Hua- Kang Community Center
HUA-KANG COMMUN X T'V CENTER
AN ARCHITECTURAL THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
FOR THE MASTER DEGREE OF ARCHITECTURE
The Thesis of
( Wen-Mei Chu )
University of Colorado at Denver
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PROJECT BACKGROUND INFORMATION PHILOSOPHY LANDUSE ANALYSIS POPULATION STATISTICS TRAFFIC CONDITION
SITE ANALYSIS LOCATION SIZE ACCESS
EXISTING ACTIVITIES/ECONOMIC CONDITION
SUMMARY OF PROGRAMMED SPACES SPATIAL REQUIREMENT
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According to the development of educational envi-
ronment and the movement of educated students in the Chinese Culture University, there are many kinds of activities and trades occurred to provide the living requirements .
Surrounding the Hua-Kang area, Taipei, Taiwan, there are many students rent the apartments. They need a better environment for shopping, recreating and communicating. These needs are also required by other residents who live there.
There comes the program of "Hua-Kang Community Center", for mainly serving both students and residents
Some students live in the dormitory of campus, some students rent the apartments close to the campus, and others go to school by vehicle All of them need more place to eat, to go shopping, and to stay for recreation and com-
Some residents work in other places, some of them do the business with students, and some are the owners of the apartments which are rented to students. They need one place to participate in social and cultural activities.
So the Hua-Kang Community Center will provide students the space of extracurricular activities, and serve both students and residents the space of shopping, recreating, and communicating.
How to make distinction of different functional areas, how to use buffering space to connect them, are considered to produce the harmonious space gathering the people in Hua-Kang. Therefore, the Hua-Kang Community Center must be confronted with the multiple uses, and become a significant association place.
Besides the concern about harmonizing the community center, I emphasize the conception of using the Chinese traditonal form and contemporary construction.
(1) Chinese Traditional Form
Follow the development of Chinese culture, the traditional building types evolve as the philosophy synthetically implicated nature and mankind.
* Roof implies the head of human being. Its function is to prevent rain water get through the building and to control the daylight get into the window. As its shape, the waterdrop produce enjoyment of visual and audible rhythm
* Walls and Columns implies the body of human being. Even the proportion of fenestration or openings express the esthetic tendency. The space between exterior walls and separated columns is defined as the transition of indoor space and outdoor space. Furthermore, the different size of the body can be considered
as the relationship of subordination.
Base implies the foot of human being. It un-
derlied the roof and the body, is the foundation of the building. It escalates the level of accession, and lets people feel the risen
(2) Contemporary Construction
There are many important reasons for constructing the Hua-Kang Community Center by contemporary technique.
The traditional construction is wood structure The building can last for a long time if the wooden frame is adoptable for the weather.
But in Hua-Kang area surrounded with Mountains the humidity is too high to use wood, I suggest that it should be constructed by modern technique for preventing damage and lasting longer time.
In the old time, people devised the building and chose the appropriate materials to assist it. But the cost of labor is expensive now, for using modern materials and methods, that
can save money and time to build it.
In accordance with the buildings of the Chinese Culture University, Hua-Kang Community Center should be built as the same way as the surroundings.
The Hua-Kang Community Center is included the function of student center and the function of community center, the composition of Chinese traditional form and contemporary construction, how to get united these major characteristics is the most primary viewpoint.
# Scope and Limits of the Project
Hua-Kang, Yang-Ming-Shan, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.
Area of Site
Area of Building
approximate 61,440.00 sg.ft.
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By general definition, a community center is the hub where people conduct political, commercial, recreational, and cultural activities to achieve public well being. It provides an important function in the concept of community development and bears profound significance in the physical, psychological, and cultural development in any community.
For hundreds of years, the daily activities in traditional Chinese society have involved the essence of the concept of community development without its actual formation. It was not until at the end of China-Japan War when the Rural Reform Movement has carried out which started establishing the function of community development as recognized and defined by the Western World.
Since 1965, the Taiwan Provincial Government has
completed over 79 communities in Taipei, however, there
are only 15 communities which are equired with communi-
ty centers, due to various causes. Some of the cities provide merely a meeting place for public gathering, others are in the form of a small library to provide
PROJECT BACKGROUND INFORMATION
In 1961, the College of Chinese Culture was established in Hua-Kang, Yang-Ming-Shan, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China. Till 1980, the name of the school was changed to be the Chinese Culture University.
The Chinese Culture University is a private school which accepts students who passed the College and University Joint Entrance Examination. The school consists of sixty four departments included undergraduate and graduate programs. Because the students come from all cities of Taiwan, and Hua-Kang is situated on the suburbs of Taipei, the activities of students promote the development of this district. Shuang-Shi, Shan-Tzu-Hou, even far to Ping-Deng Li, and etc., although the government has not planned it as a united neighborhood, it becomes the community itself naturally. So the distribution of students increases the number of
residents, and influences the community.
The deploy of the Chinese Culture University has
been developed carefully and delicately, the building was fit in with its surroundings, and the landscape became the important factor on site plan.
Hua-Kang belongs to Yang-Ming-Shan, is located on 1510 feet above sea level, and has the nice view of Taipei city. In fact, Hua-Kang is surrounded with Sha-Mao-Shan, Chi-Hsing-Shan, Ching-Tien-Kang, and etc..
The position of Hua-Kang can look up to the spectacular view of mountains, and look down the vast view of Taipei basin. There is no air and noise pollution disturbing this place, and Hua-Kang is a pleasant environment for both living and studying.
The site of Hua-Kang Community Center was chosen to be adjacent to Hua-Kang Road, the main route to get to the Chinese Culture University. It includes a whole block, and most of the land belongs to the Chinese Culture University. Because of the increase of students, the growth of economic impact, and the needs of social
activities, Hua-Kang Community Center is necessary to
be built for improving the quality of life.
Community Development is a discipline and a process through which the community can better discover its weakness and identify its needs, and furthermore, to utilize its full potential and resources within the community.
The objectives of community development are to encourage the people in the community to strengthen its organizational structure, to help discover resources and talent, and to achieve the total well-being of the commun i ty.
A community center may bear various functions depending upon the size and the structure of the community. However, the activities and functions can be generally characterized into the following areas:
* Commercial Type
There are activities as business administration, financial assistance, retail and whole sale business.
* Cultural Type
There are activities/faci1ities as cultural services, social interaction, educational and administrative services.
* Recreational Type
There are activities/faci1ities as public gathering, play area, theaters, coffee shops, and etc. .
* Service Type
There are warehousing, unemployment, and other
# Existing Condition of Landuse
On the site of the Hua-Kang Community Center, there is a faculty dormitory of the Chinese Culture University, occupied the most of the area; for the rest of the site, there are private houses, one restaurant, a greenhouse and open spaces.
- Percentage of total ground area covered by the building; 40%
- Percentage of total ground area occupied by the total floor area: 100%
# Landuse Ownership
According to the explanation of the ownership certificate, the Chinese Culture University owns the most part of the land. After the expropriation from other landowners, the site will belong to the school property totally, and the
new community center will provide the activities
to all residents in the community and all students in the school. The area of the site is
102,400.00 sq. ft..
# Student Population
Students Live in Dormitory
# Resident Population
Yang-Ming Li Ching-Shan Li Ping-Deng Li
No. of People
3,601 1,576 1,433
# Visitor Population
According to the season of sightseeing, there is variation for the transient as visitors.
# Bus No. 260 Taipei <-----> Hua-Kang
(arrive the Chinese Culture Univ.)
Bus No. 301 Taipei <------> Yang-Ming-Shan
(arrive Shan-Tzu-Hou, three to five min. walking to Hua-Kang)
# Time for Taking a Bus
Hua-Kang <---------------------> Shih-Lin
15 to 20 min.
< -------------------> Taipei Bus Terminal
40 to 45 min.
< -------------------> Pei-Tou
25 to 30 min.
# Main Arteries:
Hua-Kang Road<----> Yang-Te Grand Way <--->
Chung-Cheng Road <----> Chung-Shan North Road
# Connected Accesses:
almost 20 feet to 35 feet wide roads.
The site of this project is in Hua-Kang, Yang-Ming-Shan, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China. Hua-Kang is on the east of Huang-Hsi river valley, above the southwest mountain land of the Ta-Tun volcanic cluster, and it is 1510 feet above sea level. Fu-Shou-Hsi, a branch of Huang-Hsi, flows around the north piedmont of Hua-Kang, and it belongs to the river valley of the young stage.
The erosive phenomenon of Huang-Hsi looks grand and majestic, with the precipice and deep valley, and the distance between Huang-Hsi and Hua-Kang is about 820 feet. The river mouth of Huang-Hsi is Tien-Mu.
There is Ching-Shan on the east of Hua-Kang, 2746 feet high. There is Sha-Mao-Shan on the northeast of Hua-Kang, 2110 feet high; it belongs to the Ta-Tun volcanic cluster, and is a dome shaped volcano.
There are many high volcanos on the north of Hua-
Kang. The north is Chu-Tzu-Shan, 3620 feet high. The north-northeast is Chi-Hsing-Shan, 3675 feet high. The north-northwest is Ta-Tun-Shan, 3602 feet high, and it is the dividing ridge of Huang-Hsi and Pei-Huang-Hsi. The southeast of Hua-Kang is Wu-Chih-Shan, 2297 feet high. The strike line of the northern mountain ridge
is in the northeast-southwest direction.
The site is on the remarkable location and good geographical environment. Yang-Ming-Shan National Park is the most easeful place for holidays, with hills at the back and beautiful scenes in front. The Chinese Culture University has the nice view character, and the campus itself provides people with the elegant and delicate scene.
Besides the rare sight, the fresh air and guiet environment are enjoyable. Compared with the urban feature-the congestion of traffic, the concentration of population, and the pollution of environment, the suburbs become the pursuit of people for higher quality of living. Especially the district in the mountain, if there are flat area and nice view, that is considered to be conceived as residential district.
In short, it is fortunate and appreciated to own the view resource in this site of the Hua-Kang Communi-
E3MV X RONMENT
It is noticeable for the changeable weather in Hua-Kang. The specific climate there results from the northeast monsoon in winter and spring; during the season from summer to fall, it is under the great influence of the southeast monsoon, and this condition lasts six or seven months.
During the end of September, the northeast monsoon from Asia passes through Japan, Korea and toward south, with much amount of moisture. Because of the hollow topography, the northeast monsoon gets into Hua-Kang from the negative element of Pei-Huang-Hsi river valley and Wan-Li low hilly land. There is a lot of small airflow produced, so it makes the incessant rain. The obstruction of Sha-Mao-Shan causes
the winds and rains turned to Hua-Kang, and it occurs
severely during the end of fall through the beginning of spring. The rainfall concentrates in September, October and November. The average of annual precipitation is about 18.10 inches, and the precipitation is relative to the real effect for supplement of ground water.
During the days from sring to summer, there are the southwest monsoon and landward winds, the sky is clear and the weather is cool and comfortable. Ex-
cept typhoon, there is no thunderstorm.
# Climatic Data
Temperature ( c )
MONTH J . F. M. A. M. J. J . A.
AVE. 11.9 12.4 14.4 17.0 19.9 22.2 23.2 23 .
AVE. HIGH 15.3 15.7 17.9 20.6 23.6 26.0 27.7 27.
AVE. LOW 9.0 9.4 11.2 13.8 16.8 19.6 20.5 20 .
MONTH S. 0. N. D. YEAR
AVE. 22.0 18.6 16.1 13.4 17.9
AVE. HIGH 25.7 22.0 19.3 16.5 21 5
AVE. LOW 18.9 15.8 13.4 10.7 14.9
Relative Humid ity ( % A
MONTH J. F. M. A. M. J . J. A.
AVE. 81 83 84 85 87 88 86 86
RECORD LOW 36 37 37 40 51 50 46 44
MONTH S. O. N. D.
AVE. 83 78 79 79
RECORD LOW 42 39 41 40
Wind Speed ( m/sec. )
MOMTH J. F. M. A. M. J. J. A.
AVE. 3.8 3.6 3.0 2.5 2.2 2.2 2.9 2.8
RECORD HIGH 23.0 22.3 20.0 17.6 25.8 32.2 43.0 33.8
MONTH S. O. N. D.
AVE. 3.2 3.9 4.0 3.9
RECORD HIGH 23.0 25.8 20.3 21 0
Precipitation ( mm )
MONTH MONTH AVE. DAY AVE.
111.5 138.5 7.8 8.1
M. A. 164.3 146.3
192.5 204.0 10.4 13.2
MONTH AVE. 115.8
DAY AVE. 13.1
A. S. 0. 160.1 134.6 99.3
13.6 23.8 17.8
N. D. YEAR 113.2 121.0 141.8
15.7 11.4 12.3
Precipitation Days ( dav )
MONTH J. F. M. A. M. J.
DAYS 18.3 14.3 15.2 12.8 13.2 8.3
J. A. S. 0. N. D.
8.5 11.3 15.3 18.8 18.2 18.5
Hours of Sunshine ( hour )
MONTH HOURS RATE ( %
J. F. M. A. M. J .
53.8 58.2 66.0 91 .9 117.2 149.0
1 6 18 18 24 29 36
MONTH HOURS RATE ( % )
233.7 224.6 56 56
N. D. 65.4 48.5
# Water Sources
Ground water is existent only in the part of fissure and joint of rock formation, or adjacent to the rock surface where is the zone of weathering.
Also wherein the volcanic detritus which has the incompact cementation, there is more ground water. Except that, it is very difficult to find the stored ground water. Moreover, the volcanic rock is very hard, and it costs too much to drill the well, so there is no people who have dug any kind of wells in Yang-Ming-Shan.
Yang-Ming-Shan area lacks the vast alluvium, thus here is not the desirable ground water source inherently. For this reason, the inhabitants use the tap water, or the water from springs and mountains. There is no utilization of ground water in Hua-Kang
as the cause.
The main stratigraphy exposed in Yang-Ming-Shan are andesite, agglomerate and volcanic detritus, which erupted from the Ta-Tun volcanic cluster in the pleistocene of the Quaternary Period, and those overlay on the sedimentary deposit of the early Miocene Period of the Tertiary.
The lithological characters and the succession of strata are listed below:
EPOCH STRATIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS THICKNESS
SHA-MAO-SHAN BLOCK STREAM 300 984
UPPER TUFF BRECCIA 100 328
YANG-MING-SHAN BLOCK STREAM 50+ 164+
LOWER TUFF BRECCIA 200 656
EARLY MIOCENE MU-SHAN BED 500 1640
PERIOD WU-CHIH-SHAN BED 1000 3280
So the land surface of Hua-Kang, Shan-Tzu-Hou, Hu-Ti, Shan-Chu-Hu, and wherever in Yang-Ming-Shan, which
have been bored, are all tuff breccia bed.
# Organizations at Hua-Kang
- Post office
- Police station
- Gas station
# Schools at Hua-Kang
- Chinese Culture University
- Hua-Kang Arts and Crafts School
Ke-Chih Public Junior Middle School
EXISTING ACTIVITIES/ECONOMIC CONDITION
# There are several kinds of activities:
- Cultural/educational activity
- Commercial activity
# The economic characteristic of Hua-Kang is by means of commerce. There are restaurants, barbershop/ beauty shop, bookstores, laundry stores, poolroom/ table tennis room, and etc.. Most of them do the main business with students. So during the vacation some of the stores or restaurants may not open every
SUMMARY OF PROGRAMMED SPACES
According to the characteristic of the Hua-Kang community, there are three different kinds of attributes discussed as below:
(1) Cultural attribute
a. contents of activities:
communication, exhibition, speeches, movies, recreation, and etc..
b. organizations of activities:
departments of school, associations of school, organizations of research, and etc..
those activities as speeches and movies may be held in the evening or in holidays; the activities as exhibition and recreation may happen in the daytime.
* game rooms
most of the users are residents, and almost the residents are students.
(2) Economic attribute
a. contents of activities: business/trade activities.
b. organizations of activities: restaurants, retail stores, and etc..
it is limited in school time for better business; but on March and April, there is the sightseeing season of Yang-Ming-Shan, this can stimulate the activities.
* bakery store
* coffee shop
* instant food store
* barber shop/ beauty shop
* elec, appliance
* photo, appliance
* musical instruments
* sports shop
* mens/ women's wear
* souvenir store
* gift shop
* book store
* flower store users:
the residents may be the managers of these stores, and the students, visitors, and other residents are consumers.
Social attribute contents of activities:
close to the educational activities, audiovisual enjoyment, meetings/ researches, official affairs, reading activities, and etc., organizations of activities:
clubs of community and school, associations
the activities may happen more often in school time; in vacation time, it depends on how many residents participate these activities.
* audio-visual center
* club office rooms
* conference rooms
both residents and students are users.
The quantity of spaces are listed below:
Name Area (sq. ft.)
Auditorium (400 people) 7,500
Small museum 1,600
Game rooms (@2) 3,000
Restaurants (@3) 4,800
Bakery store 800
Coffee shop 800
Instant food store 800
Barber shop 800
Beauty shop 800
Elec, appliance 800
Photo, appliance 800
Musical Instruments 800
Name Area (sa. ft.)
Men's wear 1,200
Women's wear 1,200
Souvenir store 800
Gift shop 800
Book Store 1,200
Flower store 800
Small retail space (@10) 4,000
Audio-visual center 2,000
Club office rooms (@8) 1,200
Conference rooms (@2) 1 000
Classrooms (02) 3,000
All the spaces listed above are not included the
Because the site of Hua-Kang Community Center is
in Taipei, Taiwan, the ordinance of zoning related to this project is different from which of the United States.
Basically, the land is mix-used. The development of the building can be multi-functional spaces according to its needs. So there are Cultural, Commercial, and Educational functions in this project. No matter this is designed in one building or in several buildings, it is permitted to be built as a PUD ( Planned Unit Development ) program.
As to the constraint of codes, this project is
still used the Uniform Building Codes.
PROBABILITY OF EXECUTION
Because most of the site belongs to the property of the Chinese Culture University, the rest of it is personal and private land, when it is decided to gain the land, there are two methods to do it.
- To expropriate the owner from the land.
- To exchange another place for the land.
- Land Price
From multiply the declared land price by 120%, then add 10% of it for annual interest, in construction time, it can be estimated 60% of the fund could be efficient.
The area of the site is approximate 11,380 sg. yds., if the cost is 190 U.S. dollars per sg. yds..
the total cost will be about 2,162,200 U.S. dollars.
Investment and Reward
As the school property cannot be sold, it can be sublet or gained the rent charge and deposit for
the use of revolving fund.
Commonly, after the contemplated area was renewed, the rise rate of the land price must exceed the liability rate of it. This makes land owners gain profit and encourages their support intention.
The liable principle of renewal expenditure is the main factor of two reviewed issues listed below:
- According to the amount of benefit,
- and the balanceable and fair problem of benefit and liability.
To consider one renewal area, it seems appropriate to avoid choosing some districts as the flooding area, the undefined area of levee boundary, the adjacent grave place, the adjacent airport area, and etc..
The ideal renewal district needs to be considered
the problems as below:
the ratio of benefit to liability,
the qualification of geographical location,
the need of urban development,
and the size of the renewal district.
HUA-KANG COMMUNITY CENTER!
FIRST FLOOR PLAN
HUA-KANG COMMUNITY CENTER
WEN ME I CHU SPRING 1986 TMES'S PROJECT UMV Of COLORADO
SECOND FLOOR PLAN
HUA-KANG COMMUNITY CENTER
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THIRD FLOOR PLAN --r
HUA-KANG COMMUNITY CENTER
WEN ME l CHU SPRING IBM TMESIS PROJECT UMV Of COt OR ADO
HUA-KANG COMMUNITY CENTER
WEN ME I CHU SPRING 1966 TMESIS PROJECT IMV Of COLORADO
A A SECTION ---
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HUA-KANG COMMUNITY CENTER
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CONCLUS x oisr
With regard to the design solution of this project
, there are several conceptions to improve the final decision of design.
The main development of site plan is emphasized on both the Positive spaces and the Negative spaces:
(1) For the Positive spaces, I distribute the different functional spaces in the different areas. Those are Cultural Building, Commercial Building, and Educational Building. The result is to define the articulate space of appropriate utilization. And the common characteristic of each building is using the continuous corridor way to connect rooms. The horizontal circulation is not only the necessary route but also the en-
(2) For the Negative spaces, the water is the major element to unify the whole site. From the Chinese traditional graden to the Western modern style, the open space is not less important than the building. Besides, the enclosed inner courtyard has the good characteristic of the Chinese traditional type. The importance is to promote the esthetic viewpoint of the
The approach to the site is another significant
consideration. I would like to use the symbolic gateway to indicate the access of the site. From the main entrance to the building, there are such different layers of spaces as open space, transition space, and en-colsed space. This makes users feel the gradual movement and the variform space.
The materials of the building are used reinforced concrete columns and beams. For the texture of surface there are concrete walls, columns, and base. There is flat roof for secondary functional space, and there is slope tile roof for main functional space. So the contemporary technique and materials of the building can also show the Chinese traditional style by its propor-
tion and its relationship of indoor and outdoor spaces.
* Eadington, William R., Quality of Life in the Growing Community. Working paper No. 8, Bureau of Budiness and Economic Research, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, August 1973.
* The College and its Community- a conference on purpose and direction in the education of adults. The Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults at Boston University, Massachusetts, 1968.
* The City and Sense of Community- a series of eight papers by the symposium held at Cornell University, edited by Sander L. Gilman. The Center for Urban Development Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, April 1976.
* Building a Community Centre, published for the National Federation of Community Associations. Publications Department of the National Council of Social
Service, London, England, May 1969.
* Mark Francis, Lisa Cashdan, and Lynn Paxson, Community Open Spaces. Island Press, Covelo, California, 1984 .
* Ross J. McKeever and Nathaniel M. Griffin, Shopping Center Development Handbook, Community Builders Handbook Series. The Urban Land Institute, Washington, D.C., 1977.
* A Comprehensive Development Plan for Denver's Community and Convention Center, researched by D.B. Grove. Denver Planning Office, Colorado, June 1968
* Time-Saver Standards for Building Types, second edition, edited by Joseph De Chiara and John Hancock Callender. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1980.
* Ramsey and Sleeper, Architectural Graphic Standards.
seventh edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1981.
* William Pena, Problem Seeking. Cahners Books International, Boston, Massachusetts, 1977.
* The Urban Planning Code. Mao-Jung Publications Company, Taipei, Taiwan, 1976.
* Chen Hsu, The Community and Community Development. Taipei, Taiwan.
* Szu-Cheng Liang, Photographic Resources of Chinese Architecture. Ming-Wen Book Co., Taipei, Taiwan, 1981 .
* Yun-Ho Li, Cathays Idea- Design theory of Chinese Classical Architecture. Long-Tien Publications Com-
pany, Taipei, Taiwan, 1982.
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The area of this site is about 102,400.00 square feet. The area of proposed Hua-Kang Community Center is approximate 61,440.00 square feet.
The site faces toward Hua-Kang Road on the north, there are Le-Sheng Lane on the east and Kuang-Hua Road on the south. The existing access vide infra: