ENERGY CONSCIOUS RENTAL HOUSING FOR SANTA BARBARA, CALIFORNIA
MARC DIETRICK MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE THESIS DESIGN PROJECT-
GRADUATE SCHOOL OF DESIGN AND PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER FALL 1982
INTRODUCTION SITE ANALYSIS CODES
Santa Barbara has a serious housing problem reflected by the increasingly high median price for sale in the area and by the inabi1ity of some households to purchase, causing overcrowding of the already tight rental housing market.
This overcrowding has resulted in a shortage of rental housing and in rising prices for the little rental housing which is available.
City of Santa Barbara Housing Element.
Rental housing opportunities for low and moderate income people in the Santa Barbara Coastal Zone is very scarce. Renters are paying increasingly disproportionate parts of their income to rent. The demand is very high due to the close proximity of the ocean and the many employment opportunities offered in associated tourist-oriented commerce.
Most of the Coastal Zone zoned for residential use has been built-out and few opportunities exist for new housing.
. housing opportunities for persons of low and moderate income shall be protected, encouraged, and where feasible, provided New hosuing in the coastal zone shall be developed in conformity with standards, policies, and goals of local housing elements adapted in accordance with requirements of subdivision (c) of Section 65302 Government Code.
Section 30213 Coastal Act
The City of Santa Barbara has enacted a Variable Density Ordinance allowing for greater unit/acreage ratios in R-*t zones. It is hoped that this ordinance will encourage the construction of smaller, less expensive multiple family units by allowing more of such units to be built in the area.
This thesis project will be an application of the Valuable Density Ordinance to provide rental housing for small households of moderate income range.
V A \ A ^
Santa Barbara, California is a picturesque community of 80,000 people sandwiched between the Santa Ynez Mountains to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
The city is known for its mild climate and Spanish and mission revival architecture.
Water shortages prompted the denial of water permits for sprawling suburban subdivisions in the late 1960's. This had the effect of focusing development on the urban areas with the resulting revitalization of the central business district along State Street. This proved very successful at creating a vital shopping district for citizens and tourists. This vitality has spread into the surrounding community. Old delapidated businesses and residences have been renovated and rebuilt mostly in mission or Spanish colonial styles as prescribed by the Architectural Review Committee. Along with this development focus on the central city and waterfront came the rapid increase in land values and rents.
The city has a limited growth policy which is carried out by the limitation on available water taps for new construction. Limited supplies of water exists now. Careful analysis of any new development and its impact on the community occurs before any project is approved.
In this respect, the city has a very tight control over development and is able to select projects consistent with desired objectives. Housing is one of the most pressing needs.
The waterfront area has been the focus of many new development proposals.
A recently completed project involving the rebuilding of the pier and construction of restaurant and visitor related businesses.
An approved project soon to be built to include a 2000 seat conference center and **00 room hote 1 .
Mercado on Lower State Street:
Artisan and tourist oriented shops to be built in a Spanish pedestrian mercado setting. Harbor Expansion:
This project provides for a larger, safer harbor with more facilities for boaters.
With all this new development the attractiveness of the area as a place to live has increased and with it the demand for housing. Much of the housing has been converted to condominiums further decreasing the rental units available. Efforts to stimulate housing are thwarted by expensive land, limited potentially developable sites and water shortage. In the competitive housing situation that exists, low to moderate income people often are forced out by high rents.
I wanted to find a site in close proximity to the employment and recreational opportunities in the beach front area. According to the Coastal Act, opportunities must be provided for low to moderate income housing in this area. A survey of the neighborhoods zoned R-A, where the Variable Density Ordinance can be applied, turned up the last vacant lot in an area known as the Ambassador Tract. The R-^ classification allows single and multiple family dwellings, hotels and motels.
This area is the focal point for tourist related facilities and the General Plan encourages this with a "Hotel and Residential" classification. Between Castillo and Chapala Streets, existing conditions reflect the mixed use and an R-A designation. Motels and apartment buildings predominate; thirty motels have an excess of 650 units and 68 apartment buildngs have over 400 units. There are sixteen duplexes and 2^4 single family dwellings. Restaurants, gift shops, and other visitor-oriented businesses are interspersed with the motels along West Cabrillo Boulevard (between Castillo and Chapala, Cabrillo frontage has a restricted commercial zoning).
At Castillo and Montecito Streets is a neighborhood shopping area to serve the needs of local residents and visitors. Several gasoline stations are located at this intersection and are convenient to the Casti1lo-U.S. 101 undercrossing which is a major route to the waterfront.
This commercial area is zoned C-2 and the General Plan also indicates it as a neighborhood shopping area.
The major development potential in this area is the proliferation of motels. Currently, the pleasant appearance and character of this area is a result of a unique combination of uses (residential, visitor-serving, commercial, recreational) and styles (the Spanish "style" architecture typical of Santa Barbara predominates). The existing mix of uses in the West Beach
"Ambassador" Neighborhood could be threatened by continuous development of motels displacing single and multiple dwellings.
The site chosen is located on the south corner of Yanonali Street and Bath Street. It is two blocks from the ocean front, one block from Pershing Park, one block from a neighborhood shopping center and three blocks from State Street, the major access to the central business district. Thus, the location is ideal for pedestrian or bicycle oriented living.
The lot is backed by a bungalow court on the southwest and a motel on the southeast. Across the streets to the northwest and northeast there are single and multiple family residences.
The site is flat at approximately 10 feet above sea level, with a lot size of 38,5^8 square feet. Sidewalks front both Yanonali and Bath Streets while a six foot fence separates the site from the adjacent two lots. Parallel parking is available on Yanonali and Bath Streets with access to the lot from either street. Yanonali and Bath Streets intersect with a two way stop on Yanonali. Bath Street continues through with no stop. Both of these streets are lightly travelled and present no serious traffic or noise problems.
Noise consists mostly of auto traffic, the heaviest of which is on Castillo Street, one block to the southwest and U.S. 101, one and one half blocks to the northwest. Noise from both of these streets is muffled by vegetation. The Southern Pacific Railroad has a main line which runs along U.S. 101. Traffic on this line averages four to six trains daily. It should be noted that U.S. 101 is a main North-South interstate highway. The freeway has not been completed through Santa Barbara and represents a serious traffic barrier for pedestrians and automobiles. Traffic flowing through and crossing this road must negotiate a series of controlled intersections which are often ineffective in alleviating the traffic jams. Plans to elevate the road and complete the freeway have been made. This could raise the background noise to the site considerably.
Views at street level are of the tops of the Santa Ynez Mountains to the north and the beach bluffs two blocks to the southwest. At upper levels the views would be better with a view of the beach potentially available at the third level or rooftop.
Vegetation on the site consists of one sparse tree. The blocks on Yanonali to the northeast have beautiful shade trees. No trees or buildings shade the site except for the latest and earliest hours of the day.
All utilities are available under Bath Street.
maximum temperatures in summer are are in the forties. Light to
Mild temperatures are the rule in Santa Barbara. Mean in the seventies, while mean minimum temperatures in winter
moderate winds are generally from a southwesterly direction. Most of the precipitation falls in a period between November and April. General cloudiness is brought in by these winter storms, but cloudy days average only 60-80 per year. Low coastal c1oudiness and fog are frequent during the late spring and early summer months. Freezes along the narrow coastal area are very infrequent allowing the cultivation of a large variety of plants. Nighttime relative humidity values, at Santa Maria where recordings are made, average eighty percent in the late fall and early winter to ninety percent during the summer months. Afternoon values average around sixty to sixty-five percent throughout most of the year.
The beachfront area is built on filled marshland, in after the 1925 earthquake and was poorly compacted, and overlying alluvial deposits.
Much of the current fill was brought The soil is composed of artificial fill
Several faults interlace the Santa Barbara region. The Mesa Fault crosses close to the site. It is a potentially active fault with a maximum magnitude of 6.2 on the Richter Scale, design magnitude of 5-7. The greatest danger is from ground shaking and potential soil 1i quefi cation.
The site is located in the flood plain of Mission Creek which has an active record of overflowing its banks and flooding some city streets. Efforts are currently underway to create a parkway along Mission Creek to improve its flow and its beauty. Ground water is located between 10-15 feet down, thus preventing any deep excavation of the site.
J F M A M J J A S 0 N D Mean Tota 1
RADIATION 2 BTU/FT -Month
10 + Lat. 50778 5131)0 62339 56600 68627 77671 76057 69860 65501) 56031) 51638 5331)2 739795
Hor i zonta1 31686 1)1)1)09 51)335 56900 71951 82029 79959 71151 60885 1)1)955 31)538 31572 661)370
Mean 52.6 S').0 56.0 58.6 61.1 63.3 67.1 67.1) 66.8 63.1 58.5 S'). 7 60.3
Mean Ml-, . 1)0.3 1)2.2 i)<). 1 1)7.5 50.3 52.8 56.5 56.7 5*).9 50.6 1)1).2 1)2.0 1)8.5
DEGREE DAYS 65 F
HEAT CD -C* 308 282 198 11)0 75 28 22 36 81) 210 319 2086
VISIBILITY AT AIRPORT Oct. 36 Dec. 38
0-1/1) Mi le 0 0.9 0.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.7 1.2 0 5
1/2-1 Mile 1.1 8.1 1.9 9 3.3 0 5.6 1). 1 0 8.1 3-1* 2.7 3.2
~j 1 /-6 Mi les 9.6 !3-i) 9-3 12.9 17-2 35.0 37.1 39.8 38.1) 17.1 10.1 i 3 ZUT<)
Clear Days Overcast Morn i nqs Partly Cloudy Cloudy All Day RAINFALL July 1-June 30
1971 223 101 19 22 1970-71 11). 1)2
1972 205 81 37 1)3 1971-72 8.61)
1973 159 96 36 71) 1972-73 21). 56
197<) 205 62 32 56 1973-71) 17-31)
1975 188 55 1)2 s'* 197i-75 18.01)
1976 220 72 31 25 1975-76 8.65
1977 201) 51 29 22 1976-77 15.1)9
37 % LESS THAN
60 % 4-15 mph
3 % 16-31 mph
SURFACE WIND SUMMARY SANTA BARBARA AIRPORT, GOLETA, CA.
- 31 mph
- 47 mph
34N LATITUDE JUNE 21
BTU/ SQ FT HR
AM ALT AZM s SE E NE N SW HOR
5 7 1.47 117.57
6 6 12.86 109.78 57 126 121 45
7 5 24.80 102.54 103 188 162 42 34
8 4 37.07 95.28 125 195 151 18 99
9 3 49.49 87.10 9 127 171 115 158
10 2 61.79 76.00 31 111 125 67 205
11 1 73.17 55.10 46 79 66 14 234
12 79.45 0.00 51 36 36 244
PM s sw w NW N SE HOR
AM ALT AZM s SE E NE N SW HOR
6 6 0.00 90.00
7 5 12.39 81.48 25 134 165 99 37
8 4 24.49 72.11 69 201 215 103 103
9 3 35.89 60.79 110 217 197 61 163
10 2 45.89 45.92 142 204 147 3 211
11 1 53.21 25.60 163 170 78 60 241
12 56.00 0.00 169 120 120 251
PM s SW w NW N SE HOR
AM ALT AZM s SE E NE N SW HOR
8 4 9.08 53.57 93 155 126 23 25
9 3 18.38 43.12 173 236 162 8 79
10 2 25.86 30.65 219 246 130 63 123
11 1 30.81 16.05 245 223 70 123 152
12 32.55 0.00 253 179 179 162
PM s SW w NW N SE HOR
SANTA BARBARA MUNICIPAL CODE
ZONING: RA Hotel/Motel Multiple Residence Zone
BUILDING HE I GUT: 3 Stories, Not to Exceed A5 Feet
YARDS: Front > 10' for 1-2 stories
> 15' for 3 stories, or if < 1/2 the ground floor area is 3 stories and 3rd story is constructed no closer to front yard than 1/3 the ground floor building dimension measured perpendicularly to that front yard 10' will be allowed.
Interior > 6' for 1-2 stories
> 10' for 3 stories. If 1/2 or less of ground floor area is three stories then 10' shall apply only to three story portions.
Rear > 6' for one story or 1st floor of multi-story building.
> 10' for 2nd story and above.
No main building shall be closer than 15' to any other main building. For one story buildings, distance is 10' to another one story building.
VARIABLE DENSITY ORDINANCE: Enacted to stimulate the construction of smaller, less expensive multiple family units. This ordinance allows higher density in the proportions:
Studio Unit - 1 unit per 1 ,600 sq. ft. of lot
1 bdrm.Unit - 1 unit per 1,8A0 sq. ft. of lot
2 bdrm.Unit - 1 unit per 2,320 sq. ft. of lot
3 or more - 1 unit per 2,800 sq. ft. of lot
MINIMUM FLOOR AREA: No less than A00 square feet of usable floor area per unit is allowed.
OUTDOOR LIVING SPACE: Shall be provided in either of the following methods. Private outdoor living space as follows:
Ground Floor Units Studio Unit 100 sq. ft.
1 Bedroom Unit - 120 sq. ft.
2 Bedroom Unit - 144 sq. ft.
3 Bedroom Unit - 160 sq. ft.
Second Floor Units and Above Studio Unit 60 sq. ft.
1 Bedroom Unit - 72 sq. ft.
2 Bedroom Unit - 84 sq. ft.
3 Bedroom Unit - 96 sq. ft.
Private outdoor living space areas shall have a minimum dimension in any direction as follows
a. ground floor units 10 feet; b. second floor units and above 6 feet.
Private outdoor living space may include planter areas of less than fifty (50) square feet, patio areas, balconies, and decks, and shall not include stairs, entrance decks, and/or 1 and i ngs.
Private outdoor living space may encroach into required yards as follows: a. uncovered balconies may encroach 2 feet as specified in Section 28.87.062.1 and 2; b. private outdoor living space on the ground floor may encroach into required side and rear yard up to the property line, provided there is no overhead structure of any type; c. private outdoor living space may encroach in the front yard up to 10 feet from the front property line but shall not include more than fifty (50) percent of the front yard area, excluding driveways, and subject to the following conditions: 1) said private outdoor living space shall be enclosed with a solid fence and landscaping having a minimum height of five (5) feet and a maximum height of six (6) feet. This condition may be waived by ABR if there are substantial views from the respective unit and/or where the area does not abut the street.
Private outdoor living space shall be contiguous to and accessible from the unit served
Common open yard area subject to the following conditions:
Ten percent (10%) open space as stated in Section 28.21.808.6 is waived when using this option;
Open yard areas shall consist of at least fifteen percent (15%) of the total lot area.
At least one open yard area shall have a minimum dimension of twenty feet (201) in any direction;
Open yard areas may include required side and rear yard setback areas, but not required front yard areas. (Ord. *4018, Sec.3,1979)
Parking Requirements for Multiple Units:
Studio - 1 1/*4 spaces per unit
1 bedroom - 1 1/2 spaces per unit
2 bedroom - 2 spaces per unit
6 bedroom or more units - 1 additional space for *4 units
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1979
FIRE RESISTANCE: Type V one hour construction throughout
WALL AND EXTERIOR OPENINGS:
Exterior walls one hour less than 5 feet
Openings in exterior walls not permitted less than 5 feet. BUILDING HEIGHT: 3 stories
BASIC ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA: 10,500 sq. ft.
added stories increase 21,000 sq. ft.
OCCUPANCY: 200 sq. ft. per person minimum
EXITS: 2 required when number of occupants is greater than 10
Corr i dors:
Width 10 or more people served less than 10 served Height 7'
Dead end limit 20' with 1 hour construction
Width 10-50 people served 30"
Rise: A"-7 1/2"
Run: More than 10"
Private stairs with load less than 10 people Rise: 8" maximum Run: 9" minimum
1 operable window or door, minimum opening 5-7 sq. ft.
2A" minimum height 20" mi nimum width AA: maximum sill height
LIGHT/VENTILATI ON: All habitable rooms will receive natural light not less than 1/10 floor area of room with a minimum of 10 sq. ft. Also an openable window not less than 1/20 floor area of room or 5 sq. ft. or a ventilating system.
Bathrooms, water closets and laundries shall have ventilation systems or an operable window not less than 1/20 of floor area or 1 1/2 sq. ft.
COMBINED ROOM REQUIREMENTS: Section 1205 Uniform Building Code.
YARDS AND COURTS: Municipal Code governs.
CEILING HEIGHTS: Habitable space 7'6". Kitchens, bath, toilet area 7'0" allowed.
FLOOR AREA: Each unit shall have at least one room with 150 sq. ft. Other rooms except kitchen shall have 70 sq. ft. No habitable room other than the kitchen shall be less than 71 in any d i mens ion.
EFFICIENCY UNITS: Shall conform to other requirements except:
- Living area shall be not less than 220 sq. ft. superficial floor area. Additional 100 sq. ft. area provided for every occupant in excess of two.
- Unit shall have separate closet.
- Unit shall have kitchen sink, cooking appliances and refrigeration facilities, each with clear working space of 30" in front of them.
- Unit shall have private bathroom with water closet, lavatory and bathtub or shower.
Handicap units need not be provided by code but will be included in this project.
MINIMUM ROOM SIZES FOR SEPARATE ROOMS
LU w/ 0 BR LU w/ 1 BR LU w/ 2 BR LU w/ 3 BR Least Dimension
LR NA 160 160 170 11' 0"
DR NA 100 100 110 CT 1 CO
BR 1 NA 120 120 120 9 4"
BR 2 NA NA 80 80 00 1 o
Tot. BR1s NA 120 200 280
MINIMUM ROOM SIZES FOR COMBINED SPACES
LU w/ 0-BR LU w/ 1 BR LU w/ 2 BR LU w/ 3 BR
LR-DA NA 210 210 230
LR-DA-SL 250 NA NA NA
LR-DA-K NA 270 2 70 300
LR-SL 210 NA NA NA
K-DA 100 120 120 140
Project will conform to HUD Minimum Property Standards and the requirements of the California Energy Code
The actual size and orientation of living units will be subject to the design process. General characteristics and minimum requirements are listed.
The city requires that new construction fit in architecturally with the neighborhood. Spanish and mission style architecture predominate in this neighborhood. There are some Victorian and moderne structures in the area also. Exterior styling and materials will be selected for their energy and economic efficiencies as well as their appropriateness for the neighborhood context. Materials which do not seem appropriate are bare concrete block, plywood siding, and synthetic slick plaster, though creative use of these materials could work out. Colors from white to earth tones fit best. Some color accents in tiles and plantings work well.
The mixture of unit types will be decided upon in design. Types will be studios, one bedroom and two bedroom units. Bottom units will be accessible to handicapped people and design will consider their use.
-Bike parking for all units will be convenient to entries and in an area of general circulation for security.
-Automobile parking should be arranged as close to unit entries as possible. Priority will be given to units available to handicapped and senior citizen tenants.
-Open space landscaping including walks, courts and gardens shall buffer units from parking areas. Drought resistant planting will be used.
-Mail area should be located in a common area to provide some social interaction of tenants; possibly at a common garden area which could be developed by tenants.
-Garbage recycling bins for glass, metal, paper and garbage should be located as near to
units as possible, probably in the parking area. The bins must have close proximity to the street for collection. If a garden area is developed, a common composing heap might be started.
-A laundry facility with two washers and two dryers will be located somewhere on the site where it can be secured from use by non-residents.
-Day 1ighting, orientation to the sun, prevailing breezes, and acoustic and visual isolation will be the primary concerns in site planning.
ENTRIES: The entry area and approach to units should have some semi-public defensible space to allow some security and self-policing amongst the tenants.
LIVING AREA: This is the main entry and entertaining area. Good ventilation and lighting are necessary. Roominess and textural variety are desirable. Alcoves for study desks and storage help organize multiple uses in limited space. An area for bicycle storage and a coat closet just off the entry should be provided.
DINING AREA: The dining area should be adjacent to the kitchen and provide room for a dining table appropriate to the occupancy of the unit. An eastern orientation is desirable. If possible, an outdoor living area opening off the dining area should be included. Good lighting for study or work at the dining table is necessary.
KITCHENS: Kitchens for all units should be standardized to reduce custom design costs. To
aid in the conservation of water, no disposal units or dishwashers will be installed. Areas for recycling buckets will be provided. Storage and counter space should be generous. Kitchen work also should be well lit by windows or skylights. The kitchen should be adjacent to the bathroom to minimize plumbing and ventilation equipment.
BEDROOMS: Bedrooms should be located where noise and privacy are not a problem. Adequate storage for clothes is necessary.
BATHROOMS: Shower-baths, 30"x5'0, will be in each unit. An operable window is desired over
a mechanical ventilation system. Storage for linen will be provided just outside the bathroom door. Circulation should not have to pass through the bedroom to reach the bathroom, but adjacency to the bedroom is desired.
OCCUPANCY: 1 person, couple or single parent with child.
SQUARE FOOTAGE: Minimum usable floor area 400 sq.ft. Recommend 450 to 500 sq.ft. FUNCTIONAL AREAS:
Living: Sofa 3'0" x 6'0", easy chair 2'6" x 3'0", desk 118" x 3'6"
Kitchen: Double sink, stove top, oven, refrigerator, food and utensil storage,
Dining: 1 table 2'6" x 216" plus chairs and circulation
Sleeping: 1 double bed 4'6" x 6'10", 1 dresser 1'6" x 316"
The combination or separation of these functional areas will be explored in design. SEPARATE ROOMS:
Bathroom: Sink, water closet, shower, tub, minimum 7'0" dimension.
Storage: Minimum 100 cubic feet, recommend 300-400 cubic feet.
ONE BEDROOM UNIT
OCCUPANCY: 1 person, couple or single parent with child.
SQUARE FOOTAGE: Minimum usable floor area 6A0 sq.ft. Recommend 600-800 sq. ft.
Living: Sofa 3'0" x 6'0", 2 easy chairs 2'6" x 3'0", 1 desk 118" x 3'6".
Kitchen: Same as studio
Dining: Same as studio SEPARATE ROOMS:
Bath: Same as studio
Storage: Minimum 150 cubic ft., recommend 1*00-500 cubic ft.
Bedroom: 2 twin beds or 1 double bed, 1 dresser 1 1 6" x V4",must have 10' wall area
uninterrupted below W height. Minimum dimension 9'^", minimum area 120 sq.ft., minimum 2,x5'x8l closet.
OCCUPANCY: 1 to 3 people
SQUARE FOOTAGE: Minimum size 800 sq.ft., recommend 800-1000 sq.ft. FUNCTIONAL AREAS:
Living: Same as 1 bedroom
Kitchen: Same as 1 bedroom
Dining: 216" x 3'2" table with chairs for 4 people.
Bath: Minimum 200 cubic ft., recommend 500-600 cubic ft.
Storage: 500-600 cubic ft.
Primary bedroom: Same as one bedroom
Second bedroom: 1 double bed V6"x610n, 1 dresser, 1'6" x 3'6", minimum 2'x5,x8l
Upon completion of the Design I plan to develop a financial picture of this project to include development cost estimates and rental cost estimates. Recommendations for cost reductions and design changes will be made.
While feasibility is the overriding concern for real development, this part of the project is mostly an exercise in exploring the economic realities of the proposed development. Design will consider keeping costs low, but factors such as quality environment and energy will not be neglected at cost cuts.
Prototype per unit cost; Federal Register Vol. 46, No. 124, 6/29/81 For walkup uni ts
0 21,750 1 27,200 2 34,200 3 40,300 Dwelling Construction and Equipment Costs
For row dwel 1 i ngs
23,100 28,300 34,750 41,000
Does not include land cost or site improvements on non dwelling improvements and needs inflation update.
HUD Sect. 8 and Sect. 23 allowable limits on rent for housing assistance in Santa Barbara County; Federal Register Vol. 46, No. 42, 3/18/81.
0 12 3
289 385 458 529
New Construction Sect. 8 Rents Allowed; Federal Register Vol. 45, No. 17
0 1 2 3
N/A 758 810 858
364 412 531 601
Semi detached, row and walkup units
This is provided landlord pays all utilities.
Median Incomes-Santa Barbara from Community Housing Corporation
1- person $15,750
2- person $18,000
3- person $20,250
Low income = 80% of the Median Income Moderate = 80%-120% of the Median Income Middle = 120%-150% of the Median Income
County lists affordability at 3-0 x's the median income.
The Community Housing Corporation advises that a maximum of thirty-five percent (35%) of a person's income should go towards rent.
Santa Barbara's need is for rental units in the low to moderate income range The market aim of this project is for single people and small households of moderate income range. Moderate income ranges for the Santa Barbara area are listed in the Economic section. Units for elderly and handicapped people will be provided on lower levels. Young children would be acceptable, but as most of the schools are on the other side of town, the aim is not towards families with children.
Building costs should be considered in relation to the market aim of this project. Low cost construction should be used.
Rental apartments for low to moderate incomes have an image of being noisy, boxy, cheap and a less than desirable place to live. Primary concern above all others is that a quality living environment be created. By means of lighting, courtyards, landscaping, noise control and good design this goal can be achieved. The cost of these items is often high and careful consideration of options is necessary.
The climate of Santa Barbara is such that most residences should be able to provide most of their heating and cooling needs from natural means. This often becomes a problem in higher density, low cost units. Incorporation of energy design factors such as daylighting, passive heating and cooling,and solar hot water.
Consideration of the energy used in building materials will be made. Recycled materials will be used where appropriate. Low energy materials and construction techniques will be explored for their use in this design.
Energy Conservation Design Manual for New Residential Construction, Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission.February 1978.
Handbook of Energy Use for Building Construction, R. G. Stein, C. Stein, M. Buckley and M. Green (D.0 E. Ref DOE 20220-1) U S Dept. of Energy. March 1981.
Pacific Regional Solar Heating Handbook. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Solar Energy Group. November 197&.
City of Santa Barbara Coastal Plan, Planning Division, Community Development Department. Augus t 1980.
City of Santa Barbara Housing Element, Community Development Department. 1980.
Climate Study from Mesa Project Design Competition, Community Environmental Council, Santa Barbara, 1982.
Meet i ngs:
Steve Paulstich, Community Housing Corporation Lawerence E. Thompson, Architect
Robert G. Pearson, Deputy Director, Housing Authority of the City of Santa Barbara Graphic Standards, 7th Ed.
Santa Barbara Municipal Code.
Uniform Building Code ( 19 79)-California Energy Code.
HUD Minimum Property Standards.