Denver mixed-use theatre project

Material Information

Denver mixed-use theatre project
Alternate title:
Denver mixed-use theatre complex
Davies, Patrick A
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
18, [51] leaves : illustrations, charts, facsimiles, maps, plans ; 28 cm

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Master's ( Master of Architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Design and Planning


Subjects / Keywords:
Theaters -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Theaters ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Designs and plans. ( fast )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )


General Note:
Cover title: Denver mixed-use theatre complex.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Patrick A. Davies.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
13756229 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1986 .D385 ( lcc )

Full Text
Denver Mixed-Use Theatre CompleX
An Architectural Thesis
Pat Davies

An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design & Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the decree of Master of Architecture.
Patrick A. Davies Spring Semester, 1986
is approved.
Commitee Chairman
Principal Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver

Thesis Proposal Utility Principals
Analysis of Building Type History of the Theatre
Analysis of Building Parts and Elements and their Organization Building Program Spatial Needs Functional Relationships Engineering Considerations Structural Mechanical Acoustical Lighting Viewing
Building Code Requirements
Site Identity
City Analysis
History of the Area Planning Issues District'Identifications District Analysis Planning Issues District Definition Site Analisis
Site Definition Climatic Conditions Geological Conditions Topography Utilities Network Zoning Requirements

Denver, the capital and hub of Colorado, has become a culturally sophisticated metropolis no longer fulfilled by its existing theatre entertainment facilities. Recognizing how other cities have satisfied this need by providing privately-owned and controlled theatre, Denver now requires its own separate and self-supported facility. By strategically locating this project adjacent to Denver's downtown 16th street, pedestrian mall, a theatre district can be established, incresing the activity of the mall and enhancing the city itself. Restaurant and retail shops will be incorporated in this project providing not only financial support but adding to the theatre experience, hence edifying the district identity.
This 2000 seat,live performance theatre, with incorporated restaurant and shop facilities, will be located on the lot between 15th and 16th streets and boardered by Glenarm and Welton streets. The lot size is 400 feet by 265 feet, 106,000 squre feet total. Parking will be provided on the site. Due to the pattern of use of the area existing parking facilities are presently available.
As my thesis, the design of this theatre project for Denver provides me with the oportunity to culminate the architectural skills that I have developed up to this point. There are five major principals, inherent in the nature of this project, which my thesis must respond to.
My thesis design of this theatre project for Denver must prvide:
Efficiency of its specific user's functional needs.
Clarity, order and beauty, through architectural expression, of its specific use,function and purpose relative to its position within its social/cultural context.
Responsiveness to the issues of its environmental context.
Sensitivity to the use of energy.
Appropriateness of its specific engineering systems (structural, acoustical, lighting, mechanical, and H.V.A.C.), building materials and method of construction.
These five principals form a sequence of analytical filters through which a responsible, appropriate design solution will be provided.

History of the Theatre
"Architecture and drama are sister arts, but like most sisters they fail to bring out the best in each other." It may even appear that the two throughout history have been deliberately avoiding each other's company. "The great formative minds of drama the Greek playwrights, the authors of the Miracle Plays, Shakespeare, Lope de Vega, Moliere, Corneille, Racine were all happy enough with the barest necessities of performance. Ibsen and Chekhov asked for little more.
Stindberg's preferred 'intimate theatre' was an ordinary room. And conversely, theatres of most architectural interest the Greek theatres of 300-100 B.C., Roman theatres from A.D. 100 to 300, the theatres^of Renaissance Italy and of Europe and America Between 1700 and 1875 all belong to periods when the art of drama was at a low ebb."
In general, the form of drama has determined the form of theatre.
There are three beginnings of European drama ancient Greece, early middle ages, and the renaissance. Physical settings for drama evolved simply so that large numbers of people
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could participate in the same event. In each case, these physical settings generated conventions which the audiences accepted but which in turn began to modify the event that they had come to witness. Imperceptibly they placed a gulf between the audience and the event, in the sense that the stage became increasingly a world of its own, when a new form of drama with a different physical setting took the place of the old, the relationship between audience and event was re-established in a new way. At present, the theatre finds itself in a strange halfway position, anxious to preserve the repertory of the past, searching for new conventions, trying to decide what kind of architecture is suited to its needs.
The first period of great excitement over drama took place in Greece during the fifth century, B.C. The theatre was considered part of a Greek's education. In Athens, during drama festivals, all business was suspended, the law courts were closed, and prisoners were released from jail. Even women, barred from most public events, were welcomed at the theatre.
The Greek theatres were outdoor auditoriums. The performing and dancing area (the orchestra) was a circular space cut into a

hillside. Surrounding it on three sides were tiers of stone benches for the spectators. The fourth side of the circle was occupied by a structure (the skene) for the preparation and entrance of the actors as well as the stage backdrop. Between the orchestra and skene was a raised stage-like platform with a colonnade area (the proskenion) The plan of the auditorium makes it clear that the central circular spaced orchestra was the focal point of the spectators, rather than the proskenion. At the center of the orchestra was a stone base, probably the location of an altar. Behind the skene (actor's room) was an open-air meeting place (the stoa). This was in fact probably the equivalent of the present-day foyer, since the audience entered the auditorium from around the back sides of the skene. Like all Greek theatres, the example chosen here of epidauros stood in a sacred precinct. Its stoa formed a link between parts of the precinct, rather like the cloister of a monastery.
The second century brought radical changes to the Greek theatre form. The alterations were demanded by the changes in the conventions of drama. The orchestra, originally a full circle, was now a semi-circular shape. The back wall, referred
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to as the skene, became a more important part of the theatre, becoming a stage wall, a permanent architectural set. It had three entries, those on the left and right conventionally standing for the city and the country, and the central one for a palace or temple. Characters could stand on top and inside the skene as watchmen on towers, or as people appearing at upper
windows. Three-sided scene simulations were used (periaktoi). Periaktoi were triangular in section and placed in groups. Together they would be revolved, presenting three different surfaces to the audience. These surfaces were painted to show the country, the seashore, the clouds, etc. They stood next to the side entrances and served to tell the audience the setting of the play, such as to herald the approach of gods on the stage by showing pictures of the sky. The use of these periaktoi was an attempt to counter balance the overpowering presence of the stage wall. The theatre designer of the second century may have
overdeveloped this vital part of the theatre the backdrop or stage. This carved wall with its tiers of pillars, flanking more and more statuary, rose high in the air over what must have
seemed miniature players. The players were confined to a narrow
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pathway at the foot of the wall, moving from left to right against mountains of masonry. Perhaps the connection between the monstrousness of the facade and the feebleness of the drama was responsible for the decline of the theatre experience. "Drama at this time was neither very good nor very popular."
Hellenistic theatre of the second century, B.C. had lost most of its early religious connotations and had become completely secular. The acting area or proskenion (stage) tended to be raised and isolated from the orchestra, which diminished in importance and became invaded by seating. As soon as the focus of interest had shifted from the orchestra to the raised stage, the logical plan for the auditorium was a semi-circle or less.
The great plays of the classical period are greatly respected and continue to be performed. Greek theatres became the model for theatre design even today.
Two more aspects of Greek theatre design should be noted: their high acoustical quality and the beauty of their settings. A semi-circle hollowed into the side of a hill and lined with marble happens to conduct sound in a particularly satisfactory way. It may be interesting to add, though, that the masks used
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by actors (to communicate moods and feelings to distant spectators) had funnel-shaped mouths that acted as megaphones to project the voice. Love of natural scenery is characteristic of Greek architecture and planning.
The conquering Romans made further change to theatre design, distinguishing it from the Hellenistic. The performances were no longer directly related to a religious cult but they continued to coincide with religious festivals. However, plays normally formed only part of a more varied entertainment which included races, wild beast fights and so on.
The theatre occupied a place in Roman civic life hardly inferior to that of the temple, the forum, the public baths, and the amphitheatre.
Early Roman theatres were made of wood, often without seats for the bulk of the audience, but they could nevertheless be extremely ornate. The general layout was similar to that of a Hellenistic theatre, except that the orchestra was smaller. The wooden stage was raised a few feet from the gound, and behind it

doors. Projecting side buildings, used as dressing rooms, also had a door each, so that there were five doors altogether.
By the end of the first century, B.C., the typical Roman theatre was of stone and had the following characteristics distinguishing it from the Hellenstic: it was built on level ground in the center of the city, the seats were raised on arches rather than cut into a slope; the scenae frons rose to the full height of the auditorium and joined it at the sides so that the whole space was enclosed and cut off from the outside world in a way that Greek theatre was not; the audience entered from the back instead of coming in at orchestra level and walking up to their seats.
One begins to see how all of the Greek theatre parts were further developed by the Romans along with their organization and even sequence or order of use. As a result, the theatre event developed or changed in nature. The theatre may have been a ritual institution but the Romans made it a monumental one. Characteristic of Roman architecture is the pursuit of monumentality at the expense of the human scale. "Roman theatres, expressive as they are of dignity and taste, still

convey a feeling of spiritual emptiness. No playwrights demanded them, no producers experimented with them, no fresh ideas molded their evolution. They represent not the perception of a living drama but the pride of an all-powerful state."
Roman drama, by the middle ages, having died a natural death was buried by Christianity. The great theatres stood empty. The tradition of performances died out completely. The new drama that now arose was based around learning and celebrating the Bible and the episodes of the gospels. "The performers were priests and choristers, the language Latin, the setting the chancel of the parish church. But the dialogue was working itself free from the actual words of the biblical text, a few stage properties were introduced and there was action of a sort."
A breakthrough came when the vernacular replaced Latin and the plays emerged from the churches into the market squares. Drama had proved too popular for the church and was taken over by lay people.
Methods of staging performances differed. In England, they were performed on moveable carts called 'pageants.' The pageants were elaborate two-story structures. The top level was open and

the lower level closed, providing actors with a preparation room. The action spilled out onto the streets and viewing was provided from all sides, much like a circular arena. Some pageants were given special shapes, such as a ship for the Noah's Ark play.
Another staging method involved stationary assemblies called 'scaffolds.' These wood structures were arranged in a line and the audience viewed the action from one side. Here one recognizes a shift from previous monumental theatre design to almost nonexistent theatre design. "The acting area is described in one of the stage directions as 'a place like a park.'"
A much different drama event was also used when the scaffolds were grouped in a large ring form in which the audience was placed. These circular stages were called 'rounds.' No distinction was made between stage and auditorium. "The actors performed either in front of the scaffolds or in the center. Men with staves kept the way clear for them to move from place to place."
Large scale drama was performed in the town square. The square or street was the stage with several stage props called mansiones. The scaffolds were set up all round and in front of
Pis. !i), 30. The Castle of ler-severance : ii drawinJrom the medieval manuscript (right) and a reconstruction oj how it probably looked in perjormjnce (left) by Dr. Richard Southern. So distinction was nuile between stage and auditorium. The actors performed either in front oj the carious scajfolds or in the centre, under or on the castle. Men with states kept the way clear Jor them to mote Jrom place to place.

the houses, lining the street. One street was left open for processional entrances. Behind the scaffolds, and high enough to see over them, were stands for the spectators, who also watched from the windows and even the roofs of the houses. The plays would take two days for a performance.
Sources of modern theatre design are found in the middle ages. The multi-location set as a staging method was introduced here. The origin of the "box seat" is also found in theatres of the middle ages. In many cases scaffolds were also used to accommodate sections of the audience. Some scaffolds had locks and keys to control or reserve their private use. Also, it is important to recognize that the defined line between audience and stage was eraced during this period, presenting a new or different event for the theatre experience. The new drama that now arose represented a completely new start. The lesson to learn here is how the historically great medieval drama developed with the barest necessities of performance. The revival of interest in everything connected with ancient Rome, during the renaissance, naturally included the theatre. The publication and translation of Vitruvius' study of classical architecture gave
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rise to many attempts at reconstructing his description of the classical theatre. The Roman theatres, parts, elements and interrelated organization here began to develop into the theatres we experience today.
The exterior of these early renaissance theatres were roughly correct: a semi-circle of three stories of auditorium seating with open arches. The entrance was from the rear of the seating. However, the perimeter arched interior was divided into parterre and galleries. The massive Roman scenae frons (stage wall) evolved into perspective stage sets. Here, "the stage is divided into two areas, one flat, for the actors, the other sloping, upon which the perspective scenery was placed." The theatre of illusion is here truly launched.
A popular theatre type of this time was the temporary platform stage with a simple backcloth, used for traveling shows and ceremonial occasions. The set, made of wood on canvas, is a poor man's scenae frons.
The most common form of theatre continued to be the 'teatro da sala,' the converted hall with seats round three sides and scenery at one end. The action would be projected forward into
Pis. 40, 41. Plan and section of the theatre built bv Iscrlio in j palate courtyard in I 5,9. The stage is divided into Ml j areas, one Jlat, lor the actors, the other sloping, upon which the perspective scenery nd' plaeeJ. In the auJitorium Serlio retains the classical semi-circle anJ orcnotlM, though his drawing shows no nay bv which the actors could enter it.

the middle of the room, using the 'stage' merely as a point of entry and as a backcloth for scenic effects. The theatres themselves, at this date, were decidedly less exciting than the sets. The conception of the threatre was as a free standing monument, articulated on the exterior by deep niches and entered by a staircase. The staircase, though small in scale, contains the seeds of future grandeur.
The most famous renaissance theatre is Palladio's Teatro Olimpico at Vicenza. The plan is based on that of the Roman theatre. It is enclosed, of wood, and small in scale, but fundamentally faithful to classical models. "It is ironic that this theatre, which is often cited as marking the beginning of a new age, in fact marks only a dead end."
The shallow curve of the auditorium seating is actually elliptical rather than circular. The audience entered by the two doors at the back and climbed corner staircases to reach their seats. The back is formed by a colonnade which at the ends and at the center is filled in and provided with niches and statues, but which is left open in the direction of the corners. "Palladio's solution to the prpblem which was to trouble nearly
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H tth seats round three sides of a large room and a shallow stage on the fourth side, hut I atari ensilages his theatre as standing on an instated site, articulated on the exterior he niches and pilasters, and entered sia a central staircase.
theatre is Palia,l ns j lcalr,i Olimpia) at I itctt/st. llie plan than\ /mu the sesen perspectne sets are arranged inside the fire doorways. Use shallow surse of the auditorium, making it wider than it is deep, was jar,cj upon Palladio he the restrictions of the site. I he audience entered he the two doors at the bath and climbed the aimer staircases to reach their seats.
J.2 50.

all subsequent theatre designers, of how to fit a curved hall into a square building, was to use the corners for staircases." It is interesting to see his treatment of the periaktoi. Seven perspective sets are arranged inside the five doorways of the scenae frons. "The effect from the auditorium is convincing but of course it is impossible for the actors to do anything with them." They represent a heroic attempt to combine practicality with Vitruvius.
Inigo Jones developed an interesting ideal version of the revived Roman theatre in his "cockpit-in-court theatre." It is small in scale, the "intimate" theatre type, with seating arranged as a half-octagon. The scenae frons is authentic in articulation but curved in plan, with five arches framed in an elaborate facade.
The inventiveness of the renaissance period provided valuable lessons for modern' theatre design. The limting scenae frons was given up and a single prospective set filling the whole back of the stage took its place. One single arch (or rather a flat fram) now embraced the stage. Hence, the beginnings of the "proscenium arch" wsas presented. Instead of the theatre form
PI. 54- The Cockpit-in-Court Theatre,
probably by Inigo Jones. On the right is the plan of the whole theatre, on the left the plan and elevation of the scaenae Irons. The design t though miniature in scale (f/ic width oj the stage is onlv thirty-Jive feet) is a most interesting variation on Palladio's theatre at Vicenza, with the special subtlety of a concave back to the stage. The window over the central opening is no doubt the *music room', still in its old Elizabethan position.

being wide and shallow (as with the plan of the olimpico), it became narrow and deep. Consequently, the semi-circle of seats had to be pinched in form and here the "horseshoe" auditorium was introduced. Now, projecting into the auditorium was the "apron stage." Similar to the classical orchestra, this extension allowed actors to come forward into the audience. This feature had a large part in Shakespeare's dramas. Most important of renaissance invesntiveness was the introduction of the picture-frame stage. The conception of the theatre as a place of illusion, and the development of the auditorium with tiers of galleries or boxes.
Theatre design during the baroque period, 1600 and 1700's, was characterized by the creation of the opera, the introduction of scenic wings, and in the arrangement of the auditorium to accommodate the intermezzi. In developing the central perspective (framed by the proscenium arch) there was a need for more elaborate and complicated sets. The periacti disappeared and complicated rows of painted, sliding flats or scenic wings took their place. As a result, the back stage deepened in form. The greatest change was in the elevation of the auditoria with
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the development and elaborate expression of boxes instead of galleries and exploration of auditorium seating shapes. This fundamental change of the auditorium was brought about by the great concern for controling the central perspective, creating an illusion. Here, the engineering of viewing lines for theatre design was recognized. The baroque theatre as a type was a formal and grand experience. Private viewing rooms or boxes could be reserved for the use of clerics, noblemen or council members. By the 1700's, baroque theatre design was complete and the only canges were those of increasing its size and quality.
The baroque period experienced a great theatrical boom along with public opposition. The opposition was in the name of social-political equality and aesthetic difference to the baroque style. The result was the return to classical antiquity. "The Roman theatres and the Teatro Olimpico had no boxes for a privileged class. Amphitheatrical seating gave all comers the same opportunity. And the Roman theastre and the Olimpico sunned busy and showy decoration." So, in the field of theatre design there was a true reflexion of the pre-revolutionary and the antirococo convictions, a return to the classical theatre models.
1*1. rj 5. 7/ie Teatro tarnese, f*arnu, by Aleotti. Sadly damaged during the uar, it is
now being repaired to some of its old splendour. The arch on the right, surmounted by an equestrian suture, was originally one oj the enframes.

The 1800's was the climax of the revolutionary years in theatre design and in architecture in general. Theatre auditorium arrangement was conventional, decoration was used sparingly, and the style of expression was Greek revival, which had become the internationally accepted style for public buildings. Most important was the concern for the exterior to express its own function or separate functions. The intention was that the character of a building should be clearly expressed in its exterior, "the theatre could only be regarded as a theatre."
The 1800's also saw the development of the "grand staircase" and the different but interrelated fields of theatre engineering such as structural, acoustical, lighting, viewing and mechanical.
The 1900's is known as the industrial age, the period of technical innovations. Advances in the use of structural steel allowed upper galleries to project without vertical support. Here theatre auditoriums evolved further with their cantilevered balconies. Auditorium seats as well as the stage could be moveable. In 1891 a revolving stage was inventeed.
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The invention of the cinema had a large impact on theastre design. Picture palaces were born in 1910. And the cinema theatre became a competitive theatre type. "It is difficult to imagine that only twenty-five years ago it was considered a luxury to attend the theatre which only the wealthy could afford with any degree of regularity." The motion picture theatre made the theatre experience affordable and available to any man as a democratic institution. These theatres were often not theatres at all, according to our ideas of what a theatre should be. But they served their purpose, for the screen was the center of attention and it mattered little what the design of the theatre itself might be.
The theatre itself in which the elaborate "live" performance is staged must keep pace, enhancing the romantic spirit of the theatre. Each theatre as a design project presents its own individual problem there are no design rules governing the plan of theatres. Building codes and safety ordinances, to a great extent, control the more important features of the plan of a theatre. The population from which its patrons are to be drawn and the money available for its construction are also important
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considerations. Then too there is the site to be considered city planning and contextural issues, the size and shape of the lot, all must be responded to. Then finally, it is from the lessons of history that we learn that in successful theatre design one must understand the relationship between the theatre as architecture and the living drama of its time.
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Analysis of Building Parts and Elements and their Organization
The theatre is basically made up of four parts; the entry foyer (ticket vestibule), grand lobby, auditorium and stage. The organization of these parts throughout the history of the theatre has changed greatly, as discussed earlier in the theatre's history. Each theatre part has a particular role and the formation of these parts influences the theatre experience, giving it meaning unto itself and its surrounding environment.
Originally, in the classical theatre, spectators and perfomers entered the theatre from the agora (public realm) throgh the stoa (lobby), then through the parados (entry foyers) to the orchestra (auditorium). The spectators then positioned themselves in the orchestra which faced back on the skene (stage) with the agora behind. The stage was juxtaposed against the public realm, a contrast of non-real and real. The principal for classical theatre design was to enhance the event's function by positioning the parts in order to idealogically represent the event: leaving the bounderies of the cultural environment and then reflecting back at the non-real performance like an image of illusion against the known public realm.
0 Oo o o a e o o
The four parts of today's theatre have the same roles but their organization has changed greatly. The reason for this change resulting from the issues of urban context and the functional needs of the theatre to separate its public and private realms (public entry and private, theatr service entry). In some instances the designers reinturpreted the classical design principal of a concern for the seguence and organization of theatre experience events or parts relative to the theatre event as a whole within its public realm.
Different methods for organizing the four parts of the theatre are illustrated in the following case studies.


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One Floor Type
The theatre in its simplest form, consisting of an orchestra lloor only. When the lot area and good sight lines permit of the re(|itired number of seats on one iloor, this type is an economical form.
Bleacher Type
A variation ol the one lloor type, used where the depth of the auditorium requires the use of a steep gradient at the rear to secure correct sight lines.
Stadium Type
A variation of the bleacher type. The seats back of the cross-over aisle are raised so that patrons using tin- crossover aisle do not interfere with the line of sight. This portion of the house is steep and requires steps as in the balcony.
Single Balcony Type The introduction of a balcony to secure greater seating capacity without necessarily increasing the lot area. I lie additional cost per seat is slight considering the results obtained.
Balcony-Mezzanine Type
Where the desired seating capacity of the balcony brings tile balcony rail too near the proscenium arch, seats lost by reducing tile length of the main balcony are obtained in a mezzanine balcony. Sight lines ol roar orchestra seats are greatly improved by reducing the balcony pri ijcet ion.

Buildinq Proaram
size (square feet)
Theatre 49000
Restaurant 1500
Shops 6 0 1000 ea
Dance Studio 1500
Parkino 53000
Entry Foyer 2000
Grand Lobby 6000
Auditorium 14000
Staqe 17000
Entry Foyer
Box Office 50
Grand Lobby
Checkroom 250
Men's Restroom 400
Women's Restroom 500
Administration Office 300
Spotliqht Booths 3 O 130 ea
Radio Studio / Projection Booth 300
Orchestra Pit 1150
Actinq Stage 4000
Stage Workshop 1500
Scene Storaqe 1000
Costume Workshop 500
Costume Dyeinn 100
Costume Storaoe 250
Rehearsal Space 1000
Stage Managers' Offices 4 0 150 ea
Stage Entry Vestibule 50
First Aid Room 50
Staqe Hand Locker room 150
Musician's Room 300
Conductor Dressing Room 50
Make-up Room 130
Green Room 400
Quick Change Room 50
Chorus Rooms 2 0 400 ea
Private Dressing Rooms 2 0 30 ea
2 Person Dressing Rooms 4 0 100 ea
Stage Anteroom 150
Back-stage Crossover space 7 feet wide
Wing Space O Stage 2 0 400 ea
Passageways 5 feet wide
Electrical Storage 400
Loadino Platform 100
Receiving Space 100
Restroom Conductor 40
Musician Restrooms 2 0 30 ea
Managerial Restroom 40
Actors Showers 2 0 30 ea
Actors Restrooms 6 0 40 ea
Green Room Restroom 40
Staqe Hand Restroom 40
Mechanical Room 200

1. Lighting stage entrance The areaway to and the actual stage door entrance through which the Actors enter the theatre from the street should be well lit, free of obstruction and surfaced with
a nonskid material. The stage door should be located a sufficient distance from the stage to eliminate possible interference of street noise, telephone, drafts, etc. with on-stage activity.
2. Room for stage door attendant just inside the stage door entrance.
3. Mail Box This should be placed in an area near the stage door which is handy for the company.
4. Bulletin Board This should be accessible near the mail box and should be easy to see.
1. Stage Floor There is a clear prohibition in the Equity rules against dancing on marble or concrete floors, either for performance or rehearsal. Therefore, stage flooring should be of wood and not be laid directly on concrete or marble or any similar non-resilient material.
In constructing a new wood floor, there should be as much air space as necessary between the wood floor and the supporting elements to provide for reasonable "give" or resilience when the stage is used for theatrical presentations. In no event should there be less than three (3) inches of air space between the floor and the supporting surface. Should the stage floor be constructed of concrete or non-resilient materials, a false floor must be placed which shall be of wood, or a similar resilient material. Between this false floor and the non-resilient floor there should be an air space of not less than three (3) inches. Optimum conditions could include substances similar to battleship linoleum laid upon wooden stage floor. Similar consideration must be given to all areas which are used for rehearsal.
2. Intercoms There should be two (2) separate inter-communication systems. One should provide communication from the stage manager to the dressing rooms. Second one should give a playback of the performance to the dressing rooms. All this in addition to other systems, i.e. for the fly gallery, auditorium, also for green rooms, etc.
3. Toilets A men's and women's toilet should be located in the immediate vicinity of the stage area, a minimum of one set of each on each side of the stage, each to have facilities for several occupants.
4. Uings It has been our experience that all too frequently theatres of proscenium or thrust stage design are provided with too little
Misc. 102

wing space on one or both sides. It is suggested that adequate wing space be provided on both sides so that scenery, actors and other facilities can be eaily accommodated. Wing space on each side should be equal to the stage area within the proscenium arch and clear of obstructions.
5. Crossover Optimum conditions should include cross-over behind backstage wall with sound piped in. Stages should be constructed in a safe and convenient manner and adequately lit to make it possible for the actor to move from one side of the stage to the other without exposure to the audience, and/or to provide entrance from stage to basement on both sides of stage for crossover and as entrances from basement dressing rooms. Recommended minimum crossover space backstage should be seven (7) feet wide exclusive of upstage storage area.
6. Change Room Change rooms should be provided on either side of the stage and should be of a permanent nature. There should be adequate lighting, table space and space for hanging of costumes.
7. Drinking Fountain- There should be at least one drinking fountain on each floor level, and one on each side of stage.
8. Lighting Backstage No dressing room, change room, or other room should open directly on to the stage without a light baffle being provided.
9. Lighting for Rehearsals Provision must be made for adequate rehearsal lights as part of the permanent house equipment not dependent upon the equipment brought in by the production. The rehearsal lights should be sufficient to give adequate illumination over the entire rehearsal area.
10. Telephones Any telephone which is located on the stage floor or in the near vicinity to the stage should have a light as well as a bell system so that the light system may be utilized during performance. There shall be a telephone by the Stage Manager's prompt desk.
1. Stairs All stairs should be covered with safety treads. Wherever possible, dressing rooms should be located no more than two (2) flights above stage level. High speed elevators of ample size should be provided in all other cases.
2. Passageways Passageways and stairways should be of ample width to allow convenient passage of traffic going both ways in wide period costumes -
at least five (5) feet.
3. Basins There should be at least one (1) wash basin for every two (2) performers; with hot and cold running water in each dressing room.
4. Chorus Rooms Four (4) chorus dressing rooms should be provided, two (2) for men and two (2) for women, each large enough to accommodate fifteen (15) chorus. (In theatres not intending to present musicals or plays requiring chorus, these dressing rooms could be used for extras or supers
when necessary.) Basins and showers should be provided within the confines of or immediately adjacent to the individual rooms. If chorus rooms are not on stage floor level provision should be made for quick changes, one (1) for male and one (1) for female. Minimum space for each performer should

include four (4) feet of table space, plus hanging space for costumes.
Each chorus room should have adjacent lavatory and shower facilities, with one (1) shower for each four (4) performers, one (1) toilet for each four (4) performers and one (1) basin for each two (2) performers in the chorus.
5. Dressing rooms There will be four (4) star dressing rooms (single rooms) with adjoining sitting rooms and lavatory. In addition, there will also be twelve (12) dressing rooms, each of which will be ten (10) by twelve (12) feet and will accommodate two (2) people. Each room will have lavatory and shower facilities.
6. Dressing Tables Table surfaces should be thirty (30) inches from the floor and should provide four (4) feet of space for each performer and surfaced with formica or a like material.
7. Drawers A locked drawer should be provided in dressing'rooms for each performer.
8. Hanging Space (Wardrobe) At least four (4) feet of hanging space should be provided for each performer. A separate hanging space for street clothes is required.
9. Lights Perimeter incandescent lighting around dressing table mirrors is essential. General lighting in dressing rooms should be in addition to this.
10. Mirrors Ample sized mirrors should be located at each place on the wail over the dressing tables. Minimum height for mirror is three (3) feet from table surface and width should be also three (3) feet. A full length mirror in each dressing room is required. If an elevator is used, it should also be equipped with a full length mirror.
11. Shelving Shelves under dressing tables are essential for the storage of foot wear. Shelves for head wear should be located above mirrors.
At least four (4) feet of such space should be provided for each performer. Shelves should be at least ten (10) inches wide.
12. Showers At least one (1) shower for every four (4) performers should be provideded (for chorus only).
13. Ventilation All dressing rooms must be air conditioned and individual controls shall be provided in each room. The same applies to heating.
14. Windows If dressing rooms have windows, adequate safeguards should be provided to prevent unlawful entry.
15. Green Rooms (separate) for cast and crew, with ventilation, show piped in, adequate seating, closed, T.V. preferred, fountains, food machines and sound proof pay phones, and sufficient outlets for vending machines. Rooms to be twenty (20) by forty (40).
16. Green Room and locker room for crew should include at least thirty (30) lockers. Show piped in, as in Actors' green room, air-conditioned, with adjacent toilet and shower facilities.
Misc. 102

17. Departmental Rooms Office space and lavatories for at least four (4) Department heads (4 offices): Master Carpenter, Master Electrician, Property Master and Production Stage Manager.
IS. Storage Space Adequate storage space for Electrical Department and Property Department.
19. Musicians There should be a combination green room, change room with locker space for thirty (30) plus a private room for conductor. Conductor's room should have lavatory and -Ajiower. Green room should have adjacent lavatories and showers.
20. Wardrobe There should be a twenty (20) by thirty (30) foot room with large wash tub type sinks or washing machines and dryers. The Wardrobe TheatricalGr'ild should be consulted for size and equipment.
21. There should be a Wig Room near the Chorus dressing rooms.
22. Rehearsal Space One (1) room, same depth of stage, with twenty (20) feet increased width, and a high ceiling one room mirrored with rehearsal bars (bars not on mirrored wall). The floor shall have same specifications as stage floor. Also one room same size as stage with same specifications, and two (2) smaller rooms, twenty (20) by twenty (20) with mirrors and bars, same floors. All rehearsal rooms to be sound proofed and in as close proximity to one another as possible. There shall also be an Orchestra Rehearsal Room at least the size of the pit.
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(original 11/30/62) Revised: March 1968

Functional Relationships
Project Darts
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Entry Foyer

and louring show* Series I'i-F-C-ll-l)-ii for self-contained theatres (repertory, community, college, school): Omit DO in this sciiucncc. J. (scenery storage) completes the cycle for scenery which is salvaged.
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C.omjHt.iilc audience fltnv chart.

Building Code Requirements
Checklist Section
1. Fire Zone 1 1601
2. Occupancy Classification: group
Theatre A 601
Dining / Drinking FI 1101
Retail F2 1101
3. Occupancy Separation Requirements:
A to FI = 2 hours table 5B
A to F2 = 2 hours 5B
FI to F2 = 1 hours 5B
4. Construction Type:
Theatre type 1
all other type 5
table 5C
5. Maximum Allowable Floor Area:
A type 1 unlimited table 5C
FI type 5 10,500 sq ft 5C
F2 type 5 10,500 sq ft 5C
If adjacent to open area on two or more sides-
5'/,. Ihl. 1%2 ft. by which minimum width exceeds 20 feet. 506B If over one story-
2002 of area permitted for one story building 505B
If sprinklered:
The area of one story building, for group F. shall not be limited when provided with sprinkler system and is completely surrounded by 20 foot open space.
Allowable area can be doubled in buildings over one
story. 506D
6. Maximum Allowable Height:
A type 1 uniimited table 5D
FI type 5 50 ft. 3 story 5D
F2 type 5 50 ft. 3 story 5D
7. Openings in Exterior Walls:
Openings shall not be permitted in exterior walls
located less than 5 feet, protected less than ten
feet, from adjacent property line or center line
of street or alley. 1710B
S. Set-Back Requiring Protection of Openings in Exterior Walls:
occupancy fire zone construction type set- back
A 1 1 20 ft
FI 1 5 20 ft
F2 1 5 20 ft
9. Fire resistive Requirements-
wall description construction type
#1 #5
exterior bearing walls 4 hrs 1 hr
interior bearing walls 3 1
exterior non-bearing walls 4 1
structural frame 3 1
perminant partitions 1 1
vertical openings 2 1
floors 2 1
roofs 2 1
exterior doors; if less than 20 ft set- back 3/4 hi
otherwise shall be 1 hr.
exterior windows: if less than 20 ft set-back 3/4 hrs otherwise shall be 1 hr.
inner court walls; property line between opposing walls exterior opening requirements apply mezzanine floors; 1 hr. No mezzanine floor shall cover more than 1/3 area of room roof coverings; 1 hr, class R3 ordinary, A3 boiler room enclosure: 1 hr.
table 17A

10. Structural Requirements:
construction type 1. Framework- steel, concrete or resistance
masonry Stairs- reinforced concrete or 3 hrs
structural steel Floors- non-combustible fire- 3 hrs
restrictive construction Roofs- Where every part of roof structure is 25 ft above fl noncombustible material protected by sprinkler or 2 hrs.
resistive material Partitions- noncombustible, fire 1 hr.
restrictive construction type 5. Framework- aluminium, steel or 1 hr
masonry as specified 1 hr.
Stairs, Floor, Roof, Partitions-
any materials icceptible 1 hr.
11. Occupancy Load:
type square feet per occupant
theatre 7
Restaurant 15
shops 150
Dance Floors 15
Kitchens commercial 200
Offices 100
Number of exits required: 4 exits required for occupant load
over 1000,
2 exits required minimum for others.
1805 1804
1806 1801

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Downtown, the hub ol the Denver area commercial, governmental, and cultural activity since the city's beginnings in the mid-1800's, is located near the center of an urbanized region of 1,700,000 population. Downtown provides a vital resource for the City and County of Denver and an urban focus for the region. Downtown continues to attract a significant share of regional growth and investment <+ 'ring a time of swift urban expansion away from the center
and ever-increasing mobility for area residents. Downtown is a place of employment for over 100,000 people or 11.5% of the metropolitan area work force. An additional 110,000 people come to downtown daily for business, shopping, conventions, entertainment, education, and other purposes. Downtown provides about 12% of the taxable property valuation of the City and County of Denver on less than 1 % of Denver's land area.
Denver's downtown is designed and built in increments. Individual decisions are made by building developers, governmental agencies, investors, architects, and business managers. Each decision regarding a building, street, or plaza then becomes a part of the composite structure which is downtown. This type ol incremental development process creates a need to coordinate or influence these numerous decisions. The major issue in the future ot downtown Denver is how to more effectively coordinate this on-going development to cieate a more unified and vital city center, responsive to the needs of the people who work, visit, live, shop, or invest in downtown.
With the existing large number ol businesses, property owners, and public agencies in the decision and development process, it is not possible or desirable to hold downtown to a pre-established overall design. However, accepted development guidelines for land use, building density, transportation, pedestrian movement, and street design can guide and influence on-going decisions toward achieving a more interesting, etticiem. and economically vital downtown. Accepted development concepts also provide a framework for future detailed analysis of specific areas, functions, urban design opportunities, and
The key questions concerning downtown
development are:
What makes a good downtown? What gives it life, interest, activity and vitality ?
How can Denver's downtown best utilize its existing arrangement, achievements, and potential toward becoming a magnetic city center ?
How can the separate actions of numerous developers, property owners, managers, architects, and government agencies become more unified to add or reinforce those things which provide attraction and activity in downtown ?

Vital downtowns have certain unifying characteristics. The best downtown areas have a combination of urban qualities that people find satisfying. Good downtowns serve not only the business and commercial needs of the city, but also as an expression of urban living the cultural hub and psychological center of the region. People are attracted to them as special areas of the city because of their mixture of stores, theaters, offices, restauiants, museums, and public buildings. Good downtowns are stimulating in their density and diversity of activities, and their variety and contrast of building ages, sizes, and styles. They are interesting places for people to be because of their unique combination of urban spaces, architecture, and intense human activity.
Denver's downtown already has the essential qualities of a good city center:
An excellent mix of activities including retailing, office space, banking, hotels, government offices, convention facilities, education, entertainment, museums, performing arts, and residential.
All of these activities located in a compact and walkable area.
A high density commercial core, with parallel shopping and office districts, providing downtown's central attraction and activity.
Public buildings and government office buildings closely adjacent to the commercial, retail, and office core.
Major parking facilities located generally outside of the core area.
Central Area Neigroornood Boundaries Oenver Planning Oftica Neyntrnood Planning Section
Numerous tourist attractions such as the U.S. Mint, the State Capitol, Civic Center, the City and County Building, the Denver Art Museum, the Colorado Heritage Center, and Larimer Square.
Steady growth in terms of building floorspace, employment, and public investment.
Efficient transit operation supported by the linear, high density retail-office core.
The largest retail center in the region on the new 16th Street Mall.
Continuing investment in public facilities including the Art Museum, the State Heritage Center,
the Performing Arts Center, and the Aurana Higher Education Center, all of which serve both Denver and the region.
Adiacent neighborhoods providing a wide range of housing types and walk-to-work capabilities.
Planning for downtown must recognize the related land use development of adiacent areas. Downtown and adjacent neighborhoods should be mutually supportive of eacn other. Denver's central area has the advantage of having substantial residential areas close to downtown. Many adiacent areas have the potential for additional housing development, with related commercial activity, as does downtown itself. Downtown planning and development should assist recent trends toward the preservation of nearby neighborhoods and special historic districts, the reuse of older structures for residential development, and the increasing interest for living in and near downtown.
The City's Downtown Housing Policies call tor the addition of 10,000 housing units in Downtown by 1900

Denver's downtown has a favorable arrangement of land use, building floorspace density, and employment density. The compact central core area of offices, stores, and hotels is bordered by adjacent districts of public buildings. These districts include the Civic Center, city and state office buildings, museums, and main library; the convention-exhibition hall and the performing arts center; and the federal office buildings. The Aurana Higher Education Center adds the vital function of higher education in downtown.
The Lower Downtown area includes older commercial and .$ warehouse buildings, now being renovated for office, retail, 4 and residential uses under the recently amended B-7 zoning ; provisions. This area has the potential for developing into a unique district, providing architectural contrast to the larger -| new structures in the adjacent Skyline Urban Renewal '<
project. Downtown has the advantage of having residential ] areas nearby. The adjacent Capitol Hill, North Capitol Hill, and Lincoln Park neighborhoods now fulfill a variety of central Denver housing needs and provide a 'walk-to-work' opportunity for many downtown employees.
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Most ot downtown is within the B-5 zone district. This zone permits the city's highest density ot building development, allowing a building to be constructed with a basic square footage ten times its lot size. The provision ot floorspace .. premiums allows added square lootage for building designs having either plazas, arcades, a upper-level setbacks. Off-street parking, within this zone, is required for new apartment construction and for new buildings in the Skyline urban renewal area. The trend of development in the B-5 zone is to cluster new high density buildings in the linear core area reinforcing the advantages of a compact, walkable, downtown commercial area. The B-5 zone is presently built to roughly one-third of its zoned floorspace capacity and ample opportunity exists for new development within the existing B-5 boundaries.
The Auraria Higher Education Center provides shared A
facilities for the Community College of Denver, Metropolitan State College, and the University of Colorado at Denver. This center provides a wide range of educational programs in a downtown location, central to the region. All of the land for this center is owned by the State of Colorado and is zoned R-5 for public use. Major buildings in the center are connected by a walkway system which minimizes conflicting auto movement and provides an auto-free zone in downtown. Preservation and re-use of existing buildings include: the Ninth Street Park developed by Historic Denver, Inc., Tivoli Brewery, Emmanuel Shearith Israel Chapel, St. Cajetan's Church, and St. Elizabeth's Church. The Auraria Center serves a student enrollment of over 28,000.

The Skyline urban renewal pioiecl area is entirely within the B 5 zone district New construction in the Skyline area, however, conlorms to the urban renewal plan tor this area, with parking and density regulations different from those for the B-5 zone. Significant features of the plan for the Skyline protect are Skyline Park, a linear park in three
segments along Arapahoe Street; a system o( pedestrian bridges which are to link most of the blocks within the protect with second level walkways,, and the renovation of the Daniels arid Fisher Tower
The area now zoned B 7 was previously zoned loi only light industrial and warehouse uses. The B 7 zoning retains the existing uses in the area while adding numerous new activities including residential, offices, and retailing. Reuse of many oldei warehouse and commercial buildings is taking place. Retention and preservation ol these buildings will result in a unique district ot historic and architectural interest, providing enrichment to downtown and to the City.
. i ..
* ten*.
Downtown is showing a steady increase in building floorspace and employment In 1975 approximately 80,000 people were employed downtown. Based on new construction planned and underway, and the increased activity in lower Downtown, it is estimated that by 1985 about 140,000 will be employed downtown with a corresponding increase in the number of visitors for business, si lopping, education, and other purposes.
Denver's downtown development should build upon the activity and strength of its commercial core area. This area, generally bounded by 14th Street, Larimer Street, 18th Street. Lincoln, and Colfax Avenue, is the heart of downtown fa most people. Within this central high density district are located the regional centers for shopping, employment, and transpatation. Future development of this core area should add to its compactness, density and 'walkability.' The major office, apartment, and hotel buildings added to the core area, in the past ten years provides the strong trend toward higher density. This trend is favaable, provided that new building design reinlorces a unit fed pattern ot street activity, adds to pedestrian interest, and that transit service keeps pace with the higher numbers ot people using this area daily. Downtown should continue to
accommodate its share of the Denver metropolitan area growth, predominantly in the form of new buildings added to the B-5 zone area, with the larger structures clustered in the downtown core area. All new buildings and renovations should contribute to street level pedestrian activity and interest. At the same time, the older sidewalks and walkways within this area should be rebuilt to higher design standards to accommodate and attract more people. New projects in this critical core area, whether a new building, a renovation, a roadway, a walkway, or a transitway, should be judged on how well they assist the cae area to attract, interest, and accommodate people on foot.

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The strong retail district on the 16th Street Mall parallel to the solidotfice and financial district on 17th Street provides the vital spine of downtown. This linear high density commercial core provides an ideal arrangement for transit service by bus, ;.v -V shuttle transit, and fa possible future below ground transit. _. The 16th Street shopping district with its combination of the ..: regions largest department stores and numerous smaller i shops form a solid retail street and is downtown's busiest area. Its attraction fa people is being enhanced by retaining and improving the retail and restaurant uses at street level, and by the new 16th Street Mall with shuttle transit assistance fa shoppers.
Mae thru-block walkways and arcades should be included as new construction is added to the core to assist access between buildings. Streets, signs, lighting, walkways, and pedestrian bridges should all be designed with the downtown pedestrian in mind. Architects and developers of recent protects recognize this, and nearly all new downtown buildings have provided either street trees, plazas, arcades, a building setbacks in addition to improving their adjacent walkways. The Skyline renewal project is providing midblock pedestrian bridges at the second level.
Downtown auto access and parking should be made easier (a drivers by routing through traffic and incoming traffic adjaci to the core area. Most of the parking should be located at the perimeter of the high density downtown core. Within the core area, the size of the parking lots and garages should be limited. All downtown parking structures should include *-retail or commercial space at street level, to maintain continuity of pedestrian interest and activity.- yfv .
As building floorspace continues to increase and to i£ -.: 3 accommodate mete employees, transit service to and within downtown should become more available and easier to use." Arrival by transit to the high activity cae should be made as v direct as possible. The dominant means of movement within;' the downtown cae area should become walkways, shuttle ;fr;; bus, and transit. On-street truck loading zones should be consolidated on downtown's 'named' streets to use these 3 longer blocks to better advantage. . ; -L fi

People desire and expect downtown to be more unified in design and function. There is a need to find in downtown a sense of place, urbanity, diversity, and a certain quality of unity. Residents of Denver and the region would like to be able to take pride in downtown as the psychological center of their community. They would like to be able to find in downtown Denver the stimulation of interesting streets and shops, dramatic new architecture, the richness of older buildings, and inviting urban spaces.
Denver's downtown has the potential for becoming a true city centera multi-function center for business, shopping, government, education, performing arts, museums, entertainment, and residencewith interaction and activity encouraged and provided for by compactness, a high density centra! core, inviting walkways, and internal transit systems, all served by direct central transit service, and efficient auto traffic and parking systems.
Denver and the region are fortunate in having a vital and central downtown contributing its strength to the core city. Planning and development in Denver's downtown can continue from a position of economic and functionaf vitality. Downtown has favorable trends, a good mix of activities, and a compact arrangement. This combination of existing strength and high potential provides the foundation, challenge, and encouragement for continued coordination of development and design. The realization of Denver's downtown potential will continue as each added component, whether private proiect or public facility, contributes to tne advancement of these concepts for downtown land use. transportation and street design.


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Denver is located on the South Platte River on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. The climate is characterized by low relative humidity, light to moderate winds, mild temperatures, and light precipitation. The average monthly temperature varies from 30 F in January to 73 in July. Occasional Chinook winds help to moderate winter temperatures. Annual snowfall averages 63 inches but persistent snowcover is unusual. March is typically the snowiest month. Precipitation averages a little more than 15.5 inches per year, most of which falls during the growing season. Thundershowers occur fairly frequently on summer afternoons.
The Public Service Company of Colorado established two soiar radiation measurement sites in Denver early in 1977. These two sites are a part of an extensive network in the Southwest established for the purpose of supplying solar radiation data to public utilities who use the information for heating load calculations and for design and evaluation of solar energy projects. Spectrolab SR-75 pyranometers are used to measure hemispheric radiation. A regular maintenance schedule is employed and thorough calibrations are scheduled at 6-month intervals (Yinger, 1978). The data quality at these stations appear to be excellent, although some inconsistencies appear which make high resolution comparison between the two stations risky.
Summary period: January 1951 December 1960. Summary based on 87,67. hourly observations, 2T observations Kr day.
Location: Denver Stapleton Airport. Ground elevation 5292 feet.
Anemometer height: 72 feet 1/51 7/60 (above ground) 20 feet 7/60 12/60
Seasonal variations: Average wind speeds vary from about 8 mph m earl autumn to 11 inph in April. There is a distinct diurnal variation in wind direction throughout the year with S winds prevail inn at night while NW NE winds prevail during the day. S winds dominat throughout the year but e-.pecially during late fall and winter.
The strongest winds are toe mountain induced downslope winds from the WNW and occur most frequently during winter and early pi my.

Annual Wind Rose


JAN 5. 5 -7.8 13.2
FEB 6.3 / O 13.6
MAR 11 -3. 4 14.3
APR 15.7 2. 1 13. 5
MAY 20. 6 7 13. 5
JUN 25. 1 10. 6 14.4
JUL 29.8 15. 7 14. 1
AUG 28. 3 14.4 13. 9
SEP 25 5 8.3 17.2
OCT 18. 1 2. 1 16
NOV 10 -2. 4 12.3
DEC 6.8 -6.6 13. 3
HIGH = 29.8 LOW = -7.3
AMT = 1 1 AMR = 37.6
JAN 50 47 40.5 2 .5
FEB 47 37 43 2 .6
MhR 43 37 40 2 1.1
APR 42 34 30 n n
MAY 50 38 44 2 2.4
JUN 44 34 37 2 1.5'
JUL 35 27 31 2 1.7
AUG 47 41.5 2 1.4
SEP 42 24 33 2 l 1
OCT 45 29 37 2 1
NOV 61 46 53. 5 3 7
DEC 57 43 50 2 .6
TOTAL 14.6
JAN 5.5 20 -7.9 20 C c
FEB 6.3 27 20 -7. 4 20 c c
MAR 11 27 20 * *1 20 c c
APR 15.6 27 20 n jU 20 p fj
MAY 211. i. 2 /' 2*) 7 20 0 c
JUL 29. 7 2/ 20 15.6 20 II 0
AUG 23.2 27 20 14.3 20 H
SEP 25. 5 27 20 8.3 20 0 c
OCT 13. 1 27 20 20 c c
NOV 10 26 19 -2.5 19 c c
DEC 6. 8 27 20 6. 6 20 c c
0 1 0 1
JAN o 0
FEB . 0 o
MAR o 0
APR 0 0
MAY 0 0
JUN 0 0
JUL 0 0
AUG 0 0
SEP 0 o
OCT 0 0
NOV o o
DEC o o
(I) 1 < 1
0 1 ( ) 1
0 1 ( ) 1
o 1 < ) o
o 1 0 0
0 1 1 0
0 1 1 0
(I) 1 ( ) 0
0 1 ( ) 1
o 1 ) 1
0 1 ) 1
0 1C 7

############ LAYOUT #################
############ SPACING #################
######### AIR MOVEMENT ###############
############# OPENINGS ################
################## WALLS #############
#*############## ROOFS ###############
######### SIZE OF OPENING ############ MEDIUM : 25 407.
########## POSITION OF OPENINGS #######
######### WALLS AND FLOORS ###########
F.rtl ##4Hrfe## ROOFS

Zoning Requirements
The project's site is located within the B-5 zoning district.
The programmatic uses of the project may be operated as uses by right. These uses are categorized as: lyyyyy. Theatre
uuu. Parking and or commercial storage of vehicles, except that any surface or structure! excluding access ramps, for such use within one hundred twentyfive feet of pedestrian mall shall not be constructed above a level of which is five feet below the street level: need not be enclosed provided that any part of such use conducted outside a completely enclosed structure shall comply with all specifications for maintenance hereinafter required for off street parking space, jj. Dance studio for private instruction
qq. Eatinn place- need not to be enclosed provided that any part of servina area located outside a completely enclosed structure shall comply with all of the specifications-for maintenance for off street parking space.
Every use, unless expressly exempted by the zoning instructions, shall be operated in its entirety, within a completely enclosed structure. Every use shall be so operated that the ground vibration is not perceptible at any point of any boundary line of the zone lot on which the use is located. Emission of heat, glare, radiation and fumes are not permitted.
The sum total of the gross floor area of all structures on a zone lot shall not be greater than ten times the area of the zone lot on which the structures are located.
There shall be one off-street parking space provided for each two hundred square feet of gross floor area contained in any structure containing a use by right. Due to the building type of this project, off-street loading space shall be provided. At least the following amounts of off-street loading space shall be provided, plus an area or means adequate for maneuvering, ingress and egress. Each loading space shall be at least ten feet wide, twenty-six feet long and fourteen feet high.
(1) Offices, hotels, multi-family dwellings, and all other uses except those listed below:
Square Feet of Gross Floor Area
Required Number of Spaces
Up to 25,000
25.001 to 250,000
250.001 to 500,000
500.001 to 750,000
750.001 and above
(2) Sale at retail, wholesale and warehousing:
Square Feet of Gross Floor Area
Required Number of Spaces
Up to 15,000
15.001 to 50,000
50.001 to 200,000
200.001 to 350,000
350.001 and above

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parking angle tall width tall aisla to curt width (19* long tall) curb length per car center to centar width of two-row bin with access road between curb to curb overlap cc
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u to" to 170 23 0 20 0 -
30* 1*4" lit 110 17 0 44 1 17.4
t'O" 17.1 110 110 4S 1 171
45* 1*4" lt.4 111 120 171 411
t'O" 19.1 110 177 171 44 2
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45* 7.5 15.9 11.0 10.6 42.1 37.9
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90 7.5 15.0 ISO 7.5 4 8.0 48.0
Two way circulation
Supp. No. 5

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