Citation
Visitor Center, Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah

Material Information

Title:
Visitor Center, Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah
Creator:
DeBartolo, Gary M
Place of Publication:
Denver, Colo.
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
approximately 100 leaves : illustrations (some color, some folded), charts, forms, maps (some color, some folded), plans ; 28 cm

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of Architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Design and Planning, CU Denver

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Visitors' centers -- Designs and plans -- Utah -- Bryce Canyon National Park ( lcsh )
Visitors' centers ( fast )
Utah -- Bryce Canyon National Park ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Gary M. DeBartolo.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
15695162 ( OCLC )
ocm15695162
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1986 . D415 ( lcc )

Full Text
Visitor Center Bryce Canyon National Park
Utah
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture.
Gary M. DeBartolo
/
Fall 1986



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The Thesis of
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Committee Chairman
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CONTENTS
Introduction
Preface and Thesis Statement
Background
Location and Setting
Exploration and Settlement
Geology
C11 mate
Site Analysis
Zoning and Building Code Requirements
Program Introduction
Program
Design Draw Ings Conclusion B Ibllography Appendix
A Bryce Canyon National Park Master Plan (original) B Visitation Reports Rocky Mountain Region


Introduction Thesis Statement


INTRODUCTION
The subject of this thesis Is a visitor center and park headquarters for Bryce Canyon National Park In South Central Utah. The visitor contact section consists of an entrance lobby, Information area, book and literature sales, 24-hour public restrooms and telephone area, exhibit space, auditorium, exterior viewing decks, and waiting areas. The park headquarter portion of the facility will provide general office space for the National Park Service staff at Bryce Canyon, Including superintendents, administrative officers, secretarial clerks, chief and seasonal naturalists, maintenance engineer, historian, chief and permanent rangers, seasonal rangers, and other seasonal staff. Support spaces Include computer room, communications, resource management, library, conference rooms, staff lounge, staff restrooms, storage, mechanical, and solar equipment spaces. The visitor contact, park headquarters and support areas total to an estimated 18,000 net square foot fact I tty.
I chose Bryce Canyon for several reasons. First, the park Is w Ithln the spectacular "canyon country" and plateau landscape of southern Utah, which I have become Increasingly Interested In since first seeing It. The scale of this landscape Is very humbling, and has the power to evoke thoughts on how the natural forces of the earth and vast quantities of time coupled to evolve and shape our planet and this region. Second, Bryce Canyon National Park Is one of the few parks In Canyon Country that Is heavily visited enough to Justify a facility of this size. Grand Canyon and Zion National Parks are also heavily visited, (and were under consideration) while Canyonlands and Arches National Parks have comparatively little visitation. Bryce was chosen because Its amphitheater setting has a smaller, more comprehendlble scale. Also, the park Is one of three (Zion and Grand Canyon) which when experienced In sequence, display for all the geologic history of this continent with Its successive layers, from early (Bryce) to ancient (Grand Canyon) hlsfory.
Designing a visitor center in this region will give me the opportunity to explore architectural Issues on the relationship between an Isolated building and Its natural environment and landscape. Among the Issues:
* How an architectural "style" can become timeless like the landscape, or how this architecture could be "without style."
* The degree to which man asserts hls presence through architecture In nature and the environment, reflecting hls ultimate attitude about himself and hls place on the earth, In the universe. *
* The role of architecture In the education of the park visitor; the role It should play In motivating curiosity to further understand the park landscape.


PREFACE
This past century has brought about rapid growth of population, haphazard development and suburban sprawl over once undisturbed land in this country. This so-called progress has resulted In a greater loss of contact between man and nature the soil, water, forests, wild creatures and landscapes untouched by human hands. This loss of contact together with a changing society and its values emphasizing materialistic gain, self-centeredness and progress has resulted In apathy towards nature. Knowledge of the earth's biological processes and the empirical knowledge of our ancestors have been lost in a society where nature is thought of as something to be conquered, something that can be overcome by using man's technologies.
This apathy can perhaps be attributable to man's losing something of himself. There is a natural desire among man to seek overall fulfillment in life, to advance his mind, spirit, and values. However, much of what man in today's society is seeking is artificial and superficial, seeking fulfil I ment through material possessions, which offer a temporary solution at best. There is still the need for a regenerative contact with nature. The development of the suburb is evidence of this need. People desired to escape from the city and it's congestion, noise, pollution, and so they moved outward radially five to fifteen miles from the Central Business District and in the process devoured large amounts of virgin landscape, the very land they were trying to escape to. Instead of escaping to a peaceful, clean, low-density suburb away from the city, what in effect they have created is a vast, never-ending metropolitan blob. The urban-suburban dweller Is now farther away from "getting away" than ever.
In his desire for fulfillment, man seeks to develop his spiritual capacity, to develop a greater understanding of nature, the earth, and a greater sense of perception of his place in the universe. The wilderness, in contrast to the city, is the environment where spiritual truths are least blunted. It reflects the higher realm of spiritual truths over the lower one of material objects. Thus there is the perception of man's place in the universe divided between object and essence. His physical existence roots him to the material portion.
It is in nature where concentrations are least disturbed, where quiet, solitude, fresh air become conducive to contemplation. The philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote: "In the wilderness, I find something more dear and connote than in the streets or villages. In the woods we return to reason and faith." Similarly, the philosopher Henry David Thoreau believed that nature was "the source of vigor, inspiration, and strength. It was in fact the essential raw-material of life. To the extent an Individual lost contact with wildness he became weak and dull."1


It Is In these natural, open landscapes that offer the greatest opportunity for a regenerative contact with nature. This Is one of the reasons why national and state parks were created. Natural wilderness areas and geographical areas of significance had to be protected against the potential exploitation and destruction by man. They were also created to assure America's future generations that they will have the same opportunity to learn about and experience nature, the ecology; to use It as a source of Inspiration and spiritual development.
There Is perhaps no other area In the world than the Southwestern United States, that offers an opportunity to learn and experience firsthand the results of the awesome forces of time, erosion, and weather In the exposure of hundreds of rock layers, displaying the geological history of this continent. Discoveries of dinosaur fossils and other animals contribute to the overall comprehension of earth's history. It Is within the three national parks of Bryce Canyon, Zion, and Grand Canyon In Southwestern Utah and Northern Arizona, that offer such an opportunity to learn first hand the earth's geology and ecology.
It Is hoped that people visiting one of these three national parks will also be setting aside time to visit the other two. For If experienced In proper sequence, Grand Canyon, Zion, and Bryce National Parks offer an unrivaled progression back Into time, or from ancient to recent times, depending on which park Is seen first. In these three parks, one can regress or progress through a thousand million years of time, displaying the geological history of this continent In a sequential order. In Grand Canyon one can see some of the oldest rock formations ever exposed, In this case by the Colorado River, found In the lower part of Granite Gorge, exposed rocks of which are approximately 1700 million years old.
Also, Grand Canyon ends where Zion's rocks begin. The highest rock layers along the top rims of the Grand Canyon are the same that constitute the lowest layers of rock at Zion Canyon. Similarly, the middle geological history of Zion ends where the later history of Bryce Canyon begins. The hlghesf point on the Colorado Plateau was formed only 37 million years ago very young relative to Grand Canyons ancient layers.
It Is difficult to comprehend the time that has elapsed during the formation of these rock layers. Few people realize, for instance, that the histories of the three parks coincide with three different periods of continental formation and development on Earth. In an over-simplified explanation, the rocks of the Grand Canyon were formed during Pre-Pangean time, approximately 325 million years ago, when the Earth's land masses consisted of three huge continents-called Angra, Euramerlca, and Gondw anal and. The rocks of Zion were deposited during Pangean times, In which existed the super-continent of Pangea, formed by the previously mentioned Pre-Pangean continents. Bryce Canyon rocks were formed during Post-Pangean time, approximately 65 to 130 million years ago, when Pangea began separating Into the present six main land masses of Earth.


There are many emotions and thoughts evoked when one sees the Bryce Canyon landscape for the first time. The Paiute Indians told of their legend:
"Before there were any Indians, the Legend People, To-when-an-ung-wa, lived In that place. There were many of them. They were of many kinds birds, animals, lizards, and such things -but they looked like people... For some reason, the Legend People In that place were bad. Because they were bad, Coyote turned them all Into rocks. You can see them In that place now; all turned Into rocks; some standing In rows, some sitting down, some holding on to others. You can see their faces, with paint on them Just as they were before they became rocks..." 2
In a more literal description, T.C. Bailey, U.S. Deputy Surveyor, during a land survey In 1876, exclaimed:
"...seems indeed as though the bottom had dropped out and left rocks standing In all shapes and forms as lone sentinels over the grotesque and picturesque scenes. There are thousands of red, white, purple, and vermilion colored rocks, of all sizes, resembling sentinels on the walls of castles, monks and priests in their robes, attendants, cathedrals and congregations. There are deep caverns and rooms resembling ruins of prisons...churches with their guarded walls, battlements, spires, and steeples, niches and recesses, presenting the wildest and most wonderful scene that the eye of man ever beheld, In fact, it Is one of the wonders of the world." 3
Further technical and graphic explanations of Bryce Canyon are discussed in the geological and climate sections.
It Is Interesting how people use various metaphors when describing this awesome scenery metaphors relating to civilization -people, sentinels, rooms, cathedrals, battlements, the skyline of a dense city. Indeed, It Is the use of these metaphors that succeeds best in evoking powerful and emotional Images in the minds of those who are not familiar with the canyon, but are familiar with elements of civil Ization.
Approaching Bryce Canyon from any of the highways, whether from the East or West, one progresses through an Incredible landscape rich with a variety of land forms and vegetation. Highways 24 and 12, which pass through Hanksvllle, Grover, Boulder, Escalante, Tropic, and lead to Bryce, takes one on a spectacular journey through space and time. With the San Rafael Swell as the backdrop, highway 24 traverses a rather arid, flat landscape of sagebrush and low-lying ground cover. From Hanksvllle the Henry Mountains provide a majestic backdrop as the highway passes through the colorful water pocket fold of Capital Reef National Park. From there the road climbs high into the Canadian Zone vegetation of Dixie National Forest, providing magnificent panoramas of the plateau landscape below. At Boulder, highway 12 picks up and traverses up and down through the Escalante Canyon area, a canyon and Utah Juniper


landscape of enormous proportions. A final climb and descent through Dixie National Forest leads to Henrlevtlle and Into the Bryce Canyon area, where the essential plateau landscape becomes evident. These highways are like linear textbooks on geological time and vegetation zones.
Once In Bryce Canyon, the visitor again enters Into the transition life zone of yellow pine forests, containing somewhat the unlimited horizontal Ity of the Kalpalowlts and Pangultch Plateaus. These plateaus become the scenic backdrops to the east-facing amphitheater that is Bryce Canyon.
This change of scale Is one of the fundamental differences between the landscapes of Grand Canyon, Zion, and Bryce. Where Grand Canyon has one of the most seemingly Infinite expanses of land forms In the world, and Zion Is characterized by tightly-knit canyons with 1 500 foot sheer walls, Bryce offers a large variety of hoodoo formations within a natural amphitheater of comparatively much smaller scale. The pine forest, hiking trails, coupled with the towering hoodoos offer an experience with the land, with nature, on a more personal and Intimate level.
The sun, Incredibly Intense at this 8000 ft. elevation, interacts with the atmosphere and cloud formations (if any), Illuminating the colorful hoodoos In a constantly changing array of light and shadow. Brightly colored hues of orange and pink become subtle pastels of orange and white after sunset. Adjacent hoodoos reflect sunlight onto others, revealing a most pronounced layering effect, which Is an essential characteristic of these formations. From various view points, one sees hoodoos behind hoodoos behind hoodoos, In groups, standing alone. Some appear as walls, some are clustered, some are flat while others are rounded. The visual result Is one of complexity. However, in the apparent chaos lies inherent order the layering Is a result of natural gully cutting and tributaries which drain the water, which In turn have formed the hoodoos over ti me.
The sun, the colors, the clouds, the air, the sound of wind through the frees combine to offer a special moment In time and space for the visitor. For this moment man Is among nature, with nature, with the land, Instead of against It, Instead of domination over It. It Is a time for knowledge and understanding of our place In time, In the universe. It Is a moment for reflection, for solitude. Peace of mind.


THESIS STATEMENT
The average visitor to Bryce Canyon National Park arrives here primarily for viewing and experiencing the vast array of geological formations for which the park Is known. In viewing these formations within their natural amphitheaters, one regresses back through millions of years In geological time, displayed In the hundreds of horizontal rock layers exposed among the hoodoos. The amphitheater is frozen In time for this brief moment In terms of human time, but Is actually eroding very quickly relative to geological time.
Education of the visitor about what they are viewing at Bryce Is crucial If they are to understand the landscape Is the way It Is. How architecture, by creating a dialogue with geological time, can provide a rich and thorough educational experience for the visitor Is the primary Issue of this thesis. A full understanding and appreciation of these geological features and the landscape as a whole will enhance the overall visitor experience, and hopefully the Interaction between architecture, the land, and the user will give a humbling perception of man's place on earth, In time, In the universe.
Visitor Centers within parks that have natural or geological themes, such as at Rocky Mountain, Yosemlte, Zion, and Bryce Canyon National Parks have a fundamental difference In their functioning than visitor centers with historic themes such as Petersburg National Battleground and Wright Brothers National Monument; or centers with archaeological themes such as Bandel ler National Monument or Mesa Verde National Park. The difference Is that visitor centers with natural themes must have a direct relationship with the natural scenery, the reason for which the park was created. At Bryce, It Is primarily the hoodoos, with the amphitheaters and plateau landscape as backdrops, that must have that special link with the center, with the user, If education and contemplation are to occur. Locating the building away from the canyon and the scenery would only result In the visitor losing his sense of orientation. Architecture would not become actively Involved with the visitor's quest for knowledge and i nform atlon.
The extent to which architecture In national parks becomes Involved In the visitor's communion with nature Is another Issue. Traditionally, the Park Service In general carried the attitude that any man-made structure within a natural environment Is an Intrusion on the scene a building Is per se a profanity. The national parks are nature's wonderlands, and anything man-made must be an eyesore. Buildings are assumed that they will only detract from the visitor's communion with nature. The Park Service generally Is convinced that the most successful way to deal with this Is to tuck the building out of the way, subordinating It to Its environment. It Is my contention that pretending a building Isn't there only makes It the more prominent, by guaranteeing that It will not be designed to belong there.4 Architecture should play an active, rather than passive, role In enhancing the visitor experience. Through Interaction with the user and with Its surroundings, architecture can contribute to, rather than defract from, an overall high experience.


The way In which a work of architecture responds to Its environment and site constraints, especially at Bryce, will also serve as an educating tool on how man can succeed (or fall) In recognizing and dealing with these constraints. A visitor center at Bryce Canyon faces many geological and environmental conditions. At 8000 feet elevation, Bryce receives an abundant 100+ Inches of snowfall. It Is also subjected to Intense solar radiation, strong prevailing winds, large temperature swings, very low temperatures, and sudden thunderstorms with accompanying flash floods flowing across fragile soil conditions. It Is critical that the architecture of the center recognize these constraints, and respond to them In a positive way. It Is "designing with nature," rather than man playing "conqueror of the universe." 5
Positively responding to nature's constraints does not imply Incorporating any kind of organic philosophy In terms of architectural design or aesthetics. It Is my contention that one can design w Ith nature, while simultaneously retaining all architectural convictions, whether they be heavily organic, or heavily contrasting to nature.
In this way, the building Itself becomes a two-way educating tool for the visitor the building Itself shows the visitor how man can coexist with nature. And within the building the visitor learns about Bryce Canyon National Park.


Setting Exploration & Settlement


Ephraim
Manti
Dinosaur Quarry
Gunnison
Colorado Natl. Mon.
Green
(River
State
Park
Salina
Richfield
Arches Nall. \ Park
Goblin Valley State Park x
Moab
Canyonlands Nall. Park
(Horseshoe Canyon)
Capitol
Hanksville
River
Newspaper Rock] K State Park £
DIXIE
/ Park
/ Boulder
xx Anasa/i Indian Village l State Park j^Calf Creek Rec. Area xThe Gulch Escalante Canyons
NATL
FOREST
Panguitch e.
Rark Canyon Imitive Area (BLM)
DIXIE
NATL
FOREST
Monticeiio
Forest
Dove Creek
Dark Canyon Wilderness Area iUfiges
Escalante
Cedar Breaks Natl. Mon.
Bryce \
Canyon-
Natl.
Park
Ashdown ( Wilderness
B landing
Devils Garden
Kodachrome Basin Slate Park
] Hovenweep / Natl. Mon.
Bluff J
Cortez \
Yucca House J Natl. Mon /M / Ve / Na
/ P*
Grand Gulch Primitive Area
Glen Canyon Natl. Recr. Area
Orderville
yse*
v Coral Pink Sand \Dunes State Park
Mexican Hat
Rainbow Bridge x Natl. Mon. UTAH
Kanab
Paria Carney*.
V'ermilion Clift* Wilderness Area
ARIZONA,
V V Navajo Natl. Mon.
(hwrrituion House Ruin)
Kayenta
t Highways vad Highways
Grar
Juncl
I 75 K ilometor*
50 M.lw
Ura van
Minersville
lar City
arks
lonuments
orests
nd Wilderness Areas ecreation Areas


GKOMKilCAV. St'RVKY PRUKKBSIONAL PAPKE 21*6 PLATF. 5
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LOCATION and REGIONAL SETTING6
Bryce Canyon National Park lies In south-central Utah, about 24 miles south of Pangultch, 70 miles northeast of Zion National Park, 81 miles east of Cedar City, and 10 miles west of Tropic (see Fig. 1 ). The northern part of the park Is In Garfield County, and the southern portion In Kane County. Most of the land surrounding the park Is In federal ownership. It Is bordered on the western, southern, and most of the eastern boundary by Dixie National Forest. The Bureau of Land Management manages federal land along the northern and northeastern boundaries. The remaining bordering land Is owned by the state of Utah and private landowners.
The park Is In the midst of the Colorado Plateau region, through which the Colorado River has cut Its far-famed canyons. This sem 1-arld plateau region, 50,000 square miles In extent, Is diversified by a number of Individual tablelands lying at different levels, between 6,000 and 11,000 feet above sea level, each bordered by long lines of Impressively carved and variously hued cliffs. Bryce Park Itself comprises only a narrow strip 20 miles long on the southeastern rim of one of these tablelands, the Paunsaugunt Plateau (see Fig. 2).
The Paunsaugunt Plateau and each of the neighboring tablelands, Is a huge block of the earths crust, composed of gently sloping strata of rock that lie in orderly sequence, one upon another. The long stretches of even sky line characteristic of the landscape are determined, In general, by the uppermost layers of these strata, (see Fig. 3).
Main access to the park Is via US 89 (from Grand Canyon and Zion National Parks) to Utah 12. Some visitors also use Utah 22 to Utah 12 and the Grover/Boulder road from Capital Reef National Park. Public transportation In the Immediate vicinity Is virtually nonexistent, except for north-south bus transit through Pangultch. Cedar City, 81 miles west of the park, Is served by Sky West Airlines, as well as buses. Rental cars are available In Cedar City. The Bryce Canyon airfield, adjacent to the north boundary of the park, has no scheduled air service.
In approaching the park from the west, the visitor Is confronted by a w al I of pink cliffs, called the Sunset Cliffs, 30 miles long and a thousand feet high, which form the western border of the Paunsaugunt Plateau. Utah 12 leading into Bryce Park, ascends through Red Canyon, a gorge cut Into the plateau block, with strata of pink limestone and other sedimentary rocks of which the block Is composed. Arriving at the eastern edge of the plateau, the visitor Is confronted with the same pink beds, the Pink Cliffs, In the Intricately chiseled wal Is of Bryce Canyon.
The park area as a whole Is characterized by angular forms. The sides of the Paunsaugunt Plateau descend not In sweeping curves, but


Wall of Bryce Canyon allowing erosion features characteristic of the Pink Cliffs. (Courtesy National Parks Service.)
Fig. 3


alternating terraces and cliffs. Extending back into these are a multitude of ramifying canyons, gulches, and ravines.
Looking out from Sunset Point or Bryce Point, on the east rim of the plateau, the visitor sees that the entire landscape, out to the limits of his vision, presents essentially the same type of topography, the only difference being that in some parts the forms are large and simple, In others finely chiseled and complex. Throughout, the landscape is distinctly banded in different hues dominantly shades of red, yellow, and brown.
Immediately below are the narrow, branching gulches and ravines that converge into the Paria Amphitheater, 2,000 feet farther down. Beyond that flat valley are the interlocking ridges, trenched by narrow, closely spaced gorges that drain Into the Paria River or directly Into the Colorado. In the distance rises the lofty Kaiparowits Plateau, whose long sky line carries the view southeastward to the dome of Navajo Mountain, which stands on the south side of Glen Canyon, 80 miles away. Northeastward from Sunset Point the details of the landscape are dwarfed by the Table Cliffs, at the southern end of the Aquarius Plateau, which tower 4,000 feet above the Paria River.
Views in a southerly direction show that the top of the Paunsaugunt Plateau is the highest part of a gigantic natural stairway that descends southward by three steps to the Kanab Plateau, which continues out to the north rim of the Grand Canyon, 50 miles disfant. The total descent from the Paunsaugunt Plateau to the Kanab Plateau Is about 4,000 feet, and the three great cliffs are known as the Pink Cliffs, the White Cliffs, and the Vermilion Cliffs. Each of the broad plateau terraces Is frenched by deep gorges and bears small mesas and towers. The White Cone on the flat above the Vermilion Cliffs, known to the Piutes as Tabetimp, or Sun Mountain, Is the most conspicuous of these residual features.
EXPLORATION and SETTLEMENT
Prehistoric Tribes
The aboriginal inhabitants of Utah seem to have found the Bryce Canyon region unfavorable for large-scale settlement. The Basket Makers the earl iest peopl e w hose arch eol ogical remains are sufficient to identify a culture are represented In Paria Valley only by fragmentary textiles woven In fiber, fur, and feathers. The Pueblo Indians (Cliff Dwellers), who followed the Basket Makers, occupied many sites along tributaries of the Paria, on flat lands extending westward to White Cone, and eastward along the base and the top of the Kaiparowits Plateau. A few of the dwelling sites are still marked by stone walls, traces of cultivated fields, and fragments of crude pottery, Implements, and textiles, but most of them show no evidence of long-time occupation. It would seem that the ancient settlements In southern Utah were essentially outposts of the large Pueblo settlements In Arizona and New Mexico, which attained a cultural peak about 1100 A.D.


The Pueblos were followed by the Piutes- peaceful tribes who built no permanent houses but from time to time occupied places favorable for hunting deer, rabbits, and Insects, for gathering grass seeds and plnon nuts, and for cultivating small fields of corn. The evidence seems clear that the Piutes entered southern Utah before the Puebloan tribes had entirely disappeared and that, unlike the sedentary agricultural Puebloans, they had no established house sites. Obviously they were a weak race unskilled In agriculture or in textile and pottery making and unable to cope In warfare with the neighboring tribes They seemed content with a standard of living characterized by flimsey dwellings, scanty clothing, and a food supply that Included as standard Items plant stems, grass seeds, nuts of the pine and pinon, sego Illy, wild potato, birds, rodents, snakes, lizards, crickets, and grasshoppers By skillful methods they trapped rabbits and squirrels by the hundreds, and with their Ineffective weapons the plentiful antelope and deer were occasionally killed for food. On this low scale the Piutes were well adjusted to their environment and except as harassed by neighboring tribes maintained a creditable existence for several centuries
That the Piutes were frequent visitors to the Paunsaugunt region Is shown by arrowheads, spear heads, shone axes, and grinding tools In 1872 Thompson found Piutes In camp near Cannonvlle, and an old-time resident estimated the number of Piutes In the Parla Valley "during the early days" as about 250. Most of them belonged to the clan known as A-vo-ats-ln (a-vo-av, "sem I-cIrcu I ar valley"), who Intermittently Inhabited the cliff-walled amphitheater at the head of the Paria River. They recognized the rock walls of Bryce Canyon as the ruins of a great city, burled In red mud and now partly excavated, the work of Shtn-awav, a Piute demigod of great power, (see legend quote In thesis statement.)
WHITE SETTLEMENTS
It seems reasonably certain that the Spanish military-ecclesiastical entradas of the 16th century did not reach the Bryce Canyon region, but it Is highly probable that some unknown trappers of the period 1800-1850 explored the Paunsaugunt Plateau. Doubtless also, scouts sent out by the Church of the Latter Day Saints (1851-1860) In search of agricultural and grazing land In southern Utah, extended their journeys to the Parla Valley. The first recorded traverse by white men of the region that Includes Bryce Canyon National Park, however, Is the unpublished diary of Capt. James Andrus, who In 1866 lead a military expedition of some 60 men from St. George, Utah, through Kanab and along the southern base of the Paunsagunt Plateau and Table Cliffs Into Escalante Valley In search of marauding Navajos.
Maj. J.W. Powell, Civil War veteran and first explorer of the Grand Canyon in 1869, made a second voyage down the river In 1871, following which he initiated the survey that resulted In maps and reports covering much of southern Utah. Under Powell's direction,


Alvin H. Thompson, geographer, In 1872 made the first scientific traverse of the base of the Paunsaugunt and Aquarius Plateaus, along a route prevloulsy traveled In part by the noted Mormon missionary, Jacob Hamblin. From the head of Johnson Canyon, Thompson traveled northeastward, crossed the border of Bryce Canyon National Park, reached the Parla River at the mouth of Yellow Creek, and proceeded up Table Cliff Creek and on through Escalante Valley to the Colorado River at the base of the Henry Mountains. In the report of this traverse, the salient features of Bryce Canyon National Park are described for the first time.
One of the early pioneer white settlers In the Parla Valley was Ebenezer Bryce, with his wife Mary, who In 1875 selected a site farther upstream in Henderson Valley (New Clifton). Before moving to the Parla Valley below Bryce Canyon, Scottish emigrant Bryce had been a shipyard apprentice, carpenter, millwright, sawmill operater, architect and a Mormon pioneer In Utah. Valley residents began calling the area with strange rocks near the end of Ebenezer's new timber road Bryce's Canyon. The name endured after Bryce left In 1880, as did his popular description of the canyon as "a helluva place to lose a cowl"
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PARK
In 1915, the newly appointed Forest Supervisor, J.W. Humphrey, embarked on a crusade to make the world aware of the "Indescribable beauty" of Bryce Canyon. His hard-won $50 appropriation to bring a road to the rim of the plateau was to Include the cost of two bridges; the labor had to be donated by local residents. When the road was completed, tourists came and Joined In spreading the word about Bryce Canyon's beauty.
Reuben "Ruby" Syrett opened a modest lodge near the rim of Bryce Canyon In 1919 to accommodate the growing numbers of visitors. Arthur Hanks and H.l. Bowman opened "touring services" to the canyon from nearby Marysvale and Kanab. The enterprising Parry brothers of Cedar City offered a package of tours of Bryce Canyon, Cedar Breaks, Zion Canyon and the North Rim of the Grand Canyon all for $140.
All of this activity caught the fancy of the Union Pacific Railroad, which began development of a combination rail and motor coach tourist business at Bryce, Zion and the North Rim. By 1923 the railroad had leased or bought key parcels of land within what Is now Bryce Canyon National Park, Including Ruby Syretfs lodge.
With Its new-found popularity, Bryce Canyon was established as a national monument by Presidential Proclomation 1664 dated June 9, 1923 (43 stat. 1914). The monument was administered by the U.S. Forest Service until June 7, 1924, when Congress passed a bill establishing Utah National Park (on lands Including the national


monument), and designating the National Park Service as the administering agency. On February 25, 1928, Congress passed an additional bill that nearly doubled the size of the park and changed the name to Bryce Canyon National Park (If and when private landholdings inside the proposed park became United States property). On September 15, 1928, the lasf of these private landholdings was delivered to the federal government by the Union Pacific. In 1931 the original park of 12,920 acres In the immediate vicinity of Bryce Canyon was enlarged to 35,240 acres or 55.05 square miles.


Geology


CARVING of the LAND FORMS7
The many broad terraces, deep canyons and bewildering array of sculptured forms seen at Bryce Canyon National Park are results of the long-continued work of rain, frost, and streams. Few regions accessible to sightseers afford more beautiful and more convincing examples of this slow process of erosion.
The streams use as cutting tools the sand and fragments of rock which they transport. Every grain of sand that was once part of the great mass of sandstone removed In the excavation of the alcoves has aided In further cutting away of rock. The streams In the alcoves though relatively small and mostly Intermittent, have steep gradients, Including rapids and waterfalls; they are therefore powerful agents of erosion, especially In time of flood, when they are supplied with large amounts of disintegrated rock material swept from the ledges from torrential rains. In this region, floods follow every shower, and many times each year large and small streams are given sufficient volume and speed to carry forward newly made loose material about as fast as formed, to tear up and take away the sand and gravel stranded along their courses after previous floods, and to use these In cutting more deeply Into bedrock. The fresh, sharp, angular profiles of mesas, ridges, and canyon walls, and the extensive areas of bare rock are maintained as a result of the rapid down-cutting and prompt removal of the debris. The deepest canyons are those carved by the most vigorous streams at work for the longest time. Even If the sfream has lowered Its bed but a fraction of an Inch per year, Its life of
hundreds of thousands of years has enabled It to accomplish a vast
amount of work In cutting gorges and -transporting rock waste.
In widening their channels and In producing the remarkable architectural features of the park, the streams have been assisted by
other agents. At no time were the streams as wide as the present
canyons, probably never wider than they are now. Downcutting precedes widening and also Is much more rapid; many canyons hundreds of feet deep are less than 50 feet wide. In cutting vertically downward the streams have retained the straight stretches and meanders that marked their original courses on higher ground. Each of the present alcoves and valleys was once a series of deep, narrow trenches.
As the streams sink their runways deeper and deeper Into sol Id rock, however, they expose larger expanses of wall to the destructive work of atmospheric agencies a process known as weathering. Rain falling against cliffs, wind sweeping the surface, frost In cracks, plant roots In the soil, and ground water decompose and break up the solid rock, and with the aid of gravity cause grains, fragments, and even large blocks to fall Into the streams below, which carry them down through the canyons, on to the Parla and the Colorado, and eventually toward the sea. Within the alcoves and on the lands below them, weathering, like down-cutting, Is rapid, because the climate and


V
Toj> of the Paunsaupunt Plateau : View from the approach road from Red Canyon to Bryce Canyon Park, southeast across
East Fork of Sevier to Boat Mesa (left sky line).
Fig. 4


the composition of the rocks are favorable.
Thus In carving the topographic features of Bryce Canyon National Park the chief agents have been erosion and weathering, but because of the general sparseness of vegetation It is apparent that different kinds of rock are affected differently. The terraces are cut In the softer, shaly rocks, and the cliffs are composed of the more resistant sandstones and limestones. The terrace topography characteristic of the entire plateau province has resulted from erosion In flat-lying beds of alternating soft and hard rocks that are essentially unprotected by soil or vegetation.
In striking contrast to the active streams that carry water from the lower lands through defiles to the Parla River, the slow-moving East Fork of the Sevier River wanders across the top of the Paunsaugunt Plateau In a broad, shallow valley between Inconspicuous cliffs and rounded ridges. The divide between the two drainage systems is very narrow. From the eastern edge of a belt 5 feet wide along the plateau rim, rain water goes southward to the Paria and Colorado Rivers and on to the Pacific Ocean; from the other edge the water follows a long route northward through central Utah, disappearing Into the desert flats of the Great Basin.
In appearance, the surface of Paunsaugunt Plateau Is monotonous, but It Is full of meaning. (See Fig. 4) It Is a part of the history of erosion that spans more than a million years. Above the present flat surface once stood mesas and buttes overlooking gorges In which snow-fed streams flowed. As erosion progressed, higher parts were leveled off and the drainage channels became less steep, until finally the main streams were unable to cut deeper and were barely able to carry away the small amount of rock debris brought in by their tributaries. Mosf of the weathered rock now remains where It Is formed, mantling the surface with soil, In contrast to the bare rock In much of the surrounding region. In geologic parlance, the surface of the Paunsaugunt Plateau has attained "old age", whereas Its bordering lands are still "youthful."
EARTH MOVEMENTS
Why has this particular region so many great alcoves, lofty mesas, plateaus, and vertical cliffs? In brief, the development of the park landscape began as a result of movements within the earth.
About 15 million years ago, the flat-lying rocks that formed the earth's crust In southern Utah began to rise and were pushed upward slowly and Intermittently until lands once near sea level attained altitudes exceeding 10,000 feet. During this great uplift the beds of rock were broken Into enormous blocks, many miles In length and width. Bryce Canyon National Park Is at the eastern edge of the Paunsaugunt Plateau. This plateau Is one of the nine great blocks of sedimentary rock that constitute the High Plateaus of Utah. It is separated from Its neighbors, Markagunt Plateau to the west and Aquarius Plateau to the northwest by great cracks known as faults,


Figure 6.Section showing topographic relation of Table Cliffs, south end Aquarius Plateau, to Bryce Canyon National Park. The beds of limestone on which the observer stands at Bryce Point, Inspiration Point, or Sunset Point were once continuous to Table Cliffs, but as a consequence of movement along Paun-saugunt fault the parts of the beds east of the fault were raised 2,000 feet above those on the west. Since this uplift the rocks of the ancient Aquarius Plateau have been worn away, thus forming the Paria Amphitheater.


which extend for scores of miles, (see Fig. 2) Along these faults the rocks on one side have been raised, or those on the other side have been lowered, a few hundred feet to more than 2,000 feet, (see Fig.6) In consequence of such uplift or down-dropping, the plateau Is bordered by cliffs of commanding height. The cliffs were originally straight or broadly curved escarpments at the fault line, but through millions of years they have been worn back from the fault line and have lost their simple structure.
The western border of the Paunsaugunt Plateau block Is the great earth fracture known as the Sevier fault, which extends south through Alton, Glendale, Mount Carmel, and on Into Arizona, also north Into central Utah. The Pangultch-Bryce highway crosses the fault at the mouth of Red Canyon. The wall Initiated by this fault remains as the Sunset Cliffs (see Fig.5), now cut by canyons and much decreased In height by the erosion of rocks from the top. Along the eastern side of the plateau Is the Paunsaugunt fault. The cliff that long ago marked the east side of this fault, standing as a wall some 2,000 feet above the surface of the plateau, has been almost entirely worn away. Only a remnant stands as Table Cliffs, the southern salient of Aquarius Plateau.
The effect of faulting Is clearly evident at viewpoints near Bryce Canyon Lodge. Thus, at Bryce Point, the bed of rock on which the observer stands, 8,294 feet above sea level on the west side of the Paunsaugunt fault, Is the same bed that forms the cap of Table Cliffs at 10,000 feet on the east side of the fault, (see Fig. 6)
The regional uplift of the ancient lowlands of southern Utah and the breaking of the rock mass Into huge blocks was the first great step In the development of the plateau landscape. Then followed a long period of time during which conditions were favorable for erosion, and the blocks have been changed Into their present scenic forms. On the original lowland the streams flowed In broad, shallow valleys of gentle gradient.
Although the plateau blocks were raised high, thetr tops remained comparatively level. Hence, the streams on the surface of a newly made plateau were little affected by the uplift, but those on Its precipitous edges flowed In channels steeply Inclined. In consequence of the steepened gradient, such streams became powerful agents of erosion. Their accelerated speed enabled them to cut trenches In solid rock and, as the land rose progressively higher, to develop their trenches Into the present deep canyons, separated by mesas and long, flat-topped ridges.
The East Fork Sevier River on top of the plateau has for long stretches a gradient of less than 15 feet to the mile and has cut Its bed but slightly after thousands of years of activity. In contrast, the tributaries to the Parla descend 1,000 to 1,500 feet to the mile and have cut deep Into the south and east faces of the Paunsaugunt Plateau.


Generaliznl section of the rock formations in the lexnnsangnvt liegion, I tali
System Series Oroup and formation Character Thickness (feet)
Quaternary. Hecent. Sand, gravel, and silt eroded into terraces in valleys. 10 60
Pleistocene. Fluviatile and lacustrine deposits. 10 +
Pleistocene or Pliocene. Sevier liivcr (?) formation. Volcanic conglomerate sandstone and calcareous shales; rarely exposed. 8-60
Tertiary. Koecno. Wasatch formation. Limestone pink, white, and varicolored; calcareous sandstone and shales; conglomerate of exotic pebbles. 0 ]. 300
Kaiparowits formation. Dark-gray and gray-green, moderately coarsegrained, arkosic sandstone in irregular beds; contains vertebrate bones, fossil wood, and fresh or brackish water invertebrates; weak calcareous cement; forms slopes and bad lands. 205 700
Wahweap sandstone. Tan and gray sandstone and highly arenaceous shales generally lenticular on a broad scale and very irregular in detail: few beds of clay shale and conglomerate of quartz, quartzite, and bones; forms broken slopes. Contact with the Straight Cliffs sandstone undefined. 535-1, 620
Cretaceous. Upper Cretaceous. Straight Cliffs sandstone. Sandstone in thin beds and thick massive beds; calcareous, argillaceous, and carbonaceous shales (5 percent); manner of bedding and texture changes in short distances horizontally and vertically; contains marine and terrestrial fossils; forms sheer walls, benches, and slopes.
Tropic shale. Bluish drab, argillaceous to sandy shale; irregularly bedded sandstones; coal at several levels; abundantly fossiliferous; forms broken slopes and bad lands. 630-1, -475
Dakota (?) sandstone. Dark-gray to nearly white sandstone; conglomeratic in part; irregularly bedded; contains thin beds of coal and silieified wood. 6-80
Winsor formation. Thin-bedded, arkosic sandstone conspicuously banded red and white; lower part thickly irregularly bedded; forms prominent steep slopes below the Dakota (?) sandstone. 400-800
Curtis formation. Massive gypsum and dense, thin-bedded limestone; some calcareous shales; weathers into low cliffs and benches. 110-ISO
Jurassic. Upper Jurassic. Entrada sandstone. Thin stratified friable sandstones, red, brown, gray; subordinate calcareous and gypsiferous shales, gypsum, and limestone; in places includes massive bed of yellow sandstone 60 to 90 feet thick; forms cliffs and talus-strewn slopes. 170-240
Carmel formation. Dense, very thin-bedded, ripple-marked tan and blue-grav limestone; calcareous shale; impure sandstone; some gypsum; forms benches on top of the Navajo sandstone. 0( ?) 165
Jurassic(?). Navajo sandstone. Light creamy-yellow, white and buff, highly cross-bedded sandstone; weathers in escarpments and innumerable cones, towers, and domes; forms the White Cliffs. 1,200-1,800
Fig. 7


The present erosion forms merely mark the present stage of a long train of geologic events. The layer of limestone that now make the Pink Cliffs at Bryce Canyon formerly extended eastward farther than the eye can reach, and many cubic miles of rock have been washed away In reducing the lower lands to their present level. Still the region as a whole Is geologically young. Although the work accomplished by the Parla and Its tributaries has been enormous, It represents only the few million years that make up the latest chapter In a billion years of geologic history.
STORY OF THE ROCKS
Just as the Grand Canyon of the Colorado Is one of the best known records of ancient geologic history (Paleozoic era and older) and Zion Canyon contains record of middle geologic time (Mesozlc era), the cliffs and walls of Bryce Canyon reveal much later geologic history (Cenozlc). The canyons are successive chapters In a long-continued story. In the 16,000 feet of sedimentary rock exposed In these three parks are Incorporated the records of a thousand million years of geologic history. As dated by geologists, the pink rocks of the Paunsaugunt Plateau were formed fully 50,000,000 years ago; but these are comparatively young, for underlying them are progressively older beds, leading down to sediments that contain remains of the earliest known forms of life.
A study of the rocks In canyons leading from the Paunsaugunt Plaeteau shows that this region had undergone many changes In landscape and climate. At times It was covered by the ocean, at other times It was a seashore with bays and estuaries, and at still other times Its surface was traversed by rivers and dotted with shallow lakes. The present rocks were laid down In water as gravel, sand, mud, or fine silt. They have been converted Into solid rock by the weight of the subsequent layers above them and by the cementing of their grains with lime, silica, and Iron.
Embedded In the rocks are fossil sea shells, snails, turtles, plants, trees, and the bones of animals that sought their food along the shore, In flood plains, and In forest and uplands. The most conspicuous remains are those of dinosaurs huge reptiles that so dominated the life of their time that the Mesozoic Is known as the "age of dinosaurs." The fossils In the park record the closing of the "age of reptiles" and the beginning of the "age of mammals."
As classified by geologists, the rocks exposed In the Bryce Canyon National Park are assigned to the Cretaceous period (Mesozoic) and the Tertiary period (Cenozolc). (see Figs. 7 & 8) The drab-colored landscape along the southeast border of the park has been developed In rocks of Cretaceous age alternating beds of shale, coal, and sandstone. The brightly colored rocks that form the topmost cliffs and terminate abruptly In such headlands as Boat Mesa, Bryce Point, and Rainbow Point are limestones of Tertiary age (see Fig. 8).




For convenience of study and description, the rock strata of different geologic periods are subdivided Into groups known as "formations,*' which are differentiated by such features as color, mineral content, thickness, areal extent, and kinds of fossils. Each formation reveals somew hat In detail the physical geography, the climate, the fauna, and the flora of the time of Its origin.
Ofthe formations prominently displayed In the park the youngest Is the Wasatch formation of Eocene age (Tertiary). It forms the surface of the Paunsaugunt Plateau, the Pink Cliffs, and the picturesque erosion features In the alcoves cut Into the plateau rim. The Wasatch formation Is dominantly calcareous, but In places the vertical succeslon of massive red limestone beds Is Interrupted by thin layers of firm shale (mudstone), mottled deep red, pink, and white; by sheets of gray sandstone; and by Irregular masses of gravel tightly cemented with lime. As exposed In Boat Mesa and Whitemans Mesa the formation contains more sandstone and conglomerate than limestone, and almost everywhere the bottom part consists of an assemblage of pebbles and boulders of quartz, quartzite, limestone, sandstone, and Igneous rocks. The kind of bedding and the fossil shells and leaves In the rocks show that the Wasatch strata were laid down as limy ooze, silts, sands, and gravels; the finest material was deposited In bodies of quiet water.
The coloring matter Is chiefly the Iron In the sands and slits from which the present beds have been formed. The various tones of red, pink, yellow, and tan record the kind and stage of oxidation. The reddest, densest, and most completely calcareous rocks contain the mosf Iron. The sandy, porous white rocks that form the mesa tops and many knobs on canyon walls are nearly free of Iron; doubtless part of the Iron once present has been removed by leaching. The thickness of the Wasatch In Bryce Park, once probably more than 2,000 feet, has been reduced by erosion to not more than 1,300 feet and at places along the rim to 800 feet or less.
Next below the Wasatch Is the dark colored Kalparowlts formation of Cretaceous age. In distant views the Kalparowlts formation appears as a dark greenish-gray or yel low Ish-brown band below pink rocks and above light-gray rocks. On the face of the Paunsaugunt Plateau eastward from Rainbow Point It appears as a slope broken at Irregular Intervals by benches that terminate downward In terraces of sandstone and upward In vertical cliffs of llmesfona As exposed In the park, the Kalparowlts has a maximum thickness of more that 1,000 feet and a minimum of less that 100 feet a great range that represents the degree to which the top beds of the Kalparowlts formation were eroded before the overlying Wasatch formation was deposited.
In composition the Kalparowlts Is dominantly sandstone. Much of It Is so poorly consolidated as to weather Into loose sand nearly free of broken blocks and cobbles. Mingled with the rounded quartz grains are feldspar, mica, and also much Iron oxide and calclte, which serve as cement. Some of the sandstone ledges 10 to 50 feet thick consist of evenly laid beds of uniform composition, but generally a section of the formations Includes not only dark sandstone but also white


sandstone, conglomerate, blue-gray clay shale, and limy shale. Because the material was laid down by the streams as sand bars, river flats, and local deltas, few of the beds are regular or continuous for long distances. They contain plastered masses of Impure limestone, sand balls of various sizes, and masses of Ironstone that on weathering remain as knobs on steep slopes or as the caps of towers and buttes. In the firm limestone and the yellow-tan weakly cemented sandstone are embedded the fossil bones of dinosaurs, crocodiles, turtles, and fresh-water shells, also fossil wood and leaves.
The Kaiparowlts formation Is underlain In turn by the Wahweap sandstone and the Straight Cliffs sandstone. East of the Parla River these have dlstlgulshable characteristics, but within Bryce Canyon they Integrate to such an extent that the boundaries In many places are obscure. In these formations, which together have a thickness of 1,500 to 2,000 feet or more, the most conspicuous features are the beds of buff sandstone 30 to 150 feet thick and contlnous for miles, which weather as nearly vertical walls. Along the edge of the park, successive layers of these thick sandstones, separated by thin beds of the same composition, stand on the general slope as huge steps that combine to make unscalable walls. As shown by fossils In the Straight Cliffs sandstone, the sediments were deposited In a sea and lagoons of brackish water.
Below the Straight Cliffs sandstone Is sandy shale, designated as the Tropic shale an easly recognized assemblage of dark, drab, thin, fossil Iferous beds, chiefly marine. Much of the coal mined at Tropic and Henrlevllle comes from the Tropic shale.
Without any sharp separation, the Tropic shale Is underlain by beds of conglomerate and sandstone, rarely more than 50 feet thick, known as the Dakota (?) sandstone. Within the borders of Bryce Canyon National Park the Tropic shale and the Dakota (?) sandstones are Incomplete.
Thus, as units In the stratigraphic series exposed In Bryce Park, the Wasatch formation Is the highest (youngest) and the Dakota (?) sandstone Is the lowest (oldest). Sedimentary beds that once overlay the Wasatch have been removed by erosion. At Red Canyon, lava (basalt) rests on thesesedlmentary beds, and north of the park Igneous rocks are widespread. The more recent deposits the sands and gravels along the stream ways and the Jumbled materials about the base of cliffs have not as yet been converted Into solid rock. Southward from the park, formations lower than the Dakota (?) are promlnantly displayed In the White Cliffs and Vermilion Cliffs.


1*1111 rootiTlKik* ,ro*itn fVatuivu hi (lie if iln* 1'ink Clifl'* alunjr tin* Tropic trull.


Climate


CLIMATE
The following climatic Information has been taken In part from a geological survey professional paper entitled The Geology and Geography of the Paunsaugunt Region, Utah.
General Conditions
Instrumental records for weather In the upper Parla Valley that are relatively complete are located at Tropic, Bryce Canyon, Alton, and Pangultch, which suffice to Indicate the nature of rainfall and temperature In the Paunsaugunt region and when combined with the records for other stations In Washington, Garfield, Kane, San Jaun, Emery, and Grand Counties present all the climatic factors for the Bryce Canyon area. The climate of large areas east and west of the canyon of the Colorado Is characterized by such fluctuations In time and place as to produce a group of local climates. It Is through comparisons of these various regions and cities that one better understands the climate of the Bryce Canyon area.
As In other parts of southern Utah, the climate of the Paunsaugunt region Is only generally controlled by latitude and prevailing winds. In a broad sense cyclonic storms are favorable for producing rain, and altitude and seasonal changes determine temperature, but as factors that govern the amount and time of rainfall and the degree and range of temperature, these major controls are outranked by the local winds, the dally disfrlbution of the suns heat, and the position and form of topographic features. Especially Is the great diversity In topographic expression reflected In the equally great differences In climate. The plateau tops, the adjoining lowlands, the opposite sides of plateaus, two adjoining valleys, and even opposing canyon walls may have weather sufficiently different to determine agricultural practice.
Though the stations are less than 30 miles apart, differ little In altitude, and are both on the west side of the Paunsaugunt Plateau, Alton (alt. 7000 ft.), at the head of the Kanab Valley Just below the cliffs of the plateau, has an average annual rainfall of over 20 Inches heaviest In January, February, and March a mean annual temperature of 43.2, minimum temperature of -20, a growing season of 84 days, and a prevailing southwest wind; but Pangultch (alt. 6700 ft.), on the flat lands of the Sevier Valley, has an annual rainfall of less than 10 Inches heaviest In July, August, and September an average annual temperature of 42.2, a minimum temperature of 32, a growing season of 80 days, and a prevailing northwest wind.
The effect of topographic position In the control of climate Is well shown by the records at Tropic (alt. 6296 ft.), near the head of the Parla Valley, and at Bryce Canyon (alt. 8000 ft.), 5 miles apart,


on the flat top of the Paunsaugunt Plateau. Generally at Tropic the summers are long and hot and the winters fairly short and cold, and the yearly, monthly, and even dally rainfall varies widely. At this staltlon temperatures of 100 and 101 are recorded for June, July, August, and September, and -9 to -32 for November, December, January, and February; the mean annual rainfall (12.62 Inches) Is made up of monthly means of 0.00 to 1.85 Inches. The prevailing wind Is north. At Bryce Canyon an uncomfortably cold season that extends from November to March Is followed by months of delightfully cool weather. The mean monthly temperatures range from 8.2. (January) to 64.5 (July); and the dally temperatures from 86 to -20. The annual precipitation at this station Is 18.41 Inches and except for the relatively dry months, April and October, Is fairly evenly distributed. The prevailing wind Is southwest.
Snow falls each year at all stations In the Paunsaugunt region. On the lower lands In the Sevier and Parla Valleys about Hatch and Hillsdale, Tropic and Cannonvllle, 5 to 20 Inches of snow Is to be expected during the period November to March. On the plateau tops at Bryce Canyon the measured annual snowfall averages 103 Inches and Is made up of snows received during all months of the year except July, August, and September.
Like other parts of southern Utah the Paunsaugunt region Is a "land of open skies." At all stations clear days exceed cloudy days In number. During 7 years Bryce Canyon National Park, on top of the Paunsaugunt Plateau, recorded an annual average of 233 clear days, 67 partly cloudy days, and 65 days with overcast skies. Likewise at most places below the plateau rim clear days are much more numerous than cloudy days, but at Tropic and Alton partly cloudy skies are more common than clear skies.
Preclpltalon
The precipitation In the Paunsaugunt region Is characterized by great annual, seasonal, and dally fluctuations related but slightly to altitude. Tropic (alt. 6296 ft.) receives 11.55 Inches of rain each year, and Bryce Canyon (alt. 8000 ft.) 18.82 Inches; but because of their topographic setting Alton (alt. 7000 ft.) receives more rain (20.86 Inches) than Bryce Canyon, and Pangultch (alt. 6700 ft.) receives less (9.67 Inches) than Tropic. The average annual rainfall range at Bryce Canyon Is 14.41 to 22.93 Inches.
In the amount of precipitation, the seasons rank winter, spring, summer, fall at Alton and Bryce Canyon; summer, winter, fall, spring at Tropic; and summer, spring, fall, and winter at Pangultch, but the order Is not maintained from year to year. The wettest months are March at Alton and Bryce Canyon, July at Pangultch and August at Tropic. The driest months at all stations Is June. For the period of record, the wettest and next wettest months are, for Bryce Canyon, March and February.
Much of the great Irregularity in the rainfall as recorded at stations In the Paunsagunt region Is due to Its distribution In place and time. Gentle rains that continue for as much as a day and cover the plateau and adjoining lowlands are very rare. Most of them cover


small areas, last for less than an hour, and occur at Infrequent Intervals.
Nearly all the heavy downpours are local thundershowers during which the skies are sfreaked with lightning, and many of them are accompanied by hall that temporarily chills the air and strews a few acres with Ice marbles. Lightning Is the chief cause of forest fires; particularly on the higher land many trees with split trunks and scorched foliage and partly burned trees uprooted from the ground testify to It prevalence.
Temperature
At Bryce Canyon (alt. 8000 ft.) the highest mean monthly temperature and highest dally temperature are recorded as 48.2 and 86. At Bryce Canyon, Alton, and Pangultch temperatures above 90 are rare; at Tropic those above 100 are common during the summer. The maximum annual range for Bryce Canyon Is 1110 (86 to-25). All stations regardless of altitude experience cold winters. At all stations, the hottest month Is July and the coldest month Is January, but the rank of the other months Is different at each station. The great monthly ranges are associated with great dally ranges that reflect the Influence of topographic setting and the erratic distribution of winds, clouds, and hailstorms. Definitely cold days Immediately preceding or following hot days are normal occurrences of most months at all stations.
CLIMATIC IMPLICATIONS and CONCLUSIONS Temperatures
* Cluster functions tightly to minimize perimeter surfaces.
* Place storage and secondary use spaces on sides which are most exposed to w inter w Inds.
* Let sun and light Into major living spaces.
* Use ample Insulation throughout the building, and Include some thermal mass within the Interior to store internal heat gain and modify temperature sw Ings.
* Use double or triple glazing, and fit Insulated curtains or shutters for use at night.
* Avoid building In the bottom of a valley where cold air drainage causes the coldest temperatures. Slopes and benches are the warmest sites to build on.
* Minimize the number of outside doors, and provide vestibules or airlocks for main entries. *
* Masonry Is a heat conductor that should not project through an


exterior wall. Chimneys and flues should be clustered and placed In the center of the building to minimize perimeter losses.
Sunshine
* Build on the north side facing south, and plan sun angles carefully to prevent the winter sun from being cut off by trees and mountains.
* Make major portions of the south wall a sun room of some sort. Greenhouse spaces work well from the end of January to early December.
# Use heavy, massive walls on portions of the south side, with rough textures being used to Increase absorption of solar heat.
# Direct gain solar heating should be used extensively to collect and store solar radiation In floors, walls, or ceilings.
W Inds
* Site the building to minimize exposure to the wind, and use existing and new landscaping to divert winds.
* All doors and entrances should be sheltered from winds with both roofs and wing walls or screens.
* Use snow fences and wind screens to keep snow from piling up In entries and against south facing w Indows and walls.
Day to Night Temperature Swings
* With the proper selection In building materials and creating thermal mass, the building will be able to delay the effects of the daytime heat until evening and the evenlng/mornlng chill until day.
* Use thick and massive south walls to store the sun's energy In the winter. Care must be taken that they do not overheat In the summer. *
* Underground construction may be used to reduce the effects of outdoor temperature fluctuations. This will provide more constant Indoor temperatures, making the building cooler In the summer and warmer In the winter.


U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION ENVIRONMENTAL DJ>TA SERVICE IN COOPERATION WITH EMPLOYMENT DEVELOPMENT DIVISION UTAH DEPARTMENT OF EMPLOYMENT SECURITY CL1MATOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED SPATES NO. 20 42
*IAT,OM Bryce Canyor
lAimroi 37 38' CLIMATOLOGICAL summary Nation^ Park
LOMOTTUDI 120 10
KSAMS AMD EXTAXMX3 FOB PERIOD 1 943 1 970 Temp. 19-4 1 1^70 Precipitation
Month Temperature (*F) t 3 X 1 TJ s 2 Precipitetion Totals (Inches) Mean number of days Month
Means Extremes a s 2 K 3 -o | (5 £ >- 8nov, Sleet ja 9 o 0 £ 5 1 b £ S Temperature#
Max. Min.
B a K S M Q S 6 o > 5 78 | Q E >> 3 c O X 2 X If cc 3 £ >- 2 x 8{ a. £ £ a X 2 § JK B ^ 3 o X s r £ >* X ? i o -3 i >- T3 s ? 83 d .s l 04 *e n A T5 .M CM f n A T3 > s j o £
7B n 28 28 " 28 28 30 30 30 30 3U 28 28 28 28
T Jan. 35.6 7. 5 21.6 58 1969 -26 1963 1318 1.28 2. 08 1943 19. 7 63. 0 1949 22 1943 4 0 11 31 8 Jan.
Feb. 38.8 10. 5 24. 7 60 1943 -29 1949 1130 1.21 1. 50 1969 16. 7 39. 0 1944 17 1944 4 0 7 28 5 Feb.
Mar. 43. 6 14. 9 29.2 67 1966 -13 1952 1107 1.42 1. 12 1954 21.2 74. 5 1552 20 1952 4 0 4 31 2 Mar.
Apr. 54. 0 23. 1 38. 6 81 1943 - 5 1945 805 1. 19 1. 19 1965 9. 0 61.8 1965 13 1965 3 0 e 28 0 Apr.
May 63. 29. 8 47. 1 85 1951 5 1951 557 . 85 1.02 1964 2.2 17. 5 1965 12 1 964* 3 0 0 21 0 May
June 73. 8 37.2 55. 5 93 1954 20 1955 268 .73 1.51 1949 . 4 6. 0 1949 5 1954 2 * 0 7 0 June
July 80. 3 45. 3 62. 8 2 1958 28 1955 82 1.30 .95 1953 0 T 1954 T 195M 4 1 0 * 0 July
Aug. 77.2 44.2 60. 7 72 1954 23 1962 140 2. 41 3. 81 1947 0 T 1953 T 195H 6 3 0 1 0 Aug.
Sep*.. 71.5 36. 0 53. 9 90 1950 18 1970 342 1.50 3.42 1953 . 2 4. 0 1953 4 1949 3 0 0 10 0 Se p*
Oct. 59. 7 26. 9 43. 3 82 1951 3 1961 664 1 .50 1.67 1946 3. 7 21.5 1948 1 1 1948 3 0 25 0 Oct.
Nov. 45.7 16.41 31. 1 68 1949 -19 1952 1001 1.05 1.04 1960 10. 1 22.0 1951 1 1 1946 3 0 3 29 1 Nov.
Dev. 36. 8 10. 2 23. 9 60 1950 -22 1962 1275 1.39 1.39 1967 18. 8 46. 7 1967 13 19674 4 0 9 31 5 Dec.
Mar. Jan.
Ymi 56. 9 25.2 41.0 93 1954 -29 1949 8689 15.83 2.08 1943 102. 0 74. 5 1952 22 1943 43 1 :-4 M2 21 Ymi
(a) Average length of record, years. Also on earlier dates, aontbi, or years.
T Trace, an amount too small to measure. * Leas than one hall.
Base 6
CLIMATE OF BRYCE CANYON NATIONAL PARK
Bryce Canyon National Park is located along the east rim of the Pau-isaugunt Plateau. The plateau portion of the park ranges in elevation from about 7300 feet at the park entrance to 9103 feet at Rainbow Point. The canyon, however, drops off rapidly to an elevation of 6600 feet along the eastern boundary of the park.
These large elevation changes have a marked influence on the general climate of the area. The average annual precipitation in the park, for example, ranges from near 16 inches at Rainbow Point to 12 inches at the lower elevations in the canyon. Average annual temperatures range from ne*r 40F in the colder localities on the plateau to the upper 40'a at lower elevations.
Winters are cold with an average of Zl days with below aero mini-mums at park headquarter*. Daytime maximum*, however are usually *-bove freezing. Summers, by contrast, feature mild daytime temperatures with maximum* in the upper 70's or low 80's. Nights are cool with mini-mums dropping to the mid or low 40'a.
Precipitation is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year. Twenty-five per cent of the moisture falls as snow (about 120 inches) during the winter season as the tail ends of Pacific storm fronts sweep across the plateau. About 22% of the annual precipitation occurs during the three spring months and about 1.3 of the annual moisture is associated with the Summer thunderstorms during July, August and September. The remaining 20% falls during the Autumn season.
Situated, as it is, on the top of a high plateau, there is little to protect the area from the persistent winds which blow at higher elevations in the atmosphere. A study of the extreme winds for the period I960 through 1968 shows that the prevailing direction of the strong winds from January to March is from the weat northwest; and during April, May and June from the southeast. The extreme winds are not exceptionally strong, averaging between 16 to 20 miles per hour. Only rarely have winds above 30 miles per hour been reported.
The length of the growing season ranges from 60 to 80 days on the to 110 to 120 days in the bottom of the canyon. The average last day of 32 degrees in the Spring ranges from June 24th on the plateau to May 25th in the canyon; and the first frees* in the Fall occurs about the 23rd of August on the plateau but not until the 27th of September in the bottom of the canyon.
Creates!, and leai! monthly precipitation totals for the full period of record a.* aa follows:
Month Createst Year Least Year
Janus ry 4. 10 1949 .01 1970
February 5. 30 1969 Trace 1967 +
March 4. 95 1938 .02 1956
April 5.75 1965 .02 1969
May 2.76 1934 0 1943*
June a. 05 1949 0 1950*
July 2. 90 1957 . 13 1944
August 7.68 1963 .08 1962
September 8. 83 1939 T race 1957
October 5. 80 1941 0 1964
November 3.66 1946 .08 1937
December 3. 80 1947 T race 1958
Annual 24. 11 1941 8.09 1956
CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY
VOIAl ssioet-tAnoM (INC MCI) 4 JO
no
3.00 1M 1 00 !.


Total Precipitation (Inch*)
Year Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Ann'l
1943 2.89 1.09 1.30 1.00 0. 00 0. 02 1.03 3. 28 2. 00 1.37 0.25 1.83 16.24
1944 2.23 3. 56 1.48 1.87 0. 88 1. 13 0. 13 1. 17 0.26 0. 14 1.22 1.08 15. 15
1945 2. 13 1.08 4. 12 1.22 0. 57 0. 85 2. 33 2. 55 1. 54 3. 60 0. 93 1.08 22.00
1946 0.68 0. 12 2. 34 1.04 1.64 0. 00 1.29 5. 03 0.31 5.23 3.66 2. 00 23. 34
1947 0.47 0. 58 0. 18 0. 81 1. 16 0. 98 0. 70 6.48 0.26 2. 55 1.65 3. 80 19. 62
1948 0.41 1. 87 1.36 1.21 0. 23 2. 47 0. 43 1. 53 0. 10 2.66 0. 19 2. 53 14. 99
1949 4. 10 1. 59 2.05 0.42 0. 87 4. 05 0. 57 0. 56 2.27 1. 01 0. 13 1.82 19. 44
1950 1.26 0. 32 0. 62 0. ?7 0. 28 0.00 2.20 0. 90 0. 58 0. 00 0. 60 0.22 7.25
1951 0.72 0. 91 0.71 1.22 1.48 1.34 3. 46 0. 79 0. 98 1.95 1.90 15.46
1952 2.45 0. 57 3. 12 1. 70 0. 67 1.45 0. 81 2. 30 1.83 0. 00 1.24 2. 15 18.29
1953 0.65 0. 15 0. 97 0. 61 0. 45 0.21 2. 32 2. 24 3. 63 1. 70 1. 20 0. 34 14. 47
1954 1.70 0. 41 2. 30 0.38 0. 87 0. 89 0. 95 0. 26 2. 35 3.15 0. 50 1.29 15. 05
1955 2.40 1. 30 0.23 0. 11 0. 38 0.23 1. 96 2. 19 0. 08 0. 01 0. 97 0.62 10.48
1956 1. 13 0. 34 0. 02 1. 14 0. 63 0.43 1. 04 1. 87 0.32 0. 88 0. 10 0. 19 8.09
1957 2.46 0. 57 0. 80 1. 58 2.31 0. 82 2.90 3.26 4.71 2. 89 0. 85 23. 15
1958 0.73 1. 85 2.78 1.59 1. 51 0. 88 2.29 3. 16 0.87 1. 14 16. 80
1959 0.28 1. 69 0.41 0. 44 0.48 0.07 0.35 4. 20 0.69 0. 88 0. 35 2. 13 11.97
1960 0.81 1. 67 0. 19 0.46 0. 27 0. 68 0.29 0.77 2.22 2. 58 1.51 0. 67 12. 12
1961 0.26 0.21 1.73 0. 82 0. 67 0.07 2.30 4. 14 3.54 0. 61 0. 45 0. 99 15.79
1962 0.78 2. 89 1.21 0. 11 0. 86 1.34 0. 51 0. 08 2.07 1. 84 0. 15 0.62 12.46
1963 0.27 0. 77 1.41 1.50 0.31 0.63 7. 68 3.89 0.27 0. 85 0. 14 17.72
1964 0.87 1.41 1.17 1. 67 0. 37 1. 11 1. 64 0. 80 0.00 1.29 0. 86
1965 0.86 0.46 1.00 5.75 1.95 0. 71 2. 19 1.42 1.33 0.41 2.74 3. 68 22. 50
1966 0.27 1.26 0.34 0. 13 0. 50 0. 19 1. 10 1. 74 1.38 0. 68 0.39 2. 19 10. 17
1967 1.32 0. 82 0.98 1.85 0.92 2.09 1.62 4. 55 0.03 1. 19 3.42 18.29
1968 1.73 1. 22 0.99 1. 15 1.45 0. 14 1.73 3.48 1. 13 0. 34 0. 77 14. 13
1969 2.97 5. 30 2.24 0.02 0. 55 1.21 1.22 1.73 1.40 0. 82 0. 43 0. 16 18.05
1970 0.01 0. 67 1. 54 0.44 0. 17 1.40 1.31 2. 97 0.64 0.21 1.04 1.39 11.79
EXTREME PRECIPITATION VALUES WHICH OCCURRED PRIOR TO 1941
G_r_e_a _t e _b t_ _E^aJ_l_y_ P_r_e_c _i£ i_t_at_i o n 1.04 in May 1937 4. 09 in September 1939
I. 98 in February 1935 3. 08 in March 1938
1.35 in November 1935 2.60 in December 1936



Average Temperature (*F)
Year
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
Jan. Feb Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept Oct Nov. Dec. Ann'l
26.4 28. 2 34. 4 45. 4 49. 2 54. 0 63.2 60. 4 56. 0 43. 8 31. 7 23. 8 43. 0
18.6 22. 6 28. 0 34. 6 46. 6 52. 3 61.8 62. 0 56. 2 44. 3 28.4 23.7 39. 9
23. 2 26. 7 25.6 34.2 47. 8 53. 0 62. 3 61. 0 53. 4 44. 0 29.4 21.0 40. 1
19.6 24. 6 32. 6 43.2 46. 8 58. 3 63. 6 61.2 53. 8 38.0 26.4 25. 0 41.0
19. 2 29. 6 34. 0 39. 0 50. 2 54. 0 62.2 59. 0 56. 8 45. 0 24. 8 19. 8 41. 1
22. 8 21.5 22.4 38. 2 48. 2 55. 8 64. 6 63. 1 52. 8 41.9 26.3 20. 9 39. 9
11.8 15. 0 27. 7 40. 3 46. 0 54. 1 61.8 60. 8 57. 2 41.0 39.4 21.6 39. 7
17. 9 26.4 32. 0 42. 0 46. 0 56.2 62. 8 60. 9 52.4 47. 7 36. 3 32. 3 42. 7
23.0 26. 1 30. 3 40. 0 47.2 55. 2 64. 4 59. 8 54. 8 41.4 28. 8 19. 9 40. 9
17. 0 20. 7 23. 7 37. 9 48. 1 54. 4 61. 8 61.6 55. 2 47.3 25.2 19.6 39.4
28. 6 24. 6 30. 9 37. 4 41.3 56.3 64. 3 59.0 55. 5 42.2 34. 5 24. 4 41.6
23. 9 31.3 28. 9 44. 2 50. 8 56.2 64. 1 59. 6 53. 4 44. 6 35.2 21.5 42. 8
16.3 16. 2 27. 7 35. 0 45. 0 52. 9 60. 7 61. 1 53. 8 44. 5 30.2 26.2 39.2
27. 8 19. 7 32.4 38.0 47.6 58.4 62. 0 58.2 56. 0 41.9 28. 8 26.2 41. 4
20. 5 29. 8 31.3 36. 8 42. 5 57.6 62.2 60.2 52. 5 40.7 25.9 25. 8 40. 5
22. 5 28.2 25. 1 34. 8 50. 3 58.3 62. 8 64.3 53. 5 43.2 31. 1 31. 6 42.2
24.6 23.4 32. 6 41.9 46. 8 60. 8 65.7 60.3 52.4 43. 6 32. 8 25. 5 42. 5
16. 6 20. 5 32. 5 40. 7 47.6 58. 8 63.2 61.3 55.4 40.4 31.3 22. 8 40. 9
22.3 26. 8 28. 9 38.0 45. 7 58. 2 61.8 58. 9 49.0 41.2 29.0 20. 1 40'. 0
22. 1 26. 5 23. 6 42.4 45.2 54. 6 60. 1 60.8 54. 4 44. 3 35. 6 26. 9 41.4
19.6 32. 1 28.3 36.3 50. 0 54.2 65. 0 60. 1 54. 8 47.5 32.2 24.3 42. 1
19.3 19. 6 23. 8 36.2 44. 9 53.4 64.3 .60.6 51.9 46.3 27.3 23.9 39. 3
24.6 24. 5 27.2 35.6 43.8 51. 5 60. 9 59.6 49.4 46.7 34.5 24.3 40. 2
18.7 18. 8 32. 5 40.9 50.2 56.2 63.0 63.2 54.6 43.3 34. 7 23.9 41.7
24. 0 27. 3 35.6 34. 6 45. 5 52.7 63.8 62. 1 54. 1 46. 6 35.9 18. 8 41. 8
22.3 29. 0 31.8 34.7 45. 1 56. 6 60. 8 56.0 51.7 43.3 31.0 20. 2 40. 2
27.2 21.0 24.9 39.4 50.6 52.9 62. 8 63. 1 54. 8 37. 9 31. 1 26.4 41.0
24. 5 30.4 29.5 33.8 48.4 56.7 62.3 62. 0 50. 6 40.4 33.8 21.3 41.1
TMpanbn Oap Utwtm Ow Day h4 Tta Next |hrtv*mi Cka*t] Frt^anc; k Percent
Cla8* Maximum Temperature Minimum Temperature
Interval
in F Winter Spring Summer Fall
0-2 35% 37% 53% 467c
3-5 33 33 33 35
6-8 20 16 10 11
9-11 6 7 3 5
12-14 4 4 * 2
15-17 1 2 4 1
18-20 * * 0 *
20 * 4 0 *
Mean 4.4 4. 5 2.9 3.6
* Lei a than 0 .5%
Daly baft Of Tnyritari Max. Ta Ih.
w_ S_ Su F Ann.
5-9 3% *% 0% i% i*
10-14 8 3 3 4
15-19 12 9 2 7 7
20-24 12 14 6 10 10
25-29 22 17 14 11 16
30-34 22 22 24 24 20
35-39 14 19 24 24 20
40-44 5 13 21 17 15
45-49 1 2 8 5 4
49 0 1 *
Mean 26.7 30. 0 35. 3 31.9 31 .2
* Le than 0. 5%
Annual Winter Spring Summer Fall Annual
43% 33% 31% 37% 35% 34%
34 27 28 34 30 30
14 18 23 16 16 18
5 10 9 7 9 9
2 8 6 4 4 5
1 2 3 2 3 3
4 2 1 4 1 1
4 1 1 4 1 1
3. 8 5. 5 5. 5 4. 3 5. 0 5.0
T emp. Anragt Dates 01 Ocamaca Of Varises Twajritiri Values or Average Date* of Occurrences Length of
Less Than: Last in Spring Firet in Fall Period
40 July 21 Aug. 4 14
36 July 6 Aug. 14 39
32 June 19 Aug. 25 67
28 June 9 Sept. 10 93
24 May 25 Sept. 26 124
20 May 12 Oct. 17 158
16 Apr. 27 Oct. 29 185


Ami Mart* 01 bity W Dry hris* Iryt* Cmym lUbaajI brt
Mean No. Wt Period* Jan Feb Mar Apr May June Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Annual
1 day or more 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5 4 2 2 3 3
2 days or more 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 2 1 1 1 1
3 days or more 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 * 1 1 1
Longest Wet Periods
in 10 years oi record 3 3 7 10 7 5 5 9 5 4 6 8 1U
Mean No. Dry Periods 1 day or more 3 3 4 3 3 2 5 5 4 2 2 3 3
2 days or more 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 2
3 days or more 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2
5 days or more 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2
Longest Dry Period in 10 years of rscord
ending in this month 48 21 47 19 38 19 44 22 27 33 49 37 49
STATION HISTORY
The first weather observation* in the vicinity of Bryce Canyon Nation*! Park were taken by the Forest Service at the East Fork Ranger Station some 2-1/2 miles west of Ruby's Inn. These observations, precipitation only, were taken during some of the summer months from 1916 through 1922. In May 1923 the station was moved to Ruby's Inn where Steve Ralston, the manager, took precipitation observations until August 1928.
In January 1933 the station was re-established under the name Bryce Canyon with a ranger of the Park Service, Mr. Maurice Cope, as the official observer. The precipitation gage was set up some 1500 feet from the rim of the canyon near the ranger's home. In November 1942 temperature equipment was sent to the station and complete climate observations were begun. The excellent weather observations begun by Ranger Cope have been continued by the National Park Service personnel to the present time. Our sincere thanks to the personnel of this organization for their untiring efforts.
nansMcwitinuK
monsKantssam
TCI CASTM MTSBa
ui n mi
I
E. Arlo Richardson, ESSA Climatologist Department of Soils and Meteorology USU, Logan, Utah, 84321


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Site


SITE ANALYSIS8 VEGETATION
In response +o climatic conditions, the plants of Bryce Canyon National Park are roughly arranged In three zones within which certain species are dominant: The upper Sonoran zone, pi non-sagebrush belt, altitude 3,000 to 7,000 feet; the transition zone, yellow-pine belt, 7,000 to 8,500 feet; and the Canadian zone, spruce-aspen belt, above 8,500 feet.
Studies by botanists show 53 spelces of composites In the aster family, 28 grasses and relatives, 20 members of the pea family, 14 of the mustards, 13 of the rose family, 11 of the f Igw ort fam 11 y, 10 conifers, 9 each of the Illy and phlox families, 8 each of the buckwheat, buttercup, and borage families, 7 each of willows and evening primroses, 6 chenopods, 5 gentians, 4 each of euphorbias and mints, 3 each of the mistletoe, pink, currant, mallow, oleaster (buffalo berry), carrot, and potato families; 2 each of the Iris, oak, barberry, flax, primrose, dogbane, and honeysuckle families; and 1 each of the orchid, birch, sandalwood, amaranth, fumitory, caper, apple, plum, geranium, sumac, bittersweet, maple, buckthorn, violet, cactus, dogwood, shlnleaf, heath, waterleaf, verbena, and bellflower families.
The principal coniferous trees are blue spruce, Douglas fir, white fir, yellow pine, dwarf Juniper, and plnon. On the table cliffs (alt. 10,000 ft) Engel mann spruce Is the predominant conifer. With firs and pines golden aspen grows profusely.
The upper Sonoran zone Is the natural habitat of the plnon and the Utah Juniper (cedar), trees that grow In poor and good sot I, In canyons, on ridges, and on cliff sides In such abundance as to jusfify the term "pygmy forest." Among these frees where the soil Is deep, particularly in valleys, sage-brush grows profusely. At canyon heads scrub oak forms dense thickets, and In favorable places such shrubs as cltffrose, service berry, manzanlta, mountain-mahogany, squaw bush, clematis, and herbs that include larkspur, nightshade, dogbane, stick weed and snake weed are conspicuous. Some cool canyons and open valleys are lined with cottonwood, willow, water birch, and maple.
The transition zone is dominated by yellow pine. For some six miles the highway through Bryce Canyon National Park Is lined with big, tall widely spaced pine trees the east edge of the attractive forest that covers large parts of the Paunsaugunt Plateau, (see Fig. 9) Underneath and In open spaces between them roses, Iris, goldenrod, primrose, snow berry, rabbit bush, mustard, Indian paint brush, marlposa Illy, sweet clover, flax, tall bright-stemmed grasses, and many species of asters and astragalus make a flower garden of exceptional beauty.


Top of tin* Paunsaugunt Plateau : Forest of yellow pine, typical of Pul areas at altitudes of about 8,000 feet. Photograph by C. C. 1 resimll.
Fig. 9
Top of the Pnunsaupunt Plateau : Forests of pine, spruce, and lir on rough lands at altitudes between 8.000 and 0,000 feet. Photograph by the Forest Service.
Fig.10


With increasing altitude, plants of the transition zone gradually give way to those of the Canadian zone. Along the rim road west of Bridge Hollow the yellow pine and flowering beds become fewer and the firs and aspen more abundant until at Rainbow Point the forest consists chiefly of white pine, foxtail pine, white fir, Douglas fir, and aspen, which form compact groves or stand alone (see Fig. 10). Between the trees grow violets, cranesbill, gentians, blue bonnet, yarrow, cinquefoil, bell flowers, sfraw berries, six species of erigeron, and In suitable places many of the grasses and flowering plants found also In the transition zone.
Though In mass the vegetation of the three zones Is distinctive, the range In kind of soil, exposure to the sun, and amount of ground water is so great that the zonal boundaries are zigzag lines with upward and downward departures of hundreds of feet. Thus, of the 286 species of plants recorded for Bryce Canyon National Park, 71 are listed in both the upper Sonoran and transition zones, 34 in the transition and Canadian zones, and 29 in all three zones.
FAUNA
The fauna of the Paunsaugunt region consists largely of the animals that normally Inhabit the coniferous and pygmy forests of southern Utah. For Bryce Canyon National Park, which Includes the plateau tops and rims (altitudes 7,000 to 9,000 ft.) and the pinon-Juni per-sagebrush lands below, 30 species of animals have been recorded: 9 carnivora, 20 rodents, and 1 ungulate; 85 species and varieties of birds; and 6 reptiles. Also recorded was a unique Insect fauna that Includes 15 species that thrive In the coniferous forests. During the course of field work cougars, foxes, bobcats, lynxes, skunks, and prairie dogs were noted as scarce; the mammals most frequently seen were mule deer, porcupines, the rock chucks (marmots), ground squirrels, pine squirrels, chipmunks, pocket gophers, woodrats, and various kinds of mice.
Bears, once common on the Paunsaugunt Plateau, seem to have been exterminated. No grizzly bear has been reported during the last half century, and only three brown bears are known to have visited the region since 1920. Wolves and coyotes have been so reduced in numbers as to be no longer a serious menace to the stockman. Beavers, formerly abundant (the name Paunsaugunt the transliteration of the Piute term Paince-agant means "beaver country"), have been exterminated by trappers. Of the great herds of elk, antelope, and deer that provided food and raiment for the Indians and the Mormon pioneers, only the mule deer remains. Now rigidly protected by law, Its numbers are rapidly Increasing.
Among the birds, the hawks (10 species), the woodpeckers (6 species), and the owls (2 species) are prom Inant. Fairly common also are some of the passerine birds recorded as flycatchers, swallows, Jays, chickadees, wrens, thrushes (5 species), ravens, and at least 10 members of the sparrow family.


Of the reptiles, the Paunsaugunt region has but few species, and these are represented by few Individuals. Compared with thelower, hotter lands of southwestern Utah, where 25 forms are fairly common, only the sagebrush swift, horned toad, desert whiptail lizard, and 3 snakes (gopher, garter, and rattlesnake) have found a habitat in the high, cold, and foresfed Paunsaugunt Plateau, and reptiles are rare In the foothil Is.
EXISTING DEVELOPMENT
The following Is a brief description of the recreational and support faci I ities currently within Bryce Canyon National Park, as shown In figures 12 and K'L Cp
North Campground
This campground contains four comfort stations, one amphitheater, one dump station, and 115 single family campsites. Estimating 3.4 people per site, the capacity of campground is 391 visitors at one time. The group sites have been eliminated.
Sunset Campground
This campground contains five comfort stations, one amphitheater, a group use area, and 110 single family campsites. The group use area is divided Into two sites with a combined capacity of 80 visitors. Based on an average of 3.4 visitors per site, the 110 single family sites can accomodate 374 visitors. Therefore, the Sunset campground has a total capacity of 474 people at one time.
Picnic Area
There are three sites where plcknlcklng Is permitted. At Rainbow Point there are five picnic tables, and at Sunset Point four. The third area, at the camper store, contains seven picnic tables. This area was esfablished after the recent removal of the 12 old cabins adjacent to the Inn. There are two wayside picnic areas along the road to Rainbow Point.
Bryce Inn
This structure Is currently operated under contract by a consessloner, TW Services, Inc. It contains a camp store, a laundromat for campers and the concessioner, and showers for campers. In the general area of the camp store Is the old visitor contact cabin, which Is now being used as an environmental school.
Lodge Area
This area contains a lodge, service station, boy's dormitory, recreation hall, and six small storage structures, as well as 40 deluxe units, 80 economy units, and 24 family units; the family units are used for employee housing. The facilities are being managed under a consession contract with TW Services, Inc.
The lodge contains a lobby, dining room, kitchen, curio shop, recreation hall, and dormitory facilities for women.


Maximum capacity of overnight accommodations In the lodge area Is 400 visitors at one time. These accommodations Include the 40 deluxe units (four persons per unit) and 80 economy units (three persons per unit). The average occupancy of rental units Is 2.7 persons per unit.
Old Residential Area
This area has become the seasonal quarters area. Within this area are six single-family cabins, a ranger dormitory, a four^stal I garage, a washouse, and the original superintendent quarters and chief ranger quarters, which are also being used as seasonal quarters.
New Residential Area
This area Includes 12 three-bedroom residences, 1 two-bedroom residence, and 1 four^unft apartment. Also In this general area is a telephone company exchange building.
Maintenance Area
This area Includes a garage, an Indoor workshop, general storage facilities, and a fuel-pumping station. The area has been fenced and Is used to store motorized equipment.
Horse Concession and Utility Area
The horse concession facilities consist of a sheltered horsefeeding area, a bunkhouse, and a small tack shop. The remaining facilities Include a National Park Service coral and barn, general storage shed, house trailer, fenced-ln supply area, and an area designated for mixing materials for road repair work.
Road System
Route 1, the Rainbow Point Rim Road, Is the primary access road extending the full length of the park. Branching from route 1 are a number of lateral roads that lead to the facilities previouly mentioned as well as a number of developed overlooks. Some of the overlooks contain restroom and Interpretive facilities, and some serve as trail heads.
Trails
There are approximately 58 miles of trails below the rim within the canyon area and approximately 6 miles above the rim. About 5-3/4 miles of the trail system are designated for horseback riders and the remaining miles for pedestrians.
UTILITIES
A description of all utilities available at the park electricity, telephone, radio, water and sewage, are listed In the Utilities Analysis section of the Bryce Canyon National Park Master Plan (see /appendix A).


CRITERIA FOR BUILDING LOCATION
The following Is a list of site planning and building location criteria and goals that a visitor center In Bryce Canyon National Park will m eet:
* The building should be located so that It receives the most sun during the hours of maximum solar radiation 9:00 A. M. to 3:00 P. M. It should also be located such that any sun obstructions from trees or geological features will be minimized.
* A building elongated along the east-west axis will expose more surface area to the sun during winter for the collection of solar radiation. It Is also the mosf efficient shape for minimizing heating requirements in winter and cooling in summer.
* The building should be located so that It provides an overall view to Bryce Canyon's scenery, with the building itself remaining relatively inconspicuous from a distance.
* The center should be located relatively close to the park's main roadway and northern boundary, where the park entrance is. *
* The building should have close access to one or more of the parks extensive trail networks.


UUh K.tlooJ Park.
Ke* pp. SOI and SOI.)
DcacTlpUon.
An Act To establish the Utah national Park In the State of Utah, approved June 7, 1824 (43 Stat. 393)
Tic if enacted by the Sciiafc and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, Thut there is hereby reserved and with-Undi apart' drawn front settlement, occupancy or disposal under the In tvs of tlic United States and dedicated and set apart suTod.^dU us il pink for the benefit and enjoyment of thu
os But ios. ^ people, under the name of the Utah National Park, the tract of land in the State of Utah particularly described by and included within metes und bounds, as follows, to wit:
Unsurveyed sections 31 and 32, township 30 south, rango 3 west; surveyed section 30, township 30 south, range 4 west; north half, southwest quarter and west halt of the southeast quarter of partially surveyed section 5; unsurveyed sections 6 and 7-. west half, west half of the northeast quarter, und west half of the southwest quarter of partially surveyed section 8, partially surveyed section 17 .and unsurveyed section IS, township 37 south, range 3 west: und unsurveyed sections 1, 12, and 13, township 37 south, range 4, all west of the Salt I^ake meridian, in the State of Utah: Provided, That all the land within the exterior boundaries of the aforesaid tract shall first become the property of the United States.
Skc. 2., That the administration, protection, and promotion of said Utah Nutionnl Park shall be exercised under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior by the National Park Service, subject to the provisions of the Act of August 25, 1 DIG, entitled An Act to establish a National Park Service, and for other purposes. Sr.o. 3. That nothing herein contained shall alfect any valid existing claim, location, or entry under the land laws of the United' States, whether for homestead, mineral. right of way, or any other purpose whatsoever, or shall affect the rights of buy such claimant, locator, or cntrvmun to the full use and enjoyment of his land: Provided, Tltnt the Secretary of the Interior is hereby
Previse. TiUt to b tccured.
Administration, etc., unJ*r National P*rk Service.
Vo!. ED, p. 656. Gee p. 0.
No vnUd claim, etc.. Affected.
Prsviso.
authorized to exchange, in his discretion, alienated lands j^'*,"**
! Zion other
in this and Zion National Park for unappropriated and in. ...dzie unreserved public lunds of equal value and approxi- L.oV.,0'' mately equal area in the State of Utah outside of said parks. (U.S.C., title 10, sec. 340.)


As Act To chaste the same of the Utah Rational Park, the eitab-Mahment of which ti provided for by the Act of Contreaa approved June 7, 1924 (Forty-third Btatutea, pace 983). to the "Bryce Canyon Rational Far. and for other purpose*, approved February 25, 1828 (45 Etat. 147)
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Jteprescnla-tives of the Uni(e.d States of America in Concrete assembled, That the urea within the State of Utah described in the Act of Congress approved June 7, 1924 (Forty-third Statutes, page. 593), providing for the establishment of the Utah National Purk, shall be, when established as a national park, known as the Bryce Canyon Nntional Park. (U.ri.C., 6th supp., title 16, see. 402a.)
Sec. 2. That the cast half east half section 25, township 36 south, range 4 west; the cast half southwest quarter section 20, und all of sections 21, 29, and 30, township 36 south, range 3 west; all of sections 24 and 25. township 37 south, range 4 west; and all of sections 19 and 30. township 37 south, range 3 west, Salt Lake meridian, l>e, ami the same are hereby, excluded from the Powell National Forest and made a part of the Bryce Canyon National Park, subject to the provisions of the aforesaid Act of Congress approved June 7, 1924. (U.S.C., 6th supp., title 16, sec. 402b.)
Sec. 3. That unsurveyed sections 28 and 33, township 3G south, range 3 west, and section 20, township 37 south, range 3 we.-t, Salt Luke meridian, public lands of the United Stales, be, and the same arc hereby, udded to and made a part of the Brvce Canyon National Park subject tothe provisions of the aforesaid Act of Congress approved June 7, 1924. (U.S.C., Glh supp., title 16, sec.
402c.)
Bryce Can you Ksttooal Park* CUll.
CUh Bitioul Park to bo known
ol. 41. p. fttt,
amended. See p. 260.
Arens excluded from Powell Ns* ttoual Forest and added to Brroe Caejog Park.
Other lends added to psrk.


T


i
A

V-
jx. 1
',, >-r-'1
r iV>- i
) iji : i <
T V* 4.^'i .*
' 1
FAIRYLAND > . L'-'"
^ POINT - Se . .
1 V :
*9p r v J 4, ;v - i ',v / ,%^X fS<: v \ r c A
^ i '
V. , V t '', . W ,). ? t ^
Fe'i ry) a ncJ y V : . V i ( u
lv
;o > >' <*?r - A'L)-' \ > ; 11
) . V- v - Xs? ^ ?/r
\ V
W
TP) t r
irve-t 4 / r-f'-b l "V *< fry%St& > \
. ! ; < I- <*& :w a J

-, YJ cJrv^4 .

"V
' '"^7.
Mofc/o.7eFnfi f . * ,>>, V *>
fc" : .. *8
,, ->

Bnstlecon* t £
P9.Pt ? ' V, 1 >
'\ ['> Vv 1
Figure 12.5
_(g) _: central development
<' ^ > A north ocmpopomA & 6aneet ajampgraand i 0 pianioarea ;< P 6>ryoe Inn p lodge £ cabins
BRYCE r a r old residential area
TO'NT^ ' ; , (5 new residential area
i
, ,/ r. n maintenance area
X vleihor/adminietration
center
^ \ ^ J horse oonoeesk^n/attility
drea
^ S'4 K water tan he
7i"t< /5^ ...-AY I- ;6-owa .( & \ u ...,/ v M trailer damp station
>fc overlooks KI old administrative building
} ( tv-S
12^1 IBC.OI 1 A
'P>2- 1.2-np.
KJ
I mile
I Kilometer


Zoning & Codes


BUILDING CODE SEARCH
PROJECT NAME: Visitor Center
LOCATION: Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah, U.S.A.
APPLICABLE CODE NAME: Uniform Bldq. Code *85 DATE:
Code Check By: G.M. DeBartolo
Chap. Page Table N/A Item
hj/fo 1. Fire Zone
9 21 2. Occupancy Classification
5-A 31 Principal Occupancy £>-<2 ([3>FF|C£, LTT.

Others (Specify) A3 A5St:M£>L.'T' MAA 3-4
-T I '
4i 3. Consturction Type s-// I'Hf2-. I'-' H.T.
42 4. Occupancy Separations Required
b-'4 to A3 = NJ Hours
"F-4- to b-2 = 1 Hours
to = Hours
to = Hours
to = Hours
4-1 5. Maximum Allowable Floor Area
vy; |tc.eeo ivy; \&oco
If adacent to open area on two or more sides:
IW£. 1,23% F=SA r\023.&&) MA*. 9? Vo
If over one story: 'Ooi)b'*£ ^fcjCPO
If sprinkled: WUET^fv'"CKJtbLE MULTI-9T-
3-2? 42- 6. Maximum Allowable Height
Feet:
Stories: "3
7. Towers spires steeples
3'A 91 8. Fire resistance of exterior wall (see occupancy
type and construction type)
h. \*hk e.
s. w.
1


Chap. Page
Table N/A
^A 9. Openinqs in Exterior Walls
SST£!^ THAN FT.
10. Windows Required in Rooms_______________________
window area:____________________________________
enclosed or semi-enclosed courts-size required:
11. Minimum Ceiling Heights in Rooms:
12. Minimum Floor Area of Rooms:
n to
n a £>7
Fire Resistive Requirements Exterior Bearing Walls 1 Hours
Interior Bearing Walls 1 Hours
Ext. Non-Bearing Walls Hours
Structural Frame 1 Hours
Permanent Partitions 1 Hours
Vertical Openinqs Re: 1706 Hours
Floors Hours
Roofs I Hours
Exterior Doors Re: Table 5-A Hours
Inner Court Walls N/A Hours
Mezzanine Floors (area allowed) Roof Coverings M/AHours 1 Hours
Boiler Room Enclosure Hours

<22>'C'

14. Structural Requirements
Framework______________________________
Stai rs R-u.* £~Ha4
Floors UU ________________
Roofs
Partitions ^ LATP^L. U9AP
15. Exits
Occupancy Type Basis Actual Load
ggpigge___________^2_______i2£_________
AUPlTgHJn 1
^4 Number of Exits Requi red: F1IN, ~2. ______
Minimum Width of Exi ts: Is-S *b R4 ^7 Exit Separation Arrangement: HlN. C?&"t a 1/2
LEnJatH £>p ___________________
Max. Distance to Exits: A1A><' I5g> FT-_____
2


Chap. Page
Table N/A
55# Allowable Exit Sequence:
M&ANe ""'" ........
5£l 16. Exit Corridors (|
Minimum allowable Width: 4-4-_________________
Hei ght: \-0'__________
Dead End Corridors Length: MAX',
Wall Fire Resistance Required: Fngr i-h^~
Openings___________________________________
Doors and Frames Fire Resistance Required: APPFt^E^ La£?£L hlM.
9^6 17. Exit Doors
Swing: IM PEgSTW £X!T TE^gL-Minimum Width:
Height: ________ ________^___________
Maximum Leaf Width: A'~C>" LEAF
Special Door:_____________________________
Width Required for Number of Occupants:
ty/OG 5#^
18. Stairways Min. Width 4-4-~^lr
Occupant Load Of 4
"MAX 4F
Rise and Run Max. Riser: "V Min. Winding Circular, Spiral Stairways Minimum tread \0]] Tread: ll"
Landings
Minimum Width: 55- TO &T* WIDTH
Maximum Width Required: 44-" 1F21 *3T
Vertical Distance Between Landings:

Handrai1s
Required at Each Side:_ Intermediate Rails Req
N kllCTTH-

d. at Stairs: I
Max. Width Between Int. Rails:________________
Exceptions Applicable::
Height Above Nosing: MINI- bO^ M4X 3>4"
Balusters Required:_______________
Projection: KTIKl- 1^2-11 EfrSIW UJALl> £
Max. Post Spacing:_
Handrails Return to Handrail Extension:
Wal 1 at Ends: "fl5&
min. £!i
3


Chap. Page
Table N/A
5A5 Access to Roof Required: '~T
Stair Access to Roof Required: NJ
Exterior Stairway MA*A* 2. ^T2?AlE£ IR
PWL.
Horizontal Exit Requirements:
19. Ramps
Width: A5 __________
Maximum Slope: MAX. \To\2. d7Ttf£H^ 1*12? g?
Landings:
Handrails Required:______________________________
cyHI Exit Signs Required: U?AP Mg?Kf5
20. Guardrails
Where Required:
Balconies:___________________
Rail Opening Spacing:________
Height Required:_____________
Intermediate Rails Required:

21. Exit Enclosures
^TAIP-UJAY^ PAMF^, CfSCALAT^ HALL
2___ ______ Enclosure Construction: 1-trF-.
C 5&1 Openinqs into Enclosures: AUTtP'PuPSlsI^?' PP, 1 HA*
Extent of Enclosure: LA^Ol IM^LUPISJ^-
LEAPlMA ~e> £*T. Review all other requirements for chap. 33
G?\ 6*10 22. Elevators Review Chapter for applicable
requirements: j^lL&n&Afe-klALL door width: |~TIM- PL-EAP'*
venting: & '<2F g>HApt APA
4


Chap. Page
Table N/A
23. Toilet Room Requirements Code Used; (JP£-_________
Fixture Count Requirements:
Men Basis Actual
Lavatories _______ ___________________
Water Closets _______ ___________________
Urinals
Women
Lavatories ______
Water Closets ______
Drinking Fountain Reqmnts.:
I-*2. 2__ 24. Requirements for Handicapped
Code: ANSI A117.1-1980
Scope/Required: MEaI 'SITS IK'
Site Development: MISJ. gME ^cc, Pt?UT5 Parking: MINI, __________________________________
Accessible Sites: MINI* !4?UTE 1£> ^TT^EETEt
E5£ WALKS. E?LC^.
Stairs: FE J 441
Elevators: A\Q
Doors/Gates: 4.13
Drinking Fountains: 413
Toilet Room: AOd.
Accessible Buildings Accessible Route: ^ 44
Overhanging Objects: 4*4
Ground Floor Surfaces: 43.
Stairs: 44.

Passenger Elevators: 4I£>
Doors: 413
Principal Entrance: 4.3
Drinking Fountain: MINI, 1 4B: Fk^.
Toilet Room: 1 AQT&34I3LE
____________ r\&
423 44- Storage Facilities:_____________
42. 14 Space Allowances and Reach Ranges
MIN)' NJICW 32,l0feiMT/36
£^'MiNJ.lU4r4, C?ia> FjgT7 34.£
13 Accessible Route: MIN. I T£ ALL AQ^gEMEbLE
5


Chap. Page
Table N/A
13
45 -22
4rg> 24
PM
410
413 32
4,14 33
4,15 32
416 33
4n 33
41& 3F
4M 3T
42? 52.
426 44
422 3J_
4#3 01
£ EL5M5MTD P-E: n4 1
Protruding Objects: p1Ac. 411 If81 A-PF
aJAU^ AE: Tie. A_______________________
Ground and Floor Surfaces: N^PNj-^-IF1; HA >4 ^£P-T. l.E^EL ^fA^E 1/411
Ramps: MAX V-'O- PAX F&£ 2*?11
kllPTH.
Sta 1 rs: MX TX5AP ll" ^ > P\?.: P&
Elevators: MINI. && L./ 54''P; 32 MlN QPK?P-
P-e: ^.<22 ----------- -----------------
Doors: ^2" PLEAf8- U P-g ; r 14 *>4__________
Thresholds: HAA 5>/A" HEIGHT
Entrances: nisi, | PUfrL-D e>T5, ST4,
Drinkinq Fountains: 0R?JT 3211 AFP P-5 : g4 21_______________________________________
Water Closets: IT11 \Q IF" AP F PE FT4. 2g>
Toilet Stalls: P-5- PI4.
Urinals: PiM. |lV,F,p e??"* 4£>"
ep/^E. N FPtPsJT ___________________________
Lavs and Mirrors: (2LEAF- *2^ T& EzPTT^M
P-E : F4, £ ga
Toilet Rooms: FfMX'itlS UN'lt^T^^TED TUP-ffe. Pad.
Handrails/Grab Bars/Shower Seats:
AT PATE^- CLP> Ae> P|g>.^M__________________
Seating, tables, work surfaces:
P-g; FI A. 4£ 24 TZ? 04 T2 TPP ^ TAD-E5
Assembly Areas: |MlN. *2., L4£ATk?N Ft?2-AJHE5LgHA!F-e
6


4.6 PARKING SPACES AND PASSENGER LOADING ZONES
ANSI All7.1-1986
4.5 Ground and Floor Surfaces
4.5.1* General. Ground and floor surfaces along accessible routes and in accessible rooms and spaces, including floors, walks, ramps, stairs, and curb ramps, shall be stable, firm, and slip resistant, and shall comply with 4.5.
4.5.2 Changes in Level. Changes in level up to 'A in (6 mm) may be vertical and without edge treatment. Changes in level between % in and Vi in (6 mm and 13 mm) shall be beveled with a slope no greater than 1:2 (see Fig. 7(c) and (d)). Changes in level greater than '/; in (13 mm) shall be accomplished by means of a ramp that complies with 4.7 or 4.8.
4.5.3* Carpet. If carpet or carpet tile is used on a ground or floor surface, then it shall be securely attached; have a firm cushion, pad, or backing or no cushion or pad; and have a level loop, textured loop, level cut pile, or level cut/uncut pile texture. The maximum pile height shall be ]/> in (13 mm). Exposed edges of carpet shall be fastened to floor surfaces and have trim along the entire length of the exposed edge. Carpet edge trim shall comply with 4.5.2.
4.5.4 Gratings. If gratings are located in walking surfaces, then they shall have spaces no greater than '/: in (13 mm) wide in one direction. If gratings have elongated openings, then they shall be placed so that the long dimension is perpendicular to the dominant direction of travel.
4.6 Parking Spaces and Passenger Loading Zones
4.6.1 General. Accessible parking spaces shall comply with 4.6.2. Accessible passenger loading zones shall comply with 4.6.3.
Parking spaces designated for physically handicapped people and accessible passenger loading zones that serve a particular building shall be located on the shortest possible accessible circulation route to an accessible entrance of the building. In separate parking structures or lots that do not serve a particular building, parking spaces for physically handicapped people shall be located on the shortest possible circulation route to an accessible pedestrian entrance of the parking facility.
4.6.2* Parking Spaces. Parking spaces for physically handicapped people shall be at least 96 in (2440 mm) wide and shall have an adjacent access
See Appendix for additional information. 28
aisle 60 in (1525 mm) wide minimum (see Fig. 9). Parking access aisles shall be part of the accessible route to the building or facility entrance and shall comply with 4.3. Two accessible parking spaces may share a common access aisle. Parked vehicle overhangs shall not reduce the clear width of an accessible circulation route.
Accessible parking spaces shall be designated as reserved for physically handicapped people by a sign showing the symbol of accessibility (see 4.28.5). Such signs shall not be obscured by a vehicle parked in the space.
4.6.3 Passenger Loading Zones. Passenger loading zones shall provide an access aisle at least 48 in (1220 mm) wide and 20 ft (6 m) long adjacent and parallel to the vehicle pull-up space (see Fig. 10). If
36 min ID 55
ACCESSIBLE ROUTE
Fig. 9
Dimensions of Parking Spaces
c
E
CD
xj
240 min
6100
r 1 i i 1 l i
IULL =3.
Fig. 10
Access Aisle at Passenger Loading Zones
I


ANSI A117.1-1986
4.7 CL'RB RAMPS
there are curbs between the access aisle and the vehicle pull-up space, then a curb ramp complying with 4.7 shall be provided.
A minimum vertical clearance of 108 in (2745 mm) shall be provided at accessible passenger loading zones and along vehicle access routes to such areas from site entrances.
4.7 Curb Ramps
4.7.1 Location. Curb ramps complying with 4.7 shall be provided wherever an accessible route crosses a curb.
4.7.2 Slope. Slopes of curb ramps shall comply with 4.8.2. The slope shall be measured as shown in Fig. 11. Maximum counterslopes of adjoining gutters and road surfaces immediately adjacent to the curb ramp or accessible route shall not exceed 1:20.
4.7.3 Width. The minimum width of a curb ramp shall be 36 in (915 mm), exclusive of flared sides.
4.7.4 Surface. Surfaces of curb ramps shall comply with 4.5.
4.7.5 Sides of Curb Ramps. If a curb ramp is located where pedestrians must walk across the ramp, then it shall have flared sides; the maximum slope of the flare shall be 1:10 (see Fig. 12(a)). Curb ramps with returned curbs may be used where pedestrians would not normally walk across the ramp (see Fig. 12(b)).
4.7.6 Built-Up Curb Ramps. Built-up curb ramps shall be located so that they do not project into vehicular traffic lanes (see Fig. 13).
H
' COUNTERSLOPE
WALK
STREET

NOTES:
(1) Slope = r.r. where .v is a level plane.
(2) Counterslope shall not exceed 1:20.
Fig. 11
Measurement of Curb Ramp Slopes
36 min (typ)
V5 \
Fig. 13
Built-Up Curb Ramp
NOTE: If .v < 48 in (1220 mm), then the slope of the Hared sides shall not exceed 1:12.
(a) Flared Sides
PLANTING OR OTHER
Fig. 12
Sides of Curb Ramps
29


4.8 RAMPS
ANSI A117.1-1986
4.7.7 Warning Textures. A curb ramp shall have a detectable warning texture complying w'ith 4.27 and extending the full width and depth of the curb ramp, including any flares (see Fig. 14).
4.7.8 Obstructions. Curb ramps shall be located or protected to prevent their obstruction by parked vehicles.
4.7.9 Location at Marked Crossings. Curb ramps at marked crossings shall be wholly contained within the markings, excluding any flared sides (see Fig. 15).
4.7.10 Diagonal Curb Ramps. If diagonal (or corner-type) curb ramps have returned curbs or other well-defined edges, such edges shall be parallel to the direction of pedestrian flow. The bottom of diagonal curb ramps shall have 48-in (1220-mm) minimum clear space as shown in Fig. 15(c) and (d). If diagonal curb ramps are provided at marked crossings, the 48-in (1220-mm) clear space shall be within the markings (see Fig. 15(c) and (d)). If diagonal curb ramps have flared sides, they shall also have a segment of straight curb at least 24 in (610 mm) long located on each side of the curb ramp and within the marked crossing (see Fig. 15(c)).
4.7.11 Islands. Any raised islands in crossings shall be cut through level with the street or have curb ramps at both sides and a level area at least 48 in (1220 mm) long in the part of the island intersected by the crossings (see Fig. 15(a) and (b)).
*See Appendix for additional information.
Warning Signals at Curb Ramps
4.7.12 Dncurbed Intersections. If there is no curb at the intersection of a walk and an adjoining street, parking lot, or busy driveway, then the walk shall have a detectable warning texture complying w'ith 4.27.5 at the edge of the vehicular way.
4.8 Ramps
4.8.1* General. Any part of an accessible route with a slope greater than 1:20 shall be considered a ramp and shall comply w'ith 4.8.
4.8.2* Slope and Rise. The least possible slope shall be used for any ramp. The maximum slope of a ramp in new' construction shall be 1:12. The maximum rise for any ramp run shall be 30 in (760 mm) (see Fig. 16). Curb ramps and ramps to be constructed on existing sites or in existing buildings or facilities may have slopes and rises as shown in Table 3 if space limitations prohibit the use of a 1:12 slope or less.
Slope in mm ft m
1:12 to 1:15 30 760 30 9
1:16 to 1:19 30 760 40 12
1:20 30 760 50 15
Fig. 16
Components of a Single Ramp Run and Sample Ramp Dimensions
Table 3
Allowable Ramp Dimensions for Construction in Existing Sites, Buildings, and Facilities
Maximum Rise Maximum Run
Slope* in mm ft m
Steeper than 1:10 but no steeper than 1:8 3 75 2 0.6
Steeper than 1:12 but no steeper than 1:10 6 150 5 1.5
+ A slope steeper than 1:8 not allowed.
30


4.8 RAMPS
ANSI AI17.1-1986
4.8.3 Clear Width. The minimum clear width of a ramp shall be 36 in (915 mm) (see Fig. 17).
ELEVATION
12 min
305
X
1 2 min
"305

P>
CURB
SECTION
30-34 typ 760-865


36 min 915
12 min
EXTENDED
PLATFORM
32
Fig. 17
Examples of Edge Protection and Handrail Extensions


ANSI AU7.1-1986
4.9 STAIRS
4.8.4 Landings. Ramps shall have level landings at the bottom and top of each run. Landings shall have the following features:
(1) The landing shall be at least as wide as the widest ramp run leading to it
(2) The landing length shall be a minimum of 60 in (1525 mm) clear
(3) If ramps change direction at landings, the minimum landing size shall be 60 in by 60 in (1525 mm by 1525 mm)
(4) If a doorway is located at a landing, then the area in front of the doorway shall comply with 4.13.6
4.8.5* Handrails. If a ramp run has a rise greater than 6 in (150 mm) or a horizontal projection greater than 72 in (1830 mm), then it shall have handrails on both sides. Handrails are not required on curb ramps. Handrails shall have the following features:
(1) Handrails shall be provided along both sides of ramp segments. The inside handrail on switch-back or dogleg ramps shall always be continuous.
(2) If handrails are not continuous, they shall extend at least 12 in (305 mm) beyond the top and bottom of the ramp segment and shall be parallel with the floor or ground surface.
(3) The clear space between the handrail and the wall shall be l A in (38 mm). Handrails may be located in a recess if the recess is a maximum of 3 in (75 mm) deep and extends at least 18 in (455 mm) above the top of the rail (see Fig. 39(d)).
(4) Gripping surfaces shall be continuous, without interruption by newel posts, other construction elements, or obstructions.
(5) The diameter or width of the gripping surfaces of a handrail shall be 1 % in to 1 A in (32 mm to 38 mm), or the shape shall provide an equivalent
See Appendix for additional information.
gripping surface (see Fig. 39(a), (b). and (c)). Standard pipe sizes designated by the industry as 1% in to 1A in (32 mm to 38 mm) are acceptable industry tolerances as noted under 3.2.
(6) The top of handrail gripping surfaces shall be mounted between 30 in and 34 in (760 mm and 865 mm) above ramp surfaces.
(7) A handrail and any wall or other surface adjacent to it shall be free of any sharp or abrasive elements. Edges shall have a minimum radius of
in (3.2 mm).
4.8.6 Cross Slope and Surfaces. The cross slope of ramp surfaces shall be no greater than 1:50. Ramp surfaces shall comply w'ith 4.5.
4.8.7 Edge Protection. Ramps and landings with drop-offs shall have curbs, walls, railings, or projecting surfaces that prevent people from slipping off the ramp. Curbs shall be a minimum of 2 in (51 mm) high (see Fig. 17).
4.8.8 Outdoor Conditions. Outdoor ramps and their approaches shall be designed so that water will not accumulate on walking surfaces.
4.9 Stairs
4.9.1 General. Stairs that are required as a means of egress and stairs between floor lex els not connected by an elevator shall comply w ith 4.9.
4.9.2 Treads and Risers. On any given flight of stairs, all steps shall have uniform riser heights and uniform tread depth. Risers shall be a maximum of 7 in (180 mm) in height, and stair treads shall be no less than 11 in (280 mm) in depth, measured from riser to riser (see Fig. 18(a)). Open risers are nol permitted on accessible routes.
P
60
1 Vi max
ft38
6-radius
(b) A ngled Nosing
(c) Rounded Nosing
Fig. 18
Usable Tread Width and Examples of Acceptable Nosings
33


4.19 LAVATORIES, SINKS. AND MIRRORS
ANSI A117.1-1986
(1 220) min
MIDDLE OF ROW
END OF ROW
(a) Standard Stalls
Fig. 30 Toilet Stalls


ANSI AI 17.1-1986
4.19 LAVATORIES, SINKS, AND MIRRORS
12 max
(c) Rear Wall of Standard Stalls
Fig. 30 Toilet Stalls (Continued)
49


Proqram


PROGRAMMING INTRODUCTION and OBJECTIVES
Bryce Canyon National Park Visitor Center Objectives
The following are general objectives hoped to be accomplished In the design of a visitor center a Bryce Canyon National Park:
* Promote an appreciation and understanding of the powerful natural forces that have shaped Bryce's landscape.
* To Increase knowledge and understanding of the geology and the vast changes that have taken place over time In this region.
* To act as provider of Information regarding recreational activities, hiking guides, Interpretive walks, camping facilities, accomodations, weather, etc.
* To act as a place of overall Introduction to the park, to get aqualnted with, and oriented to, the areas they are about to visit and experience In the park.
* Overal I, the visitor center should "set the mood" for the park.
FACILITY DESCRIPTION
The visitor center facility at Bryce Canyon National Park, as In many other national parks, such as Zion, will be functionally divided Into two sections, one being the visitor contact section, the other the administrative section. The visitor contact serves as the primary Information and introduction facility for visitors coming to the park as previously mentioned. It consists of a lobby area, Information area, book and literature sales and displays, waiting area, auditorium, permanent and seasonal exhibit areas, outdoor seating area and public restrooms. The visitor portion of the facility Is sized according to rules of thumb developed by the National Park Service based on a percentage of the peak hour visitation of the peak month, which will be discussed later.
The administrative section of the facility provides general office space for the permanent and seasonal staff of the park. The staff's overall purpose Is to manage Bryce Canyon National Park year-round. This section will be sized according to rules of thumb for standard office design, and will meet Federal Property Management Regulation 101-17304-1. The space devoted to administrative use will also consider future growth and staffing needs.


Following Is a brief listing of the various staff positions that must be accomodated In the facility:
(1) Superintendent; (1) Assistant Superintendent; (1) Secretary to the Superintendent;
(1) Personnel Administrator; (2-3) Administrative Clerks;
(1) Chief Naturalist; (6-7) Seasonal Natural Ists; (1) National History Association Representative;
(1) Chief of Maintenance;
(1) Chief Ranger; (3) Permanent Rangers; (7-11) Seasonal Rangers and Enforcement Officers.
TOTALS: 14 Permanent staff; 18 Seasonal Staff; 32 Staff employees maximum (currently)
Among the support spaces are:
Communications; reception; com put or room; resource management; conference room; library (for staff and public); staff lounge/ kitchen area; staff restrooms; primary and secondary storage areas; mechanical rooms; solar storage area.


NATIONAL PARK SERVICE RULES of THUMB for DETERMINING the SIZE REQUIREMENTS of the VISITOR CONTACT FACILITY:
The following methodologies and values will be used tc determine the required size of the visitor section of the facility.9
1) Average Peak Day Use for Peak Month =
Peak Use Month (from vlsltlon charts and records)
/ # days/month
2) Peak Day Use for Peak Month =
Average Peak Day Use for Peak Month (1)
X 1.2 (factor to account for peak day of peak month)
3) Average Peak Hour Use for Peak Month =
Average Peak Day Use for Peak Month (1)
X .20 (percentage factor)
4) Peak Hour Use for Peak Day =
Peak Day Use for Peak Month (2)
X .11 (percentage factor from hourly distribution chart on visitation, see fig 16)
PARKING REQUIREMENT CRITERIA
5) Parking Required =
Average Peak Hour Use for Peak Month (3)
/ 3.4 (Average number of visitors per car)
6) Vehicle Distribution:
80% autos (40/6 compact, 57% full-size, 5% H.C.) 20% recreational (oversize, trailers, motorhomes)
VISITOR CONTACT AREA SIZE CRITERIA
The visitor oriented portion of the center will be designed to accomodate 60 percent of the peak hour visitation of the peak month. This 60 percent factor Is used to account for the turnover rate within the visitor center during the 20 to 35 minute average length of stay. The 60 percent factor also represents consideration for a minor Increase In future visitation.
To accomodate 60 percent of the peak hour visitation, an Initial rule of thumb factor of 25 square feet per person Is used to estimate space requirements for the visitor portion of the facility. However, a study on visitor perceptions of crowdedness Indicates that at around 16 to 20 sqaure feet, visitors perceive the space as crowded. Therefore, Initial estimates In the range of 25 to 30 square feet per person will be used.


BRYCE CANYON NATIONAL PARK ANNUAL and MONTHLY VISITATION
The following Information has been taken In part by a transportlon/economIc feasibility study prepared by the National Park Service In 1983 .
Several data sources were reviewed and analyzed to determine historical visitation trends and patterns and to gain Insight Into specific characterlsltlcs of Bryce Canyon visitation. The primary source of Information was the dally visitation log maintained at the entry station; other data came from annual reports and surveys conducted by the National Park Service. A special survey was also conducted to obtain Information on arrival and departure patterns, average length of stay, and distribution within the park.
Figure 13 shows annual visitation from 1975 to 1985, which Indicates that visitation fluctuated significantly over that time period. Visits declined during 1975, 1977, 1979, 1980 through 1982, and Increased In 1976, 1983, 1984, 1985, and peaked In 1978 at 680,328. Overal visitation Increased at a annual rate of 4 percent between the periods of recent Increase, 1982 to 1985.
Figure 14 shows monthly visitation patterns from 1975 through 1984, while figure 15 shows monthly visitation as a percentage of annual visitation. The trends reveal that peak monthly visitation generally occurs In July, when an average of 22.1 percent of the annual visitors come to the park. However, the three summer months of June, July, and August experience similar visitation levels and In total represent 61.4 percent of the annual visitation. May and September represent an average of 8.8 and 14.0 percent of the annual visitation.
During the peak season, June through August, the average dally visitation fluctuates very little. The relationship between the average day for the peak season and the peak day was established through examination of dally visitation records for 1978, 1979, and 1980. The ratio of peak day visitation to average dally peak season visitation Is 1.25.
PROJECTED VISITATION
Figure 13 Indicates a National Park Service projected annual Increase of 6.5 percent through 1995. In 1985, 560,533 people visited the park, which Is significantly less than the estimated projection (approx. 800,000). It Is my opinion that the 6.5 percent rate of Increase has been overestimated, and a more realistic 3 to 4 percent annual Increase rate could be Initially used In computing the size of the visitor center, until further, updated visitation records become available. The number of visitations to Bryce Canyon Is probably more effected by Its remoteness, the condition of the national economy, fuel prices, and more recently, by fravel and safety abroad, than by projected population growth.


VISITORS / THOUSAND -------------rf------VISITORS / MILLION
-------
1,500
1,300
1,200
1975 76 77 78 79 1980 81 82 83 84 85 1995
Fig 13 ANNUAL VISITATION (1975 -1984)
BRYCE CANYON NATIONAL PARK
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
LEGEND
ANNUAL VISITATION PROJECTED ANNUAL VISITATION
ANNUAL INCREASE (1982 1984)
i


VISITORS PER THOUSANDS
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
.IAN FEB MARCH APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT pCT NOV DEC
14 AVERAGE MONTHLY USE






>.v.
IPS


v.v.v


5,049
4.486
72* OF YEARLY VISITATION
__41* OF YEARLY____bl
VISITATION
120.378
21.625
10,689
9,490
4,370
96,008
41,303
111,196
79,060
56.879
BRYCIE CANYON NATIONAL PARK (1975 1984)
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SERVICE


Fig. 15 Monthly Visitation as Percentage of Annual Visitation
Month/Vear 1975 I976 I977 I978 1979 I980 Average
January 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6
February 0.5 0.7 I.O 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.7
March 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.5
April 2.2 2.6 4.3 3.2 4.3 3.8 3.4
May 7.6 7.0 6.9 9.7 11.1 10.3 8.8
June 18.7 19.1 17.4 18.3 17.7 19.5 18.5
July 22.3 22.5 22.7 21.4 21.0 22.6 22.1
August 23.0 22.4 19.9 19.8 21.1 18.4 20.8
September 14.5 13.8 14.9 14.8 13.3 12.6 14.0
October 7.6 7.1 7.5 7.5 6.1 6.7 7.1
November 1.2 1.7 2.3 1.4 1.3 1.9 1.6
December 0.7 1.0 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.3 0.9
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0


I
Hour Beginning
i
Fig. 16
HOURLY DISTRIBUTION OF
VISITOR ARRIVALS AT BRYCE CANYON
i
i


VISITOR PROFILE
The following information has been taken In part by a study on visitor centers, prepared In 1976 by E. H. Zube, J.H. Crystal, and J. F. Pal mer.
The visitors who come to Bryce Canyon National Park can be described generally as young, well-educated, frequent visitors to National Parks and as having traveled a considerable distance to visit the parks. The mean age for the visitors is a relatively young 31.9 years.
The visitors are also well educated, with approximately 63 percent having at least some college education.
A large number of visitors are either not In the labor force, or are In managerial or professional roles. The former category Includes retired persons, students, homemakers and armed forces personnel. Interviews with park administrators suggest that this occupation pattern may be even more pronounced during the off-season, when considerably greater numbers of retired people are noted in the centers.
The majority of the visitors are also frequent visitors to National Park Service Areas. Over 80 percent have been to at least two areas In the past three years, and over 55 percent have been to four or more areas during that time. These visitors are obviously experienced users of park facl I Itles.
Over 60 percent (approximation) of the visitors have also traveled more than 1000 miles from their homes, verifying the remote location of Bryce Canyon. Over 90 percent of the visitors arrive by auto or camper vehicle. There Is also a significant number of tour buses visiting the park, ranging from retired people from other states to European tours. These buses, when stopping at the visitor center, have the potential to temporarily overcrowd the facility. These large tour buses can accomodate approximately 60 to 70 passengers, which can significantly effect the perceived crowdedness of the facility if It Is already at maximum capacity.


VISITOR CONTACT AREA INITIAL SIZE ESTIMATE
In the following computations, two estimates will be performed, one based on the average visitation records during the past 10 years; and the other based on a projected visitation In the year 1995, using an estimated 3.5 to 4 percent rate of annual Increase In visitation. The formulas used will be the same as those described on the previous
pages. Average visitation from past 10 years Visitation In 1995
1) Average Peak Day Use for Peak Month:
121,000 / 31 days In July = 3903 people .22 X 750,000 = 165,000 / 31 days = 5322 people
2) Peak Day Use for Peak Month: 3903 X 1.2 = 4684 people 5322 X 1.2 = 6386 people
3) Peak Hour Use 4684 X .11 = 515 people 6386 X .11 = 702 people
PARKING REQUIREMENTS 4) Total Parking Required 515 / 3.4 people per car = 151 total spaces 702 / 3.4 people per car = 206 total spaces
5) Recreational Vehicle spaces 151 X .20 = 30 rec. vehicle spaces 206 X .20 = 41
6) Auto Spaces distribution 4 H.C. (3$) 69 Ful l-slze (57$) 48 Compact (40$) 5 H.C. 94 Ful l-slze 66 Compact
VISITOR CONTACT AREA SIZE ESTIMATION
515 (3) X .60 = 309 people 702 X .60 = 421 people
X 25 sq. ft. per person = 7725 sq. ft. facility X 25 = 10530 sq. ft.
X 30 sq. ft. per person = 9270 sq. ft. faclI Ity X 30 = 12630 sq. ft.
(The above numbers refer to net square footages)


SPACE REQUIREMENTS Visitor Center Bryce Canyon Natl. Park SPACE: L
ACTIVITIES:
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ADJACENCIES:
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