Library and classroom addition for the Conservative Baptist Theological Seminary

Material Information

Library and classroom addition for the Conservative Baptist Theological Seminary
Connally, Rory Evans
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
[167] leaves, [12] leaves of plates : illustrations, charts, maps (some folded, some color) ; 29 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Library buildings -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Buildings -- Additions -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (leaves 104-106; 149).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Rory Evans Connally.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
08902356 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1982 .C652 ( lcc )

Full Text

Library and Classroom Addition for the
Conservative Baptist Theological Seminary
Rory Evans Connally
Graduate School of Design and Planning University of Colorado at Denver 1100 14th Street Denver, Colorado 30202
August 13, 1982


Table of Contents


"You employ stone, wood and concrete, and with these materials you build houses and palaces. That is construction. Ingenuity is at work.
But suddenly you touch my heart, you do me good, I am happy and I say: 'This is beautiful,' That is architecture.
Art enters in."
"A building can only be regarded as successful if it reconciles aesthetic aspiration with a thoroughly worked out performance agenda. Innovatory zeal should be tempered with a tyrannical sense of responsibility towards those who use and maintain it,"
These two quotations, the first by LeCorbusier in Towards a New Architecture and the second by Peter Smith in Architecture and the Human Dimension, present the dual facets of architectural design. A truly successful design will reconcile both aspects to each other such that each is enhanced by the other, Both function (utility) and beauty must be at ease with each other and it should be a subtle line, hard to distinguish, that divides one from the other. They must overlap and intertwine, so that neither could exist without the other, except in a truncated and incomplete condition.

However, the union of what LeCorbusier calls art and ingenuity is all too often lacking in the buildings around us.
Indeed, ray own architectural background, both in school and at work, has tended to emphasize the technical at the expense of the aesthetic.
I came to the Graduate School of Design and Planning with two major goals in mind. I wanted to fill in the gaps I had in my technical preparation. I have always felt that a thorough understanding of the technical or practical aspects of a project would help a good designer to do his best work. My second goal was to continue to develop as a designer; to reach a point at which someone could say of my work, "You touch my heart, you do me good, I am happy. this is beautiful."
I chose my project, a library and classroom addition to the Conservative Baptist Theological Seminary, for several reasons. First, it will provide me with several particular technical and aesthetic points I feel I need to investigate, in order to work toward the two goals mentioned above. The client is very concerned with first costs (construction) and with longterm costs (maintenance and energy). This will require me to look at two technical aspects of design that I have not dealt with before: energy-conscious design of an institutional, load-dominated building and the design of a building for a specific budget. The aesthetic points that demand particular

attention include 1) the architectural integration of a new building into a campus built in the 1960's. The new building is an addition to an existing building and will be sited close to the other two academic buildings of the seminary. This is a small campus and whether the new building contrasts or harmonizes with the existing structures, the impact of the new building will be substantial. 2) The image or architectural character of the building should reflect the spiritual integrity and outlook of the seminary. This could be difficult at a time when Modernist and post Modernists are grappling for meaning in ordinary secular architecture, let alongereligious institutions whose most basic beliefs and values conflict with the mainstream of the 20th century. 3) Another point in this project is the opportunity to design at many different'scales, from overall building form to space planning and interior design. Since much of the immediate physical environment in a library is defined by furnishings and not permanent architecture at all, an architect would forfeit much of his design opportunity if he limited himself to a very strict definition of architecture.
There are some final personal reasons for choosing this project. Many different kinds of projects could have provided me with design questions similar to those mentioned above. But,

libraries have always been special places to me. First, because of the books they contained and the hours my brother and I spent reading those books. As I grew older, churches and libraries were the buildings that did most to awaken an interest in architecture. I chose this particular library because I know many of the students there and have been quite favorably impressed by their maturity, their intellects, and their devotion to God and the people around them.
I think that this project will be an excellent project with which to complete my Master of Architecture program at the University of Colorado at Denver. It is an actual project in which I have a personal interest and one that helps me fulfill the original goals with which I started this program.

Thesis Advisory Board:
Gary Long Paul Heath Curt Dale, AIA
Faculty Advisor Faculty Advisor
Architect, Anderson Architects
I wish to acknowledge the gracious help of the following people:
Connie Connally Sarah Lyons Sarah McCallura Paul Bergner, AIA Peter Looms Ron Keenan Robert Attleson Jeffrey Lewis Koch

Literature review and generation of alternative design concepts 5A- weeks August 30 to October 5
Selection of most appropriate design concept
h week October 6 to October 10
Design concept development and building systems development 5 weeks October 11 to November 12
Preparation of presentation drawings, models and photographs, charts, etc.
3 weeks November 13 to December 5
Thesis presentation
December 5 through 9


This is an existing project. It was designed by architects Peter Looms and Paul Bergner, and construction was completed in April of 1982. I am using the original program information and site conditions as a basis for my own design solution.
Mr. Looms and Mr. Bergner have graciously allowed me access to their files and all of their site information for this project. The programming information comes primarily from their files and a series of interviews with Sarah Lyons, the librarian at the CBTS Library. Mr. Looms, Mr. Bergner, and especially Sarah Lyons have all been very helpful and encouraging in this endeavor.
The program is written, for the purposes of my design project, as if the project is yet to be designed and built. References to existing buildings or site conditions refer to conditions prior to the construction of the project.

The conservative Baptist Theological Seminary was organized in 1950, and began its first year without
buildings, a library or secure funding----just faculty
and students. It was organized primarily to be a source of pastors and missionaries for the rapidly expanding fellowship of conservative Baptists. It was also hoped that it might one day play a significant role in American Protestantism.
The seminary has grown since those days and now occupies a 12-acre campus with eight buildings in Englewood, Colorado. They moved to this campus in 1968, occupying buildings formerly used by the Kent School for Girls* The seminary built a new classroom and chapel building, added four apartment buildings for both married and single students and converted the gymnasium into the present library.
The seminary has attained a good reputation among evangelical Christians in its 32 years of existence* A major goal of the seminary is to accept, encourage and utilize the individual diversity present in its student body while maintaining a commitment to biblical truth and theological orthodoxy. The students represent many different

Christian denominations and come from almost every state in America. Its alumni are working in 37 countries on five continents around the world. The seminary is a graduate level school offering two programs leading to a Master of Divinity or a Master of Arts degree. It is accredited by the Association of Theology Schools and the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools.

The school has now reached the point at which they need more space for library, chapel and classroom functions. The library needs to add stack space for an eventual 120,000 more volumes and reading space for 100 more readers. This would give the library a total capacity of 180,000 volumes and 200 readers. They need classroom space to accommodate approximately 400. students in lecture rooms, and 100 students in seminar rooms. It is important to keep the rooms small enough so as not to inhibit interaction between students and faculty and between students and students. This is especially true of the seminar rooms. The chapel needs to hold 400-plus people. It will be the only place on campus where all of
the faculty and students can gather together----it is impor
tant to the school to be able to do this.
The master plan of the school calls for expansion of the existing library to the south towards Hampden Avenue. This would leave the rest of the campus open for future development and provide the new building with vehicular access to the east and west. It would also place the new library and classrooms at close proximity to the existing

classrooms and established traffic patterns. The location of the new building on the western edge of the campus would begin to define, together with the administration and existing classroom buildings, the north and west boundaries of what could develop into a major outdoor space.
The budget for this project is not rigidly fixed.
The seminary received an offer of $1 million in construction funds if the seminary would raise a matching $1 million for furnishings and endowment of an operations and maintenance fund for the new building. The bids for the construction of the building came in at $1.5 million. The project was scaled down and was actually built for $1.3 million, or about $40/square foot. The extra $0.2 million was apparently provided by the original donors, one of whom was the prime contractor for the construction of the new facility
For the purposes of my design thesis, I will set a reasonable dollar per square foot estimate based on 1) the need for low first costs, 2) the need for low life time costs this includes primarily low maintenance costs and low energy costs, and 3) the need for a handsome facility that will last for many years. After this budget is set (early in the desig process), I will use it to determine appropriate or possible

structural systems, finishes, materials, etc.
Time considerations are important to this project.
They want a building that will last for many years and be flexible toward any priority or program changes the seminary may find beneficial. The library must be able to expand into the classroom spaces, if required, at a later date. The architectural style or character must not be one that will be out of vogue soon or date the building too harshly. A more timeless approach to an architectural image is required. Finally, the construction process must not interupt student access to the existing library. Any library "down-time" should occur between quarters or during holidays.
Detail requirements for individual spaces and functional diagrams showing the required relationships of those spaces is found in the next section.


Space Requirements
Stack Space 18,000 sq/ft
Reading Space 7,000 sq/ft
Administration and Technical
Services 1,000 sq/ft
Archives 1,000 sq/ft
Projection 300 sq/ft
Curriculum 300 sq/ft
Micrographics 300 sq/ft
Typing Room 400 sq/ft
Three Conference Rooms:
One conference room 600 sq/ft
Two conference rooms 300 sq/ft each
Rest Rooms 500 sq/ft
10% circulation 3,000 sq/ft
Total: 33,000 sq/ft

Chapel/Classrooms 6,200 sq/ft
Six Classrooms at 900 sq/ft each 5,400 sq/ft
Cloak Room 400 sq/ft
Rest Rooms 800 sq/ft
Storage 600 sq/ft
157, circulation 2,000 sq/ft
Total: 15,400 sq/ft
GRAND TOTAL: 48,400 sq/ft
Since about 13,00 sq/ft is available in existing building,
35,400 sq/ft should be provided in new addition.

Campus Library




Stack Space
Stack space is the single largest use of space in this li brary. Stack space must be provided for open circulation books, reference volumes, reserve books, special collections, and periodicals, both current and bound.
The library currently has 64,030 volumes and needs space for 1) the Vernon Grounds private collection, recently donated to the library by Dr. Grounds and 2) expansion potential for the next 20 years. The library is currently adding books at the rate of
5.000 new books each year0 Room for a total collection of
180.000 books must therefore be provided.
A quick rule of thumb allocates 10 books per 1 s.f* of floor space. This allows room for reference desks, circulation, stairways, etc. that are part of the stack area. This rule of thumb would result in a requirement for 18,000 s.f. of stack space. Another consideration for determining the size and configuration of space for book stacks is to maintain a logical and continuous book flow. Book flow refers to both the sequential ordering of the books according to their call numbers and to the grouping of books with the same classification in the same area. For example, if the BT series (Library of Congress catalogueing system) starts in Room A or on Floor 1, it should

not finish up in Room B or on Floor 2. Also, special collections should not break up the serial progression of call numbers but should be placed away from the main collection.
With the need for book flow in mind, space planning of the stacks can be better accomplished if one knows what kind of shelving is going to be used and how many shelving sections are required to house different classifications of books and different special collections. To provide room for both library patrons and library shelving staff with their book trucks, aisles are generally 36" to 42" wide and cross aisles can be 54" to 72" wide.
The librarys collections are all shelved on one of two types of shelving. The majority of shelving is standard. Each section of standard shelving is 36" long by 21" wide by 76" tall. Seven shelves on each side are provided for a total of 42 lineal feet of shelving for each section. The standard sections are made of painted steel, with adjustable steel shelves. They are ganged together in rows called ranges and are braced against lateral movement with diagonal steel rods. The reference shelving to be used at this library is 36" leng by 20" wide by 61" tall. Four shelves are provided on each side, of which three are adjustable. Each reference shelving section is a complete wood bookcase and can stand by itself without being ganged to other stack sections.

Following is the recommended number of shelving units to
house each book classification and special collection. The recommended number of sections already includes the required expansion capacity. Since future expansion of the collection can only be estimated and since a collection can grow more rapidly in one area than another, these numbers are careful estimates, not rigid specifications.
Library of Congress Classification System
A-BK 30 sections, standard shelving BL-BQ 25 sections "
P-Z 25 sections "
Dewey Decimal Classification System 8 sections, standard shelving Oversize Books
6 sections, standard shelving Raymond Buker Collection 17 sections, reference shelving Vernon Grounds Collection 60 sections, standard shelving Reference Books
35 sections 50 sections 30 sections 45 sections 35 sections 35 sections 10 sections 45 sections
48 sections, reference shelving

Reserve Books
4 sections, standard shelving New Books on Display 2 sections, reference shelving Current Periodicals 18 sections, standard shelving Bound Periodicals 67 sections, standard shelving Bibliographic and Periodical Indexes
4 work tables, 48" by 72" shelving provided on one side
of the table and 2 or 3 chairs on the other side. This
is similar to a long study carrel.
The temperature and humidity in the book stacks should be kept constant. A low temperature is best for book storage as is a relative humidity range of 457o to 557,. If the temperature is too high, the paper will start to deteriorate as the acid in the paper literally starts to burn it up. The temperature should be as low as the library users will allow. No more than 65 to 70 in winter and 70 to 75 in summer is recommended. Humidity
should not be too low or too high. High humidity can lead to
mold gEowth and low humidity can warp books, crack bindings and accelerate the deterioration of the paper due to its acid content. Natural ventilation works w7ell in tropical countries to control heat and humidity buildup, but the savings in cooling

costs here in Denver must be weighed against the increase in square footage required to allow the air to circulate easily around the book stacks.
Direct sunlight should never fall on the books, again, for reasons of deterioration. Daylighting can be satisfactory if it does not cause too great of a diurnal temperature swing, if no direct sunlight is admitted and if it is designed to allow adequate lighting of lower shelves within the book stacks without causing excessive glare conditions outside the bookstacks.
The book stack area is essentially a warehousing operation. Library patrons will spend most of their time in the study and reading areas, not in the stacks. It should be a functional, well-lit space. Although windows and interior views out of the stacks are not necessary within the stacks, they are good from side aisles and main aisles as a way of orienting oneself within what can become a maze-like book stack. Colors should be muted and the space should be acoustically treated so as not to disturb nearby study areas.
Theoretically, since book retrieval is the only activity in this area, it could be placed close to noisy, public-type activities and suffer no loss of function. But since study areas are usually placed close to and in the book stacks, since the stacks are often away from the "public" areas for security reasons, and

since some thought, quick reading and studying is often necessary as one peruses several books on the shelf, the stack area is actually very similar to the study areas in terms of noise level, public access and a pervading sense of sober seriousness.

Dr. Grounds
In 1979 Doctor Grounds retired as president of the seminary to devote himself to writing, counseling and teaching. He has graciously donated his 18,000 volume personal library to the seminary. A separate area is neededfor Doctor Grounds' office, his secretary and his library. Later, his library will become a separate collection within the larger seminary library collection. The space required for this function has already been included in the estimate given for book stack space and does not have to be individually estimated. Doctor Grounds and his secretary are located in separate offices, each requiring a desk and chair, vertical files, some bookcase space and 2 to 3 chairs for visitors.
The recommendations for the administrative and technical services areas apply here.
This area should be readily accessible to students and staff. It should be open and inviting, designed to put people at ease and facilitate the easy flow of thoughts and ideas.
However, Doctor Grounds' office should be insulated from direct public contact by his secretary. This is to give him the degree of privacy required for counseling and writing. Windows and day-

lighting could play an important part establishing the right character here. It should preferably not be finished in a typical triad of glue-down institutional carpet, painted gypsum board walls and a white acoustic hung ceiling.

Support Functions
There are several necessary support services to be included in a library. Included here are the card catalogue, the circulation desk, reserve books, new book display, vertical files for pamphlets, copy services, and the lobby/entry.
The Card Catalogue
Space is required for 12 sections of card catalogue cabinets. Each section is 18" deep, 31" wide and has room for 35 card drawers. Although each cabinet has a pull-out board to set a drawer on, 2 reference tables are also necessary to reduce congestion in front of the catalogues. Tables should be 4'x6' and fairly tall. The same work space could be provided by more and smaller reference tables.
The Circulation Desk
The library maintains an honor system of charging books out. Students charge their own books, both general circulation and reserve, without help or supervision of staff. The circulation area can also be staffed as an information point, so a long counter with room for several students in front and staff access
behind is stillcalled for.

The lobby/entry should be a place to orient oneself before proceeding to a specific part of the library.
The layout of the library, the logic of the library should be apparent from the lobby. It should provide ample room for exit and entrance circulation. Public telephones and drinking fountains should be relocated to the lobby.
The space requirements for all these library support services have been included in the estimate given for book stack space and does not have to be individually estimated.
Most of these small spaces are usually integrated into other larger spaces and would therefore have to fit with whatever environmental requirements exist in the larger space.
The entry should serve as an airlock and could serve as a heat sink, since overheating is more acceptable here than anywhere else in the lobby.
The lobby, the card catalogue, the circulation desk, the reserve books, new book display, vertical files, and the copy services are often centrally located near the main entrance and exit. Although people rarely stay in these areas long, they often, as a group, give the library users their main impression of the building since it is the first and last thing

Reserve Books
iThe books on the reserve list are kept on shelves open to student use. No staff memeber is required to monitor their use, although this could change in the future. They should be placed so as to be readily accessible to the students, but could easily be closed off as a staff-operated, closed collection.
New Book Display
Room for new book display and special interest displays should be provided near the main entry. Book display should be clearly within the library proper, but should be invitingly accessible to the students.
Vertical Files
The library currently maintains 4 letter size vertical files for pamphlets. Expansion of vertical files at the same rate as the rest of the collection would call for space for 8 vertical files. Since they do not take up much room, and are therefore not very visible,they should be placed in a readily accessible and obvious locat ion.
Copy Services
A xerox-type copy machine has become an indispensible tool of most libraries. It should be centrally located within the library, but acoustically separated from the reading areas.

they see of the library. A sense of quiet graciousness and helpfulness should be communicated. It can be set off from the other parts of t he library by changes in ceiling height, daylighting, colors. .. et c. The space as a whole should serve as a major orienting space for the rest of the library.

Reading Area
The present library can theoretically seat 100 students, half at study carrels and half at study tables. The library has found that study space is not adequate and would like to provide space for 100 more students. This would raise the seating capacity to 200 students or about 40% of the student population. Although a seating capacity of 50% of the student population is recommended for graduate level reaearch libraries, the figure of 40% is probably quite adequate when one considers that many of the students are attending the seminary as part-time stud ents.
As a general rule of thumb, 35 s.f. is required, as a minimum, per student for reading/study space. This amounts to an initial space allocation of 7000 s.f. for reading/study spac e.
Half of the required seating should be provided by private research carrels, the other half by large reading tables. The library has found that this ratio of carrels to tables works well for than. It allows the students the choice of working in a private secluded environment or to work in a more open and visible area, depending upon the student's study habits and the work at hand. To increase the privacy afforded by the research carrels, they are presently placed among the book stacks or between the stacks and an exterior wall. The tables, on the other hand, are more centrally located in groups of 2-5 tables

in visible, open locations often at natural breaks in the book stacks such asclassif ications changes, collection changes, under skylights etc.
Separate reading areas should be provided for different divisions of the library. The reference section should be provided with its own study tables and the current periodicals section should have both tables and some lounge-type seating for light reading. It should allow a slightly higher noise level without disturbing nearby areas. These separate reading areas can be used to help spatially define the different library sections.
A typical research carrel should be at least 48" wide and 24" deep with a shelf across the back. It should be enclosed on 3 sides to ensure privacy when the student is seated. A reading light mounted under the shelf, switched by the student^ is desireable. The reading tables to be used in this library are usually 48" wide by 72" long, but some round tables are used to provide choice and variety. Although 4 chairs are provided at each table, probably no more than 2 or 3 students will use the table at any one time. A sturdy, heavy table is recommended both for length of service and to prevent the table from wobbling or jarring whenever people sit down at or leave an occupied table.
The reading areas should be free of distractions. The temperature, humidity and ventilation should be such that a person can sit for long periods of time without being either too cool or too warm. Mechanical systsns must be designed to be

quiet, and passive solar systems must not overheat a space.
Direct solar radiation must not penetrate to the reading space. Placing the reading areas away from exterior entries would reduce drafts in winter, but some form of natural ventilation in the summer would be beneficial and quite pleasant. High light levels are necessary only at the work surface of the carrel or table.
A task-ambient lighting syston should be investigated as should daylight ing.
If the reading areas of the library are conducive to effective research and study, they can become a place in which the students will spend a significant part of their academic life. Eesides meeting the more objectively defined needs such as sufficient work space, lack of noise, adequate lighting, and accessibility to book stacks, there are other goals and objectives that should be addressed.
The dignity and importance of the individual can be stressed by work spaces that are both comfortable and adequately sized.
This can tell the student that his academic work is central to the purpose of the seninary and not a peripheral issue.
Since students are not reading machines, some distractions
and/or outside stimulus could be helpful if_ fully controlled by
the student. For example, windows, private views to the rest of
the library, discrete art disp lays,... etc. could be placed so
that the student could either concentrate fully on his studies
or could, at his discretion, see these distractions either from
his chair or by getting up and moving around a little during a break.

The overall character of the reading area should be quiet calm, and subdued. It is mainly a background to support the research and study activities and should not be a major show in its own right. Although it is open to the students and general public, it should imply that one has entereda sp ecial area where serious study is ongoing and where other's rights to privacy and quiet should be scrupulously guarded.

The entire library staff will work in this area. Although the administrative functions could be set off separately from technical services, the staff is small and they prefer to work together in the same area. Supervision is direct and efficient and employees have immediate access to their supervisors.
Activities to be accomodated (and required equipment and furniture) in elude:
Librarian's Office
This space should be set off as a distinct office, but have immediate access to and visual contact with, the rest of technical services. Furniture required includes a desk, typing desk, chair, vert i cal files, 2 chairs for visitors and ample bookcase space. A minimum 150 s.f. is estimated for this.
Technical Services
Activities to be accomodated in this area include secretarial work, minor book mending, snail serial binding, circulation records and administration, book ordering, inter-library loans, catalogueing, processing of new incoming books, and keeping and updating files on book, serials and inter library loans.
The furniture and equipment needed for this work consists of four desks and chairs, one CRT unit with separate table,

two work tables 48"x96", a 48"x96" work surface with filing space below, 30 lineal feet of full height took shelves,
15'-18 of countertop with one sink and base cabinets below and wall cabinets above, a card catalogue unit, a filing unit for the shelf index, 4 vertical files, letter size for serial information, and 3 storage cabinets 18"x 36"x72" H. Room for some expansion should be provided, although the adminstration and technical services space requirements will not increase proportionately with an increase in the collection size. 800 s.f. is estimated for technical services.
Restrooms and Storage
2 toilet rooms, one for each sex, should be provided for the staff. They should be accessible to the handicapped.
A storage room, available for either long-term or temporary storage of library materials is required. About 350 s.f. is sufficient for the storage room and 5 0 s.f. should suffice for each restroom.
Administration and technical services are similar to typical office uses. There are no excessive heat or moisture producing pieces of equipment. Passive solar heating and natural ventilation is desireable as long as direct sunlight, potential overheating and strong breezes are carefully controlled. This part of the library lends itself more readily to a user-controlled environment since the staff works here all the time and has the (assumed) perogative to adjust environmental controls. The need for a quiet raechnical system is not as great

in this area as in the bookstacks or reading areas.
Administration and technical services are similar to typical office use. Quiet and privacy is less of a concern here. A more lively environment is possible since the need for intense concentration is less. Day lighting and outside views are desireable to provide a pleasant, friendly and stimulating work environment. Although this area is generally not open to the public, there is some public interaction when library users come in to ask questions or get help. There is no need to rigidly separate this area and shield it from public inspection. There is a need to shield it acoustically from the bookstacks and reading areas.

Rare books, ancient papers and documents, and the library collection of Conservative Baptist historical materials will be kept here. 100 s.f. should be allocated for this. Standard library shelving and vertical files will store most of the documents. A reference table with 2 or 3 chairs will be required for people using the documents. Documents are to be used in the room and not taken from the archives room.
This room should be heated, cooled and ventilated by a separate mechanical system. Natural energy sources should not be used for this room because of their inherent short-term unpredictability. However, if the room were insulated from the rest of the building and some thermal mass was introduced into the floors and walls, the required mechanical unit could be quite small and the room would remain stable for some time in the event of a power failure. Humidity should be kept at 45%-55% as a compromise between book-warping dryness and bolk-molding wetness. The temperature should be set as low as people will accept, probably 65 in winter and 70 in summer.
Although this room is not required to be ugly it is

definitely a utility/warehouse type space. It is rarely frequented by staff or students and should not be prominently displayed. It should have no windows at all. A hard-to-get-to back room is fine for both location and character.

Projection Room
The private showing of films, filmstrips and slides will be provided for in this room. Also to be accomodated here will be the viewing of videotape recordings and the assembling and recording of slide shows and other audiovisual presentations. It is estimated that 300 s.f. will be required for this space. A projection screen against one wall is needed. It can be permanent or retract into the ceiling.
The room must be acoustically separate from the rest of the library. Windows are discouraged since they would have to be blacked out most of the time.
There are no special heating needs. Sunlight and daylight are too hard to control in a function like this and should not be used. There will be some extra cooling load due to projection equipment and such. Artificial cooling and ventilation is probably best since natural ventilation is somewhat difficult to accomplish without unwanted light leaks.

C urriculum
This room is to be used by the Christian Education Depart ment to provide for the display of various educational materials. It is also open for Sunday School teachers from local churches to look over available lesson materials.
This space should be about 300 s.f. and be provided with standard library shelving for display of periodicals.
A reading area should be provided nearby. This area could combine with the current periodical area, since functional needs are almost identical.
The energy and mechnical considerations are similar to those for the current periodicals stacks and reading areas.
The character of this space is very similar to that required by the current periodicals stacks and reading area.

This space is for viewing microfiche and microfilm.
Space is required for five viewing tables and a small vertical filing cabinet for the microfilm. The microfiche is available on request from the librarian and is stored in the technical services area. The viewing tables are five feet wide by three feet deep. They have writing surface extensions on either, to accomodate both right and left hand users. The space needed for this function is estimated at 3 00 s. f .
There are no special heating or cooling need for this space. Humidity should be kept at about 50%. As with most spaces in this library, direct sunlight should be kept out and it should not be allowed to overheat. Natural ventilation and daylighting would be quite compatible with the functions of this space.
The space required for micrographics does not have to be an enclosed room. There is no security problem associated with either the microfilm or the viewing machines. The machines are not noisy. They could be integrated into the book.

stacks or the reading areas or in with the periodicals, character of the space should be similar to that of the reading areas.

Typing Room
This room should provide space for 8-10 typewriters provided by the school. There should also be at least two spots where students can bring their own typewriters. Space shouId be provided on both sides of each typewriter for text and finished copy. A pull-out desk extension would be helpful. The typewriters should be permanently mounted to a continuous countertop set at a normal typing height. Provision for a handicapped typist should be made, if they require a different height work surface. Clearance below the counter should be provided in any case. Adjustable secretarial type chairs should be provided to compensate for different si zed people typing at machines that are all the same height. This room should be acoustically separate from the rest of the library, close to the copy machine, and located so as not to create traffic through the quieter parts of the library. The estimated space required for the typing room is 400 s.f.
This room could have a high concentration of people, lights and machines, causing an excessive internal heat gain at the end of each semester. It should be well ventilated and air-conditioned (probably by mechnical means since it would have such concentrated, periodic use).

This room could be a very noisy, clamorous space if not treated acoustically. To reduce the noise level, two or three smaller rooms might be substituted for one large room. Windows to the exterior or interior would be helpful, especially if the smaller typing rooms are used, to prevent a claustrophobic feeling in the typists. A sound baffle just inside the door could be appropriate if the typing room is near a reading/study area. Lighting levels should be relatively high, but carefully designed to avoid veiling reflections from either the paper in the typewriter or the written manuscript on the countertop.

Conference Rooms
The conference rooms will be used for small seminar classes, small bibliographic classes, faculty meetings, group study and faculty-student meetings, both scheduled and spontaneous. The main requirements are conference tables, chairs, blank wall space for showing slides and some blackboards or similar writing surfaces. Two smaller rooms and one large room of 300 s.f. each and one larger room of 600 s.f. are needed..
The larger room should have two exits at either end and be divided by a moveable sound partition. These rooms should be acoustically separated from the rest of the library.
The mechnical system must be able to deal with a large influx of people within a short time. Ventilation must also be able to be temporarily and quickly increased. The mechanical system must be quiet and not distracting as it cycles on and off. The large conference room should be a^ned as two smaller rooms for the times when it is divided by the moveable sound partition.
The smaller conference room should be similar in finish and character to a small classroom. Windows, daylighting and natural ventilation are desirable. The large conference room

should be more like a board room or faculty lounge in character. Any windows should have blackout shades for showing slides or movies.

Rest Rooms
The space required for two toilet rooms, one for each sex, is 800 s.f. The men's room should have one drinking fountain in the rest room vestibule, 3 lavatories, 2 water closets and 4 urinals. The women's rest room should have one drinking fountain in the rest room vestibule, 3 lavatories and 4 water closets.
A high rate of ventilation is required. Heating and cooling needs are minimal as conditioned air is pulled into the rest rooms as the ventilation air is exhausted.
The floors should be ceramic tile. The walls should have a ceramic tile wainscot with vinyl wall covering above. Colors should be simple earth tones. Sinks should be set in a continuous countertop with a full wall mirror and valence lighting above.

The chapel is to be a large space used for public talks and programs, worship services, student speakers, receptions,... etc. It will be t he largest room on campus and the only one that will hold the entire student body and faculty. It needs to be divided by a mova'ble sound partition so it can be used as two separate classrooms. The two classrooms should seat 135 students each in movable chairs equipped with fold-out tablet arms. The chapel should seat 4 00 people on movable chairs. The same chairs can be used with the tablet arms folded down. The space required for the above functions is estimated at 6000 s.f.
This allows 15 s.f./person for assembly functions in the full-size room and 22 s.f./person in each of the two classrooms.
Accessory areas required for these functions include a small kitchen to serve at receptions and a chair storage area.
12 0 s.f. should suffice for the small kitchen service area.
The chair storage can be combined as part .of a larger required storage area.
These functions lend themselves more to a mechanical environmental system than a passive, natural energy system. The environmental comfort syst on must respond raidly to a large influx of people over a relatively short time. Daylighting is desirable

for both chapel and classroom functions but should be designed to allow black-out conditions for slides and movies.
The different characters required for the different functions of this room are not hard to define, but combining them in a single room is rather difficult. Bland, lower-common-denominator multi-purpose rooms can be found everywhere in the United States. It is a common problem. A possible approach is to assume that it is worse to attend a chapel service in a classroom than to attend a class lecture in a chapel. This general priority can be used when working out the necessary compromises between chapel and classroom functions. One factor helping this compromise process, is that Baptists are decidedly "low church" as opposed to Episcopalians, Lutherans, and Catholics who are usually "high church" in their attitudes toward church or chapel architecture.

Classroom space is urgently needed by the sen inary. They have asked for six classrooms of about 900 s.f. each to help meet this need. Three of the classrooms would be used for lecture-format class. They would hold about 50 students each and would be furnished with typical movable classroom chairs with folding tablet arms. The other three rooms would be used for seminar-type classes. They would hold about 30 students each and be equipped with desks and chairs.
The energy and mechnical considerations of these spaces is similar to that of the classroom/chap el function.
A classroom should be pleasant, somewhat interesting and stimulating, but should focus one's attention on the front of the room and the teacher. There is a long tradition of daylighting and windows in classroom design that should be caref ully eva luat ed regarding the above goals and its effect (positive or negative)
on energy use.

Classroom Support Services
A 400 s.f. cloakroom is required adjacent to the classrooms and chapel.
800 s.f. of restroom space is needed to serve the classrooms and chapel. The functional, energy and character requirements are similar to the restrooms serving the library.
600 s.f. of storage is required for classroom furniture and general supplies.


7oning Setbacks
Zoning setbacks required in this R-3 zone consist of: a front setback of 15 \ side setbacks of 15' and a back setback of 25,
There are no easement restrictions

units. To the southeast of the site, diagonally across the intersection of Hampden and South University is a large tract of vacant land that has been proposed as a site for a resort hotel development. Property owners in Cherry Hills Village have been opposing the project. They are concerned that their property values will fall in the vicinity of the hotel and that automobile traffic will increase.
Views From Site
Views from the site are pleasant but not spectacular. Well-kept residences can be seen to the east. To the north, a wood fence with brick piers screens the seminary parking from the adjacent homes. Housetops and trees are visible beyond the fences. To the south, a wood fence with brick piers, on the south side of Hampden, allows one to see only trees and an occasional rooftop beyond it.
To the west, one can catch a glimpse of the front range of the Rocky Mountains as one approaches Hampden Avenue. Immediately to the west of the site are the houses and trees of Kent Village. This development is quite visible as it is screened from the seminary by only a low fence and all the buildings are two stories high.
Kent Village is heavily landscaped with large trees and provides a very clear border to the seminary since the seminary campus is landscaped in a very open manner; almost all grass with very few trees.

can stand lower temperatures such as storage or closets against the north and west walls.
Wind can provide summer cooling through natural ventilation. To take advantage of this, provide for cross-ventilation by locating air inlets and outlets in each room and at opposite sides of room. Ventilation can be induced through use of solar chimneys when there are no breezes present.
Storms and rain usually come from the Rocky Mountains. Prevailing winds in Denver come from the south or south-southwest but the winds from which one wants to protect a site come from the northwest. The south and east sides of a building are therefore more protected against bad weather. The library expansion site is well sited in this regard. Situated on the western edge of the campus, it would be protected by the trees of Kent Village and the main entry could face east, where it would be most accessible to the rest of the campus.
Traffic Noise
Although the library expansion site (as designated by the master plan) lends itself well to protecting a building from bad weather, there are problems in opening the building up, both to the sun and to natural ventilation. Large areas of glass to the south (facing Hampden Street) and openings on the south or southeast to catch prevailing breezes would transmit traffic noise from Hampden Avenue. Colorado highway traffic counts say Hampden Avenue averages 43,200 vehicles/day, trucks included. Any design calling for solar heating or natural ventilation would have to address the need for acoustic isolation in a graduate research library.

Sanitary Sewer service is provided by the City of Englewood. An eight inch sewer line in South University Boulevard serves the campus.
A four inch sewer line services the present library building. Sewer service for the library addition could probably tie into this existing four inch sewer line.
Storm Sewer The existing storm drainage system is not ideal but is acceptable to the City of Englewood. Surface drainage is carried via concrete drain pans to the northwest corner of the parking lot where it is impounded. Controlled drainage is released to a i2' storn sewer pipe that dumps the storm runoff into East Floyd Place. The 1?" storm sewer runs along a 4 easement between two single family residential lots. Any increase in storm drainage caused by the library expansion will have to be impounded on site and released in a controlled manner so as not to increase the historical rate of runoff from the seminary sit e.
Telephone service is supplied by the thieves and robbers of Mountain Bell. A telephone backboard in the Administration building serves the present library. A new subpanel or small backboard would be required for the library expansion. It would be served via the existing service in the administration building.
Irrigation Water is supplied by the school's own well and pump. Since further construction on this campus will neccessarily reduce the area of irrigated lawns, no expansion of irrigation capacity will be needed.

Elevation feet
Test Test Test Test Test
Hole Hole Hole Hole Hole
No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 No. 4 No. 5
1Q5 --------------------------------------------------105
- 80
Topsoil, clay, sandy, silty, very organic, moist, dark brown (OL).
Fill, manmade, clay, very sandy, mottled brown (AF).
Clay, medium stiff, silty, sandy light brown to brown (CL).
Clay, stiff to very stiff, silty moist, light brown to brown (CL)
silty, very moist,
to very sandy, moist,
sandy to very sandy,
Claystone-sandstone (bedrock), firm to medium hard, moist, brown.
Claystone-sandstone-silt stone (bedrock), hard to very hard, moist, light brown to gold brown.
111 -i-i 1111111

Existing Facility
The library presently occupies a twostory building at the southwest corner of the campus. The building was originally the gymnasium and locker room for the Kent Girl's School.
It is a steel frame building with an exposed steel roof deck and 12" masonry infill walls of exterior face brick and interior glazed structural tile. The first floor has 9400 s.f. with an additional 5000 s.f. from the mezzanine. In 1968 the building was converted into the seminary library. The conversion was fairly simple, involving only interior changes.
A mezzanine was added to increase useable floor area. The steel frame and roof deck were fireproofed with sheetrock around the columns and beams and a hung ceiling below the steel roof deck. Mechanical ductwork was included within the enclosures of the columns and beams. The glazed structural tile was painted. The former gymnasium (with added mezzanine) is used for book stacks and reading areas. The former locker room is used for the librarians office, circulation, rest rooms, and technical services.
The mechanical system uses a gas-fired boiler in a forced air heating system. Air conditioning is achieved with a direct expansion refrigeration unit using the forced
air system.

Existing library building
Second floor nlan

Existing library building Transverse section, looking west
Existing library Longitudinal section,
building looking north
0 10 20


Climatic Analysis
Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration.
Air masses from at least four different sources influence Denver's weather: arctic air from Canada and Alaska; warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico; warm, dry air from Mexico and the southwest, and Pacific air modified by its passage over coastal ranges and other mountains to the west.
The good climate results largely from Denver's location at the foot of the east slope of the Rocky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. During most summer afternoons cumuliform clouds so shade the city that temperatures of 90F or over are reached on an average of only thirty-two days of the year, and in only one year in five does the mercury very briefly reach the 100's.
In the cold season the high altitude and the location of the mountains to the west combine to moderate the temperatures. Invasions of cold air from the north, intensified by the high altitude can be abrupt and severe. On the other hand, many of the cold air masses that spread southward out of Canada over the Plains to the east. Surges of cold air from the west are

are usually moderated in their descent down the east face of the mountains and Chinooks resulting from some of these westerly flows often raise the temperature far above that normally to be expected at this latitude in the cold season. These conditions result in a tempering of winter cold to an average temperature above that of other cities situated at the same latitude.
In spring when outbreaks of polar air are waning, they are often met by moist currents from the Gulf of Mexico. The juxtaposition of these two currents produces the rainy season', in Denver, which reaches its peak in May.
Situated a long way from any moisture source, and separated from 1he Pacific by several high mountain barriers, Denver enjoys a low relative humidity, low average precipitation and considerable sunshine.
Spring is the wettest, cloudiest and windiest season. Much of the 37% of the annual total precipitation that occurs in spring falls as snow during the colder, earlier, part of that season. Stormy periods are often interspersed by stretches of mild sunny weather that remove previous snow cover.
Summer precipitation (about 32% of the annual total), particularly in July and August usually falls from scattered local thundershowers during the afternoon and evening. Mornings are usually clear and sunny. Clouds often form during the early af ternoon and cut off the sunshine at what would otherwise be the hottest part of the day. Many afternoons have a cooling s hower.
Autumn is the most pleasant season. Local summer thunder-

storms are mostly over and invasion of cold air and severe weather are infrequent, so that there is less cloudiness and a greater percent of possible sunshine than any other time of year. Periods of unpleasant weather are generally brief. Precipitation amounts to about 20 percent of the annual total.
Winter has the least precipitation accumulation, only about 11 percent of the annual total, and almost all of it snow. Precipitation frequency, however, is higher than in autumn. There is also more cloudiness and relative humidity averages higher than in the autumn. Weather can be quite severe, but as a general rule, that severity does not last very long.
Except for radiation data, all weather data is taken at the Stapleton International Airport weather station (latitude: 2945,N, longitude: 104 32 W, elevation 5283) and reported as local climatological data from the National Oceanic and Atmostpheric Administration (NOAA )/Environmental Data and Information Service/National Climatic Center, Asheville, North Carolina.
Mean daily solar radiation data is from I nput Data For Solar Systems by V. Cinquemani, J.R. Owenby, Jr. and R.G.
Baldwin. It was prepared for the United States Department of Energy.


The bioclimatic chart shows that most months of the year can be comfortable if the right combinations of wind, calms, shade or sunshine is provided. Even the hottest mean monthly temperature, 87 in July, is comfortable if one is in complete shade with a 2-3 MPH breeze blowing. The daytime temperatures of April, May, September and October can be comfortable if one is protected from the wind and exposed to the sun. November through March fall below the comfort line even with 100% sunshine. The chart shows that Denver's relative humidity levels are usually comfortable. Temperature is the only variable that needs to be compensated for.

Design Guidelines
The temperature in Denver is too cool for human comfort during the months of October through May. There is an average diurnal swing of 25-30 during most of the year. But there is a significant amount of solar radiation available during the heating season that can counteract the cool temperatures. There are many effective design responses to this including:
1) adding heat to the building during the day through direct gain (south facing windows) trombe walls and/or sunspaces;
2) adding thermal mass within the insulation envelope will help hold daytime heat gain through the night and will help to dampen the large diurnal swing; 3) building surfaces must be insulated. Windows must also be insulated so as not to negate a daytime heat gain.
The temperature during July and August and during many September afternoons is too hot for human comfort. The sun must be kept out at this time. Operable sun control devices are quite useful. Even though the September and October sun angles are the same as February and March, solar heating is desirable in February and March but avoided in September and October.
Natural ventilation and evaporative cooling are possible during the warm months of June to September.

1200 u H 1100 z cc £2; 1000 wo 900 K iO 800 >; i 700


c ^ 600' C cnn w O 500 7Z /inn .

W W 4UU' a z c< 300.
200 100 \

Heat ing

P X p

Clear 126 days/ year
Partly cloudy 115 days/ year
Cloudy 124 days/ year

Q13-24 MPH
>24 MPH
SOURCE: Eased on 10 years of data
(Decennial census), 1951-1960 by John Benci, Department of Atmospheric Science,
Colorado State University.

40' NL


UBC 1373
Occupancy type: Library and classrooms A.3
Chapel A.2.1
Floor area: Existing Proposed Total
14,000 s.f. 33,000 s.f. 7,000 s.f
Occupant load: Library 330
Classrooms 225
Chapel 800
Total 1355
Height: Two stories, maximum
Allowable floor areas:
Occupancy type A. 2.1 A.2.1 A. 2.1
Construction type II.l.HR III.1.HR IV.1.HR
Basic allowable area 13,500 13,500 13,500
Added stories increase 27,000 27,000 27,000
Separated 2 sides 40,500 40,500 40,500
Sprinkler increase 81,000 81,000 81,000

Fire resistive requirements:
Construction type II.1.HR III.l.HR IV
Exterior bearing walls 1 HR 4 HR 4 HR
Interior bearing walls 1 HR 1 HR 1 HR
Exterior non-bearing walls 1 HR 4 HR 4 HR
Structural frame 1 HR 1 HR 1 HR or
Permanent partitions 1 HR 1 HR 1 HR or
Shaft enclosures 1 HR 1 HR 1 HR
Floors 1 HR 1 HR H.T.
Roofs 1 HR 1 HR H.T.
Fire resistance of exterior walls:
Construction type II.l.HR 111.l.HR IV
Fire rating 2 HRS 10', 2 HRS 10 , 2 HRS 10,
1 HR else- 1 HR else- 1 HR else-
where where for where for
non-bear- non-bear-
ing walls ing walls
Fire resistance of exterior openings:
Construction type II.l.HR III.1.HR IV
Openings prohibited Less Less Less
than 5' than 5 than 5'
Protected Less Less Less
than 20' than 20 than 20'
Building height:
Construction type 11. l.HR III.1.HR IV
Allowable stories 2 2 2
Maximum height 65' 65 ' 65

Uniform floor loads:
Library stack areas 125 PSF 150-250 PSP
Library reading areas 60 PSF
Library stack areas 125 PSF 150-250 PSF
Chapel 100 PSF
Classrooms 40 PSF
Exit requirements:
Number of exits required each floor 3
Number of exits required for total building 4
Required exit width total width 20 '
Handicapped access required yes
Dead end corridor limit 20'
Corridor construction 1.HR
Stairway widths 44"
Stairway landing depths 44"
Stairway to roof required no
Rated stair enclosure required no
Exit door width 36
Exit signs required yes
Occupancy separations required: no

Lighting and ventilation:
All habitable rooms shall be lit by exterior glazed openings equal in area to 1/10 or more of the floor area and ventilated by operable exterior openings equal in area to 1/20 or more of the floor area. Articial illumination and a mechanical ventilation system may be substituted for the required glazed and operable windows.
Sant itation:
One drinking fountain per floor is required as is one lavatory for every two water closets for each sex.
Required fire sprinklers:
Sprinklers are required for every story over 1500 s.f. unless 20 s.f. of opening is provided for each 50 lineal feet of exterior wall. Minimum dimension of openings shall be 30". If any part of the story or floor is greater than 75' from a wall with the required openings, fire sprinklers are required for that story or floor (or openings on at least two sides of the building).

Colorado Energy Code 1SS1
The following design parameters shall be used for required calculations.
Exterior design conditions, Denver
Outdoor design temperature
Winter Design dry bulb 8F
Summer Design dry bulb 90F
Design wet bulb 64F
Degree days heating 5500
Degrees north latitude o o
Interior design conditions:
a. Indoor design temperature:
Indoor design temperature shall be 72F for heating and 78F for cooling. Other design temperatures may be used for equipment selection if they result in lower energy useage.
b. Humidification:
If humidification is provided during heating, it shall be designed for a maximum relative humidity of 30 percent.
When air cooling is provided, the actual design relative humidity within the comfort envelope as defined in standard RS-4, shall be selected for minimum total HVAC system evergy use. Except ion: Special uses may be exempted from the requirements of this section when approved by the
building official.

Calculations of heating and cooling loads:
a. Heating and cooling design loads for the purpose of sizing HVAC systems shall be determined in accordance with one of the procedures described in chapters 21 and 22 of
the 1972 Caps-ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals of an equivalent computation procedure.
b. Infiltration for heating and cooling design loads shall be calculated for non-residential buildings by the procedures in chapters 19, 21 and 22 of the 1972 Caps-ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals.

Heating Criteria for Nonresidential Buildings:
Using a heating degree*day base of 5500 the following energy conservation values must be met or exceeded, caluculated on gross building elements.
Walls 1-3 stories Heat ing 00 CM O II o to
Cooling OTTV=33.5
4+ stories Heat ing U =0.34 o
Cooling OTTV=33.5
Roof/ceiling Heating or Cooling U =0.08 o
Floors over unheated spaces Heating 00 o o II o to
Slab on grade Heat ing R=4.55
Solar factor Cooling 127
Equation 1
U =U A + U A + U,A. o w w_______g g_____d d
UQ=The average or combined transmittance of the gross
exterior wall, floor, or roof/ceiling assembly area (except slabs on grade).
A=The gross exterior wall, floor or roof/ceiling assembly area.
Uw=The thermal transmittance of the components of the opaque wall, floor or roof/ceiling assembly area.
A =Opaque wall, floor or roof/ceiling assembly area, w
U =The thermal transmittance of the glazing (window or
skylight) area.

Ag=Glazing area
U,=The thermal transmittance of the door or similar opening d
A^=Door area Equation 2
OTTV= (U A TD ) + (A-SFSC) + (U.A.^t) v w w eq f f f
OTTV=Average or combined thermal transfer value
A =Gross exterior wall area
U =U value of opaque wall (all elements) w
Aw=Opaque wall area
U^=U value of fenestration area
A^=Fenestration area
TDe^=Temperature difference value (see below)
SC=Shading coefficient of the fenestration (see below) SF=Solar factor value
NOTE: Where more than one type of wall is used, the
respective terms for those elements shall be expanded into subelements, as:
Eq. No. 1 <0wlAwl) + (Uw2Aw2)...
Eq. No. 2 (UwlAwlTDeql) + Temperature differences for use with Equation 2

Weight of construct ion, lbs/ft1 2 TD factor eq
0-25 44
26-40 37
41-70 30
71 + 23
Shading coefficient for use with Equation 2
Solar heat gain of fenestration (west elevation at
__________________________________4 P.M. sun time, 9/21)
Solar heat gain of unshaded DSB (west elevation at
4PM. sun time, 9/21)
Where DS=double strength B =grade class Air Infiltration
Allowable air infiltration rates for non-residential buildings.
Windows Doors
CFM per foot of operable sash crack CFM per lineal foot of crack. Swinging, sliding or revolving doors
0. 50 11.0
1. When tested at a pressure differential of 1.567
lb/ft which is equivalent to the impact pressure
of a 25 m.p.h. wind. Windows located above three
stories shall be tested at a pressure differential 2
of 6.268 lb/ft which is equivalent to the impact pressure of a 50 m.p.h. wind.
2. Compliance with the criteria for air leakage for all types of doors shall be determined by Standard RS-2, standard method of test for rate of air leakage through exterior windows, curtain walls and doors.

The site is in the city of Englewood, Colorado. The site is currently zoned R-3, high density residence district.
The current land use, a seminary for graduate level education, is a permitted principal use. The proposed addition, a library-chapel-classroom addition, is consistent with the current use. Adjacent land is zoned R-3 to the west of the site and R.l.A. to the north of the site. To the east (across University Boulevard) is an enclave of Arapahoe County zoned R-2, single family residential. To the south (across Hampden Avenue) is Cherry Hills Village, zoned R-l. To the southeast diagonally across the intersection of Hampden and University, is Cherry Hills Village, zoned R.A.I., residential/resort hotel. A proposed hotel in this location is currently being opposed by Cherry Hills Village residents.
Lot size:
Minimum lot size for institutional use is one net acre (42,000 s.f.). Existing site is approximately 500,000 s. f .' or 11.4 acres .
Lot coverage:
Maximum percentage of lot coverage is 35^. Parking structures, garages, and carports are not included in lot coverage. Present lot coverage is 52,000 s.f. or 1Cffo of the site. This allows the seminary a maximum of 125,000 s. f in future building area.

Maximum building height:
Other than single family dwellings, buildings can be five (5) stories or sixty (60) feet, which ever is less.
Front setback:
For all permitted principal uses, the front setback is 15 feet for buildings up to 3 stories, 20 feet for 4-5 stories and 25 feet for anything over 5 stories.
Side setback:
For all permitted principal uses other than a single family dwelling, the side setback is 15 feet.
Rear setback:
A 25 feet rear yard is required for all principal permitted uses.
Minimum useable open space:
25% of lot must be kept as useable open space.
Minimum landscaping:
25% of lot must be landscaped. 235,000 s.f. or 47% of the site is currently landscaped.
Utilit ies:
Utilities service to new developments must be placed underground.
Minimum off street parking:
For educational institutions, parking area equal to 1/2 the gross floor area of the buildings is required. With the proposed addition,

the gross floor area would be somewhat less than 100,000 s.f. requiring a parking area of 50,000 s.f. The seminary already provides a total parking area of 75,000 s.f.
Location of parking:
In the R-3 zoning district, all required parking must be on the site. The seminary parking is all on site.
Parking lot standards:
The seminary parking was in existence when the site was annexed into the city of Englewood in 1969 and is therefore a prior existing use not subject to zoning control.
However, it is paved with asphalt, screened from adjacent residences and drained into a storm sewer as called for by R-3 district requirements. Egress and ingress to parking is in general compliance to R-3 district requirements.
Off street loading standards:
Off street loading berths are required for all institutional, commercial or industrial buildings on a lot that abuts an alley or is surrounded on all sides by streets. The seminary site is not surrounded on all sides by streets, nor does it abut an alley. Therefore, offstreet loading berths are not required.




Brawne, Michael. Libraries: Architecture and Equipment.
New York, New York, Praeger, 1970
Cohen, Aaron and Elaine. Designing and Space Planning
for Libraries: A Behavioral Guide. New York, New York, Bowker, 1979
Ellsworth, Ralph E. Academic Library Buildings. Boulder, Colorado, The Colorado Associated University Press,
Langmead, Stephen and Beckman, Margaret. New Library Design. New York, New York, Wiley, 1970
Metcalf, Keyes D. Library Lighting. Washington, D.C.
The Association of Research Libraries, 1970
Metcalf, Keyes D. Planning Academic and Research Library Design. New York, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1965
Thompson, Godfrey. Planning and Design of Library Buildings. London, The Architectural Press, New York, New York,
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1974
AIA Research Corporation, The. Regional Guidelines for
Building Passive Energy Conserving Homes. Washington, D.C., U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, November, 1978
Cinquemani, V. Owenby, J. R., and Baldwin, R. G. Input Data for Solar Systems. Washington, D.C., U.S. Department of Energy, November, 1978
Mazria, Edward. The Passive Solar Energy Book. Emmaus, Pennsylvania, Rodale Press, 1979

Olgyay, Victor. Design for Climate, Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press, 1963
Szokolay, S.V. Environmental Science Handbook, New York, New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1980
Pena, William. Problem Seeking: An Architectural
Programming Primer. Boston, Mass. Cahners Books International, Inc. 1977
Catalog, Conservative Baptist Theological Seminary.
Conservative Baptist Theological Seminary, Denver, Colorado, 1981


The library planning workshop, directed by Krs. Margaret Beckman, was designed to aid librarians who are planning new ouildings, addition;, to existing buildings, or making more effective use of present available space. The time limitation naturally prevented Krs. Beckman from riving an exhaustive presentation. Furthermore, in this synopsis of the workshop it is impossible to convey all of the information presented. For added information see NEW LIBRARY DESIGN by Stephen Langrr.ead and Margaret Beckman. The lecture was illustrated with slides and overhead transparencies and audience participation was an integral part of the workshop.
Krs. Beckman stressed the importance of understanding the effect of the physical environment on ones activities. A carefully written program is an important aid so that library planners confront needs and problems and thus avoid problems before they are built into a building. The process by-which one constructs a program helps one to see the relationships of environment to activities.
A series of slides was shewn to illustrate problems which cculd have been prevented if intelligent, careful planning had preceded the actual building program. Following is a brief explanation of seme of tuese problems.
Oddly shared windows, in particular those which protrude into the building O ), waste space. This can cause a loss of seating space as well as clearance space at the end of stacks for bodies ar.d book trucks. One illustration shewed a loss of 3Cvfc of the total collection space.
A round library building causes problems in stack arrangement. The aisles are extremely, wide at one end and very narrow at the other end. If