A new passenger terminal for Evansville Dress Regional Airport, Evansville, Indiana

Material Information

A new passenger terminal for Evansville Dress Regional Airport, Evansville, Indiana a masters thesis project
Engelbrecht, Daniel
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
[44] leaves, [7] leaves of plates : illustrations, maps, photographs ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Terminals (Transportation) -- Designs and plans -- Indiana -- Evansville ( lcsh )
Airports ( fast )
Terminals (Transportation) ( fast )
Airports -- Evansville (Ind.) ( lcsh )
Indiana -- Evansville ( fast )
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )


Includes bibliographical references (leaves 43-44).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master's degree in Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Daniel Engelbrecht.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
08677629 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1980 .E68 ( lcc )

Full Text
Passenger Terminal
Evansville Dress Regional Airport

A New Passenger Terminal for Evansville Dress Regional Airport, Evansville, Indiana
A Masters Thesis Project
Daniel Engelbrecht. for
Architectural Thesis 701
College of Environmental Design University of Colorado, Denver
December 15, 1980

Thesis Proposal Dan Engelbrecht October 27, 1980
College of Environmental Design University of Colorado, Denver
Project Description
My project will be an airport passenger terminal for Dress Regional Airport, Evansville, Indiana. This is a real project that has a high probability of being built in the near future. An airport master plan is presently being prepared, as is a terminal plan. An airport architectural consultant will be hired, and most likely a local architect will be hired to control construction. The city is presently served by three airlines (Delta, Eastern, and US Air) and one commuter airline (Britt). The city has been affected by deregulation of the industry in that service has been reduced, however commuter airlines are expected to fill part of the service void, and a steady growth in business is anticipated well into the future.
Issues Addressed
The new facility should solve all the functional shortcomings of the existing terminal and must be expandable to accomodate growth well into the next century

The architecture should reflect the excitement and beauty of aviation.
Publicity surrounding the project has emphasized improvement of the city's image to out-of-town visitors, based on attempts to attract new industry to the area. Therefore the architecture should promote a prosperous and progressive image for a city that is fighting economic stagnation.
There is a danger that the complex planning of such a project will overwhelm the design process, resulting in a drab and mundane product.
The new airport must reflect concern of the nearby residents that the residential character of their neighborhoods will not be severely affected.
Goals and Objectives
I will learn the implications to design of working within the planning decisions made by others.
I will be introduced to architectural programming, a field in which I have little experience.
I will develope knowledge of functional issues in terminal design.
I will broaden my design experience.
Scope and Limits of the Project
This project will include design of the airport passenger

terminal based on projected space requirements for the year 1985. The interim master plan predicts a need for 43,290 net square feet of terminal area by 1985. For my planning purposes, that figure should be increased by 20% to include pedestrian circulation within the building and by a further 8% to include mechanical spaces. The total for the terminal then becomes 5^104 square feet. My project will also include planning for the future addition of 12,200 square feet of terminal area which will be needed by the year 2000 if airport business increases as predicted.
My project will also include the planning of a new cargo terminal building because the cargo terminal, for functional reasons, needs to be located in close proximity to the passenger terminal and aircraft apron. The cargo terminal will require 10,500 square feet by 1985, and 21,000 square feet by the year 2000.
The project will also include design of parking and vehicular circulation at the terminals.
This project will not include facilities for general aviation as they are adequate in their present location.
The project will not include an FAA control tower or related technical facilities.
I will not change the airport master plan that is being prepared which determines a general location for the new terminal and expanded runway facilities and relocates an existing

highway, ecc., due to Che highly technical nature of such
Ordinarily an airport terminal would be too ambitious a project for a thesis, however I will be starting this project with the advantage of much available resource material which is being prepared for the real architect. I will approach the project as if I were the architectural consultant for terminal design.
Product of the Thesis
The product of this thesis will be an architectural design for the airport terminal and the ciculation and parking facilities directly associated with it. The final presentation will include a model of the building, a site design plan, floor plans, elevations, building sections, and interior perspectives.
Advisory Board
The people in the airport manager's office have graciously cooperated in providing information and resources for the project, and I will seek their input at each phase of the project. Mr. Jim hanford is my contact there. My preferences for faculty advisors are Prof. Prosser, Prof. Vetter, Prof.

Kindig, and Prof. Young (Landscape).
Thesis Preparation Schedule
October 15, I980i collect historical, sociological, economic, and programming data for the project}
November 8, I980i site analysis and restraints;
November 15, 1980i research of airport systems;
December 1, 1980 space allocations
December 10, 1980 submit thesis preparation report;
February 15, 198l generate alternative design concepts;
March 1, 1981i select preferred alternative;
April 1, 1981i design development;
April 25, 1981i presentation.

Site Analysis

Evansville, Indiana is a regional manufacturing and commercial center located in the southwest part of the state with an S.M.S.A. population of 284,959 (1970) projected to be 364,131 by the year 2000. (p.III-6 source 5) historically, the city owes its existence and economic growth to its location on the Ohio River. Economically, the city has a larger percentage of its work force employed in manufacturing (29.4%) and a smaller percentage employed by government than is the case nationally. Unemployment reached 7.3% in 1975, slightly below the national average.
Air transportation is essential to the city's economic viability and there is an ongoing need to improve and expand airport facilities to promote better air transport services. Most scheduled flights from Evansville provide service to Chicago, Indianapolis, St* Louis, Louisville, etc. where passengers make connections for flights to other destinations.

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Evansville Dress Regional Airport is located on the northern boundary of the city which is growing on an east-west axis, roughly parallel to the Ohio River. As the Site Analysis Plan suggests, the airport is confined in terms of physical growth by hilly ground to the east and north, and by development to the south and west. For this reason, there has been some public support for moving the entire airport to a new location. There is a large tract of flat agricultural land east of the city and north of highway 66.
An airport built here might attract more business from Owensboro, Kentucky, and would be more accessible to the eastern suburbs. There has also been a proposal to relocate the airport to "horseshoe bend" peninsula in Kentucky, which is directly across the Ohio River from downtown Evansville. Either location would have advantages over the present location, but the costs of moving the airport would be staggering and probably unjustified for a facility that is predicted to realize only moderate growth in the foreseeable future.
The only major highway in the north-south direction serving Evansville is highway 41, which is also the primary link between the city and Interstate 64, 14 miles to the north. Local government officials have had moderate success in promoting the development of light industry along this section of highway 41. The present location of the airport contributes to the attractiveness of this industrial corridor

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Co industry and provides a strong argument for not relocating the airport. The conclusion of airport personnel seems to be that the expense of adapting the presently inadequate site to meet anticipated growth would be far less than relocating the airport.
Adapting the airport to meet present and future needs will involve many changes and much expense. Existing runways are adequate for the near future. The Interim Master Plan Report indicates the need for a new NE/SW runway (17-35) by the mid-1990s to replace existing runway 18-36. Such a runway would cross highway 57, necessitating an underpass for the highway. It would also require much regrading of the existing terrain and relocation of several homes and businesses. It would be an expensive project, but less so if planned w?ell in advance of construction. The feasibility of constructing runway 17-35 helps to justify the expenditure of money for more immediate needs.
The general aviation facilities at Dress Airport are adequate at present, but the potential closings of several nearby general aviation airports suggest that these facilities at Dress may need to expand much beyond present capacities very soon. At present, general aviation facilities and the passenger terminal which serves the scheduled air carriers are crowded together on the same site with no room to expand. Moving the passenger terminal would provide space for the growth of general aviation facilities.
Of course, the most obvious and serious shortcoming


at Evansville Dress Regional Airport is the inadequacy of the existing passenger terminal and its related facilities.
There are too few automobile parking spaces at present and no room to conveniently expand. The aircraft parking apron is so small that tail sections of airplanes parked there penetrate the 7:1 transition slope of runway 18-36 requiring an FAA waiver. The terminal building itself is already much too small. Visitor waiting areas and the baggage claim area share a room that is frequently overcrowded. Security stations are not well located and holding areas for boarding passengers are the most inadequate of all these facilities. Passengers are exposed to the elements when crossing the apron to board aircraft, a major inconvenience in the frequently inclement weather. Circulation inside the building is not well organized. The building has been expanded and renovated numerous times since 1948 and the resulting architectural effect projects an unfavorable image for the city. On top of all this, the roof leaks badly. Expanding the existing building again would be a band-aid solution to the problem of overcrowding. While this is perhaps the cheapest alternative in the short run, such a strategy would just postpone a larger expenditure in the future.
I have identified three alternative sites at Dress Airport for the new passenger terminal. Alternative site number 1 is directly north of Tri-State Aero's general aviation facility. It would provide direct access and exposure to highway 41 and would have adequate space for expansion. The liabilities

of the site would include the need to relocate highway 57 and acquire land not presently owned by the airport. Also, the topography is not favorable at this site.
Alternate site number 2 is east of runway 4-22. There is abundant space here for expansion as well as potentially useful topography. However, there would be great difficulty in providing access to highway 41. Airport traffic would have to use secondary streets to reach the terminal and would have to cross railroad tracks as well. This site is also too close to residential areas.
Alternate site number 3 is preferred by airport personnel and is likely to be recommended by planners. This site is at the north edge of airport property near the existing FAA control tower and the Sunbeam Plastics building. Locating the new terminal here would require the relocation of highway 57 north of its present path, which is an expensive proposition. However, the site has good access to highway 41, adequate space for expansion, and potentially quite useful topography. It is centrally located with respect to existing and future runways. The decision to locate the new terminal here is almost a foregone conclusion. Residents of McCutch-anville (north of the site) have voiced some objections to the closer presence of the terminal. To minimize the impact of the inevitable noise and traffic, local officials should prohibit the development of commercial real estate, often located adjacent to airport terminals, along the relocated portion of highway 57. Such development should occur along highway

41 instead. Finally, when runway 17-35 is constructed, the new terminal will be isolated from the general aviation facilities which will remain in their present location. Direct vehicular access between the two terminal areas (not via h.w. 57)should be facilitated at that time.

The following is a brief breakdown of climatological
conditions in the Evansville area. Statistics are presented
for Denver, Colorado and other cities for the purpose of
Average annual rainfall in inches (source 6)
Evansville 50"
Denver in r1 1 o
Heating degree-days (source 6)i
city H.D.D. avg . winter temo.
Evansville 4435 45 F
Chicago 6200 37
Denver 6283 38
Atlanta 2961 52
Cloud cover factor in Langleys per day (source 4) i
city Lang/day
Evansville 360 (relat. low due to clouds)
Chicago 345
Denver 425
Atlanta 410
Dry bulb/wet bulb temperature differential (small differential indicates a high humidity) (source 6):
city DB temp. WB temp.
Evansville 95 78
Chicago 95 o in p''
Denver 95 O o
Atlanta o in ON 76
Houston 95 CO o o

Sun angles (Evansville, 38 3' IN. lat., oc 0 u> 1* W long.)
(source 3): June 22 6 am Sam 10am noon 2 pm 4pm 6pm
al cicude 14 37 61 75 61 37 14
azimuth 71 83 111 180 249 272 289'
SepC. 24 altitude 0 23 43 52 43 23 0
azimuth 90 110 133 180 222 250 270*
Dec. 21 altitude 0 7 22 29 22 7 0
azimuth 127 150 180 o o 233
Prevailing breezes are from Che souchwesc in all


This section of the thesis preparation report involves the development of a program on which, space requirements for the passenger terminal will be determined. The process of developing such a program is complex and technical. By necessity, I have relied on the "Master Plan Interim Report" (source 5) for nearly all the data in the program I will use on this project. The Interim Report was not meant to provide a final and detailed analysis of space requirements for the new passenger terminal, only to provide "ballpark" estimates as they relate to planning issues for the airport. Nonetheless it is an adequate source on which to base the program for my project. Table VI-3 of the report lists terminal space requirements and I have expanded this table, making many assumptions in the process, to arrive at more specific numbers on space requirements suitable for this academic exercise.
Prior to beginning the design phase of this thesis project,
I will have an opportunity to discuss the project with airport personnel to clarify, validate, and correct the assumptions I have made.
In addition to the program I have developed, I will include in this section of my report a few of the graphs and charts from the Interim Report upon which Table VI-3 was developed, with my impressions and comments on their significance
Table IV-2 (p.IV-4 source 5) indicates two important trends at Evansville Dress Regional Airport. One trend is

the steady but not spectacular growth in use of the passenger terminal by airline customers. The need and demand for scheduled service is large and consistent enough to warrant continued airline service despite short-term factors which may cause temporary declines in demand and service. The increase in passengers per departure is a key trend, affecting profitability and efficiency of aircraft utilization by the airlines. The increase is a favorable trend which does, however, imply a potential strain on terminal facilities due to larger planes and load factors, with fewer total flights.
Table IV-2
Year Enplaned Passengers- Departures Performed1 Enplaned Passeng* per Departure
1969' 168,140 5,939 28.3
1970 164,537 N. A.
1971 163,826 5,592 29.3
1972 181,714 5,906 30.8
1973 188,733 5,862 32.2
1974 202,889 5,313 38.2
1975 202,578 5,564 36.4
1976 216,413 5,882 36.8
1977 230,0002
1978 254,0002 5,990

Predicting growth in aviation activity is always a difficult task, especially at present, due to the effects of such unresolved issues as the "energy crisis',' the unstable national economy, and airline industry deregulation. It was predicted that the oil embargo would have a severe impact on general aviation during the mid-1970s but the actual result was just the opposite. The 55 mph speed limit made travel by automobile much more time consuming, and private aviation, at relatively high speeds attracted many new customers. Air transport is however, more energy intensive than surface transportation and ultimately the future of air travel will depend upon the development and cost of alternative renewable fuels, as finite reserves of fossil fuels are further depleted.
The long-range impact of airline deregulation is predicted to be bad for. smaller cities and airports, and good for larger cities that are served by long-range routes. It is simply more profitable to fly larger airplanes longer distances than to fly smaller airplanes shorter distances. Significant service cutbacks have already occurred in Evansville and all three carriers have eliminated some flights to the city. I believe these effects are temporary. Competition for longer routes and larger cities will eventually result in lower profits for airlines serving such markets, and in smaller cities where the market for air transportation remains strong, service will be developed to meet the demand. It has been predicted tiat commuter airlines will expand into these markets, but it is doubtful, in my opinion, that they can profitably


serve 500,000 passengers per year (see figure IV-1) in the small aircraft they presently utilize. Ultimately, deregulation should benefit all sectors of the airline industry.
Figure IV-1 (P.IV-3 source 5) is a graph showing "enplaned passengers" on an annual basis and forecasting the future use of the airport in these terms. Space requirements are based indirectly on these predictions, which for aforementioned reasons, are occaisionally incorrect by substantial margins, thus affecting the physical growth of the terminal building. (Architectural implication: flexibility for building expansion must be a major concern.)
Most of the space requirements for the passenger terminal are based directly on "peak-hour" passenger levels. Tables IV-.15 and IV-16 (p. IV-29 source 5) indicate that future requirements are based on the assumption that peak-hour levels will decrease as a percentage of daily totals. But, this may not occur if larger aircraft with larger numbers of passengers per departure/arrival are realized.
Table IV-15
Year Average Daily Total Passengers Peak-Hour as a % of Total Total Peak-Hour Passengers
10/76-9/77 625 30 190
1980 719 30 220
1985 912 29 270
1990 1,134 28 320
1995 1,384 27 370
2000 1,662 25 430

Table IV-16
Year Average Daily Total Passengers Peak-Hour as a % of Total Deplaning Peak-Hour Passengers
6-9/77 633 25 160
1980 719 25 180
1985 912 24 220
1990 1,134 23 260
1995 1,384 22 300
2000 1,662 21 350
Table IV-39 (p. IV-55 source 5) describes the anticipated growth in air cargo business at Dress Airport. Obviously, that growth is expected to be dramatic. There are many unknown factors in this expanding industry which make planning facilities more difficult. (Architectural implication* maximize flexibility and expandability)
Table IV- 39
Year Mai 1 Cargo
1976 320 1,642
1980 350 2,000
1985 400 2,500
1990 450 3,500
1995 500 4,500
2000 600 6,000

Table IV-40, "Summary of Aviation Demand Forecasts" is self-explanatory and is presented here for reference, to describe the overall level of activity at the airport. I find the wide variety of aviation activity to be remarkable considering the relative size of the airport. The passenger terminal must be understood to be just one element (though perhaps the focal point) in a large and diverse complex.
The final table in this section is the program which I have developed for use on this project, in which space requirements are quantified. The spaces listed in the program may be further subdivided later in the design process into rooms and areas in which more specific activities occur. A brief list (certain to be expanded) of such "rooms" without specific square footage requirements follows:
Airline operations: information counters, weight/bal-ance computation rooms, aircraft document room, catering service area, crew/employee lounges and toilets, storage areas.
Public/passenger facilities: public address telephones, flight insurance counters, advertising display space, amusements area, automated bank machine, car rental counters, barbershop, magazine stand, gift shop, public telephones, storage lockers, first aid room, exhibition space.
Offices: conference/meeting room.
Cargo terminal: truck docks, processing area, administration area, reception area, communications center, toilets, personnel lounge, storage/maintenance area.

(p.IV-57 source 5)
Actual^ Forecast
1976 1900 '1905 1990 1995 2000
Scheduled Air Carrier 216,413 260,000 330,000 410,000 500,000 600,000
Nonscheduled Air Carrier 500 1,000 1,600 2,700 4,500 7,000
Scheduled Air Taxi 2,0001 2 2,500 1,000 4,000 5,000 6,500
Total 210,913 263,500 334,600 416,700 509,500 613,500
Total 230 260 310 360 410 470
Enplaning 190 220 270 320 370 4 30
Deplaning 160 100 220 260 300 350
BASED AIRCRAFT 1092 125 170 200 2 30 265
Scheduled Air Carrier 11,764 12,500 13,300 14,000 14,000 15,600
Nonscheduled Air Carrier 192 200 200 300 300 300
Scheduled Air Taxi 1,000* 1,100 1,200 1,300 1,400 1,600
Nonscheduled Air Taxi 1,704 2,000 2, 500 3,100 3,000 4,600
General Aviation 80,100 90,000 120,000 150,000 100,000 210,000
Military 3, 322 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000
Total 90,250 100,000 140,200 171,700 203,300 235,100
VFR 532 60 70 05 100 115
IFR 172 20 25 30 35 45
ANNUAL INSTRUMENT APPROACHES 1,G353 2,750 3,000 4,950 6,100 7,450
ENPLANED MAIL (tons) 320 350 400 450 500 600
ENPLANED CARGO (tons) 1,642 2,000 2,500 3,500 4,500 6,000
1 , >;
19/6 was used as base year since this was the last most complete year for which information was available.
2 .
Estimated potential based on a full year of operation.
1977 data

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Design Criteria

Terminal Concepts (adapted from source 8 pp. 782 i 783)
A Consolidated terminals are limited to smaller airports.
The existing Evansville Dress Regional Airport terminal utilizes this concept. Difficulty occurs in attempting to expand because the terminal building itself must be expanded to accomodate an increase in gate positions.
B Consolidated finger terminals provide more gate pos-
itions. This concept provides a more compact and centralized terminal building which can mean improved pedestrian convenience, but also more congestion in the terminal building. Stapleton uses this concept.
C Consolidated satellite terminals provide easier man-
euverability for aircraft and service vehicles on the apron. Their major disadvantage results from the expense of providing tunnels, escalators and elevators to transport passengers from the terminal to the departure lounges. This concept is suitable for airports much larger than Evansville's.
DTE Decentralized or unit terminals provide strong identity and control of facilities for the airlines. This concept is appropriate only at very large airports such as JFK in iNew York or Los Angeles International.
F Drive-to-gate terminals provide ample curb space and

an easy concept for expansion, but passengers are frequently inconvenienced by long walks from one end of the complex to the other.
G Mobile lounge terminals require much less total
building area than other terminals. The apron is wide open providing convenient maneuverability for aircraft and flexibility for apron expansion. Dulles International in Washington is the best known such terminal and it is hard to understand why so few others utilize this concept.

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This diagram follows the movements of passengers departing from Evansville Dress Regional Airport. The building spaces associated with each step in the diagram must be organized to complement this process, to minimize congestion and confusion. Connecting passengers are practically non-existent at Dress. (p.77o source 8)

This diagram follows Che movements of passengers arriving at Dress Airport. It is important to isolate these movements and spaces from enplaning passengers as much as possible, (p. 777 source 8)

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It is essential, of course, to keep baggage flow isolated from passenger flow. This is often accomplished by separating passengers and baggage on two levels. By far the largest amount of baggage will originate at the counter check-in. It is quite possible there will be no curb check station at all, and as previously stated, there are very few connecting (transfer) passengers at Dress.
(adapted from p. 779 source 8)

(p. 10 source 10)


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(source 8)

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(source 8)

It may be determined that a finger terminal concept for departure gates is the most advantageous for Evansville Dress Regional Airport, If so, spacing of the gates should be based on maneuverability of the aircraft most likely to be utilized by the airlines serving Evansville. Those aircraft are, at present and for the foreseeable future, the Boeing 727-200 and the DC-9, the 727 being the larger of the two. Occasionally, Boeing 707s and DC8s utilize Dress for charter flights and when other airports are closed by weather. Prudent planning would entail designing one or two of the gates to accomodate these aircraft. (adapted from source ])


(o) The baggage is transported from the aircraft to the
claiming device by a cart and is then off-loaded manually by an attendent.
(b) DIVERTER In th is system the baggage is placed on a conveyor at one end. A diverter moves back and forth along the conveyor and disperses the baggage onto the claiming ctevice.
CAROUSEL A conveyor, from underneath or from above, delivers the baggage to a rotating carousel.
(d) RACE TRACK A conveyor from underneath or from above, delivers the baggage to a continuously circulating conveyor, the length of which will depend upon the terminal layout.
POD The baggage pod is removed from the aircraft and delivered to the claim area. The passengers remove their baggage from the pod.
(p.795 source 8)

manually loaded directly onto the conveyor by an attendant behind a wall and out of view from the passengers.
(g) AUTOMATED This system consists of carts that are operated by a computer system. The passenger inserts his claim ticket into a call box at a desired location, the cart then delivers the baggage at that location.
f'i. 24 (com.) 9aqqaqa claim systanu.
rrv.t 0? DAY
This chart is oni/ an example and loss not pertain to an/ specific airport, airline, or passenger count.

1 The Airport by Blankenship 1974 Praeger Publishing Co. New York
2 Airport Systems Planning by Richard deNeufville
1976 HIT Press Cambridge, Massachusettes
3 _ Architectural Graphic Standards 6th Edition by Ramsey and Sleeper 1970 John Wiley D. Sons, New York
4 Designing and Building a Solar Home by D. Watson
1977 Garden Way Publishing Charlotte, Vermont
5 Evansville Dress Regional Airport Master Plan Interim Report by Arnold Thompson Associates Inc. Chicago, Illinois February, 1980
6 Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings, 5th Edition by \v. McGuiness D E. Stein 1971 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York
2 Planning, and Design of Airports by Robert Horonjeff
1962 McGraw Hill, Inc. New York

Bibliography (cont.)
8 Time Saver Standards by De Chiara and Callender 1973 McGraw Hill New York
9 Uniform Building Code 1979 International Conference of Building Officials Whittier, California
10 Airport Cargo Facilities Federal Aviation Agency Advisory Circular # AC 150/5360-2 1964

Thesis Design