Citation
Ole Barn Knoll

Material Information

Title:
Ole Barn Knoll EnergyInformation Research Center : thesis project
Creator:
Daniel, Henry A
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
approximately 100 leaves in various foliations : illustrations (1 color), charts, maps, plans ; 22 x 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Education parks -- Designs and plans -- Colorado ( lcsh )
Education parks ( fast )
Colorado ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master's degree in Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Henry A. Daniel.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
08822070 ( OCLC )
ocm08822070
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1982 .D36 ( lcc )

Full Text





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This thesis document is respectfully submitted to the (Jraduate Thesis Committee, College of Environmental Design at the University of Colorado at Denver, this lbth day of December, 19U1.
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r
.Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION 1
PROPOSED FACILITY 1.1
HISTORY 2
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 2.1
PROGRAM 3
PROGRAM BREAKDOWN 3.1
ENERGY USE AND CONSERVATION 3-2
SPACIAL BREAKDOWN 3 4
SITE 4
SITE ANALYSIS 4.1
LOCATION MAP 4.2
VIEW OF SITE 4.3
SOIL ANALYSIS 4.4
EROSION AND SEDIMENT CONTROL 4.6 DETAIL SITE PLANS 4.7
CLIMATE 5
CLIMATE ANALYSIS 5.1
CLIMATE BREAKDOWN 5.3
SUN ANGLES 5.4
DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS 5.6
CODE 6
CODE REQUIREMENTS 6.1
ENERGY SYSTEMS 7
SUN SPACE 7.1
SOLAR SYSTEM SELECTION 7.3
Oil Bam r^aM




Introduct ion-~
THE PROPOSED FACILITY:
AN ENERGY-INFORMATION RESEARCH CENTER

Designed as a microcosm of a community based on renewable energy; the facility will provide information on the technical and practical application of newly developed efficient energy systems.
The non-profit facility, funded by private donations and grants, will function as a whole system, much like early Benedictine monasteries. Most of what is necessary for the research and demonstration of this type of a community will be provided in the project This includes areas for research, education, formal group gatherings, workshops, living quarters, and socializing.
It will be designed to blend with the surrounding terrain. The facility of approximately 25,000 square feet will be in balance with local ecosystems by using renewable energy sources.
Students participating in the educational programs will learn about design and construction by participating in the experiments and data gathering. Both students and staff will be living, learning, and working together in an exciting area, creating an atmosphere diffi cult to duplicate in the typical school and allows the students to receive hands on experience in on going research.
This program integrates classes, lectures independent research projects, and seminars by notable resource people. Students or groups choose a research project in their area of interest or their level of ability and work with the staff and consultants. Regular groups will spend a minimum of two weeks at the retreat. A wilderness trip, talks by visiting lecturers, and regular


Introduction
workshops will also be part of the program.
internships will provide an opportunity for the more advanced students to study with leading research people and to conduct additional research during the academic year.
Weekend and weeklong programs will also be offered as workshops in Energy Futures, Soft Energy Paths, Integrated Design, and Bio-dynamic/French Intensive Gardening.




History^
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
The discovery of the lode called after himself, by John H. Gregory would seem to rank among those events whereby the race at large has profited.
Ivando Hollister, 1867 Newspaper Reporter

1
Gregory's distinction stems not from the I fortune he accumulated (he didn't), but rather because he was a lone prospector in unexplored wilderness and found a massive deposit of gold.
The find keynoted a frenzied gold rush, once and for all opening the Rocky Mountains to civilization.
Before the first white man appeared in what is now Golden Gate Canyon, the area was visited by Arapahoe and Commanche Indians.
These tribes Inhabited the plains to the east in large numbers and made excursions Into the front range for hunting, weapon and tool materials.
Early white visitors to Golden Gate Canyon came to trap beaver and to hunt. The first permanent white settlers didn't arrive until 1859. They were attracted by the news of the Colorado gold rush. Gold and silver were being mined west of Golden Gate Canyon In Blackhawk and Central City; but, little access existed to the gold fields.
In 1859 the Golden Gate Toll road was built to provide the primary access. The road was constructed through Golden Gate Canyon and the southern quarter of the present day state park bearing the Canyon's name. It opened up much of the territory encompassed by park boundaries. The toll road was steep and rough, but travelers had no easier routes to follow. At five weeks of age, it was beaten like a turnpike.
Although mineral wealth was most Instrumental in the growth of the region, no precious metals were discovered within the state park lands. Golden Gate Canyon's wealth was centered around goods and servies. Timber for


HivStory-

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mines, towns, and railroads; quartz for building and ornamentation; and foodstuffs for hungry miners and their neighbors were the riches produced from the Golden Gate Canyon County.
R
The area was a storehouse and life changed very little for the inhabitants between 1871 and i960 when the first tracks of land for the Golden Gate Canyon State Park were purchased by the State of Colorado. Today the park lands serve a vital role. As an easily accessible recreation facility unsurpassed in the Metro area, the park offers a multitude of activities to the visitor. Camping, pic-nicing, fishing, and sightseeing are only a few of the many recreation and educational activities to be found. There are 15 marked trails open to hiking and horseback riding, easily accessible to the site.
=1 Bavrsm lELiaolll




I
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Program
PROGRAM BREAKDOWN
SPACE SP
Vestibule 200
Livlng/Gathering Space 1200
Men's & Women's Restrooms % 140 200
Administration Office 350
Library 200
Dining/Meeting Hall 2200
Greenhouse 400
Kitchen 900
Classroom 600
Workshop 000
Utility Room 1600
Interior Recreational Space 1600
Infirmary 100
3-Studio Apartments % 400 1200
6-Dormitory Rooms w/ 6 beds % 300 1000
6-Dormitory Rooms w/ 6 bed3 § 30 2280
Storage 200
Residence 1000
Exterior Amphitheatre/Pavilion 2000
Circulation 10? 2000
Mechanical Room 000
TOTAL 22,670 SP
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* 1


.Program

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ENERGY USE AND CONSERVATION
V
The main structures are designed to be in balance with renewable energy sources and to use energy conserving techniques. Three basic grades of energy are necessary to operate the building. Each type of energy requirement is to be thermo-dynamically matched with the appropriate source, as described below:
I. High-grade energy: electricity to run
pumps, fans, electric motors, lights, and technical equipment.
Sources:
- Windmill to demonstrate different kings of electrical storage strategies such as battery storage and utility interface
- Small hydro-electric installations
- Solar pond
- On grid when required
II. Medium-grade energy: 140 water for kitchen use, bathing, and health facilities.
Sources :
- Flat plate solar collectors
- Drum gravity solar collectors
- Solar pond
III. Low-grade energy:
A. Space heating
Source: passive solar Computer analysis to optimize the heat-storing characteristics of the building's insulated walls, A prototype system using phase-change
--------------

material under sloped glass to provide heat storage and optimum daylighting.

During the colder months, Insulating shades will be used to minimize heat loss. The remaining building surfaces will be well insulated.
Back-up heating options to be considered are a solar pond, active collectors, or a wood-fired boiler
B. Natural Cooling
Source: the large diurnal temperature swing
Natural cooling of the building will be accomplished in four ways:
1. storing night-time cool temperatures in mass walls
2. using reflective trays and roll-down shading to protect the roof-glass areas from summer solar gain
3. designing the building for maximum natural ventilation
^. using earth-air tunnels to cool incoming air.
The methods outlined above are the primary ways the building will use and conserve energy. Other Important measures include:
1. air lock door
2. methane gas generation for cooking
3. composting toilets and a grey water recycling sytem
4. recycling of solid wastes
5. an alcohol still producing liquid fuels.
*
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Program
SPACIAL BREAKDOWN
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.Program*
Space Title :
Square Footage
Users :
Special Conditions :
1
Vestibule
Entry to facility,
200
Staff and Quests. 2JI hours a day,
Should be located in a highly visible part of the site, needs to be a part of the visual progression to the facility.
Environmental Requirements :Double door air-lock, temperature swing space



1r
Space Title: Vestibule (Continued)
Equipment / Furnishings :
Functional Relationships :


urogram-
Space Title :
Square Footage:
Users :
Special Conditions :
Environmental Requirements :

iar"Vr"*vnw
Llving/Oathering Space
Area for lounging and conversing. Also for visitors.
1200
Everyone, mostly in the evening after 5 p.m. But, also at odd hours during the day.
Needs 300 sq. ft. of exhibition/information area plus should be broken down into different levels to create informal conversational areas. This is the central heart of the facility.
Circulating russian fireplace.


jprogram
Space Title:
Equipment/Furnishings :
Functional Relationships :
Llvlng/Gatherlng Space (Continued)
Furnishings for 35 people.
Adjacent to the Vestibule and Dining/Meeting Hall.
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Program
Space Title :
Square Footage:
Users :
Special Conditions :

Mens & Women's Restrooms Handicap restrooms.
l^O each, 280 total
General U3e.
Environmental Requirements : Composting toilets and urinals
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Frogram^
Space Title:
Equipment / Furnishings :
Functional Relationships
Men's & Women's Restrooms (Continued)
Men: 2 sinks, 2 urinals, 1 toilet.
Handicap access.
Women: 2 sinks, 2 toilets.
Near Livlng/Gathering Space and Dining/ Meeting Hall.

"B <


program*

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Space Title :
Square Footage:
Administration Office
Administrative overseeing of operation 350 total
Users :
Administrator and secretary during business hours.
Special Conditions :
Requires 100 sq. ft. computer and record's room adjacent to office. Small informal conferance area in office.
Environmental Requirements : Daylighting



Program- ---------
&
Space Title:
Equipment / Furnishings :
Functional Relationships
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Administration Office (Continued)
2 desks, 1 credenza, 5 1.5 x 2.5 files, 1-3x6 oval conferance table with four chairs.
Near entry area


Program-
Space Title :
Square Footage
Library
Research Information library, day and early evening
280
Users:
Research personell by permission
Special Conditions
None
Environmental Requirements : Daylighting

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^ludrcun
Space Title:
Library (Continued)
Equipment / Furnishings
60 linear feet of 5' high book stacks, 2 x 6 work tables.
Functional Relationships : Adjacent to Administration Office
V

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V
Space Title:
Dlnlng/Meeting Hall
Cafeteria eating area serving also as the meeting room.
Square Footage
2200 total
Users :
Staff and guests. 3 to ^ times a day.
Special Conditions :
3 step raised platform 6 feet wide w/ 30 sq. ft. projection room across from platform, and 20 sq. ft. storage room for folding chairs and tables.
Environmental Requirements : Dayiighting with morning sun.
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Space Title:
Equipment / Furnishings :
Functional Relationships :
Dining/Meeting Hall (Continued)
Dining room seating for 90 people and meeting room seattlng for 120 people.
Adjacent to Living/Gathering Space and Men's and Women's Restrooms.
%
CM JPisutm it =/


rr
Frugram
Space Title :
Square Footage
Users :
Special Conditions
Environmental Requirements
v_

Ki tchen
Kitchen for preparation of all meals 900 total
Kitchen staff during meal times.
Service access for deliveries once a week.
Excess cooking heat could be used for space heating.
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f
Ftoaraiiv
Space Title:

Kitchen (Continued)
Equipment / Furnishings
Functional Relationships
Walk in freezer 5 x 8, a 4 x 8 centrally located island, 10 x 6 x 2 Industrial drop in cooking unit, two doublt sinks -2x4 each, 12 feet of clear counter space with storage above and below, 10' serving counter open to Dining/ Meeting Hall.
Adjacent to Dining/ Meeting Hall and service access.
V



Space Title :
Square Footage:
Users :
Special Conditions :
Classroom
Formal classroom for teaching and presentations. 600
Guest3 during daylight hours.
Be able to partition Into two spaces and darkened. Needs direct access to exterior.
Environmental Requirements : Daylighting


if
nugrum
Space Title:
Classroom (Continued)
Equipment / Furnishings :
Desk seating for 30 people and 3 4 x 12 chalk boards
Functional Relationships :
Near workshop.
V

^ /\


program
Space Title :
Square Footage:
Users :
Special Conditions :
Environmental Requirements :
Workshop
bOO total
Personell during daylight hours
1U0 sq. ft. tool room, 100 sq. ft. office, men's & women's restrooms, I'd foot celling, and service access.
Daylighting


Frodram
fc
Space Title:
Workshop (Continued;
Equipment / Furnishings
1 sink and 1 toilet in each restroom and 10 x 10 garage door to service access.
Functional Relationships : Near classroom and adjacent to utility room.


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Space Title :
Square Footage:
Users :
Special Conditions :
Environmental Requirements :

Utility Room
Storage of supplies and experiments lfaOU
Personell during daylight hours
Service access.
None
iCM Baim


^nHrogram
Space Title:
Equipment/Furnishings :
Functional Relationships :


Utility Room (Continued)
2' wide storage shelves, and 1 d foot wide garage door at service access.
Adjacent to Workshop.
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Program.
Space Title :
Square Footage
Users :
Special Conditions :

Interior Recreational Space Informal physical and exercise room
1600
Guests and personell during free hours In the afternoon and evening.
20 foot celling with the ability to be opened up to an exterior courtyard.
Environmental Requirements :
None
%
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FiOti r a m fs*
Space Title: Interior Recreational Space (Continued)
Equipment / Furnishings : Operable lb foot high doors.
Functional Relationships : None


Aerogram
Space Title :
Square Footage:
Users:
Special Conditions :
Environmental Requirements :
Infirmary
Isolation room for the sick.
lbO
Anyone with an illness. 24 hours a day.
Be able to partition room
Daylighting


Fiogram
"S
Space Title:
Infirmary (Continued)
Equipment / Furnishings :
Storage cabinet (securable) and 16 sq. ft closet.
Functional Relationships I Adjacent to Studio apartments and restrooms.


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Frogram^
Space Title :
Square Footage:
Users:
Special Conditions :
Environmental Requirements :


3 Studio Apartments
Housing for permanent personell and guest researchers.
400 each, 1200 total
Permanent personell, mostly during evening and night, occasionally during the day.
Kitchenette, queen size bed, living area and full bathroom.
See Energy system section


Frogram^
Space Title:
Equipment / Furnishings :
Functional Relationships :
v
Studio Apartments (Continued)
Composting toilet, solar hot water for shower and sink.
Adjacent to Infirmary.
%
>. sum.
J


-program-
Space Title :
Square Footage:
Users:
Special Conditions :
Environmental Requirements
Dormatory Rooms 6 w/ 6 beds
- 6 w/ b beds
Housing for guests
w/ 6 beds 300 each, lbOO total w/ b beds 3b0 each, 22b0 total
By guests during evening and night
Bunk beds with storage units. 2 bathrooms (need handicap acess).
See Energy system section.
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jpt'Oijrain-
Space Title:
Equipment / Furnishings :
Functional Relationships :
Dormatory Rooms (Continued)

Each room: composting toilet, solar hot water for sink and shower
Covered walkway to main facility if separate from it.


program
Space Title :
Square Footage:
Users:
Special Conditions :
Environmental Requirements :

Storage
Linen and supply storage
200
Staff
Shelves
None


r
Prorfram

Space Title:
Storage (Continued)
Equipment/Furnishings :
None
Functional Relationships : Near Dormatory Space


J


i^rogram-
Space Title :
Square Footage:
Users :
Special Conditions :
Environmental Requirements
Residence
Residence for administrator
1H00
Administrators family, 2*1 hours
Living room, kitchen, dining room, 2 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, and storage.
Can be separate from main facility
See Energy system section.
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Frograin- ~
Spft.CC Title; Residence (Continued)
Equipment / Furnishings : Composting toilet, solar hot water.
Functioned Relationships :
Visual overview of main facility.


program,
Space Title :
Square Footage:
Users:
Special Conditions
Environmental Requirements :
Greenhouse
Greenhouse used for agricultural experiment l00
Researchers during davlipht hours Use heat pain for heatinp other spaces.
Reuse eXcess heat for space heatinp.


jprogr am ~
Space Title:
Equipment / Furnishings :
Functional Relationships
Greenhouse(Continued)
Shelves for seedlings.
Adjacent to Dining/Meetlng Hall and near to Workshop.
jtM


^^Frugrcim
Space Title :
Square Footage
Users:
Special Conditions :
Environmental Requirements :
Exterior Amphitheatre/Pavilion
2000
Quests during good weather.
Minimal structure, sun shading, audio control and wind protection, can be combination of paving with grass.
Sun and wind control.


FTOgr a ok
Space Title:
Equipment / Furnishings :
Functional Relationships :
V
*j**+'
Exterior Amphitheatre/Pavilion (Continued)
None
Centrally located with good view.


Program.
Space Title :
Square Footage
Users :
Special Conditions
Environmental Requirements :
Mechanical Room
Mechanical system housing.
800
Maintenance personell (infrequent)
Distribute area as required by spacial arrangements and needs.
As required


rrugram^
Space Title:
Equipment /Furnishings :
Functional Relationships :
Mechanical Room (Continued)
As required.
Near spaced served




V
SITE ANALYSIS
Golden Gate Canyon State Park lies at longitude 10525' West and latitude 3950' North. This places the Canyon within the Southern Rocky Mountain Province and 30 miles west of Denver, Colorado. This province is characterized by two parallel granitic ridges running generally in a noth-south direction. These ridges are flanked by sedimentary formations which have been eroded away to form rounded, steeply sloped and highly dissected foothill regions. The site lies on the eastern slop of the granitic ridge termed the Front Range.
The site location is on the high point and southern sloping side of the rise between the Boulder Creek drainage to the north and the Clear Creek drainage to the south. The major drainage of the site is Ralston Creek which runs generally towards the east. The two main tributaries to Ralston Creek are Nott Creek and Deer Creek. These tributaries are seasonally intermittent and Ralston Creek has in extremely dry summers also stopped flowing.
The dominant landform in the area is Promontory Ridge. It is a series of rock outcroppings in a north-south direction along the eastern boundary of the site. The ridge begins in the noth at the high point of the Park, Mt. Thorldin (10,5^0') and Tremont Mountain (10,388'). It then slopes downward as it extends south and terminates as it reaches Ralston Creek. The precipitous slopes of Promontory Ridge flatten out into a few upland meadows and into drainage bottoms. The site is located on Ole Barn Knoll named for the historic structure which exists in the immediate vicinity.
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V
LOCATION OF ENERGY-INFORMATION RESEARCH CENTER
\
V
Scale of miles
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SOIL ANALYSIS
Soils developing on steep slopes are sandy rocky, regosols (poorly developed 3oils) naturally subjected to erosion. Soils on the south and west slopes often lack sufficient cover for adequate erosion protection. Development or trails and roads on steep slopes should be engineered to prevent concentration of runoff that precipitates gully washing. In the shallower areas sufficient ground cover in the way of either grasses or trees exist to diminish the erosion problems.
Soils on gentle slopes and elevated flats are usually rocky and sandy and well drained although there are small boggy areas caused by poor subsurface drainage. The rocky-sandy soil is resilient to recreation traffic but the vegetative ground cover is soon trampled and not easily restored. The sandy 3oils result in high seepage losses in ponds.
The steepness of slope may effect the choice and location of structures, roads and septic systems. As slopes become steeper they present more severe erosion, re-vegetation and construction problems. Careful planning and designing will be necessary for dwelling foundations, sidewalks and streets. Slopes in excess of 30 percent are best used as open space.
Soils in this area have a moderate to slow Infiltration rate. This tends to limit the effectiveness of on site septic sytems.
It also limits the amount of natural ground water available to establish and maintain vegetation .
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VEGETATION

The southern and western slopes are sparsely forested with ponderosa pine while douglas fir predominates in thick forest cover on the eastern exposures. Blue Spruce and narrowleaf cottonwood occur along the drainage bottoms with willows lining the creek in the wet meadow area. Lodgepole pine gradually become dominant at higher elevations with the area above 9000 feet densely forested with lodgepole. Aspen groves occur in the moist spots starting at about 8000 feet but most of the large groves are above 9000 feet in moist areas. The remainder of the gentle slopes on the southern and western exposures are covered with a good dry grass below 9000 feet and are being reclaimed by aspen.
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Site.
ff
EROSION AND SEDIMENT CONTROL

Erosion and sediment are problems associated with construction. Proper planning and staging of construction activity can minimize these hazards.
-Bare only those areas necessary for construction.
-Protect all remaining vegetation from destruction .
-Areas graded months in advance of anticipated construction should be temporarily seeded or mulched.
-Keep grades of cut and fill slopes 3:1 or flatter wherever practical, for stability and maintenance.
-Seed or sod roadbanks, streambanks, cut
and fill slopes etc. as soon as practical after bringing them to final grade.
If these temporary and permanent measures are not effective in reducing erosion and sediment damages from the site, the use of temporary diversions and sediment basins at the base of the development may need to be considered. As soon as practical following contruction stabilize all disturbed areas by seeding, sodding or paving.
During excavation and construction, all topsoil should be removed and stockpiled.
When construction has been completed, the soil should be redistributed over any disturbed area. This topsoil will aid in the re-establishment of needed vegetation over cut and fill areas. During construction, protect and save as much of the native vegetation as possible. This will help to prevent erosion (both wind and water) during and after construction .
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GILPIN COUNTY LOCATION MAP
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Site.
GOLDEN GATE CANYON STATE PARK
Beehive Outfcfip'^^i \ L,V\
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Gap Hole
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to Curt Cr ook Canyar ) to 6t* r
R RT. #6 Box 280 Golden, CO 80401 642-3171
Colorado Division ol Parka And Outdoor Recreation
Department of Natural Resources 1313 Sherman #G18 Denver, Colorado 80203, , ^
SC
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ji}1?- ^panorpma Point! ^|_a^y Squaw Outcrop
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1., ;; i * Vi'-' ;A \
, \ ! ! \ l p \ -f l Rifleman Phillips ^ A
' v _X-#1.Q388i j r > Croup ^TrJQuW(
t'-v Forgotten WalleV-.4 I Aj 'lrg3 _.,) ( [Jn
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, i# ,
> ... Trernont Mtn., F
Bootleg Botloh
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Trail System
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COYOTE TRAIL
2.2 ml.
Start: Bootleg Bottom End: Frazer Meadow BLACK BEAR W5J TRAIL 1.9 ml.
Start: Ralston Creek End: Ralston Roost
0&LUE GROUSE TRAIL 2.3 mi.
Start: Kriley Pond End: Slough Pond via Ralston Roost GROUND SQUIRREL TRAIL
2 ml. r=l Start Kriley Pond
HI
4.6 mi.
Slatt: Lower Mtn
MULE DEER TRAIL f^EAGLE TRAIL
Li 2.1 ml.
Start: Noll Creek
'Hsi...N Yr^Vi^ V.-proonl'eld /'
Cl V^--..1/nadO'A' C.l 1 0/ {
---Vl^n\L 8334 j Ralston Roost J Lv J Round the Bond j
Nroc^ V V ,, :

R.-inoh Ponds
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Pjid Barn Gro Fichte; Area
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Base Road End: Panorama Point
ELK TRAIL
3 2 ml. Start: Lower Mtn. Baso Road End: Reverend's Ridge
MOUNTAIN LION TRAIL 5.9 mi. Start: Nott Creek End: Forgotten Valley
End: City Lights Ridge
ESNOWSHOE HARE TRAIL
3.2 ml.
Start: Aspen
Kriley f
Slough Pond
i,.........
T
,1! ;. ;
< in visitor Center /
End: Run Meadow Start: Bridge Creek
fKI HORSE TRAIL 2 mi. End: Quarry klLii Start Ralston Creek End: Frazer Meadow
Meadow End: Aspen Meadow
RACCOON TRAIL 1.3 mi.
Start: Reverend's Ridge
End: Panorama
BURRO TRAIL Point
5 5 ml. BUFFALO TRAIL
Prcjhibition Ridge
, / *..
mr
li
Moon Hollow
BI)E 3 2 ml.
Start: Bridge Creek End: Rifleman Phillips
LEGEND
Fwt Horse & Foot Trails kLij easy (yellow)
Foot Trails moderate (orange) Foot Trails difficult (red)
T Trail Head & Parking Trail
A. Campgrounds A Picnic Grounds Major Rock Outcrop 9334 or Elevation
VISITOR CENTER & INFORMATION
'entralia Mtn> flj
i_ ^T9740'V.
NORTH
_^-^_Naturol Spring (,xwT3aved Road mipt.Gravel Road
_____Water
___ Drainage
Park Boundry
V
CD
Miles i
V
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Vk
1
1
(llomoters
Contour Interval 200
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CLIMATE ANALYSIS
V.
The mountain ranges around the site contrast with those of the Northern Rockies in that they have a marked north-south linear trend. In general they are composed of broad elevated blocks of granite that have been pushed out of the earth's crust and rise abruptly above the Great Plains to the east.
The Southern Rockies are the last barrier for the cyclonic storms that move out of the Pacific Ocean in the winter months across North America. Much of the winter precipitation in this zone falls in the form of snow.
As is true of all high mountain areas, one will feel comfortable during the daylight hours while remaining in the sun. But as night comes or as clouds obscure the sun, the loss of radiant energy from your body quickly produces a chill. Actual air temperatures at these high elevations are relatively low; even in summer one needs a sweater to feel comfortable in the shade.
Individuals operating at these higher elevations do so under severe limitations. Reduced amounts of oxygen entering your bloodstream result in a slowing of mental and physical functions. Low humidities coupled with strong winds result in the loss of bodily moisture. Moderate exertion results in exhaustion.
The climate is characterized by low relative humidity, variable winds, light precipitation, and large diurnal and seasonal temperature variations. The average monthly temperature varies from 26.6F in January to 63.6F in July. The diurnal temperature range (difference between the daily maximum and minimum temperatures) is very large and often exceeds 35 degrees.
=CM Bam



-Climate
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Afternoon temperatures in the mid 80s are not unusual during the summer months, but nightime temperatures are always cool, usually dropping into the 40s. During the winter temperatures in the teens occur frequently as cold air settles into the valley.
Annual precipitation averages about 15 inches. Precipitation is distributed fairly evenly throughout the year with a small increase during the summer months. Light afternoon thundershowers account for the summer precipitation, while most winter precipitation falls as snow. Annual snowfall averages 40 inches, with December and January being typically the snowiest months. The snowcover often persists through the mid-winter months in the northern slopes.
Uld Barn Knoll has sufficient mountain elevation to provide welcome relief from the summer heat of the plains. In the winter, the snow cover is not too deep county roads are usually kept open, and snow is not persistent on many southern and western slopes and wider valley bottoms. Fall frosts come in October-November and spring thaw is in Apri1-May which limits most sitework, construction and maintenance to a four to five month period.
Ralston Creek Valley is a significant air drainage corridor with strong gusty winds frequently occuring in exposed aspen areas, especially in the Mountain House to Junction entrances vicinity. The higher ridges and peaks such as Tremont and Thor-odln and Promontory Ridge-Ralston Roost bear the brunt of prevailing winds.
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---Climate------------------------_
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CUM AT 16 VA^IA&IJS JAM FEE? MAF AFP MAY JUH JtfL AliO ^>EP oa Nov DfeC
VQ5&ES ' 1184 1053 1075 779 497 218 63 105 286 550 902 1133
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UAIUV 40Up- P-AD, 861 1178 1550 1931 ,2129 2369 2212 1 2025 1759 1359 944 782
EXT&ENIE MA*. 1HMIT 41.7 46.8 48.9 58.0 66.6 78.0 80.7 79.7 75.0 66.5 54.3 42.5
MEAKl MA/. TEMP 36.6 38.4 41.6 51.2 61.9 72.8 78.0 75.5 69.7 60.1 45.4 37.8
MEAN TEMP 26.6 27.8 30.2 38.9 48.6 57.7 63.6 61.6 55.4 46.9 34.8 28.2
MEAN Min, temp 16.4 17.1 18.7 26.5 35.2 42.6 49.1 47.8 41.0 33.7 24.1 18.6
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H&ANl r^HFvAUC .52 .55 l.oc 1.63 1.78 1.36 2.06 2.15 1.31 .94 .72 .72
MINIMUM PAIN RAO- .05 0.00 .2 .12 .05 .14 .22 .42 .03 .03 .01 .08
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DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS
All doors and entrances should be sheltered from winds with both roofs and wing walls or screens.
Use snow fences and wind screens to keep snow from piling up in entries and against south facing windows and walls.
V
Use thick or massive south walls to store the sun's energy in the winter. Care must be taken that they do not overheat in the s umme r.
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Use insulation around entire perimeter, and include some thermal mass within the interior to store internal heat gain and modify temperature swings.
Earth coverings for insulated walls or roofs can provide substantial reduction of temperature extremes.
Use double or triple glazing, and fit insulated curtains or shutters for use at night.

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Avoid building in the bottom of a valley where cold air drainage causes the coldest temperatures. Slopes and benches are the warmest site to build on.
Place storage and secondary use spaces on wind exposed walls. Let sun and light into major living spaces.
Minimize the number of outside doors, and provide vestibules or airlocks for main entries.
,11 M,fli\>llll


.Climate.

Build on the north side of a valley facing south, and plan sun angles carefully to prevent the winter sun from being cut off by trees and mountains.
Make the entire south wall a sun room of some sort. Greenhouse living spaces work well from the end of January to early December.
Use heavy, massive walls on the south, make the outside dark in color, and use rough textures to increase absorption of solar heat.
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Code.
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Code
1. APPLICABLE BUILDING City County CODES OllDln 2. ZONE 3. FIRE ZONE 4. OCCUPANCY GROUP (Table 5~A)
Fire Marshall UBC X A-3
5. OTHER REGULATIONS
State Board of Health X State Dept, of Ed._______ Sign Code____Elevator____Other
6. FLOOR AREA (Chapter 5 and Table 5-C)
Construction type p r tt
Occupancy type A-3_____
Basic Allow. Area (505a) 29 .000
Fire Zone 3 Increase (505b) 5M 000
Added Stories Increase (505b) 29 .000
Side(s) Separation Increase (506a) 116 >000
Fire Exiting System Increase (508b&c) -____
Total Allowable Area 116 ,000
ACTUAL BUILDING AREA Existing Proposed
2 V 6 -
22.670
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27,000 13.500 54 .000
54,000
Future
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13.500 27I0O0
13.500
54.000
54,000
Total
7. FIRE RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS (Table 17-a, unless noted)
Construction Type F.R.II 1 HR III H.T.IV
Exterior Bearing Walls 4 4 4
Interior Bearing Walls. 2 1 1
Ext. Non-Bearing Walls 4 4 4
Structural Frame 2 1 1 or H.T.
Permanent Partitions 1 1 1 or H.T.
Shaft Enclosures 2 1 1
Floors 2 1 1
Roofs 1 1 H.T.
Exterior Doors & Windows .75 _ .75 .75
Inner Court Walls (504c) -
Parapets Required (1709a) 30" 30" 30"
Attic Draftstops Required (3205b) PARTITION FOR ATTIC OVER 3000 -5Q. FT
Attic Ventilation Required (3205c) 1/3U0 AREA OF SPACE VENTILATED
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Code
V
8. WALL & OPENING PROTECTION ('03 Sections Chapters 6-15), (Type I, II & III Const.
see Sections 1803, 1903 & 2003) & (Type IV & V Const, see Table 50A & Sections 2103 & 2203)
Fire Resistance of Exterior Walls SAME AS SECTION 7______________________
Openings in Exterior Walls SAME AS SECTION 7 ____________________________
9. BUILDING HEIGHT (Table 5-D)
Story___________________________
Occupancy Group_________________
Area____________________________
Sq.Ft. per Occupant (Table 33-A) Total Persons per Floor_________
Number Exits Required Total Building (,3302a) -
Required Exit Width (3302b) TOTAL OCCUPANT LUAfel DIVIDED M 50 FEET Ramps Required (Table 330A) 1________________________________
Allowable Stories ____£
1
Fire Sprinkler Increase (507)
PLUS 1
Total Allowable Stories 3
Maximum Height
IQ*. OCCUPANT LOADS SEE INDIVIDUAL SPACES IN PROGRAMS
Total Number of Persons in Building
11. EXIT REQUIREMENTS (Chapter 33)
Number Exits Required Each Floor (3302a)
2
Corridor Widths (3304b) _____q q "___________
Dead End Corridor Limit (3304f)______________
Corridor Construction (3304g) 1 HR._______
Stairway Widths (3305b) ________qfc_________
Stairway Landing Depths (3305 f) 3611______
Stairway to Roof (3305f) _______none_________
Smoke Tower Required (3309) no___________
Exit Signs Required (3312b) ______EACH EXIT
Exit Sign Separate Circuit (3312c) NO
V

;0I

12. OCCUPANCY UNIT LIVE LOADS (Chapter 23 Table 23-A)
100 LB./SQ. FT. EXCEPT: DORMATORY 40, STORAGE 125 LABORATORY 75, OFFICES $0, AND CLASSROOMS 4b
13. OTHER REQUIREMENTS
Separations between occupancies Fire Ratings & Const. (Table 5-b) __________
Enclosure of Vertical Openings (1706) SEE SECTION 7___________________________
Light (_'05 Sections, Chpt. 6-14) ___________'________________________________
Ventilation ___________________________________________________________
Sanitation _________________.__________________________________________
Fire Extinguishing System Required (3802) mn__________________________________
Dry Standpipes Required (3803) MORE. THAN-"0NE-ST0RY____CLASS III STANDPIPE
Wet Standpipes Required (3805) ______________*________________________________
Combination Standpipes Required (3802) ____NO_______________________________
Special Hazards & Requirements (see Group Occupancies) ______________________
Exceptions & Deviations (see Group Occupancies) ___________-__________________

c


Energy Systems
=M

winter day winter night
Sunlight enters south glass and strikes mass areas on floor and mass walls. Areas shown not shaded are in sun at noon on Dec. 21. Roll up "window quilt" shades are raised at dawn and lowered at dusk (fig. a). Insulating door at ridge vent is left closed throughout the heating season (fig. b). Ceiling fan (fig. c) recirculates stagnant warm air from the high ridge area to lower level living areas. When sun is not shining, backup heat is provided by an airtight woodstove (fig. d). Further backup heat is provided by closed-loop hot water electric heaters. Louvers located in second floor allow heated air to rise to bedroom spaces (fig. e).

Solar radiation stored in mass walls and floor (fig. a) radiates to living spaces to provide heat when the sun is not shining. An airtight woodstove provides backup heat when needed. Moveable insulation (fig. b) is rolled down on all major windows to prevent nighttime radiative heat losses. The ceiling fan (fig. c) transfers stagnant warm air to the living areas of the home. Floor louvers (fig. d) allow air to convect from first floor to second floor living spaces.


Energy Systems
HOW TO SELECT THE BEST SOLAR ALTERNATIVE
After having seen 162 winners of the HUD Passive Design Competition, you may ask how one chooses between solar heating by direct solar gain, indirect solar gain, or solarium gain. Although there are many reasonsfrom overall efficiency to overall appearancewhy different designers prefer different systems, we will look at four variables to determine the most appropriate solar heating method for your house designs. Givens, such as the house plan you are presently working with, the site you are building on, and the building codes you must work within, will be first. The climate, which is also a given, will be the second determinant. Then cost and lifestyle will follow as the third and fourth variables to choosing a solar heating concept for speculative homebuilding in your area. For each determinant we will discuss the three basic passive solar heating methods: direct solar gain, indirect solar gain, and solarium gain.
V
VARIABLE I: THE GIVEN HOUSE PLAN. SITE, AND CODCS The building site may not dictate whether direct gain, indirect gain, or solarium homes are preferable, but it does determine where the collector aperture must be located. If vertical windows are being used as solar collectors, care must be taken to see that those walls are not shaded in the winter by neighboring sites. Through the use of roof apertures (shaded clerestories and roof panels) in addition to south facing window areas, most sites can be made adaptable to solar design; however, shading is crucial since the roof is highly exposed in the summer when sun is not desired. With all solar apertures, avoid sites or parts of sites which are partly shaded in the winter by neighboring buildings and vegetation.
For all solar-heated home designs, floor plans are best suited to solar heating if the major living spacesliving room, dining room, family room, and even the bedroomsare to the south, close to the solar collector and storage component. Radiant distribution (and low temperature convective distribution) from solar storage is only effective when the occupant can sit, work, eat, or sleep near the heat source. Clerestory direct solar gain heating or roof-lit indirect solar gain (Trombe wall) heating may be the best choice for one-story house plans which do not have the living spaces at the southern exposure. In two-story houses which are not planned for energy conservation, a non-southern oriented house plan with no potential room openings to the south may require indirect solar gain and/or solarium (isolated) gain solutions. These Trombe wall and solarium solutions will allow the collection of higher solar temperatures (>90F) which are necessary if solar-heated air is to be blown around for heating a non solar planned house without causing discomfort from lukewarm air motion.
Code problems with any of these passive solar home designs can be solved logically. Direct gain systems generally pose the fewest problems with local code and planning officials. Indirect solar gain Trombe wall houses may meet some local resistance due to unconventional appearance. This problem will disappear over time as a "solar home" aesthetic becomes popular. As demonstrated in the award winning designs, combining solar systems generally softens the visual impact of passive solar.
VARIABLE 2: THE GIVEN CLIMATE
Direct solar gain homes can pose problems in at least two climates In very cold climates, the amount of glass exposure required for direct gain heating in the living spaces themselves can lead to tremendous heat losses on cloudy days or at night. Sometimes tn poorly designed house the amount of solar heat collected p+r house is less than the amount of room heat lost through the wino-
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Energy Systems.
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Objective
A SAMPLE SOLAR SYSTEM CHECKLIST FOR COST ASSESSMENT: DIRECT GAIN
Function
Component
Specification
Minimum Cost Collection Roof Skylights Clerestory Wall C Single glazing (_ Fixed windows 0.125 in. Glass; 0.040 in. Fiberglass; 0.040 in. Plastic
Storage Roof Wall Floor Water roof ponds Mass wall Mass floor 60 BTU/sq. ft. collector area min. see Indirect Gain 6 in. Concrete; 4 in. Brick
Distribution Radiant
Controls Heat Gain Vegetation Deciduous trees planted for summer shading
Maximum Value Collection Roof Wall Double glazing Operable windows Diffusion devices Conduction devices Exterior reflectors 0.250 in. Glass; 0.050 in. Fiberglass; 0.050 in. Plastic Diffusion fabric screens; Vertical glazing slats; Reflective Venetian blinds; Special irregular glass over plastic; Dark Venetian blinds Reflective surface on insulation panel; Light colored gravel or patio surface; Snow
Storage Roof Wall Floor Freestanding Water roof pond Mass wall Mass floor Additional Remote Storage see Indirect Gain 8 in. Concrete; 6 in. Brick 55 gallon water drums; 8 in. CMU
Distribution Radiant Convective Fan to storage Exterior vents Roof exhaust (hot); Floor supply (cool)
Controls Heat loss Heat gain Moveable exterior insulation Moveable interior insulation Vegetation Roof eave Shading devices Solid hinged/Sliding panels; Blown in Beadwall Roll down curtains; Bi-fold/sliding doors Deciduous trees planted for summer shading Projection designed for summer shading Fixed/operable louvers
V.
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-Energy Systems
A SAMPLE SOLAR SYSTEM CHECKLIST FOR COST ASSESSMENT: INDIRECT GAIN
Objective Function Component Specification
Minimum Cost Collection Wall Single glazing 0.125 in. Glass; 0.040 in. Fiberglass; 0.040 in Plastic
Storage Wall Mass wall 12 in. Concrete; 10 in. Brick; 8 in. Adobe; 6 in. Water
Distribution Radiant
Controls Heat gain f Roof eave Vegetation Projection designed for summer shading Deciduous trees planted for summer shading
Maximum Value Collection Wall Double glazing Exterior reflectors 0.025 (2 at 0.125) in. Glass; 0.050 (2 at 0 025) in. Fiberglass; 0.050 (2 at 0.025) in. Plastic Reflective surface on insulation panel; Light colored gravel or patio surface
Storage Wall Floor Mass wall Additional remote storage 18 in. Concrete; 14 in. Brick; 12 in. Adobe; 12 in. Water
Distribution Radiant Convective Interior vents Exterior vents Fan to interior or exterior Ceiling supply (warm); Floor return (cool) Roof exhaust (hot)
Controls Heat loss Heat gain Backdraft dampers Operable vents Moveable exterior Insulation Moveable interior Insulation Roof eave Shading devices Vegetation 0.006 in. Polyethylene Hinged panels Solid hinged/sliding panels; Blown in Beadwall Roll down curtains; Bi-fold/sliding doors Projection designed for summer shading Operable/fixed louvers Deciduous trees planted for summer shading
Natural light Windows in mass wall
CM IS)3\m ISjffioll


Energy Systems^
dow area. This loss can be reduced by double and triple glazing or by moveable insulation over the glass, which must be included for the successful use of direct gain in very cold climates.
In very hot climates, direct gain heating can cause comparable problems. In addition to glare and too much solar collection in spring and fall, the summer heat transfer through the large areas of glass (even shaded) can make cooling loads excessively large. To prevent this heat transfer, double and triple glazing or moveable insulation again may be necessary to keep out the hot ambient air temperatures. On the other hand, homes in consistently cloudy climates may benefit the most from direct gain heating; direct gain allows the use of low amounts of solar radiation to offset daytime building heat loss.
In conclusion, although direct solar gain systems are adaptable to almost every climate, site, and building style, caution must be taken in extremely cold and extremely hot climates.
Indirect solar gam heating by masonry and water storage walls or roof panels can also be designed to suit almost any climate in the continental United States. However, simple radiant masonry or water storage walls work best in climates with large day-night temperature swings while more complex convective and radiant walls may be required in most other climates. In climates and homes which need daytime as well as nighttime heating, a secondary direct solar gain collector may be necessary to provide immediate, early morning heat; or carefully detailed inside vents and dampers will be required for immediate convective heat transfer from the storage wall. In milder climates which may have a tendency to overheat on spring, fall, and even winter days, houses will require vents to the outside and inside to distribute excessive solar heat gains As with direct gain systems, indirect solar gain systems in cold climates often function better when the solar storage area is protected from nighttime and cloudy day heat loss.
This requires additional construction labor and cost but does not reduce the thermal value of the indirect gain solar mass wall or roof.
Solariums or isolated solar gain homes can be pleasant heat sources in many parts of the country. Hot and humid climates, however, might suffer from the addition of "greenhouse spaces lor passive solar heating. The addition of humidity from a greenhouse in a humid climate can make the solar home uncom-lortable. In general, a solarium space which is not intended for I ill time occupancy will be able to provide effective heating for a > ise in almost any climate, since it can be either: (1) completely tied from the house; (2) opened to the house and additional
----------------------------------------------
heat storage as needed; or (3) occupied when the direct gain temperature is right. Solariums which are intended for continuous use, day and night, are direct gain spaces. In cold climates, they will require adequate internal storage mass and moveable insulation over the glass.
Since most climates are complex rather than simply cold or hot, most passive solar homes will combine the best of direct, indirect, and solarium solutions. However, for simplicity, ease of construction, and cost, it is often prudent to try one of the simpler solutions on your first passive solar home.
VARIABLE 3: COST
To make a decision between direct gain, indirect gain, and solarium heating on the basis of cost, three issues must be evaluated on the local level: the cost of design or redesign, the cost and availability of materials, and local building construction techniques. Generally, those systems which are less complex and those which allow incremental introduction (heating one of two rooms in the first model house) will be the most cost effective for the speculative housing market. To aid in the cost estimation of each system, however, a small chart illustrates the range of components inherent in the direct solar, indirect solar, and solarium home.
VARIABLE 4: LIFESTYLES
Lifestyles and taste of the residential buying market are going to be the final criteria for selecting a passive solar system for your house designs. The flexibility and interest of a potential buyer is important in the effective operation of many of these passive solar homes. In many cases these houses are designed to appeal to the individuals who buy a sailboat over a speedboat, for whom the sport of moving a man-made object by natural forces is indeed a thrill.
In direct solar gain homes, several lifestyle changes might be considered. In order to collect enough heat directly during the day to last through the night (or even the next cloudy day), room temperatures must be allowed to get pretty high to "charge" the storage areas. As soon as the sun goes down, room temperatures will drop and the radiant storage will offer comfort even though ambient room temperatures may be low. In the direct gain home, therefore, temperatures inside may fluctuate from 9(TF to 60Ta 30"F swing. This is not a serious problem for owners who work all day and only arrive home in the evening. They can allow room temperatures to get very high throughout the day in order to ensure steady solar heat throughout the evening.
The operation of a direct gain home is relatively simple. Each sunny morning, the moveable insulation over the glass area is
===11 Earn


Energy Systems
rr Ik
A SAMPLE SOLAR SYSTEM CHECKLIST FOR COST ASSESSMENT: SOLARIUM
Objective Function Component Specification
Minimum Cost Collection Roof Wall Single glazing 0.125 in. Glass; 0.040 in. Fiberglass; 0.040 in. Plastic
Storage Roof Wall Floor Freestanding Mass wall Mass floor see Indirect Gain 4 in. Concrete; 4 in. Brick
Distribution Radiant
Controls Heat gain Vegetation Deciduous trees planted for summer shading
Maximum Value Collection Roof Wall Double glazing (Glazing sloped at Lat. + 15) Exterior reflectors 0.250 (2 at 0.125) in. Glass; 0.050 (2 at 0.025) in. Fiberglass; 0.050 (2 at 0.025) in. Plastic Light colored gravel or patio surface; Snow
Storage Roof Wall Floor Freestanding Mass wall Mass floor see Indirect Gain 8 in. Concrete; 6 in. Brick
Distribution Radiant Convective Interior vents Exterior vents Fan to remote storage Ceiling supply (warm); Floor return (cool) Roof exhaust (hot); Floor supply (cool)
Controls Heat loss Heat gain Moveable insulation at greenhouse skin Moveable insulation at building skin Vegetation Shading devices Roll down curtains; solid hinged panels; Blown in Beadwall Roll down curtains; Bi-fold and Sliding doors Deciduous trees planted for summer shading Roll down canvas; Operable/fixed louvers
V--------- --- r..-.................CM ]a.im


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Energy Systems,
/tjln Vf m the sunshine. Each evening, the insulation is ?l> protect the living spaces from heat loss. On a seasonal ..Kiding devices, awnings, trellises, and overhangs may be < n pljce to protect the large glass areas from unnecessary nthine in summer and sometimes spring and fall.
in indirect solar gain systema masonry or water storage wall nplies other involvements for the occupant. Although room temperatures are more controlled and exhibit less temperature swing, room air temperatures will still be cooler since radiant heat satisfies the major comfort needs of the occupants.
In some climates, especially those with large day-night temperature swings, no daily operation is required by the homeowner. In other climates, though, the operation of the indirect solar gain home can be complicated. Each morning moveable insulation outside the storage wall is opened, and dampers for convective air distribution are shut so that the solar storage can charge. If immediate heating is required, dampers and fans may be opened and closed throughout the day. Each night, the moveable insulation is closed to cover the storage area, and dampers and fans shut off so lower temperature radiant heating can work at its best. Seasonally, a summer mode could be added in which dampers to the outside are opened, allowing the solar-heated air in the collector-storage wall to vent and draw cooler air through the house. Alternatively, moveable insulation would be put in place daily over the glass area and opened nightly to expose the mass to the cooler night sky.
Isolated gain solarium spaces attached to a house can become a simple solar heated room, occupied when the temperature is right and ignored when the temperature is wrong. Or the solarium may be a very complex solar collector-storage system for effectively heating the house. In a solarium home, doors, windows, and vents may be opened each day to transfer heal to the living space and additional so^r storage mass. As temperatures in the living spaces get too high, these openings would be closed and the solarium either vented or "supercharged with sunshine. At night, the vented solarium could be cut off from the living space and its storage mass On the other hand, the supercharged solarium, protected by extensive exterior insulation, could be reopened to the living spaces. A solarium combines the possibilities of a direct gain "live in the sunshine" space with an indirect gain "collect the sunshine" space, but it also combines several modes of operation, providing for the most intriguing but complex owner involvement.
Living in a passive solar home can be very exciting, stimulating, and in the end. very economical. It may involve daily operations.

opening and closing areas of the house, so as to use and store heat and sunshine most effectively. It may also involve covering and uncovering window areas to prevent winter heat loss and summer heat gain as well as enhance summer air movement throughout the house. It is not less of an art of raising the right sail for the amount of "wind to power your well-designed sloop, or in this case, your well-designed solar home.

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CONCLUSION
This scheme is representative of a whole range of new residential design solutions which offer their occupants an alternative to conventional housing styles and performance. While the inevitable large areas of south-facing collector glazing in passive design give the residence a modern appearance, it belies the essentially "conservative nature of this compact and efficient little "machine for living."
It is a home which requires a modest amount of user participation in the operation and maintenance of its passive solar system, but it essentially relies on extensive thermal mass and simple solar collection to provide the bulk of the heating load for the residence.
The design extracts some of the new ideas embodied in passive solar design and takes them to their logical conclusion. For instance, once a concrete block wall is dictated by thermal mass requirements, it is put to double use by retaining the earth berm-ing to the north. Once a Trombe wall is dictated, it too is expected to act as structure.
It is a tough, durable home that should appeal to the rugged young homebuyer in today's market.
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Energy Systems
TROMBE WALL DETAILS
Tromhe walls are constructed of heavy masonry including brick, block, adobe, or poured concrete. Structurally, Trombe walls are no different than common masonry walls, since the thermal fluctuations of the mass are often less than exterior masonry walls. Concrete block used in a Trombe wall should be of heavy aggregate and should be filled with pea gravel, concrete grout, or a heavy mortar. Twelve inch or 16" block is commonly used, although in some situations an 8" block wall is used for a quicker transfer of heat to the interior.
Vents are generally added to Trombe walls at the top and bottom to allow for convection into the living space for heat during the day. The wall vents in the Trombe wall increase the heat gain efficiency slightly, but they do allow a faster transfer of heat to the living space. The total cross-sectional area of the bottom vent openings should be equal to one-half the plenum cross-sectional area between the masonry wall and the glazing. Deviation from this value is not critical, however the top vents must have automatic damper flaps to prevent reverse thermosiphoning at night. Frequently a simple layer of thin film plastic is taped to the interior side of the Trombe wall at each upper vent. When room air attempts to enter the Trombe wall at the top opening in the evening, the plastic is forced to close against a light-gauge screen set in the interior plane of the Trombe wall. Optional manual bottom dampers will add control, allowing the system to stagnate when desired.
The glazing on a Trombe wall should be double layer glass or plastic. Factory-sealed dual pane glass panels are preferred as they will not fog with moisture condensation. Caution should be applied to the use of acrylic plastic glazing on Trombe walls as the temperatures generated have caused warping and cracking. Gaskets or mullions which allow for sufficient thermal expansion must be used.
Trombe walls should either be vented to the outside and/or shaded to prevent them from heating the interior in the summer. It is important insure that Trombe walls are thermally isolated from the exteiius with no cold bridges at the lead or sill. The foundation wall should be insulated on the exterior from the bottom of the glazing down to the footing.
Trombe walls do not require moveable insulation, but their performance is improved by its application. The extent of the improvement will depend on the local climatic conditions. Exterior hinged insulating panels can be employed which also reflect additional sunshine onto the wall, or roll shades can be deployed between the wall and its glazing.
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Other concerns in Trombe wall design include provisions for access to allow occasional cleaning, particularly at vision panels, and concerns for outgassing in certain conditions where wood members are used for framing. Care should also be taken to insure that the painted Trombe wall be able to cure before glazing is applied.
MOVEABLE INSULATION
The thermal envelope of the building can respond to changes in the outside temperatures and levels of sunlight by the use of moveable insulation. Passive solar heating system performance is usually enhanced by moveable insulation as it allows glass areas in the home to collect heat during the day and trap this heat at night. This is a new building concept for which there are as yet few off the-shelf products, although many systems are currently being developed.
Moveable window insulation can be found in the form of shades, shutters, or curtains inside the home, slatted shades or hinged shutters on the exterior, or foam beads moved by a blower into and out of the space between dual glass panes. Shades and curtains can be used in the space between Trombe walls and glazing, and thin reflective film shades can be helpful in sloped solarium glazing. Even foam-filled overhead garage door panels can be used for moveable insulation. At an increase in cost, some systems are automatically activated, but the majority are operated manually.
The thermal design of a system must include adequate edge seals to prevent drafts behind the moveable insulation panel which will render it ineffective. The higher the R value of the insulation panel, the tighter the air seals it must have. The thermal resistance of the panel should be as high as incremental cost savings dictate, but the difficulty of sealing the edges makes an R factor greater than 5 impractical.
In general, moveable insulation is one of the most cost-effective components for passive solar homes, or any home for that matter, but requires care in the design selection to provide adequate thermal protection and to match the needs of the occupants.
SHADING DEVICES
Shading devices generally fall into two categoriesfixed and operable. The two may be combined if conditions warrant, or if some particular aesthetic effect is desired. Fixed shading devices most often are incorporated as building elements. These include roof overhangs, floor cantilevers, stepped building masses, and wall extensions. As an integral part of the structure, these elements are strong enough to resist winds and the destructive influences of rain, snow, and ice. Decks, balconies, or exterior stairs also offer increased marketing potential and additional utilitarian value.
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Contemporary Examples.
Milford Reservation Environmental Center, Milford, Pa

The Milford Reservation Environmental Center may he, as the architects claim, the most comprehensive and sophisticated passive solar building to date, while exploring new architectural imagery. But what is most interesting about the building, and what makes it different from others where the primary concern has been for energy or aesthetics or both, is that this one never be-conies aggressive or obvious in its concern for either. Perhaps it is there that the true sophistication lies.
On approaching the building and walking around and through it, one is never forced to confront design screaming for attention, or environmental contraptions vigorously proclaiming their function. The design and materials of the building have resulted in one that is calm and comfortable, and which is probably eminently suitable for those who will use it: inner-city youths who come for two-week stints to leat u about energy and the environment.
The building is designed to lit in comfortably with the vernacular of the Pocono Mountains region, and in this respect shows real awareness attd respect for the old vacation lodges and rural buildings common to the area. The scale of the 225-ft-long structure has been broken down into three basic components that deline the entry/lnbby area, the dormitoiy/classioom area, and the dining hall. Scale modulation is continued and further enhanced through the use ol small win-dowpancs, dormers with quarter panes, and the overall exterior cladding of cedar siding. The vernacular lodge image is carried to the inside and is seen in the lobby and dining hall especially, where bluestone, quarry tile, and yellow pine woodwork contribute to the relaxed atmosphere.
The most dramatic and urbane space in the building is the hallway leading to the dormitory rooms. This is extra wide anti is intended, the architects say, as a gathering
place or street. Because of the length ol the building and the fact that it will be used throughout the year, the corridor becomes important as the connection to the major social spacesthe dining ball and lobbywhich have purposely been placed at opposite ends of the building. We needed these pools of social space at the ends of the building," Kel-haugh says; "otherwise it would have been static. The corridor is the dynamic connection between them.
The obvious question is why the architects designed such a long, narrow building when it would have been easier to establish dynamic space other than in a linear arrangement. Here is where the energy and environmental concerns come into play in a major way. In this structure, where passive solar energy provides 75 percent of the building's environmental conditioning, it was obviously necessary to have as great a southern expo sure as possible. After all, this is not an office building used only part of the day, or a family residence with less energy demand. It is a full-time home for I 17 people in an area 1000 fi high where the temperature frequently drops to 0 degrees f or lower during the winter. On extremely cold days, the solar heating system is backed up by a furnace that burns either oil or wood.
Along the south facade, Trombc walls are located across the front of the lobby and the dining hall. The first is equipped with a hinged insulating reflector, which intensifies solar gain when open but which inhibits it when closed. The larger dining hall Tronibe wall is supplied with pull-down shades inside the building. These are hidden from view because of their location in the walk-through space between the south wall and a ramp for the handicapped, which is covered with ventilating wood slats on the side facing into the room.
The middle of the building receives direct solar gain at all three levels. At the lowest,
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classroom level is a water wall, which simply has large, portable water drums immediately behind low windows underneath work tables. They soak up enough heal during the day to warm the rooms at night. At the middle, dormitory level, light and solar radiation pass through clear windows into the main cot-ridor, and then through glass-block walls into the bedrooms. The hall Moors are dark lot-heat absorption, as are those of the upper-level bedrooms, which receive direct gain through their dormer windows.
Throughout the building, the internal structure, (loots, walls, and some partitions are concrete to create mass for storing solar energy. At the north side, the building is partially buried, and this earth contact, plus a
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for air conditioning. The thermal shutters, curtains, shades, blankets, drapes, and vents that make the whole system work throughout the year will !>e operated by the youth who use the building as part of the educational program. Director John Niros is quite serious about changing people's attitudes concerning energy, and lie recognizes that the best place to start is with the young.
Prime determinant
"It may seem strange to say it," Kelhaugh and l.ee admit, "but the composting toilets were probably the main determinant of the buildings form. They are difficult to incorporate into a design; they take up a lot of building space; they must be monitored and tended on a tegular basis, and kept airtight and insulated at a temperature preferably over 90 F. Given these conditions and the fact that l.f of the toilets had to he installed, the most reasonable arrangement became a linear one, with the units at the hack of the bedrooms where waste could drop to composting chambers buried at the north side ol the building. Because of this, all plumbing was then put at this side, including one Glivus Multrum
(toilet) (or the bathrooms for the handicapped, which was installed for side-by-side testing and demonstration. Ironically, it was the toilets that allowed the building to be const t tided in the (its! place, because they cut 40 percent ol water consumption in an area with soil conditions unsuitable for construction under normal circumstances.
Because ol the lineai organization of the building, the.architects were able to instigate one additional important ruerev-ovimr rtf.. vice. At the crest of the south-facing shed roof, they have run a double-glazed skylight over 160 ft of the length of the building. Directly under it sits an 18-in.-diameter stee l tube in a solar oven"a well-insulated box of rigid foam insulation board with aluminum foil faces of high specular reflectivity that directs sunlight on the pipe. This tube holds a little more water than the users are expected to use per day, and its 2700 gallons are preheated before the water heater raises the temperature to 120 F. The preheating supplies 62 percent of the hot water needs. To minimize heat loss, a thermal blanket is pulled by rope around the tithe at night, ami awav from it in the morning.
VVliat Kelhaugh and l.ee hope is that the Center will demonstrate that responsible building can take place in environmentally delicate conditions such as those ol the Milford Reservation area. None of the buildings alternative energy sources required exotic materials or hardware in their construction.
The logic of the buildingthe way its design and energy systems work off and with one anotheris surely exemplary. The form is subtle and accommodating to its sunnuud-ings, never aggressive or overstated, and above all, eminently sensible in all respec ts. It is not high-style Mash, hut then perhaps true sophistication, which the architects claim for the building, never is. (David Morton]
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3 Janitor's closet 21 Uandicapped/public
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6 Greenhouse 23 Ottice
7 Workshop 24 Balcony
8 Utility room 25 Vestibule
9 Pavillion 26 Typical toilet room
10 Typical composting A Trombewall
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13 Loading dock and E Reflector/insulating
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15 Courtyard G Circulating air fireplace
16 Amphitheater H V\foodslove
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