g) Entertainment, Recreation, Instruction, Education
1. Bowling.
2. Billiards.
3. Dance studio.
4. Institution, school.
5. Library, reading room.

. Meeting hall.
7. Museum.
3. Music studio.
9. Private club, lodge.
10. Theater, theatrical studio.
(h) Miscellaneous accessory and supporting uses that are normally, commonly and reasonably incidental to and associated with the uses specifically listed including such facilities as Electrical Substation, Gas Regulatory Station, Fire and Police Station,
Post Office, Telephone Exchange.
(2) Floor Area Ratio
The maximum floor area ratio per disposition parcel designated for General Commercial use, excluding parking, loading, and mechanical equipment areas included within the structure shall be 5:1. (Mote: a floor area ratio 5:1 means that 5 square feet of building floor area may be constructed for each 1 square foot of parcel area). In the event of development utilizing air space above public rights-of-way, the parcel area for the purpose of computing permitted floor area may include the surface area of the public right-of-way located immediately below the development.
The maximum density for residential development shall not exceed one residential unit per 200 square feet of disposition parcel.

(3) Land Area Coverage
(b) Land area coverage for disposition parcels designated for General Commercial use between 15th Street and 18th Street (except Block 25) shall not exceed 80 percent of the total area of any parcel, provided however, that land coverage may exceed 60 percent if the redevelopment proposal provides for the development of walkways, plazas, arcades and similar open public areas and facilities available for general pedestrian utilization and circulation located at an elevated level and/or located and designed in a manner acceptable to the Authority. In any event, each redeveloper shall be required to provide suitably landscaped open space equal to not less than 40 percent of the total area of his parcel, provided however, that the Authority may modify these requirements for parcels located adjacent to proposed park development.
In addition to the floor areas permitted under section C.2., premiums of additional floor area may be constructed upon the Authority's approval of development plans that generally provide for the location of primary uses, pedestrian walkways, plazas, arcades and open space at elevated levels that separate pedestrian accommodations from vehicularly oriented facilities located at grade and subsurface levels. Floor area premiums may be allowed as follows:

Five square feet of additional floor area for each square foot of plaza which:
(a) is open and readily available to the publia at
all times from at least two separate access points.
(b) is unobstructed from its lowest level to the sky,
(c) is attractively designed for maximum pedestrian utilization.
(2) Three and one-half square feet of additional floor area
for each square foot of unenclosed arcade which:
(a) is open to the public at all times on at least 25 percent of its perimeter, and
(b) has a minimum dimension of 12 feet in width and height.
(3) Two square feet of additional floor area for each square
foot of enclosed arcade which:
(a) provides access to a plaza and is open to the public at all times, and
(b) has less than 25 percent of its perimeter open to a plaza but at least two separate access points with minimum dimensions of 20 feet in width and 12 feet in height.
Off-street parking and loading facilities shall be provided
by redevelopers of all disposition parcels in the area. These facilities must be located on and cn tained within disposition parcels, and access mus
renewal tirely con-t be so

designed and located as to assure minimum interference with pedestrian and vehicular traffic circulation both inside and outside the project area. Off-street parking and loading facilities in General Commercial areas shall be located in effectively and aesthetically designed structures, generally as an integral part of the buildings to be served, and be located in the portions of the buildings below the elevated pedestrian circulatory level.
In Central Business District Supporting Commercial areas, off-street parking and loading facilities may be located in open-air surface lots. Such facilities must be attractively screened from adjacent streets and properties and include interior landscaping.
(1) Off-Street Parking
For General Commercial development there shall be at least one off-street parking space for each 1,000 square feet of building gross floor area except for Multiple Uni t Dwe 1 lings .
For Central Business District Supporting Commercial development there shall be an off-street parking area equal to at least one-fifth the building gross floor area except for Multiple Unit Dwellings.
For Multiple Unit Dwellings there shall be at least one off-street parking space for each two dwelling units.
The Authority may modify off-street parking requirements for development adjacent to the proposed public park in the event that parking facilities are constructed

A redeveloper or group of redevelopers acquiring and developing a multi-parcel site as an integrated unit may propose an alternate plan for location and distribution of parking accommodations within the multi-parcel site area. Approval of such a proposal by the Authority will be contingent on its conformity with the objectives and requirements of the Urban Renewal Plan.
(2) Off-Street Loading
For all development there shall be provided at least the following amounts of off-street loading space plus adequate space for maneuvering, ingress and egress.
All loading and maneuvering space must be located on and entirely contained within disposition parcels.
For structures containing less than 25,000 square feet of gross floor area, one berth for each 12,500 square feet of gross floor area or increment thereof must be provided. For structures containing 25,000 or more square feet of gross floor area, the number of berths shall be as specified in the following table:
Square Feet of Gross Floor Area
25,000 to 40,000
Require I Jo. of Berths
40,001 to 100,000
100,001 to 150,000
150,001 to 240,000
240,001 to 320,000

320,001 to 400,000 For each SO,000 over 400,000 1 additional
Each off-street loading berth shall be at least 10 feet wide, 35 feet long and 14 feet high exclusive of access aisles and maneuvering space.
These requirements may be modified if, in lieu of providing individual loading berths, the developer proposes construction of a centralised facility that provides adequate equivalent off-street loading accommodations.
Signs identifying permitted uses may be erected. Signs shall be single face only, mounted flat against the wall of the building containing the permitted use, and shall not project above the roof line. The maximum height of individual letters, figures, insignia or devices shall be 36 inches. Signs shall be limited in location to the premises on which the use is located and must be clearly associated with, incidental and customary to the operation of the permitted use. Subject matter on signs shall be limited to identification of the name, owner, operator, manager, lessor or lessee of the premises or establishment. Signs may be illuminated only from a concealed light source, and red or green illuminated signs shall not be permitted within 50 feet of a street or intersection. Signs with flashing, animated or intermittent illumination shall be prohibited.
The maximum size for an individual sign identifying multiple
shall not exceed 12 square feet in
unit dwelling premises

iace area.
Specific setback requirements are not established in the Plan. However, the Authority may establish setback lines for any specific disposition parcel to accomplish design objectives and functional requirements.
Subject to local codes and ordinances, the Authority may permit building development beyond disposition parcel lines across public rights-of-way at an elevated level and/or across and in appropriate locations subsurface to public rights-of-way. It shall be the redevelopers responsibility to provide and maintain adequate lighting facilities for areas under building projections above public rights-of-way.
Within the context of other provisions contained in the Urban Renewal Plan, the Authority may establish design criteria which shall be applicable to all development, for buildings and open spaces, vehicular and pedestrian movement and acess, landscaping, fine arts works, street and exterior furnishings and such other elements as are necessary for the proper development of the renewal area.
Duration of Regulations.
The foregoing provisions and regulations concerning redevelopment of the project area shall be in full force and effect ana shall run with all land to be acquired and disposed of by the Authority until December 31, 1935.
until Dccembor

tion and Surroundings
Future development of the block has the potential for being the finaling to the urban design concept of the Skyline Project. The site's location on the fringe of the downtown area makes it not only a gateway to Skyline; but because it is also adjacent to the cultural, entertainment, and educational centers of the city, the block more importantly becomes a HUB to the Skyline Area.
The block and the rest of the City's grid layout are on a forty-five degree angle to north and south. It is approximately 300 feet wide from northwest to southeast, by 400 feet long. Across Lawrence Street to the northwest is Dravo Plaza, a multi-story office building with retail on the ground floor overlooking a landscaped open space which wi11 eventually border Cherry Creek. In the block north of the site is Larimer Square, an early 1900's restoration of buildings into specialty retail, eating and entertainment. To the northeast across Fourteenth Street is a parking lot and drive-in facility for Central Bank. The future of this block is unsettled, although the bank is
anticipating expansion of their adjacent office facilities. In the block east of the site are the Brooks Towers, a twin high-rise office and apartment complex. Across Arapahoe Street to
the southeast is the Denver Center for the Performing Arts (DCPA). It includes a theater complex, concert hall, auditorium and exhibition hall inter-connected by an elevated and partially covered pedestrian level. Directly across Arapahoe from the
the multi-story parking deck of the center with retail
site is

shops on the Fourteenth Street sice. She elevated Plaza covers Thirteenth Street and ends abruptly as a jumping off point to the center on a diagonal south of the site. Across Thirteenth Street to the southwest is an undeveloped triangle of land which will be landscaped, by the Lawrence Street Ventures' Project.
It is approximately 150 feet long on its three sides and bounded by Speer Blvd. which runs along its west diagonal. Development of air rights over Thirteenthe Street and on the triangle itself in conjunction with the UCD block is within the realm of possibility Iluch controversy has arisen over Speer Blvd., and Cherry Creek, which runs parallel to and divides the north and south bound lanes. There is pressure from developers to move Speer to the west bank of the creek to create a park bordering the downtown and DCPA. A hiker/biker trailway is presently under construction beside the creek channel and will connect to the Platte River Trailway System one-half mile to the northwest.
Also scheduled is a three s.cre park between Speer and the DCPA.
The north bound lane is presently being bridged across Cherry Creek in front of Dravo plaza and will entail foreseeable improvements in Dravo's landscaped open space. Equal resistance, however, is being encountered from the Auraria Board of Regents who would like to see Speer moved to the east of the creek to develop a
park on their campus fringe

VII. Existing Buildings on Site
The three existing UCD buildings now on the block are each of different type and appearance. The Tower Building, located at the eastern corner of the block, is an eight story, red brick administrative office structure reminiscent of the early character of downtown Denver. It is now the focal point of the block due mostly to its height and white granite cornice. To the south and directly connected for two stories to the Tower Building, is what is now the General Classroom Building. Only three stories in height, it covers over a third of the block. Both buildings originally belonged to the City Streetcar Company. The Tower Building contained the corporate offices while the other structure was used as a carbarn for storage and maintenance. The Arapahoe Street facade of the carbarn is similar in appearance tothe Tower Building in that both are red brick with horizontal granite banding. Both buildings are on the National as well as State Historic Registers.
West of the Tower Building is the Bromley Building, a four story, tan brick building of less significant appearance. Because of its relatively open plan and flexibility, it has been used as a warehouse, library, office building and now architectural school. Stairs, elevators and toilets have been added to the south and east ends of the building. The eastern end is directly connected to the Tower Building at four stories with
a smoke stair and catwalks for the remaining floors . Service
to these three buildings occurs at the hasc of this smoke stair
off Fourteenth Street and off alle; s "co "cne back. The entire

complex forms an "L" in shape on the block. A parking lot now exists on the remaining portion of the block which is to be the future site for the Lawrence Street Ventures Project.
As a whole, the existing buildings work quite well in their present use as an institution. If another buyer were interested in using the entire complex, its possibility for adaptation is strong. However, because the buildings are contiguous to each other, it could be more difficult to sell individual building for different uses and maintain the separations that would be required.
Aesthetically, the other two structures detract from the uniform appearance of the Tower Building. The connection and differences of appearance, height and massing between the
Tower Building and Bromley are awkward and unsightly. From
Fourteenth Street, Bromley appears dwar fed between the Tower
Building and Bravo Plaza. The carbarn i g tied in with the Tower
Building by the use of similar materials. It is also of similar scale to the DCPA Parking Garage opposite Arapahoe Street. The walls of concrete and brick opposite each other creates an oppressive feeling along Arapahoe, but it is not a heavily traveled pedestrian or vehicular thorough-fare. The facades of the buildings to the interior of the block arc plain and lacking fenestration, as they once fronted on alleys. They offer little possibility for tying together with Lawrence Street Ventures' Project and thus unifying the block.
As an individual building, Bromley has no official front entrance off the sidewalks. The existing stair-towers are located

and designed to provide little possibility for a central or ceremonial entry. The building was designed for an open plan arrangement with large expanses of glass and high ceilings for natural lighting. However, should.there be the desire to subdivide floors, these factors would be detrimental. Also there is no suitable fenestration on two sides of the building which would make subdivision less desirable. The building has fin-tube steam radiation with forced air cooling. The mechanical systems are highly flexible except that a gypsum board ceiling concealing ductwork would have to be removed. The building has load bearing masonry walls and columns on a fifteen foot grid.
The floor and roof structure are of timber construction. There is no possibility for adding stories because of structural limitations. Under zoning regulations, if the building was demolished and rebuilt, it would be possible to increase the permitted floor area by roughly fifty-five percent.
Because of its historical status, it would be difficult to tear down the Tower Building. Also, under present zoning, any new structure could have only seventy-five percent of the existing building's square footage. The Tower Building has attractive facades and a ceremonial entrance off Fourteenth-Street to a central elevator,core. An open staircase at one time rose between two elevators from the central lobby. Exterior iron fire escapes did not meet code and were removed. Smoke stair towers were constructed on the exterior of the building, one of which interupts the facade and cornice of the building. Aesthetically, this creates an unsightly blemish to the original

treatment of facades. Because corridors must bo designated through the building to these stairs, there is also no advantage in terms of usable square footage. The building's floors are presently subdivided into individual offices. There is no central cooling system. Heating is by steam radiation. Toilet facilities are marginal. Because on the lower floors they extend into the connection with Bromley, they would have to be relocated if Bromley were removed. Structurally, the building is similar to Bromley.
Renovation of the Tower Building to bring it up to current market quality would be extensive and costly. In addition to the probable relocation of many partitions, toilets and mechanical cooling would have to be added. Should adjacent buildings be removed extensive repair of the facades would be necessary, including the relocation of stairs to the interior of the building. The existing facade would also need cleaning and repair. Existing windows would need replacement. Because of its inherent inflexibility, it would be even more difficult to change the function of the building from that of offices. It is highly possible, however, that federal subsidy could be provided because of the building's historical status.
The old carbarn is now used for classrooms. The masonry structure was designed for the heavy loads of street cars on both the basement level and first floor. When the building's use changed to classrooms a third floor was added. Because of the buildings depth, there is a. double loaded corridor that loops around each floor. Windows are fairly large but spaced apart. Interior rooms have no natural light.
This is the least flexible

of the three buildings for adaptability to reuse, other than for large spaces. Dropped ceilings and ample ceiling space has allowed for the addition of forced air heating and cooling and plumbing.
If this building was demolished, future development could increase floor area by one hundred-ten percent. The carbarn is also on the historical register as part of the Tower Building. Outright demolition would entail the loss of certain tax advantages for depreciation and deduction. The building's facade has less historical significance than the structur's history and reuse.
It is hoped that the historical societies would also weigh the significance of future development for Denver should the building be destroyed. It might also be possible to save or reproduce the street facades and incorporate them into future development to appease historical interests.

Square Feet
Parcel area: 100 x 125 12,500
Ground coverage: 12,500 x 0.6 7,500
Open space: 12,500 x 0.4 5,000
Basic floor area: 12,500 x 5.0 62,500
Floor area premiums:
Plaza: 5,000 x 0.6 x 5.0 15,000
Open arcade: 5,000 x 0.1 x 3.5 1,750
Enclosed arcade: 5,000 x 0.3 x 2.0 3,000
Basic floor areas + Premiums 82,250
Mechanical: 82,250 x 0.03 2,500
84,750 75,000 S 750
(NOTE: Parcel area is identica.l to Bromley.
Therefore, permissable building square footages are the same also.)
Parcel area: 125 x 300 37,500
Ground coverage: 37,500 x 0.6 22,500
Open space: 37,500 x 0.4 15,000
Basic floor area: 37,500 x 5 187,500
Floor area premiums:
Plaza: 15,000 x 0.6 x 5.0 45,000
Open arcade: 15,000 x 0.1 Y O C 5,250
Enclosed arcade: 15,000 x 0.1 x 2.0 9,000
Basic floor area + Premiums 246,750
Mechanical: 246,750 x 0.03 7,400
EXISTING i*LOOri. ARiiiA: 120,000
DIFFERENCE: +134,150

Square Feet
Parcel Area: 125 x 75 9,375
Ground coverage: 9,375 x 0.6 5,625
Open space: 9,375 x 0.4 3,750
Basic floor area: 9,375 x 5 46,375
Floor area premiums:
Plaza: 3,750 x 0.6 x 5.0 11,250
Open arcade: 3,750 x 0.1 x 3.5 1,300
Enclosed arcade: 3,750 x 0.3 x 2.0 2,250
Basic floor area + Premiums 61,675
Mechanical: 61,675 x 0.03 1,850

"Working With Historical Building"
The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Evaluating Structure
^ >>
Within Registered Historic Districts
(a) A structure contributing to the historic significance of
a district is one which by location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling and association adds to the district's sense of time and place and historical development.
(b) A structure not contributing to the historic significance of a district is one which detracts from the district's sense of time and place and historical development; or one where the integrity of the original design or individual architectural features or spaces have been irretrievably lost.
(c) Ordinarily structures that have been built within the past 50 years shall not be considered eligible unless a strong justification concerning their historical or architectural merit is given or the historical attributes of the district are considered to be less than 50 years old.
The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation
1. Every reasonable effort shall be made to provide a compatible use for a property which requires minimal alteration of the building, structure, or site and its environment, or to use a property for its originally intended purpose.
2. The distinguishing original qualities or character of a building, structure, or site and its environment shall not be destroyed. The removal or alteration of any historic material or distinctive architectural features should be avoided when

3. All buildings, structures, and sites shall be recogni products of their own time. Alterations that have no his basis and which seek to create an earlier appearance shal
zed as torical 1 be
4. Changes that may have taken place in the course of time are evidence of the history and development of a building, structure, or site and its environment. These changes may have acquired significance in their own right, and this significance shall be recognized and respected.
5. Distinctive stylistic features or examples of skilled craftsmanship which characterize a building, structure, or site shall be treated with sensitivity.
6. Deteriorated architectural features shall be repaired rather than replaced, wherever possible. In the event replacement is necessary, the new material should match the material being replaced in composition, design, color, texture, and other visual qualities. Repair or replacement of missing architectural features should be based on accurate duplications of features, substantiated by historic, physical, or pictorial evidence rather than on conjectural designs or the availability of different architectural elements from other buildings or structures.
7. The surface cleaning of structures shall be undertaken with the gentlest means possible. Sandblasting and other cleaning methods that will damage the historic building materials shall not be undertaken.
S. Every reasonable effort shall be made to protect and preserve archeological resources affected by, or adjacent to, any project.

9. Contemporary design for alterations and additions to existin properties shall not be discouraged when such alterations and additions do not destroy significant historical, architectural or cultural material, and such design is compatible with the sis scale, color, material, and character of the property, neighborhood or environment.
10. Wherever possible, new additions or alterations to structure shall be done in such a manner that if such additions or alterations were to be removed in the future, the essential form and integrity of the structure would be unimpaired.

VIII. HeQg Proposal
The ilcOg Proposal for the vacant lot behind Bromley has no regard for the adjacent UCD buildings. It will create dark alleys out of what is now the front door to the school. Spatially, the twelve story building, rising up not more than 20 feet from the edge of Bromley and the East Classroom Building, will completely dwarf the surrounding passages. It will detract from the Tower Building whose height is one of its distinguishing features in relation to the surrounding blocks. It will overwhelm the Bromley and East Classroom Buildings. IlcOg's philosophy for downtown buildings is to respond to human scale at only the street level with recesses and sculptured walls. This is fine for Seventeenth Street amidst the towering skyscrapers. Its massing is unappropriate for the UCD block.
Their concept is to provide an interior plaza which steps up to a level above Lawrence. A restaruant will adjoin the plaza for outdoor eating and art exhibits as well as sculpture is planned to provide activity. A bridge will run across Lawrence to Bravo Plaza's landscaped open space. A steep narrow* flight of stairs leads down to Thirteenth Street at the corner of the Plaza. A landscaped park is planned for the vacant triangle of land. The desire is to provide a path for pedestrians to moves from the DCPA Park across a relatively untraveled Arapahoe, through the Triangle Park, up into the hcOg Building's Plaza and and over to the1 Dravo Plaza. The I-IcOg Building's Plaza is also intended to pull pedestrian traffic off of Fourteenth Street
from Larimer Square
and move it diagonally across the site to

the DCPA.
Future development on the UCB block can bimish or enhance the IlcOg Proposal. If a second level connection is made to the DCPA it will tie the McOg Building's Plaza into pedestrian circulation patterns in a much stronger way by avoiding the corner stair. If future buildings replace Bromley and the last Classroom Buildings, thewill be the opportunity to more closely relate the massing of them to the IlcOg Building's domineering form. However, future buildings must respect the solar rights and views of the McOg Building, particularly it's Plaza.

site Analysis
A. Circulation:
Denver and planning agencies concerned are promoting pedestrian, bicycle and mass transit to help alleviate the problems caused by the automobile. Pedestrian traffic is especially encouraged at second level with bridges to tie blocks together over streets. This is beginning and will continue to have an important impact on the city which is desirable and should be maintained.
At present, pedestrian traffic on and around the UCD Block consists mainly of students attending day and night classes. During events at the DCPA, there is also much traffic along Fourteenth Street and diagonally across the parking lot behind Bromley. This consists mostly of patrons going to or from Larimer Square, surrounding parking lots, and the DCPA performances.
When UCD moves onto the Auraria Campus, student traffic will drop. However, there will still be student traffic going from classes to the downtown area for work, shopping, or eating.
At present this traffic occurs along the named streets.
In the future with completion of the DCPA Park and the Dravo Plaza Landscaped Area, it is expected that pedestrians will be encouraged to move through the block developments rather than along the streets. There is the possibility that second level bridges or underpasses may be built at Dravo and the DCPA to tie Auraria with the downtown. The Lawrence Street Ventures' Project includes a pedestrian bridge crossing Lawrence to drop down into Dravo Plaza open space. Should Central Bank put office expansion over

their drive-in facility,
it is likely they will provide a bridge across Fifteenth Street. Pedestrian bridges are already planned to tie Tabor Center with surrounding blocks including Central Bank. Therefore, future development on the UCD Block should also have the possibility for tying at second level into not only Central Bank expansion but the DCPA Plana at Thirteenth Street as we11.
When the Cherry Creek Trailway is completed it will tie surrounding suburbs in the southeast and the Platte River Trailway System to the downtown area. Bicycle traffic is expected to increase into the downtown area up named streets from the access points off the creek. These occur adjacent to the UCD Block at DCPA and Dravo. This will also provide a place for joggers and hikers who live in downtown Denver.
At present RTD provides service up Lawrence Street from the Lakewood Area to downtown. There is an existing stop at the southwest corner of the UCD Block. Service will continue alonr this street as long as it remains open through the Auraria Campus. Buses will turn off of Lawrence at Fifteenth down to Market Street and the RTD Terminal for the Sixteenth Street Mall. There is no existing service by RTD on any of the other streets bordering the block. Future bus traffic in the downtown area will be along Sixteenth Street Hall only and to or from the terminals at opposite ends.
Existing automobile traffic patterns around the UCD Block are expected to remain the same in the future. Flow rates are not expected to decrease, but it is hoped that RTD will naintai

If Lawrence Street is
the!;', at close to their present numbers. closed through the Auraria Campus, this would decrease the flow significantly around the site. Speer 31vd., which runs along the triangle of land and skirts the southwest corner of the block, has roughly 50,000 cars per day. It is one of the major arteries into the downtown area from the suburbs. Lawrence, Fourteenth, Arapahoe and Thirteenth have less traffic in decreasing order. Lawrence and Fourteenth at a distance farther north feeds off of Speer into the downtown. Thirteenth and Arapahoe are major drop-off sti'eets for the DCPA.
The blocks surrounding the site have numerous points of access to parking and service areas. Underground parking and service occurs along Lawrence from Dravo Plaza. Central Bank parking and drive-in facility exit is along Fourteenth.
DCPA Parking Garage has an access point along Arapahoe. At present the UCD Buildings are serviced off of Fourteenth Street. This is undesirable because it crosses through a major pedestrian route. For this reason the city planning office encourages service along named streets only.
Classroom Building have ac However, these are expecte and emergency vehicles wit Parking and service for tt Street only.
Future developme with all circulation .patte
to the block should be off of the numbered streets at both ground
.lleys be hind Bro mley
ss off of Law ren ce a;
to be cl osed off for
the La wr ence Str ee t
pro je ct will oc cur i
shoul d recog nis e an;
.s. Sp SC i al ly , m ajor

and second levels
. Parking bicycle and service access should be off of named streets and possibly Thirteenth.
E. Views:
The UCD Block is located on the fringe of the downtown area. The Auraria Campus and its three-four story buildings are to the southwestern half of the site. Because of this, the block has permanent clear views of this panorama of distant mountains beyond. The middle ground view encompasses the suburbs of Lakewood from the foothills to the city. The trees and low-rise development do not detract from the beauty of the mountains beyond. The uniformity of the Auraria Campus marked only by the steeples of Saint Elizabeths and Saint Cajetans Churches creates a pleasing foreground also. The smoke stacks and cooling towers of the City Physical Plant beyond Auraria provide at times interest ing displays as white vapor is released in unusual patterns on on the sky.
To the west over Tivoli e^re distant snow caps that usually remain so almost ten months out of the year. The Mile-high Stadium looms in the middle ground. Although uninteresting by day, the area becomes lit up with excitement at night for football season. Also, at night the lights in the Lakewood suburbs create a dazzling panorama. To the northwest from the lower half of the block, Long's Peak can be seen in the distance.
Again the middle ground is filled with trees in the outlying suburbs. The foreground includes a view down Cherry Creek to the Platte River Basin and the Dravo Plaza landscaping.

The city lies to the north and northeast side of the block. The buildings are relatively new or presently under construction. Eecause they are in the Skyline Project, most of high standards in Architecture. The varied roof forms and cornices of Larimer Square are a welcome contrast to the modern buildings of the city. The distant plains can be seen beyond the city on a clear day. Long's Peak can again be seen from the northern most part of the site. Future building by Central Bank in the adjacent block may hide much of the downtown views. Brooks Towers lie to the east from which residents can look down onto the site.
The DCPA lies to the southeast side of the block.
The multi-story parking garage creates a blank wall in the foreground. The unusual roof forms and glass of the theaters give some relief. Beyond BCPA there is a view up Cherry Creek and the residential neighborhood on Sante Fe Street beyond. Again trees soften the suburbs in the middle ground. In the distance are the plateaus that give contrast to the irregular horizon of the mountains.
Belov; the fourth story of development on the block
views will be restricted by surrounding buildings except to the southwest. In this direction, however lower levels will be looking down on Speer Blvd. Above the fourth floor, panoramas and the full range of foreground, middle and distant views are possible In general, the city fills the eastern ISO0 of view and the mountains are to the western half. The mountains offer the greatest beauty and variety of view. Future development should take

advantage of this . Primary points of vie\ w should be Longs Peak
to the no rthwest, distant snowcaps oO cno west, and me plateau
to the south from the highest levels only. There is no real attraction to the downtown side.
Views onto the site are from surrounding buildings, the Auraria Campus and the streets. Set between Dravo Plaza and the DCPA the most important views are from the Auraria Campus as it becomes the foreground to the city from the 'Lawrence Street Mall. Both south and north bound lanes of Speer Blvd. converge on the site with this same view. The second level plaza and balconies of the DCPA theater overlook the southern corner of the block. All of these views are from a reference looking up or across to the site.
Views from the downtown buildings of Dravo, Central Bank, and Brooks Towers converge on the Tower and Bromley buildings. 'The Tower Building becomes a focal point for pedestrians walking along Arapahoe and Fourteenth Streets. Dravo Plaza steps back from Lawrence Street opposite the Bromley building to alleviat the canyon effect of the two. It is hoped Central Bank expansion will make a similar attempt. Brooks Towers peer diagonally down onto the site. It v/ill be difficult to provide privacy from offsite views on the downtown side. The Tower Building should remain a focal point from the downtown and future development on the.block should not detract from this.
C. Climate:
The climate in Denver can best be described as being serni-arrid. Indeed lack of water has become one of the key

problems, so much so that there arc watering restrictions observed every summer. The lack of rain contributes to other problems too. Dirt and pollution are particularly bad in the downtown area. Without frequent rain to clean buildings and streets, dirt accumulates on all surfaces to be blown into the air from the constant breezes down off the mountains. Pollution from auto exhaust is the second worst in the United States, although it appears to be improving. There are occasional smog alerts in the fall and early spring associated with temperature inversions Yet in a recent National Survey, Denver was said to have the best weather conditions.
Indeed, the weather and temperatures in Denver are moderate, however, they can be interrupted by instances of great extreme During the summer there is little precipitation occurring usually in the late afternoons and marred by occasionally severe thunder or hail storms. During the winter most precipitation is in the form of snow. This usually occurs on an almost weekly basis, but the snow is light and quickly melted. There are usually three to six instances per year of snowfall over twelve inches, which remains on the ground for days.
Temperatures are governed by a high diurnal swing.
The high altitude, distance inland, and clear skies are contributing factors. Low humidity levels lessen the extreme effects of temperature. During the summer day temperatures may rise into the nineties, but night sky radiation cools off the surfaces.
During the winter night temperatures may drop below ten degrees, but the sun warms the air. It is rarely unpleasantly cold during

the day in the winter. The downtown area is warmer than the surrounding suburbs because it acts as a man-made heat island.
Denver has a windy climate. There is usually always a breeze.- During the winter, winds are from the north bringing cold dry air down from the Arctic. During the summer, winds are generally from the south-southwest bringing warm air from the desert areas of the southwest. Wet winds occur from the south-southeast up from the gulf coast. Dry winds come from the southwest. The strongest winds are from the west down over the mountains. Located on the southwestern fringe of the downtown, the block experiences the full gamut of Denver's climate. It is shielded somewhat from the winter winds by buildings to the north. However, it is open to the full brunt of the strongest and hottest winds from the southwest.
Because there is no possibility of high buildings to the south, the site does enjoy permanent solar access. There
is some early
irly morning shading from Brooks Towers and
There is also late afternoon shading by Dravo. However, thi: shading occurs primarily in the summer when it is desirable. There need be little concern for shading off site buildings ;
future development. The existing buildings on the site and the Lawrence Street Ventures' project do share adjacent buildings, but this precedent has been already accepted by them. The big concern will be on site shading of the portions of future development on each other and on the Lawrence Street Ventures' Project.
The frequency of sunshine in the Denver area provides an obvious advantage to solar heating. the city grid is skewed forty-five

degrees from north to south so that all four side enjoy some solar access. Coupled with the breeze and moderate temperatures, it is also possible to artificial cooling.
s of the blocks s, lov; humidity do without
Due to the city environment and surrounding streets, certain compromises must be made for privacy from noise. It will be difficult to provide a quiet orientation to the block. The greatest noise occurs from Speer Blvd. during the day. The other surrounding streets and the drive-in bank facility across Four'teenth contribute to noise pollution. At night as street traffic lessens so does the noise. However, this is dependent on performances at DCPA and entertainment on Larimer Square that provide disturbances at night. In general, the least amount of noise occurs from the east-southeast orientation towards the DCPA.
D. C-eology:
The UCD Block slopes uniformily to the southwest. The lower side of the site at Thirteenth Street is approximately one story or roughly fifteen feet below Fourteenth Street.
Cherry Creek runs approximately one hundred feet from the western corner of the block in a north-south direction, hater flow is to the north and into Platte River. According to the city planning office, new work along its banks, in conjunction with the Trailway System, assures that a two hundred year flood will stay within the creek's confines. A five hundred year flood would reach and cover the western quarter of the site.
neath the site v /ill r.- oner a 0
i, anm a g 0 fill, lUoaL J Lo.v
or minus
feet of
to 20 feet

loose to medium dense sands and gravels with occasional stiff clay layers from creel: deposit underlie the fill. Competent claystone bedrock exists at a level 25 to 40 feet below ground surface, possibly as low as 60 to 70 feet locally. Competence of the bedrock is on the high side.
The most probable foundation type for this site and expected construction would be straight shaft piers drilled into the bedrock. They could be designed for maximum end pressures of 30,000 to 60,000 P.S.F. with side shear of about a tenth the maximum end pressure for that portion of the pier. Pier holes will require temporary casing into the bedrock to permit dewatering, cleaning any inspection because of caving soils and ground water. Maximum soil pressures are probably 2500 to 6000 psf depending on the density of natural sands and gravel at various locations.
In areas where man-made fill extends below the floor slab, it will be necessary to remove the fill and replace it with controlled compacted fill.
Ground water levels are at basement level on the low end of the site. However, during wetter periods it can be assumed it would rise from five to ten feet. Dewatering would be required for construction, and provisions for subsurface drainage beneath slabs and around basement walls would also be necessary. Denver is within zone 1 on the seismil scale of risk.
E. Utilities:
Lawrence Street Sanitary Sewer 10" dia.
Storm Sewer 40" dia.

Telephone Gas 4" dia.
Water 6" dia.
Arapahoe Street Sanitary Sewer 10" dia.
Gas 6" dia.
Water 6" and 8" dia.
Storm Sewer from 13th to Speer 24" dia.
13th Street
Sanitary Sewer 18" dia.
Telephone Gas 6" dia.
Water 12" dia.
14th Street Telephone
Speer (Worth Ed.)
Sanitary Sewer
Sanitary Sewer all streets but 14th
Storm Sewer Lawrence and Arapahoe (from 13th)
all streets but

all streets
Water all streets (13th primary 12" dia.)
Power Arapahoe (primary) and 14th Steam 14th
Hew Construction at Past Classroom Site
Sean is unavailable as energy source because system is over capacity now.
Gas probable source of heating Electricity source for cooling
Service entry to site would be from Arapahoe Street for Power and Gas
Water service from 13th Street Telephone from Arapahoe Storm Sewer from Arapahoe Sanitary Sewer from Arapahoe
Mechanical room near corner of Arapahoe and 13th New Construction at Bromley Gas, Power, Water, Telephone from 14th Storm and Sanitary Sewer to Lawrence Street Mechanical room near corner of 14th and Lawrence

- > In 1S78, DURA had a Market Study prepared for the
Skyline Project Area to determine the demand for housing units there. The outlook is very opeimistic indeed for future increases in numbers of people living in downtown Denver. The study gave several reasons for such increasing costs for energy and transportation is perhaps the greatest stimulus. The reduced availability of units around the city coupled with a high demand for housing caused particularly by the influx of new residents moving to Denver will direct more people to the downtown area. Great numbers of persons will be moving to Denver from large metropolita areas throughout the country who have previously lived in downtown areas. They will again be looking for this type of housing to be close to downtown employment. Lastly as increasing numbers of new housing units are added and as the downtown achieves an improved image as a prestige area for upper-income households, the domino effect will begin to draw more and more people. Althou the area is experienceing problems of air pollution, rising crime, water shortage and overcrowded schools, most Denver residents feel that there is no better place to live than Denver. Also, recent figures have proved that downtown docs not suffer from these problems any more than the suburbs.
The Market Study further tried to identify the character estics of people expected to be seeking downtown housing. Host important of these is the fact households that live in or near the downtown tend to be employed there. Secondly because downtown
housing is usually high-rise, the tenant

small household

alone or t .? l-s VV J. Oil o the P
There tends to be
gh 30 1 s and in the late
thi s age group ing are
re being involved in
.e t hroug! h it. Fur ther-
unrelated individuals and childless couples, a clustering of ages in the late 2C's throug!
50's and beyond. It is because persons of ti willing to occupy this type of housing befor* the child-rearing cycle or after having gone more, tenants of conventionally financed high-rise housing are usually in the higher income brackets above $15,000. It is assumed that the majority of those working downtown who earn over $15,000 are professional, technical and kindred, managers or administrators. They could also be placed in the category of those having higher education, usually with a four year college degree or more.
Although the study did not attempt to identify a social cross-section, it can possibly be assumed that the majority of those
persons with the previous characteristics would also be white.
Figures were given for the numbers of households that might be interested in downtown housing and also projections for probable absorption of downtown dwelling units. The interest for housing downtown will range from 850 to 1800 units in 1980, and 1,550 to 3,300 units by 1985. The study projects that SCO to 1520 units could be absorbed in downtown Denver from 1980 to 1985 at an annual rate of about 200 to 250 units. Although the study shows a disposition towards a mixture of rental and sales, the market as of date is being forced heavily towards sales. This, however, is due primarily to inflated interest rates and developer financing decisions.
The demand for office space in Denver still exists
:-pace in Denver

despite the tremendous number of buildings being constructed in the city. This is due largely to the energy related firms moving to and springing up in Denver. As the city becomes the corporate headquarters for the rising shale-oil industry, the numbers of investment related firms and government agencies v/ill also increase. As housing increases within the downtown area, so too will the need for professional services, in short. There is still great need for office space of all kinds to serve both tenants who desire entire floors and those who can use only small suites.
There will also always be the advantage to mixing retail functions with housing and/or office because of storefront traffic within such a complex. However, there is mixed opinion in Denver as to whether the downtown can support the large amount of existing retail and that under present construction. Certainly, it must be closely watched until larger numbers of supportive dwellings can be established. It would be risky to to introduce another shopping center cheme without first waiting for the results to projects already under construction such as the Sixteenth Street Mall, Tabor Center, and One Denver Place. This ofcourse would have to be a developer decision in the end. There may be the desiie to jump the market before the other centers are well established if he thought he had a better scheme. Due to these facts and the relatively unsuccessfu nature of the retail space in the DCPA Galleria and Dravo Plaza, development on the UCD Block should shy away from a marketplace concept.
One thine- common to most Denverites is their love for the outdoors, recreation, and physical fitness. As more people

move dovmtown the demand for facilities to support these activitic
will also increase. This is one reason for their flight to the suburbs, because it is available with the larger amounts of open space. Therefore some attention must be made to provide at least complimentary if not complete recreational facilities for downtown residents. This is particularly important to the younger, professionally oriented people expected to be drawn towards the city.
The existing Denver Athletic Club is both limited in facilities and availability to future downtown residents. The most appealing types of facilities appear to be those that provide the full range of sports including specifically jogging, tennis, racketball swimming, and conditioning.

Table 24
Professional and managerial Civilian,Employment .
Lov; Estimate High Estimate
Percent of High Income Households with Highest Probality fox' Downtown Residence
Estimated Base Households Oriented to Downtown Housing by Virtue of Employment Therein, Occupation, Type of louschold and Income Criteria Lov; Estimate High Estimate
2.500 10.3
3.500 13.6
Real Estate Research Cor'poi'ation

. Financin'-'
The beginning and success of a project relies heavily on the economics of numbers. It is a game every developer must play and every architect should understand. Costs versus income is an often delicate balance that must alwa;ys swing to the latter. It involves intricate rules unique to the situation, developer, and his financing. It is also a subject that is difficult to broach, as those that know are hesitant to speak.
In this project the developer issue becomes one of a tradeoff. Mow does he successfully compromise sure money making commercial investments for lower return housing with the knowledge that each will be economically conducive to the other. This is dependent on several factors. The first is how much money does he have to spend. The second is how much of a return on his inves ment does he want. Third, what kind of future long range plans or goals has the developer set for himself.
Money spent is obviously directly related to investment returned. The source of a developer's financing usually dictates the type of return that he wants. Time is a key element. Does the developer want a quick return or is he looking more towards a long term gain? This may depend on whether he borrowed heavily to initiate the project or had personal backing. If he borrowed heavily, chances are good the developer will want a quicker return
l his financing
v. gain, if the develops
to pay off the lc?an and avo i d th G inl3Gi"*0S"fc
was psr sonal, o r if his loans have low inter
may Vs o, looking for the securi dy of long ten:
has several project s nl anne a dov w i l oilj- 0vQ |

quick return off the first few to help financ
e i. r o
o o; .;.ers
combinations are endless not to mention the affect taxes have-on the analysis.
All these factors also begin to influence the type of development, uses, and clientel it nay serve. In Denver, the surest market is office. Although less stable than housing, retail has the opportunity for more return. The market for housing varies with the clientel that the project addresses. Most developers are presently leaning towards the higher income brackets. However, there are Federal and State subsidies available for low-income, elderly, and student housing. In this area, the greater financial risks or problems with management and maintenance may
Because on the site concerned there are existing buildings to be dealt with, this would also have an affect on the financing. Renovation or demolition, both, have drawbacks due to the added problems arid costs they entail. Two of the existing buildings are on the historic register. There are tax advantages and grants available for dealing with rehabilitation of the buildings.
If a property qualifies as a certified rehabilitation, the owner may amortize his costs over a five year period, even if the expected life of the improvement exceeds five years. If the property qualifies as a substantial rehabilitation then the owner may instead take accelerated depreciation on the costs of the property and its improvements. With the depreciation benefit only, there is also an investment tax credit of up to ten percent of rehabilitation expenses. If a historic structure is demolished or altered

in other t depreciati deducted, availabili appeal par
nan a certified rehabilitation, unsn no accelerated on can be used. Also, demolition expenses cannot be These tax advantages, disadvantages and the limited ty of fifty percent matching funds for rehabilitation ticularly to small scale projects. However, their
influence on a big developer would be substantially less

Square Footage Figures
Construction Costs (new)
$45 50 Office Shell $10 15 Tenant Fin.
$75 Condos
$20 Renov. Tower
$10 Renov. Bromley
Demo Costs (totals per Galen McFadyen)
$25,000 Bromley $30,000 Tower $20,000 E. Classroom
Sales/Rents $100 Condo
$14 15 Office/Retail
Land Costs
$17.02 Office/Eetail/Etc. $6.01 0 200 sq. ft. per
Residential Unit

to the site toward
Direction And Concert
There are many advantages will focus. Host important is its proximity to key points in the city DCPA, the Convention Center, Cherry Creek, the Auraria Campus, Larimer Square and Sixteenth Street hall. Direct accessibility to most all of these provides quite an amenity. Secondly, while being in the center of activity, the site also has the distinction within the Skyline Area of having a certain amount of privacy. Because it is on the fringe of downtown bordering Cherry Creel; and Auraria, it commands permanent mountain views, solar rights, and access to public open space, for housing, the site is an excellent compromise to the advantages of living both in the city and in the suburbs. Admittingly, Speer Elvd. along the southwest is a sore thumb to the site. However, even it offers the advantage of providing quick access to major traffic arteries in the city. A city-long'bike path in Cherry Creek also skirts the site. There one of the major objectives of this project
is to maximise the benefits that can be deriv
U. J.
One of the major objectives c
is to promote pedestrian activity within the downtown. This is to occur not only at street level, but also on second level plazas
D U it A for the Skyline Are
tin n the down town. This
and bridges typing blocks together above automobil sd ur*G. j. zl c
The long range goal is to link all major districts Oi ui.O Cl ujy
The Sixteenth Street Hall will lird c Skyline to the n.* ,..r n r* x. iC w 0 il 0 C i
tnrougn tne retaal ana _!_xxancxal Sx^me o ci y .
nail for fourteenth
C? '- - -v x.
kh L. X V_-' L
is planned for the

Civic C{ .ci -J- n\ -.1 to th e Convent!02 i Center ctn Cl Lc* J'x. d eyond. A
es of second level plazas and pedestr inn bridges will link
almost every block within the Skyline Area. Future planning calls for a pedestrian bridge to cross Speer Blvd. and Cherry Creek at Bravo Plaza.. This will link the Auraria Higher Education Center with the downtown Skyline Area. Should future development
on the UCB Block and Central Bank drive-in facili
.ock make
provisions for second level pedestrian movement, it will complete the chain.
The UCB Block has the potential for being the HUB between the BCPA, Auraria, Larimer Square and the downtown areas. The second level plaza of BCPA ends abruptly at the intersection of Thirteenth and Arapahoe Streets diagonally across from the UCB Block. The Lawrence Street Venture's Project will have a pedestrian bridge crossing over Lawrence to Bravo. From that point a plaza shat runs under the Bravo building leads to Larimer Square, hus it is the intention of this thesis project to make a bridge connection to the BCPA to provide the opportunity for pedestrian movement at a second level parallel to Cherry Creek. This will
Larimer Square and possibly in the future to
*cna c run 3 unde
Thus it is the
connecti. on to
move raent a t a
link the Ti U CPA
the Aura ri 3. d cl.
Bevel opme:
Lawr ence S tree
b e tw een th e DC:
Drav o wi 11 be '
Development of the UCB Block in co-ordination with the Lawrence Street Ventures' Project will provide a HUB of activity between the DCPA and Larimer Square. Although a route through Bravo will be provided, the primary emphasis will be places on
i nf'nrf
af f ic through the UCB Block. : :his is to
the necessity for a connection chrourh me

Central Bank Blocks to the rest of Skyline. This will be accomplished by not only providing a physical link, but also visual and spatial encouragement due to building relationships. The development will present itself as a gateway on the downtown fringe to the activity and inner workings of the city.
One of the biggest complaints about present development within the city is its lack of respect for Denver as a unique place with its own type of people. This is often because the architects and devlopers themselves are from out-of-town, and they have no real knowledge or feeling for Denver other than financial. The concept for this thesis project will be one of defining what Denver and its people are all about. It will be an architectural realization of a particular style and appreciation for living common to Denverites.
Downtown Denver has many amenties. Besides being a place to live, work, and shop, it is a place with opportunity for Education, Culture, Entertainment, and Recreation. Essentially, the downtown has everything available to the suburbs. However, because of the higher density and close proximity of features
v;i oni n the c i the act ivit i s
is wi oHl n v/a lkin g dis tar. ce o T ca:
a bus nu 111 d poss ibili tie s fo X in1
ry'C eat er on - oot than in pass in C 1 o
The o ne thi ng th at all De nvi
love for "C ho out doors The-'' a rc
pr* of e ssi on < i- ly o ne n t ed in w or 9
ot 1 o A 'w X. o rn 1 he V c-r e r.ior e a ppre ci cl o.
, oi.lii'
>e on a snort hop i
of culture, politics and

environment. They are a fun-loving people, yet deeply concerned about the things that have an affect on their lives. Denverites are also athletic and fitness oriented. However, all these thin are a spin-off of their closeness to nature. The backdrop of no tains is a constant reminder to this, and provides an ideal outl for these feelings.
This thesis project will create a place in the city that expresses Denver and its people. It will be a place with the possibility for much activity and interaction, yet also provide-the privacy for individual living. Having mixed uses, it will be a place to live, work, shop, and play. By virtue of its
location it will be near the ent ert airmen > cultural, education
government, financial and retail centers of the city. However,
it will try to draw these things towards it and dramatise their
availability. This activity will be in a setting of the outdoor, and provide a focal point for those living and working around it. There will be the opportunity to bring the outdoors into all parts of everyday living, and vice versa. Host important of this will occur in downtown

Community Center
Movie Theaters Athletic Club Shopping Total Retail Housing
48 units 1300 Total Net Parking
250 spaces Q 325 Total Gross



10 fc
02 fc
18 27 31 05 15
14 12
16 11 14 17

13 th. ST.
* P
f k 0




/o 1-4
ana f
f r "*? i
L i J


ftfMl** lo DRAVO PLAZA





2nd. Floor
1st. Floor



14th. ST. TOWER BLDa
13 th. ST.


ELEVATION Arapahoe St.

r ; t
3ibl an h;
"Dowmtovm .uenver* Development Plan", Denver Planning Office and Dovmtovm Denver, Inc., September, 1979.
"Dovmtown Denver Planning Data", Denver Planning Office Central Area Section, April, 1377.
"Housing Market Study for Skyline", 'DURA, June, 1970.
"Problem Seeking Method", William Pena.
Soil Report for UCDC Expansion", Hawes and Assoc. Engineering-Consultants, July 29, 1969.
"Tax Incentives for Rehabilitating Historic Buildings", U.S. Dept, of Interior, 1SS0.