Lakewood cultural arts center

Material Information

Lakewood cultural arts center
Fielding, Jeanne Zeiler
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
92 leaves : illustrations, charts, maps, color photographs, color plans ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Centers for the performing arts -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Lakewood ( lcsh )
Centers for the performing arts ( fast )
Colorado -- Lakewood ( fast )
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )


Includes bibliographical references (leaves 91-92).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Jeanne Zeiler Fielding.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
11279269 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1984 .F53 ( lcc )

Full Text
auraria library

£Hh'0 Doe
Architectural Thesis
presented to the
College of Design and Planning University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for
The Degree of Master of Architecture
Jeanne Zeiler^Fielding
Spring 1984

The Thesis of. jfcADME Zeilee. Fields is approved.
Gary Long, Advisor

I. Introduction
Project Summary 1
Thesis Goals 2
Need for a Cultural Arts Center 3
Concept Lakewood 5
II. Profile Lakewood
History 7
Demographics 10
Transportation 16
Existing Land-Use 19
Zoning 20
III. Climatic Analysis 26
IV. Site Analysis
Description 35
Soils 37
Context 39
V. Code Analysis 48
VI. Architectural Program 63
Acoustical Considerations 75
VII. Preliminary Budject Estimate 79
VIII. Architectural Design 60
IX. Bibliography 91

The need for a cultural arts center in the City of Lakewood can be attributed to several factors all which stem from the roots of the problems associated with random urban sprawl. As Lakewood grew with leaps and bounds and no consciousness toward the future, a pattern of strip commercial development along the main arterials interspersed with residential development became the pattern of growth. There was little planning directed toward support facilities for the cultural and social enrichment of the populous. This can be attributed to lack of funds, lack of city organization and the ability to rely on the well established parent city and its facilities. Now as the Lakewood area has reached the stature of a self-contained city, the people of Lakewood are beginning to demand the amenities and services that they previously had relied upon the City of Denver. There is a sense of identity that the Lakewood area lacks and the proposal of a cultural arts center would began to establish a civic focal point within that area; a place that would symbolize the social and cultural make up of the area.
The demand for a cultural center can also be attributed to a wide spread increase in interest and participation by many in the visual and performing arts. The present number and types of facilities in the Denver Metropolitian area are falling far short of these new demands. To accommodate this situation the proposed cultural arts center will offer a common point of interaction between the various local arts organizations. The facility will also serve as a drawing card for regional and possibly some small national touring groups and arts displays.
Based on the needs of the community, the Lakewood Cultural Arts Center will include a 700 seat theater for drama, music and dance that will be the home of two local repertory groups. Along with the theater will be the necessary support facilities such as scenery shops, storage, loading, costume and dressing areas. The facility will also include a large space for experimental theater and rehearsal. A large multi-purpose room will serve lectures, meetings and banquets. Classrooms for dance and visual arts, a large gallery space for displays and social functions, and administrative offices will also be incorporated. The site layout will include the cultural arts center, loading area and parking for handicapped and staff; the rest being provided by the Lakewood Municipal Center's parking structure.

When approaching an architectural design problem such as the Lakewood Cultural Arts Center there are many issues which influence the final solution of the problem. Over and above the obvious concerns for functionality of the building are issues that allow expression of individual values and concerns. A cultural arts center should be more than a theater where performances occur. It should be a place that conveys an image of cultural and social enrichment while at the same time providing a place of prominence and civic gathering within a community.
Specific to the issue of how a facility conveys an image of a civic focal point within the community is how the facility works with and relates to its surrounding context. In the case of the Lakewood Cultural Arts Center the contextural issues refer to a combination of surrounding developments. The specific problems include how the center will work in conjunction with a park, a museum complex, an office park, a 48-acre mixed-use development and a new municipal building. It is important in the design concept of the area that all these activities work collectively. Each development should not strive to establish a prominent activity center on its own but should take advantage of the relationships and proximities to each other. Each development offers different forms of cultural and social enrichment and growth and together they will create a major activity center and civic focal point that can began to establish an identity within the Lakewood area.
The second design concern is that the center should express and convey cultural enrichment and the arts. As a building, the cultural center should be an architectural expression of the richness and social value of the arts as a significant part of community and individual development. In this respect the building should be an art form in itself but it should not be a piece of art that might be obtrusive or offensive to the public. The center should invite everyone to participate by encouraging all ages and types of people to interact within. It is also important that the facility allows versatility and that the architectural image of the building addresses the variation of use and functions. The cultural arts building should also portray the make up of the area. As an element of cultural and social enrichment it should express the values, sophistication and goals of the public. It should be an expression of culture and the arts specific to the Lakewood area.

The City of Lakewood has done a feasibility study on the need and demand for a cultural facility to serve its people. The study was done following background research on the development of community arts organizations in the Metropolitan Denver area. The research entitled, "Cultural Explorations in Metropolitan Denver" done in 1981
established the need for improvement in provisions for arts for the public. The findings state:
1. Arts activity has grown at a faster rate than
the development of foundations of support or the growth of arts organizations' management
capabilities and therefore lack ways to serve the community and gain financial and volunteer support from the community.
2. To illustrate the rate of rapid growth in the interest and participation in the arts, more than half of the arts organizations have been established in the last eight years and two-thirds were not in existence before 1970.
3. Presently there exist a substantial gap between the level of activity and support for the largest art organizations and that of the smaller, newly established community arts groups. The twenty-two largest organizations represent 15* of the arts organizations yet spends 92* or $23 million of the total metro area expenses. These large groups include the Denver Art Museum, the Denver Symphony and the Bonfils Theater.
4. The arts community named lack of funds as the greatest obstacle to achieving their goals with lack of facilities for performance, practice and storage as the second greatest obstacle.
From the establishment of the above issues, Lakewood did its own feasibility study of the arts needs in the area. The information was obtained through a questionnarie to the public and interviews with local arts organizations. The findings state:
1. There was an overwhelming response in favor of a cultural arts center in Lakewood.
2. Lakewood currently has two active acting groups:
Adult Childrens Theater (ACT) and the Lakewood

Players. Dance, instrumental, vocal and visual arts classes/associations/clubs also exist.
They identified the need for a place to perform, practice and store their support facilities and were in favor of a cultural arts facility. Morrison Opera Company, Jefferson Symphony and Colorado Choral expressed possible use of the facility.
3. Red Rocks Community College, was interested in establishing some kind of agreement for use of the theater rather than building one of its own.
4. The Historic Village at Belmar could complement a cultural arts facility on nearby property since museums are considered a part of a community's culture.
5. Possible funding sources for a facility do exist but a bond issue might be necessary to fund the facility.
6. Meeting space for community organizations is in great demand in Lakewood. The typical size would be for 25 people but could range anywhere from 10 to 1000. There is presently no facility in Lakewood to accommodate meetings of large groups (500-1000).
These findings illustrate that there is a definite need and interest in providing a cultural arts facility for the community of Lakewood, Colorado. The facility should accommodate the learning, performing and visual display of the arts. As of December, 1983, the Lakewood Cultural Arts
Center is awaiting approval by the city. A Citizens
Advisoiry Committee has be established. It has toured and research various local facilities and come up with a recommendation for a cultural arts center to serve Lakewood. This recommendation is in the form of a report and is waiting approval by the city council. When approved a market study will be done on just what size a facility the city can support and possible ways for financing it.

Concept Lakewood is a city plan developed in 1975 as a pattern for future development in the area. It is the means by which the city can work towards some kind of organization within its early random and uncontrolled growth. As rural Jefferson county began to grow as an extension of the City of Denver a pattern of "leapfrog" development occurred. Residential areas grew randomly while major tranportation routes attracted commercial development. By analyzing Lakewood's existing state and trying to establish a unified pattern for future development, several alternative patterns of future urban growth that would begin to establish an identity within the area were evaluated.
1. The first alternative was to simply let the present development pattern continue.
2. The second was to establish a single "downtown
area". This was felt to be to difficult and economically unfeasible because of the
relocation and concentration of resources into a single area with the possible detriment of other established areas within the city.
3. The last alternative and the one that has been
accepted as the policy for future urban development is the establishment of activity centers. These centers would cluster
activities in such a way as to create a sense of place while encouraging a broad spectrum of social activity. The activities within a
community center would function as a whole with each activity complementing and contributing to the others. The centers should have easy access with an emphasis on pedestrian and mass transit for internal movement; they should have a pedestrian scale design, they should portray a feeling of identity and should be compatible with the surrounding community. The feeling is that these commercial centers would eventually take the place of the present strip development and that marginal business uses would soon be replaced by residential or other uses.
To establish the Concept Lakewood development plan, four community activity centers have been designated within the city (See map). The proposed site for the cultural arts center in combination with the new Lakewood Municipal Center, the 125 acre Belmar Park including the Historic Village of Belmar, the Belmar Office Park and Villa Italia

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Shopping Center all combine to form the Villa Italia Community Activity Center. It ia felt that this center will become the dominate focal point within the city with the other three areas serving as secondary focal points. As a whole the area is envisioned to contain commercial, office, entertainment, residential, transportation and open space land uses.

The following sections will give a general overview of the make up of the Lakewood area in reference to the proposed cultural art center.
The Lakewood developed as a rural farm region during its initial stages of growth. Poineers who were moving west to establish homesteads found the open plains favorable for farming and livestock. Early development occured along Bear Creek and eventually moved throughout the area as an irrigation system was established. As the rural farmers settled the area, the wealth Denverites began to move west for a place to build their country homes. The Lakewood area was first recorded in 1889 as a subdivision development from W. Colfax Ave. to W. 10th from Harlan to Carr St. This development died with the 1893 Silver Crash. From that period on until about 1961 when talk of incorporating the area was initiated, the area was refered to as Lakewood, a part of rural Jefferson County. From 1950 to 1961 several unsuccessful attempts at either incorporating the area or annexing it to Denver where made. Finally in 1969 the citizens voted to incorporate the area as Jefferson City but the name was soon changed back to Lakewood.
The history of the proposed site for the cultural arts facility centers around the country estate of May Bonfils Stanton. The property is the site of one of the three lakes in the Lakewood area. Fredrick G. Bonfils, the flamboyant cofounder of the Denver Post, used the lake as a counrty fishing and game hunting retreat. When he died in 1933, there began an immense feud between the two daughters, Helen Bonfils and May Bonfils Stanton over the legalities of their inheritance. Helen gained all control of the newspaper operation and control of stocks until May went to court. One thing May did receive from her father was the Kountze Lake property. She named the property Belmar after her mother. Belle and her self. In 1937, May began building her country home; a french chateu modeled after the Petite Trianon in Versailles, France built by Marie Antoinette. The

white marblized terra cotta mansion faced the lake, then changed to Lake Bonfils. The mansion held a commanding view west from Pikes Peak to Longs Peak. The entire estate was 250 acres and included 10 acres of landscaped grounds and formal gardens, the 50 acre man-made lake for irrigation and pleasure and a large protected pasture for deer.
May Bonfils Stanton died in 1962 and it was hoped that her beautiful estate would be turned over to the city for use as a museum. Instead May stipulated that the estate be turned over to the Catholic Archdiocese of Denver for religious or church related activities only and if it was not used for this purpose that it should be torn down because "a home is a very personal and private place." In 1971 the estate was torn down to make way for the Irongate Office park. Then after much deliberation the City of Lakewood obtained 125 acres of the grounds which is now being developed into a wildlife reserve, park and Historic Homestead Museum.
The buildings that are a part of the museum complex include an early homestead and carraige house first owned by Charles Hallek a wealthy business man and later by May Bonfils. At one time the Murat Cabin, a log cabin built in the initial stages of Denver's growth, was brought to the site by May as a retreat and to prevent its destruction. It has been said that she readily aided in the restoration of old historic buildings because her past was so important to her. May Bonfils felt she was a direct descendent of Napolean and seemed to live in the aura of his time. She was often referred to as the "last Victorian lady". Her extensive collection of antiques alluded to the fact; and included a piano played by Chopin and the bed in which she slept belonged to Marie Antoinette.
The prominence of May Bonfils Stanton and her evident interest in culture and the arts makes the proposed site for the Lakewood Cultural Arts Center very appropriate. The site was actually give to the city by Charles Stanton specifically for the use as a cultural center. It was to work in connection with the Belmar Plaza Development also proposed by Charles Stanton. The aura of the property carries many advantages toward the development of the area into a major activity center within Lakewood.


The following information gives a general idea of the trends in growth, economics and population make up of the Lakewood area. The information has been gathered from the 1980 Census data and compared to the 1970 Census data. The significant changes in the trends from 1970 to the present include:
1. A slower rate of population growth.
2. Evolution of the age-sex structure of the population resulting in:
a. An increased median age
b. A smaller proportion under five years old. of the population
c. An increase in the percentage year olds. of 25 to 34
d. A growing proportion over 65 years of age. of the population
3. A substantial decrease in median household size.
4. A more ethnically diverse population.

The following graph illustrates the trend in population growth for the past twenty-three years. The graph shows the greastest increase in population between 1960 and 1970 prior to Lakewood's incorporation in 1969. The projected 1983 population at that time was 170,000 rather than the current 120,000. That illustrates that the growth rate between 1970 to 1980 has dropped to 22.7* down from the growth rate between 1960 to 1970 at 145*. The most widely accepted scenerio is that the growth rate will remain constant at 22.7* for the next seventeen years.

% of Populollon
The following chart illustrates the comparison between the population makeup in 1970 to the population makeup in 1980. In 1970 the median age
of the residents was 26.9 years of age. Lakewood
had a high proportion of children age seventeen or younger and a high proportion of adults age twenty-five to forty-four. The area was also experiencing an increase in the population of 65 and older residents. In comparison, the percentage of the
population under fourteen years of age has
decreased significantly due to a slow down in the birth rate. The 15-39 age group has increased due to the aging of the previously large seventeen and under group and migration into the city. The 40-54 age group has remained fairly constant. And the 55 and over group has increase significantly due to lower death rate, aging of the existing population and migration. The longer life span of the female is also evident in the chart.

The median household income for Lakewood in 1979 was $23,250 and ranged for $45,849 to $14,149. This average was above the average for the Denver-Boulder area at $19,989. The Lakewood median
household income is second only to Arvada at $24,747 for the Denver Metropolitan area.

The median home value increased from 322,900 in 1970 to 375,400 in 1980. The national median home value increased from 317,000 in 1970 to 347,200 in 1980. This shows that Lakewood's median home value was 37.4* greater than the national figure in 1980 and gives an indication of the affluence of the area.
The chart illustrates the trend in level of education completed by the residents in the Lakewood area in 1970 and 1980. The percentage of the population who have completed one to three or four or more years of college has increased substantially. This shows a significant regard to the importance of higher education.
Ytors of School Computed
Although small, the black population in the Lakewood area has increased from .1% in 1970 to 5x in 1980. Other ethnic groups in the area have not been compared to previous data but exist within the Lakewood area. This data shows the beginnings of a diverse social mix which is considered advantageous for community.

A generalization of the demographic makeup of the Lakewood shows that the community is affluent, comprised of all age groups and is generally very well educated. This generalization reinforces the idea that the public would be interested in the arts, would be able to support them and that the facility would have to serve a wide range of interests.

Presently, the transportation system for the City of Lakewood is overwhelmingly a system serving the private automobile. The future plans stress a multi-modal" transportation system that incorporates and improves all forms of transportation: pedestrian, bicycle, mass transit and automobile. The future transportation system improvements will work to reinforce the Activity Center concept by ease of access and sufficient accommodations for all the forms of travel to the area.
The first objective is to increase and improve the automobile mode of travel. Wadsworth Blvd. which is the main north-south arterial through Lakewood interects the Villa Italia Activity Center just east of the proposed site. It is presently running over capacity and has several very dangerous intersections; Alameda Ave. and Wadsworth Blvd. included. The proposal to improve auto travel and make way for development of other modes of transportation is to create a level separation. The separation along Wadsworth Blvd. would occur between Alameda Ave. and Dakota Ave. with an "Urban Crossover Plaza" located above Wadsworth Blvd. at present grade. The plaza concept will help unify the area into a single activity center by eliminating the restriction of travel presently caused by Wadsworth Blvd. This proposal would help reduce the traffic impact on the area by reducing noise, dirt, pollution and safety problems. The second alternative proposal to help ease traffic conjestion at the Alameda and Wadsworth intersection is the increase Wadsworth to six lanes. This solution would not be adequate for the amount of traffic that will be attracted to the area when it is fully developed and would just ease present traffic conjestion.
The pedestrian mode of transportation is involved in all trips to and from a destination. At present pedestrain travel is very inconvenient because of the lack of a footpath/sidewalk system in terms of a defined surface, automobile separation, maintenance and continuity. A system of setback sidewalks should be incorporated in all new developments.
The bicycle mode of transporatation is in the same state as the pedestrian mode. There as a lack of a defined system except for the Alameda Bikeway which is a separated bike path starting at the Alameda and Wadsworth intersection and running west to the limits of residential development along the western boundary of Lakewood. There is a need for two bike systems. One for the recreational riders which is separated from traffic and one for the commuter that runs

with the traffic for greater efficiency of speed and destination.
The mass transit system relies on RTD. It is set up in a fixed line transit system supplemented by a network of small feeder buses designed to connect the residential areas directly to the transit exchange points. Wadsworth Blvd. is the north-south line with Villa Italia serving as a main exchange station. This is set-up to facilitate the development of the activity center.
These transporation concepts illustrate the general lack and need for improvement of the present modes of transportation. Any design development should deal with all forms of transportation as they relate to a specific site and connect to adjacent sites. Some more references to plans for the various modes of transportation specific to the proposed cultural arts center are illustrated in the PUD on the Belmar Plaza Development (Zoning) and the proposal for the Belmar Park (Context, Site Analysis).

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The following map illustrates the present land uses in the area. Single family is the predominate land use. Commercial land uses are located along the arterials: Wadsworth Blvd. and Alameda Ave.. Multi-family housing is generally dispersed throughout the area with a somewhat clustered pattern. The random distribution of vacant land is characteristic of the "leapfrog" urban development pattern common to suburban areas.
W 6th Ave
1st Ave
Alameda Ave
W Mississippi Ave
W Florida Ave
W Jewell Ave

The zoning requirements for the proposed Lakewood Cultural Arts Center fall under the Belmar Official Development Plan. This is a planned unit development (PUD) that has been established to set up a comprehensive design plan for the entire development as a whole. The Belmar Plaza PUD has been amended to a Mixed-Use district incorporating office, commercial and residential district regulations. The district has been divided into 10 tracts each with a proposed use that works in conjunction with the others.


The objective of the design standards set up in the development plan for the Belmar Plaza Development is to achieve a development of sufficient density and mixture of uses to reinforce the concept of the activity center- The desire is for the activity center is be an incorporation of civic, retail, hotel, commercial and residential uses. The hope is to insure a mixed-use, high-quality development that will allow individual design expression while still maintaining the cohesive workability as a whole.
1. The first urban design concept for the development is to create a central "mall-like" open space (Tract 9) with high intensity mixed use along its perimeter and lower intensity uses surrounding that. The idea is to create a urban core with Tract 3 serving as a transition zone between the Belmar Plaza Development and the Belmar Park with a proposed use of mid-rise, high quality housing or hotel. Tract is intended to be a transistion to Villa Italia Shopping Center and is designated commercial use. Tract 7 is also designated commercial and will serve as a transistion across Alameda.
2. The second urban design concept for the development is to retain the city street grid as a framework for organizing the different uses in the development. The introduction of the grid system can be seen on the map.
3. The third urban design concept is to create a public open space which cuts through the development diagonally and is used as an organizing element. The proposed cultural arts center (Tract 2) and a view of the Denver Skyline will work as focal points at either end of the open space mall (Tract 9).
The fourth design concept is develop a common framework for public improvements throughout the entire development as a means to achieve a unity and wholeness of design for the development. This would include standards for landscaping, paving, lighting, signage and outdoor furnishings to create a common urban fabric.

5. The fifth urban design concept focuses on the form and character of the buildings within the development. The idea is to set up a standard for intensity of uses, circulation patterns, open space zones and design criteria for the exterior form and location of buildings with an emphasis on human scale.
Following is the proposed use for each designated tract within the Belmar Plaza Development.
Tract 1: South Allison Parkway Extension as the main route through the site.
Tract 2: Proposed site for the Lakewood
Cultural Arts Center designated Off ice.
Tract 3: Mixed-Use: High Density Residential, or Commercial restricted to hotel of offices use with drive-through provisions.
Tract 4,6,8,10: Mixed-Use: High Density
residential and Commercial.
Tract 7: Community Commercial.
Tract 9: Open Space ,
The following design restrictions are in reference to the site for the proposed cultural arts center (Tract 2).
DENSITY: 0.5:1.0 gross floor area to gross site area (FAR) .
Gross floor includes all covered and enclosed space on all floor levels but does not include a covered open space, atriums, inclosed crosswalks or other structures intended for pedestrian use, basement storage areas, and loading areas.
SETBACKS: Minimum front yard setback 20 feet.
Minimum side yard or rear yard setback 0 feet of atleast 5 feet.
Minimum setback for any yard containing a loading dock shall be increased to 65 feet at right angles to the loading dock.

OPEN SPACE: 25H of open apace to lot area.
VEHICULAR/PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION AND ACCESS: The internal road aystem will retain the same grid system established by Alameda and Wadsworth. Pedestrian and bicycle circulation within the site will be accomplished by easements or setbacks adjacent to the rights-of-way. S. Allison Parkway Extension is to serve as the main collector street and will include a perimeter landscape and sidewalk strip on each side. The bike path will be provided within the landscape strip on the west boundary of Tract 2 and on the south side of S. Allison Way between northwest corner of Tract 2 to Wadsworth Blvd.
PARKING: Parking for the Lakewood Cultural Arts
Center will be served by the existing parking structure for the adjacent Lakewood Municipal Building. On site parking should be provided for staff and performers as space permits. Loading docks, outdoor storage and trash areas should be screened by fence or wall area at least 5 feet high.
FLOOR AREA PREMIMUMS: Additional floor area may be added for the following premimums.
1. Five square feet of additional floor area for each square foot of plaza which is open and readily available to the public by two access points, unobstructed from its lowest level to the sky and attractively design and maintained for maximum pedestrian use.
2. Three and one-half square feet of additional floor area for each square foot of enclosed arcade area which is open to the public at all times on 25?i of its perimeter with a minimum dimension of 12 feet in width and height.
3. Two square feet of additional floor area for each square foot of enclosed arcade that provides access to a plaza and it open to the public at all times and has no less than 255i of it perimeter open to the plaza. It should have two access points with a minimum dimension of 20 feet wide and 12 feet high.

LANDSCAPING: Planting along collector and local
streets and bike and pedestrian way should be spaced 30 feet apart or in occasional clusters. 3 caliper minimum or G'-& height minimum for evergreens. Plazas and private sites should have one tree per 1000 sq.ft. Paving should be consistent with the exterior paving for the Belmar Plaza Development.
LIGHTING: Exterior light sources are recommended
to be mercury halide (white) or mercury vapor (blue-green).
SIGNAGE: Signs should be used for identification
or directional purposes within the plaza.
OUTDOOR FURNITURE: The placement of outdoor
furniture should support specific outdoor activities. Eight foot long benches are required:
1. One bench for each 5 feet of total entrance width.
2. One bench per 500 lineal feet along the bike/pedestrian paths. the benches should be located in conjunction with activities and landscaping.
ARCHITECTURAL CONTROLS: These controls have been
set up to provide a degree of consistency within the plaza development.
1. Color: Should be in the range of warm earth tones. Accent colors are permitted.
2. Texture: Exterior texture is encouraged to
be of similar range with contrasting
textures permitted when they complement the design.
3. Screening of Mechanical and Electrical
Equipment: The screening of equipment is
required and should be compatible with the architecture of the building. The
equipment should not be able to be seen from 10 feet above the ground or at any point within a 200 foot radius.

4. Reflective Glazing: Any material that
reflects its own color as opposed to the color of incoming light will be prohibited because of its visual interference.
The above design standards have been established to encourage a unifying urban fabric within the Belmar Plaza Development. Each design will be individually evaluated on its compatibility with adjacent buildings, its quality of design, pedestrian scale and integration of landscaping features.

The climate in the Denver Metropolitian area is classified as a semi-arid climate which is characteristic of the central Rocky Mountain Region. More Specifically, Denver enjoys mild, sunny weather without the extremely cold mornings of the higher altitudes and mountain valleys or the hot afternoons typical of the lower elevations in this region. Any weather extremes are characteristically of short duration. Denver's moderate climate results largely from its location at the foot of the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains which can cause redirection of much of the severe weather from the north out into the plain region. Another factor for Denver's mild, semi-arid climate is its geographic location which is remote from any large moisture sources and results in Denver having a low relative humidity, low average precipitation and considerable sunshine, (see climatic data, p. 3)
A breakdown of typical seasonal characteristics begin with spring. Spring is generally the wettest, cloudiest and windest of the seasons. Much of the precipitation during this season is in the form of snow accumulated during the early months of the season. The summer season is characteristic of clear, sunny mornings followed by afternoon cloudiness. The cloudiness is often accompanied with an afternoon thundershower. This pattern of afternoon thundershowers helps to reduce hot summer temperatures. Fall is the most mild and pleasant of the seasons and any severe weather, which occurs infrequently, last only a couple of days. Winter has the least precipitation of all the seasons and what it does obtain occurs in the form of snow. Weather can be quite severe but it generally does not last.
A climatic analysis for the Denver area can be followed on the following pages. The method is the Mahoney method which was developed as a means of translating climatic data into some physical design recommendations. In Table 1 is tabulated the basic climatic characteristics of Denver, Colorado. Table 2 diagnoses these characteristics by evaluating the nature of thermal stress and the need for controls to maintain a comfort level. Table 3 uses the factors obtained in Table 2 and translates them into design recommendations in response to climatic factors. The recommendations in Table 3 are generalized and appropriate only for the schematic design stage. Following the Mahoney tables is a thermal comfort chart. This is another method of anaylyzing the thermal comfort of a climate and illustrates when the relative humidity in relation to the temperature are within or outside of the thermal comfort range; shown by the shaded area. This chart is shown here

more as a concise illustration of the Mahoney analysis but can be used to determine design responses.
After going through the Mahoney method of climatic analysis, some general design recommendations in regard to climatic data was obtained. For a thermal comfort response, the building should be oriented north and south with the long axis being the east-west axis. The plan should be compact to retain heat because there is little need for air movement for cooling. 20X to 40?s of the wall area is the recommended size for window openings. Wall and roof construction should be designed for heavy thermal mass with a recommended time lag of eight hours. All these factors are a good basic set of parameters for schematic design in response to climate.
Other considerations to look at in making a climatic analysis are if there are any microclimate factors that could alter a site's climatic characteristics. Three groups of factors can deviate regional climatic data for a specific site. The first is topography with considerations regarding slope, orientation, elevation and extreme changes in elevation such as ravines or hills. Generally temperature stratifies with the warmest air at ground level; features such as ravines tend to collect cooler air caused by air inversions. These factors also affect wind patterns and precipitation. The second group is ground surface cover which considers whether the surface is permeable to water, heat absorbing or reflective. For example, a large expanse of asphalt will raise temperatures several degrees. The last group considers three dimensional objects and their influence by altering air movement, shading and sheltering. Basic examples of this include buildings, trees and hills. All these factors should be considered for the alteration on the general climatic characteristics. They can only by estimated or site measured and should be regarded as variables that slightly alter climatic data for a specific site.
Microclimatic considerations specific to the Lakewood Cultural Arts Center site are generally insignificant. The topography is basically flat sloping off to the southeast and will not result in any temperature stratification. The only physical features that will have any affect on the microclimate are the Kountze Lake and the Lakewood Municipal Center. The predominant wind is from the south and will reach the site by passing over the 40 acre lake. This body of water could have a cooling effect on the air temperatures. As far as the Lakewood Municipal Center; its orientation to the cultural arts will not block wind or solar access. Basically, the proposed site is wide open and will be little affected by microclimate conditions.

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is displayed by monthly average winds (solid
lines) and Each line
fastest mile represents a
(dashed certain
lines). month.

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Latitude &p4cJ kl
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J F. M A M j j A s 0 N 0 High AMT
Monthly mean max. 6<6> 10 \L> Z\ h ZU? \ ^>1 Z6.6 W.6 \Z, 6 3i 11
Monthly mean min. -7 -7 \.D u>& 11, o \A ,5 14 6 '53 *7.S> 4
Monthly mean range 16.5 14.6 16 16 \bh 16? 1 U> 10,6 !6,6 15,6 I6.£> Low AMR
Relative humidity: %
Monthly mean max. a.m. 63 06 67 6?7 7c? 61 66 63 65 .64 >.6 ''4
Monthly mean min. p.m. 46 42. 4C> 34 3-3 63 34 Sc5 £4 -- 44 - /
Average $4 63.6 63.6 Zo.h 34 36 31 31.3 61 47.3 36?
Humidity group 6 6 6 o 3 3 2> o o S> 3 6 6
Humidity group: 1 If average RH: below 30%
2 30-50%
3 50-70%
4 above 70%
Rain and wind
Rainfall, mm om 0>b~l 1 Wind, prevailing 6 6 4= 4> 6? 6 4? 7?
Wind, secondary 6V7 6W ew -77 6W ew ew ew ew ew 6>V - \V
j F M A M j j A s 0 N D

AMT over fO O o AMT 15-20 *C AMT below 15*C
Comfort limits Day Night Day Night Day Night
Humidity group: i 2634 17-25 23-32 14-23 21-30 12-21
2 26-31 17-24 22-30 14-22 20-27 12-20
3 23-29 17-23 21-28 14-21 19-26 12-19
4 22-27 17-21 20-25 14-20 18-24 12-18
Diagnosis: C J F M A M J j A s 0 N D
Monthly mean max. C?,i> & I o 13 ZL>h 31. Zb& n,e> \Z 13
Day comfort: upper 23 ZU? c(t> 23 23 Z(* ZCfi 33 33
lower 11 11 11 H 11 11 H 11 11 n 11 11
Monthly mean min. 1 '7 ~Ab I II \3 14 =T 3 *7.e>
Night comfort: upper 11 11 II 11 II II 11 II 11 n
lower 12 \z XL 12. 121 121 12- IZ \Z \Z IZ IZ
Thermal stress: day c c night C. <3 <3 2? o c- c* <
Humid: H1
Arid: A1 x X X X X X X X X X X X IZ.
A3 X X X X X X Cp_
Meaning Thermal stress Humidity Monthly
Oay Night group mean range
An movement essential HI H 4
H 2. 3 Less than 10'
An movement desirable H2 0 4
Ram protection necessary H3 Over 200 mm
Thermal capacity necessary A1 1. 2. 3 More than 10*
Out door sleeping desirable A2 H 1. 2
H 0 1. 2 More than 10*
Protection from cold A3 c

Recommended specifications
0-10 X 1 Orientation north and south (long axis east-west)
11,12 5-12
0-^1 2 Compact courtyard planning
11. 12 3 Open spacing for breeze penetration
2-10 4 As 3, but protection from hot and cold wind
0. 1 X 5 Compact lay-out of estates
Air movement
3-12 6 Rooms single banked, permanent provision for air movement
1. 2 0-5
5-12 7 Double banked rooms, temporary provision for air movement
0 2-12
0. 1 X 8 No air movement requirement
0, 1 0 9 Large openings, 40-80%
11,12 0. 1 10 Very small openings, 10-20%
Any other conditions X 11 Medium openings, 20-40%
0-2 12 Light walls, short time-lag
3-12 X 13 Heavy external and internal walls
0-5 14 Light, insulated roofs
6-12 15 Heavy roofs, over 8 h time-lag
Out door sleeping
2-12 16 Space for out-door sleeping required
Rain protection
3-12 17 Protection from heavy rain necessary
Indicator totals from table 2
HI H2 H3 A1 A2 A3
& o o \c o 6?

Detail recommendations
Size of opening
0, 1 0 1 Large: 40-80%
1-12 2 Medium: 2540%
&-10 3 Small: 15-25%
11.12 0-3 4 Very small: 10-20%
4-12 X 5 Medium: 2540%
Position of openings
3-12 6 In north and south walls at body height on windward side
1-2 0-5
6-12 X 7 As above, openings also in internal walls
0 2-12
Protection of openings
0-2 8 Exclude direct sunlight
2-12 9 Provide protection from rain
Walls and floors
0-2 10 Light, low thermal capacity
3-12 X Heavy, over 8 h time-lag
10-12 0-2 12 Light, reflective surface, cavity
3-12 13 Light, well insulated
0-9 0-5
6-12 X 14 Heavy, over 8 h time-lag
External features
1-12 15 Space for out-door sleeping
1-12 16 Adequate rainwater drainage
Indicator totals from table 2
H1 H2 H3 A1 A2 A3
& o c> \z o o


0 V. 1
Seal* In milat 3/12/75

\ VH -

The proposed site for the Lakewood Cultural Arts Center is a 2.000 acre plot located within the Belmar Plaza Development. Presently the lot is vacant with very few physical features. There are no existing trees and the only existing vegetation is natural buffalo grass. From visual observation the ground surface is undulating, sloping slightly downward to the southwest. There has not been a plat done on the property so from site observation the property drops off to the southeast from between ten to fifteen feet to a small drainage ditch which runs east-west along the southern portion of the site. There was no water in the
ditch at the time and its necessary use for drainage does not seem evident.

After evaluating the physical characteristics of the site the main restricting features are the size and configuration of the property. There are no evident design restriction from the topographic layout, existing vegetation and adjacent buildings.
The physical advantages of the site include good solar access presently and for the forseeable future because the location of the site adjacent to Belmar Park. Also because of the orientation of the site along Belmar Park there exists a commanding view of the Front Range. From the opposite direction the site also has a direct view of Downtown Denver. This will be affected though when the Belmar Plaza development goes underway. In general the site offers many physical features that would enhance a development such a the porposed cultural arts center.

The subsoil conditions are assumed to be the same as for the Lakewood Municipal Center and any design recommendations are taken from the soils report done for that project. The subsoils encountered consist of a thin surface of topsoil, 0 to 7 feet of stiff, sandy clay and interbedded claystone and sandstone bedrock to the maximum depth drilled of 35 feet. The sandy clays possess high plasticity and tests indicated that they display no to low swell potential. Tests done on the bedrock show no to moderate swell potential at its natural moisture content and moderate to very high swell potential when allowed to air dry prior to adding moisture and testing.
By observation the ground water level was thought to be a problem because of the existence of Kountze Lake about 400 feet from the cultural arts property. When the lake was drained this past summer for development into a park it had refilled with water up to its present level. This could indicate a high water table level in the area or just temporary perching of water during periods of high precipitation. Test done for the municipal project indicate water at between 15 to 30 feet which suggests that there probably exists a impervious layer on top of bedrock that restrict the natural percolation of the water in the lake area. The absence of any natural springs as the park property drops off to Weir Gulch also reinforces this idea. With the assumption that the ground water table is approximately 15 to 30 feet below the surface there are no major design restrictions on the proposed property because of water problems.
Because of the potential high swell characteristics of the bedrock a straight-shaft pier foundation drilled into bedrock was recommended. The same bedrock characteristics also cause a critical situation for floor slabs because soil is exposed and dried during construction and the swelling pressures of bedrock can severely damage slab-on-grade construction as the soil becomes wet and heaves. A solution to this problem is to create an air space beneath the slab by constructing a structural floor. Another solution is to replace a portion of the expansive clays with a compacted nonexpansive, impervious material to support the slab-on-grade. If a slab on grade is

desired than a recommendation of overexcavating the underslab soil to a depth of 3 feet and replacing it compacted with a nonexpanaive, impervious fill to support the slab-on-grade construction is suggested.
To also prevent foundation and floor slab problems it is important to drain water away from the building rapidly. The ground surface surrounding the building should slope down and away from the building at a minimum of 12 inches in the first 10 feet. Landscaping which requires excessive watering and sprinkler heads should be at least 10 feet from the building foundation. An underground drainage system around the perimeter of the building is also recommended for periods of heavy precipitation or watering when temporary perched water tables develop on top of bedrock.

The contextural issue of how a proposed project will respond to an existing environment is very important in creating a place. How the proposed cultural arts center addresses the surrounding developments and vis-a-versa will be a key to how successful the area will be as a civi center. Following are descriptions of the developments tha will work in conjunction with the cultural arts center to create an important place within the City of Lakewood.
The Lakewood Municipal Center is directly northwest of the cultural center site. Its use of materials and form suggest the familar monumentality of a building that houses city functions. The building consists of a grey concrete base with turquoise tinted glazing. The parking garage which is located to the north of the municipal building is a one-story poured-in-place concrete structure. The layout of the site reinforces a connection between the proposed cultural arts center and the parking facility by the use of a strong diagonal. This is advantageous because the cultural center will be dependent on the structure for its parking. The orientation of the Lakewood Municipal Center is to the south with its main facade facing Belmar Park. The entrance into the building is from the north coming directly from the parking structure and leading into the central atrium of the building. The central area is intended to be open 24 hours a day and serve as an entrance to Belmar Park. The important design considerations in relating to the municipal building are the connection to the parking structure and the response to the building's colors, materials and proportions.
r+ 0


A full explanation of the plans for the Belmar Plaza Development is covered in the Zoning section. The Lakewood Cultural Arts Center along with the Lakewood Municipal Center will serve as an anchor or focal point to the diagonal pedestrian mall planned as as organizing element and special feature of the mixed-use development. The cultural arts center and the municipal center should also work together to form a gateway to Belmar Park from the pedestrian mall. Another important relation to the proposed layout for Belmar Plaza is the extension of Yarrow Street south to Irongate Business Park and onto Belmar Museum. The connection of the cultural center to the museum is important because they are both facilities of cultural enrichment and in this case a museum which is commonly located within a cultural facility is not because of the proximity of the Belmar Museum. The orientation of the cultural center to Yarrow Street is therefore important.

Lakewood, Colorado
Owner Cnene,f SiMon Dev floor' GorCx,
'N i i
HOH Associates, Inc.
tot Unverutf Boulevard Suite 400
Denver. Colorado 00200 1303) 399-7602

The 125-acre Belmar Park is planned to be an urban wildlife sanctuary surrounded by more formal park areas and support facilities. The wildlife sanctuary will rely on Kountze Lake for the sustenance of the sanctuary. To facilitate interaction with the natural environment a network of paths will allow the public to observe the wildlife and their habitat. The path will work in conjunction with the proposal for the cultural arts center. The connection of the proposed Lakewood Cultural Arts Center to the park should be very strong to encourage interaction between both. A strong orientation towards the park will also give the cultural center a commanding view of the front range. The amphitheater proposed for the park can be relocated to facilitate both the park and the cultural arts center.


The Belmar Museum is located in the southern portion of Belmar Park. The museum is a working homestead museum which exemplifies early pioneer living. Each spring the museum plants a small crop and harvests it in the fall just as the early settlers would. The complex includes a early carraige house and ranch home once owned by May Bonfils. The location and layout of the museum can be seen on the Belmar Park master plan. The connection of the museum complex and cultural arts facility is important and should be reinforced.

The following pictures illustrate the style, proportions and scale of buildings that are visible from the proposed Lakewood Cultural Arts Center. The Irongate Business Park, Villa Italia shopping center, random office buildings and local residential developments are included.


Uniform Building Code, 1982 Edition
A-2 Theater (Occpancy Load less than 1000).
A-3 Meeting Room.
B-2 Classrooms, workshops, storage, offices.
(N = No Requirement of Fire A-2 Resistance) A-3 B-2
A-2 N N 1
A-3 N N N
B-2 1 N N
I - Fire Resitive
II - Fire Resitive

Occupancy Type I F.R. Type II F.R
A 2 Unlimited 29,900 s. f
A3 Unlimited 29,900 s. f
B-2 Unlimited 39,900 s. f
By Separation:
Where public space, streets or yards more than 20 feet in width adjoin two sides of the building, increase at a rate of 1.25* per foot of separation exceeding 20 feet, up to 50* increase.
If separated on three sides, increase at a rate of 2.5* per foot of separation exceeding 20 feet, up to 100*.
If separated on four sides, increase at a rate of 5* per foot of separation exceeding 20 feet, up to 100*.
By Sprinklering:
One Story Buildings: 3 x Basic Allowable
Floor Area
Two or More Stories: 2 x Basic Allowable
Floor Area

Assume two or more stories, sprinkled ,, without
separation allowances.
Occupancy Type IF.R. Type II-F.R.
A2 Unlimited 59,800 s.£.
A-3 Unlimited 59,800 s.f.
B-2 MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF BUILDINGS Unlimited 78,800 s.f.
Occupancy Type I-F.R. Type II-F.R.
Maximum Ht.
in Stories A-2 Unlimited 4
A-3 Unlimited 12
B-2 Unlimited 12
Max. Ht.
in Feet Any Unlimited 160

Type I-F.R,
Type II-F.R.
Exterior Bearing Wall 4 4
Interior Bearing Wall 3 2
Exterior Non-Bearing 4 4
Structural Frame 3 2
Partitions, Permanent 1 1
Shaft Enclosures 2 2
Floors 2 2
Roofs 2 1
Exterior Doors, * *
* 3/4 hour protection. less than 20' from
property line.
No openings less than 5' from property

There shall be one or more ventilators constructed of metal or other non-
combustible material near the center and above the highest part of any working stage raised above the stage roof and having a total ventilation area equal to at least 5* of the floor area within the stage walls.
(For equipment required, see subsections (b) through GRIDIRONS (3902)
Gridirons, fly galleries and pinrails
shall be constructed of non-combustible materials, and fire protection of steel and iron may be omitted.
In buildings having a stage, the dressing room sections, workshops and storerooms shall be located on the stage side of the proscenium wall and shall be separated from each other and from the stage by not less than a one-hour fire-resistive occupancy separation.
1. A stage shall be completely separated from the auditorium by a proscenium wall of not less than 2-hour noncombustible construction.
2. The proscenium wall shall extend not less than 4 feet above the roof over the auditorium.

3. Proscenium walls may have, in addition to the main proscenium opening, one opening at the orchestra pit level and not more than two openings at the stage floor level, each of which shall be not more than 25 s.f. in area.
4. All openings in the proscenium wall of a stage shall be protected by a fire assembly having a 1.5-hour fire resistive rating.
5. The proscenium opening, which shall be
the main opening for viewing
performances, shall be provided with a self-closing fire-resistive curtain.
1. All parts of stage floors shall be of
Type I construction, except the part of the stage extending back from and 6 feet beyond the full width of the proscenium opening at each side, which may be constructed of steel or heavy timbers covered with a wood floor of not less than 2-inch nominal
2. No part of the combustible
construction, except the floor finish, shall be carried through the
proscenium opening.
3. All parts of the stage floor shall be designed to support not less than 125 psf.
4. Openings through stage floors shall be equipped with tight-fitting trap doors of wood of not less than 2-inches nominal thickness.
1. Enclosed platforms shall provide ventilators as required by Section 3901 .

2. Walls and ceiling of an enclosed platform in an assembly room shall be of not less than 1-hour fire-resistive construction.
3. In buildings having an enclosed platform, the dressing room section, workshops, and storerooms shall be separated from each other and from the rest of the building by not less than 1-hour fire-resistive construction.
1. At least one exit not less than 36" wide shall be provided from each side of the stage opening directly or by means of a passageway not less than 36" in width to a street or exit court.
2. An exit stair not less than 2'-6 wide shall be provided for egress from each fly gallery.
3. Each tier of dressing rooms shall be provided with at least two means of egress, each not less than 2'-6 wide.
4. The stairs required in this section need not be enclosed.
When provided with fixed seating, the main floor of the assembly room may have a slope not steeper than 1 vertical to 5 horizontal.
Division 3 occupancies located in a basement or above the first story shall be of not less than 1-hour fire-resistive construction.

2. Division 3 occupancies with a occupant load of 50 or more, which are located over usable space, shall be separated from such space by not less than 1-hour fire-
resistive construction.
1. Buildings housing Group A Occupancies shall front directly upon or have access to a public street not less than 20 feet in width.
2. The access to the public street shall be a
minimum 20-foot-wide right-of-way,
unobstructed and maintained only as access to the public street.
3. The main entrance to the building shall be located on the public street or on the access way.

Theater 750
Minimum of two exits required. Access by means of ramp or or elevator for handicapped.
Meeting Room 167
Minimum of two exists required Accessible to handicapped.
Minimum of two exits required. Accessible to the handicapped.
60 apiece
Minimum of two exist required. Accessible to the handicapped.
Office 17
No access requirements.
Shops 38
No access requirements.
Lobby 514
Minimum of two exists required Accessible to the handicapped.
1. Every building or useable portion therfore shall have at least one exit and not less than two were required by occupant load. Every story or portion thereof having an occupant load of 501 to 1000 shall have not less than three exits.
2. The total width of exits in feet shall be not less than the total occupant load divided by 50. Such width of exits shall be divided approximately equally among separate exits.

3. The maximum distance of travel from any point to an
exterior door, horizontal exit, exit passageway or an exclosed stairway in a building not equipped with an automatic sprinkler system throughout shall not exceed 150' to 200' in a building equipped with an automatic sprinkler system throughout. These
distances may be increased 100' when the last 150' is within a corridor.
4. Rooms may have exits through an adjoining or intervening room which provides a direct, obvious and unobstructed means of travel to an exit corridor, exit enclosure or until egress is provided from the building, provided the distance of travel does not exceed that permitted by other provisions of the code.
1. There shall be a main exit.
2. The main exit shall be of sufficient width to accommodate one-half of the total occupant load, but shall be not less than the total required width of all aisles, exit passageways and stairways leading thereto, and shall connect to a stairway or ramp leading to a public way.
3. Every auditorium shall be provided with exits on each side. The exits on each side of the auditorium shall be of sufficient width to accommodate 1/3 of the total occupant load served. Side exits shall open directly to a public way or exit court, approved stairway, exterior stairway or exit passageway leading to a public way. Side exits shall be accessible from a cross aisle.
4. Every balcony having an occupant load of 11 or more shall be provided with a minimum of two exits. Balcony exits shall open directly onto an exterior stairway or ramp. Balcony exits shall be accessible from a cross aisle.
DOORS <3304)
1. Exit doors shall swing in the direction of exit travel when serving an area having an occupant load of 50 or more.

2. Every exit doorway shall be of a size as to permit installation of a door not less than 3' wide and 6'-8 high with a 32" clear width when open.
3. A single leaf of a door shall not exceed 4 feet in width.
4. Revolving, sliding, and overhead doors shall not be used as required exits.
5. Regardless of the occupant load, there shall be a floor or landing on each side of a door. When doors open over landings, the landing shall have a length of not less than 5 feet.
1. Minimum Width 44 inches with no obstructions.
2. Minimum Height 7'-0
3. When more than one exit is required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to go in either direction from any point in a corridor to a separate exit, except for dead ends not exceeding 20'.
4. When a corridor is accessible to handicapped, changes in elevation will be made by a ramp.
5. Corridors serving an occupant load of 30 or more shall have wall and ceiling construction of 1-hour fire-resistive construction.
6. Door openings shall have fire-protection rating of 20 minutes and all other openings shall be protected by fixed, approved l/4"-thick wire glass installed in steel frames. The total area of all openings, other than doors, in any portion of an interior corridor shall not exceed 25X of the area of the corridor wall of the room which it is separating from the corridor.
1. The minimum width of stairways shall be 44 inches for occupant loads of 50 or more, and 36 inches otherwise.
2. The rise of every step shall not be less than 4 inches nor greater than 7-1/2 inches.

3. Landing Depth should equal stair width. The distance between landings should not exceed 12 vertical feet.
4. Stairways should have handrails on each side, and every stairway more than 88 inches wide shall be provided with not less than one intermediate handrail for each 88 inches of width.
RAMPS (3307)
1. The width of ramps shall be that of stairways.
2. The maximum slope for required egress ramps is 1 vertical to 12 horizontal. All other ramps shall not be steeper than 1 vertical to 8 horizontal.
3. Landings are required at the top and bottom of the ramp with one intermediate landing for every 5 feet of rise. The minimum depth of the landings is 5 feet at the top and intermediate and 6 feet at the bottom.
AISLES (3315)
1. In public areas of Group B-2 Occupancy and in
assembly occupancies without fixed seating, the minimum clear aisle width shall be 36" where tables, counters, furnishings, merchandise or other similar obstructions are placed on one side of the aisle only and 44 " when such obstructions are on both sides of
the aisle.
2. In assembly occupancies with fixed seats.
a. With standard seating, every aisle shall be not less than 3 feet when serving seats on only one side and not less than 42 inches wide when serving seats on both sides. Such minimum width shall be measured at the point farthest from an exit, cross aisle or foyer and shall be increased by 11/2" for each 5' in length toward the exit, cross aisle or foyer.
b. With continental seating, as specified in Section 3316, side aisle shall be not less than 44" in width.
3. In areas occupied by seats, the line of travel to an exit door by an aisle shall be not more than 150'.

Such travel distance may be increased to 200' if the building is provided with an automatic sprinkler system.
4. With standard seating, as specified in Section 3316, aisles shall be so located that there will be not more than six intervening seats between any seat and the nearest aisle.
5. With continental seating, the number of intervening seats may be increased, provided the seating configuration conforms with the requirements specified in Section 3316.
6. Aisles shall terminate in a cross aisle, foyer or exit. The width of the cross aisle shall be not less than the sum of the required width of the widest aisle, plus 50k of the total required width of the remaining aisles leading thereto. Aisles shall not have a dead end greater than 20' in length.
7. The slope portion of aisles shall be not steeper than 1 vertical in 8 horizontal.
8. Steps shall not be used in an aisle when the change in elevation can be achieved by a slope. A single step or riser shall not be used in any aisle and any steps used shall extend across the full width of the aisle.
1. With standard seating, the spacing of rows of seats shall provide space of not less than 12" from the back of one seat to the front of the most forward projection of the seat immediately behind it as measured horizontally between vertical planes.
2. The number of seats per row of seats for continental seating may be increase subject to all of the following conditions:

a. The spacing of unoccupied seats shall provide a
clear width between rows of seats measured
horizontally as follows (automatic or self-rising seats shall be measured in the seat-up position, other seats shall be measured in the seat-down position):
18" between rows for 1 to 18 seats 20" between rows for 19 to 35 seats
21" between rows for 36 to 45 seats
22" between rows for 46 to 59 seats
24" between rows for 60 seats or more
b. Exit doors shall be provided along each side
aisle of the row of seats at the rate of one pair
of doors for each five rows of seats.
c. Each pair of exit doors shall provide a minimum
clear width of 66" discharging into the
foyer,lobby or the exterior of the building.
d. There shall be no more than 5 seat rows between pairs of doors.

Uniform Loads are in pounds per square foot (psf). Concentrated loads are for a 2-1/2 s.f. area.
Uniform Concentrated
Category Load Load
Fixed seating areas 50 0
Movable seating and
other areas 100 0
Stage area 125 0
Exit Facilities 100 0
Off ices 50 2000
Classrooms 40 1000
Light 125 0
Heavy 250 0
The following loads are in pounds per square foot (psf).
Gridiron, fly galleries 75
Loft block wells 250
Head block wells, 250
sheave beams
Ceiling Framing
Over stage 20
Other 10

The proposed Lakewood Cultural Arts Center will be a facility to service the arts and provide the general public with a communal gathering place in which to participate and observe all forms of the visual and performing arts. The desire is for the facility to be as flexible as possible while still providing the necessary support features that each participant in the center will require. The Lakewood Cultural Arts Center will include:
The desire of the people of Lakewood is for the theater to be a flexible and multi-functional facility for all forms of the arts. Primarily the theater will serve as the home of the Lakewood Players and the Adult Children's Theater. In addition to this the theater will serve a wide varity of local and regional groups performing dance, musicals and drama. Orchestral use of the theater will also occur but will be secondary when weighing design decisions. The size and type of theater were chosen after weighing several factors. These include the size theater local groups can support and what is the smallest possible size that would still allow the feasibility of getting touring groups in the future.
The traditional proscenium stage was chosen for its universal flexibility for all forms of the performing arts. To give the performing area flexibilty a variable throat system will be incorporated. This will allow the forestage space to serve as a stage extension, an orchestra pit or additional seating space depending on the need.
The proscenium arch is the "picture frame" in which the audience observes the performance through. In this type of stage arrangement the audience faces the stage directly to get a uniform affect of the generally two-dimensional performance. That as opposed to theater-in-the-round and open thrust stages which allow for more three-dimensional viewing of a performance. The flexible throat of the stage allows for some variation in the

traditional separation o' the audience and the actors by providing a stage extention out into the audience area.
The proscenium arch width should range from 30' to 40' for drama, musicals and other small performances. The height of the opening is determined by the scenery flat height plus a few feet. Professional groups typically use 18' high scenery flats, therefore 20' is a good height for the proscenium opening.
The proscenium arch should not visually inhibit attention on the performance by using distracting ornamentation, reflective or shiny surfaces or to much lighting.
The stage area consists of three main areas: the acting area, the scenery area and the offstage area.
The acting area should range from 600 s.f. to 700 s.f. to accommodate drama, musicals and small dance performances. The acting area should be as wide as the proscenium opening and extend into the stage area along the sight lines of the auditorium. The apron area in front of the proscenium opening should be at least 8' wide to accommodate a piano or small inbetween scene announcement.
The scenery area encircles the acting space and accommodates large scenery and props. This area is separated from the backstage area by the cyclorama which prevents audience vision into the backstage area.
The offstage area includes the wings to accommodate stage wagons of changing scenery and a stage cross-over. The wing space should be at least onehalf the proscenium width on either side of the stage but preferably the entire proscenium width on either side plus behind the scenery space. This area can also include scenery storage space.
The stage area should have direct access from the scene shop and storage area through a door as high as the scenery (20'). The doors

should have sound barriers to prevent noise from entering the performance area. The stage area should also have direct access from the dressing rooms via the green room.
The stage floor should be of soft wood for nailing scenery or laying rakes. The stage floor should also have one or more traps with double acting hinges. The opening should be wide enough for two people to descend through simultaneously.
The flytower stage and i teasers, light shell are hung the height of to the grid s tower. The pi 15' above the also be provi the counterwei scenery or position.
is located directly above the s where scenery, cyclorama, s and parts of the orchestra The flytower should be twice the proscenium opening plus 8' ystem plus 7' to the top of the n rail system should be located stage opening. Space should ded in the stage wing area for ght system used to fly the equipment into and out of
The orchestra pit can be located in a combination of space under the forestage, in the flexible throat area or both. The recommended space allotment for musicians is 15 s.f. a piece. For drama the average number of musicians is 25 and for musicals can range up to 60 musicians. The flexibility of the orchestra pit area accommodates this range in space requirements.
Mechanical lifts should be considered to facilitate the flexible throat area.
The orchestra pit should be located so as not to obstruct vision of the first few rows of the audience.
There should be two entrances into the orchestra pit to accommodate easy of movement.

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This space will serve as a secondary performing area and rehearsal space for the main theater. The floor area should be at least as large as the stage area in the main theater with added space for the director and onlooking actors. The key to this space is flexibility and the same considerations for prop and performer access apply to this space as well as the main theater.
The green room is a space just off the stage area where performers await their cue, fix make-up and use as a lounge. The space should be directly accessible from the dressing rooms, restrooms and all performing areas (main theater, experimental theater/rehearsal and amphitheater).
There should be two chorus dressing rooms, one for men and one for women adjacent to a large make-up area with counter, sinks and full height mirrors. A couple of star dressing rooms may also be provided. The costume storage and maintenance area, restrooms with one shower and toilet per six actors and green room should be adjacent to this area.

The costume storage area includes a main storage area plus a storage are for currently used costumes. The storage area should

include apace for shoes, hats, hanging clothes and drawers for folded clothes. The costume maintenance area should include storage of material, large layout tables (2'-4 x 8') and space for at least two sewing machines. These spaces should be located next to the dressing area.
The scenery shop should be located adjacent to the performing areas for ease of transfer of scenery. The scenery shop should be sound proof and fire proof separated from the stage by large double doors at least the height of the scenery.
The floor area of the shop should be equal to the main stage area plus back stage area with depth equal to 50>s to 100K of the main stage depth. The height of the shop should be equal to or greater than the proscenium opening.
The shop area should included a paint shop with shelving for paint storage and a sink with disposal plumbing.
The shop storage area should be adjacent to the stage and have rolling doors to the outside for loading and receiving scenery, lighting, costumes and properties.
In addition to the scenery shop and costume storage should be space for lighting storage and properties. Storage should also
accommodate seats for the experimental theater space. A shortage of storage space seems to be the number one problem in a performing complex.
The size and dimensions of the auditorium space are determined by sight lines and visual acuity. The ultimate goal is achieve a
feeling of intimacy between the audience and the performers. Seating should be within 50'

o£ the stage and not more than 75' before the visual distinction of the actors expressions begin to be lost.
The shape of the auditorium is determined by the sight lines. The entire audience should get the full affect of the performance and for the proscenium arch stage this means a frontal orientation with the sides fanning at a maximum of 100 degrees from the center line of the stage.
The steeper the seating slope the more advantageous the sight lines and acoustical perception of the performance are.
Seating should be either standard seating with a maximum of 14 seats per row or continental seating with aisle space between each row. Seats should be staggered with desirable spacing of 20" to 22" wide and 34" to 36" back to back.
The auditorium should be serviced by the lobby and there should be a light noise barrier between the two spaces.

Maximum tolerable doivnivard sight line angle from balcony.
Maximum tolerable upward sight line angle for motion pictures.
Maximum angle determines location of closest seats.
Zone of invisibility. Causes: stage too high, front seats too low.
Basic dimensions for plotting floor slope.


The multi-purpose space is to accommodate meetings, conferences and banquets and should be as flexible as possible. It should be partitioned to be able to house several small functions simultaneouly or one large event. In conjunction with this space should be a warm-up kitchen, lecture podium and storage for chairs and tables.
The lobby and foyer space should provide easy access of the public to all parts of the cultural center and serve as a gathering place before and after performances. The lobby space can also serve as additional gallery space.
The box office should be located within the foyer space. An exterior box office window should be considered.
The gallery space is to be a secured display area for local and regional displays of all types. The area should be as flexible as possible accommodating a wide variety of two-dimensional and three-dimensional display set-ups. Track lighting, moveable partions and display cases are desirable.
All three of these area should take advantage of the natural light, orientation to outside spaces and the natural beauty of the surroundings. Each should also be able to accommodate private functions and should have access to restroom facilities, kitchen and refreshment bar.
Four to six classrooms for daytime and night time use are recommended. They should accommodate dance, fine arts, ceramics, crafts and photography. The dance room should be located in conjunction to the rehearsal area for use by the performers.
The adminstration area should include an office for the director, space for marketing and secretarial work and a small conference room. The

adminstrative area should be centrally located off the main entrance area for ease of direction and control over the facility.
The amphitheater should accommodate 750 people for an outdoor performance. The facility could replace the proposed amphitheater for the Belmar Park and serve both areas. Considerations of noise, views, sun glare and shade should be taken into consideration when orienting the amphitheater. The amphitheater should be adjacent to the building for performer access.

Director's Office 200 s. f
Staff: Secretarial and 1000 s. f
Conference 300 s. f
Vault and Copy area 200 s. f
1700 s.f.
Multi-purpose Room
Multi-purpose Room Kitchen and storage
2000 s.f.
400 s.f.
2400 s.f.
Four at 1000 s.f. apiece 4000s.f.
Dance Studio 1500 s.f.
Box Office 200 s.f.
Coat Check 240 s.f.
Lobby 3000 s.f.
Restrooms 750 s.f.
Auditorium 700 seats at 8 s.f.
apiece 5600 s.f.
Less flexible throat 600 s.f.
Acting area 600 s. f
Offstage area 2000 s. f
Apron 300 s. f
Orchestra Pit
Area below apron 300 s. f
Flexible throat space 600 s. £
10,000 s.f.
5500 s.f.
1440 s.f.
3750 s.f.
6200 s.f.
2900 s.f.
900 s.f

Light/Sound/Projection Booth
500 s.£
Experimental Theater/Rehearsal Room Green Room
Dressing Rooms/Make-up Area
Dressing Rooms 1200 s. £.
Make-up area 100 s. f.
Restrooms and showers 600 s. f.
Small meeting area 200 s. £.
Costume Area
Storage 400 s. £.
Maintenance 400 s. f.
Scenery and Properties Area
Shop 1500 s.£.
Storage 1500 s.f.
Loading/Receiving Area and Dock 500 Mechanical 1500 Circulation and Misc. 1000
TOTAL 46,600
s. £ s. f
s. £
s. f
s. £ s. £ s. f s. £
s. £

When designing a space that will accommodate verbal or musical performances the main concern is to achieve uniform distribution of sound throughout the hall- Sound should reach each seat with as little distortion and loss of intensity as possible. Reverberation time, the length of time it takes a sound pressure to decay to 60 dB after the sound source has stopped is a critical concern for acoustically designing a hall. Ideally, a listener wants a long reverberation time for musical performances for depth and richness of tone. A short reverberation time is desired for speech to facilitate clearity. How sound is distributed throughout the hall and the length of reverberation time desired will govern the shape of the walls, ceilings and balconies. The problem facing the design of a multi-purpose theater is that the hall must either be compromised, designed for the most frequent use or incorporate changing apparatus for each type of performance.
1. Echoes are long delayed sound reflections that are loud enough to be disturbing. They occur when the reverberation time is longer than 1/16 sec. or 70' or by reflections off of large surfaces more than 50' away from the source.
2. Flutter echo is a standing reflection back and forth between two non-absorbing parallel surfaces.
3. Dead spots are areas which do not receive any reflected sound.
4. Focal points are areas of concentrated sound and are caused by concave surfaces.
5. Noise from the exterior environment or the internal building components such as vibration from the mechanical and ventilating systems must be isolated from the theater. There should be no background noise interference in the space.
6. The greatest sound loss occurs directly above the stage.

1. A community theater such as this should be designed for the spoken word.
2. Sound travels at 1150' per second and the length of the first reflected sound path should not exceed 50' of the direct sound path. Otherwise there exists the problem of sound echo.
3. The ceiling is the main sound distribution surface.
4. The treatment of the rear wall is important in preventing echo. The surface should be broken up to scatter sound and not reflect is back into the orchestra level.
5. If a balcony is used it should be shallow and positioned high enough over the orchestra level to allow sound to get to the back rows. The depth of recess should not exceed twice the height of the balcony level.
6. Steeper raked seating eliminates the problem of sound being blocked out by the person in front. The steeper seating is also advantageous for site lines and in an amphitheater helps reduce environmental noise.
7. An light weight orchestra shell should be used for musical performances to reflect sound out into the audience area and not allow sound loss up in the flytower.
8. All wall, ceiling and balcony surfaces should be convex to produce diffuse sound distribution which is desired for a uniform sound effect.

9. The theater apace should be void of any background noise by the use of sound insulation or buffer zones between any potential noise spaces.

loo too too 400 Geo SCO looo Zcoo Saxo SOoO Ioooo
+F = +512 R

Based on 1983 dollars.
1. Unit Building Cost S75/s.f.
2. Building Cost S3,517,500
3. Fixed Equipment (.25 x Line 2) 879,400
4. Site Development C.10 x Line 2) 351,800
5. Total Construction Cost (Line 2+3+4) S4,748,700
6. Moveable Equipment <.15 x Line 5) 712,300
7. Professional Fees <.08 x Line 5) 379,900
8. Contingencies (.10 x Line 5) 474,900
9. Administrative <.02 x Line 5) 95,000
10. Total Costs S6,410,800
11. Financing at ll?s 705,200

The evolution of the Lakewood Cultural Arts Center focused around two thesis issues. The first issue was concerned with the fact that for the center to work as a central activity node within the City of Lakewood, it had to strongly integrate with the surrounding functions. This would allow the area to become a strong attraction for a variety of activities and bring the whole community together. The second issue focused on the fact that the image of the building itself should make a statement towards the importance of the arts for individual and community growth. The building should be an aesthetically artistic expression that conveys the variety of activities within and by doing so draws the public into the building to participate. The building should also be a part of a newly forming civic center that will begin to establish an image for the City of Lakewood.
Conceptually, these issue lead to how the Lakewood Cultural Arts Center should respond to the existing context. The most dominate element to make a statement towards was the Lakewood Municipal Center. This building is the only building in the immediate vicinity of the proposed cultural center. Because the site for the cultural center is a very small site directly adjacent to the Lakewood Municipal Center and the fact that the public will use the parking structure provided by the municipal center and approach along a diagonal wall to the cultural center site directed the design image of the Lakewood Cultural Arts Center to be the "second half" of the complex. This would also allow the two buildings to then become a "gateway" to the park.
To respond to the two buildings being functionally tied together, the concept was to continue the diagonal wall established by the Lakewood Municipal Center to lead people from the parking structure to the cultural center. This wall then became the dominant expression for many of the design issues being dealt with. The point of the wall reaches toward the Lakewood Municipal Center and suggests a connection. At this point it is a scuplture within the plaza that serves as an element that people can pass through and onto the park; thus a gateway. As the wall moves on, it leads the public directly to the entrance of the cultural center and continues through the lobby space and into the theater ending at the flytower. Having the wall step up to the flytower allows the visual mass of the building to go from pedestrian scale at the plaza up to the 65 foot height requirement of the flytower. The stepping also begins to mirror the stepping of the mass of the Lakewood Municipal Center along the diagonal street facade. Other visual connections between the buildings was through the use of the same materials and color schemes to indicate the image of a complex.
The Cultural Lakewood activity
second strong conceptual response was that the Lakewood Arts Center should face the street, the park and the Municipal Center to began to establish an interactive center. The public approach facade along S. Allison

Parkway would be a hard facade along the street. The volume of the theater would be place here and would direct the eye past the large mass to the entrance where the facade begins to break down i in scale along the wall. The curve at the entrance states that the facade continues and leads people around to the park facade. This facade is of equal importance. It is broken down in scale because of the pedestrian scale of the park verses the automobile scale of the street facade. This varied scale also allows for multiple levels and areas of activity to come out onto the park and use it as an outside activity space. Conceptually, the facade wraps around the theater block and is bisected by the wall that leads people to the building. The wrapped facade is then ended with the amphitheater that becomes a second activity space in conjunction with the plaza.
The use of the wall to direct people to the site and the
concept of two front facades were the main form determining factors for the Lakewood Cultural Arts Center. The odd
configuration of the site should also be mentioned as a strong form determinant not conceptually, but physically. These
concepts lead to the architectural expression of the Lakewood Cultural Arts Center as shown on the following pages. They allowed the image of the building to be an artistic expression that conveyed the importance and stature of a cultural and civic center within a city. The two buildings reach toward each other and become the initial elements in a complex that will become an important image for the City of Lakewood. The building also provides the public with a place to carry on a wide variety of activities and thus solves many of the needs of a newly
city trying to provide its own amenities for the
As a thesis project, the Lakewood Cultural Arts a way to began to deal with the ad hoc randomness of in the metropolitan suburbs and began to establish a
established community. Center was
pattern for future growth and an image for the city.

American Theater Planning Board. Theater Check List. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press,
"An Answer To The Enigma Of Flexibleility For Music And Theater". Architectural Record. Mid-August 1981, pp.68-73.
Beranek, Leo L.
York and 1962.
Musict Acoustics 6. Architecure. New London: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
Chen & Associates, Inc.. "Soil and Foundation Investigation for Lakewood Municipal Center". March 1980.
City of Lakewood. Concept Lakewood: a development plan and planning process". March 1975.
City of Lakewood. 76 Centennial Stories of Lakewood.
Johnson Publishing Co., Boulder, Colorado, 1976.
City of Lakewood. "The Belmar Plaza Official Development Plan". August 29, 1983.
Cultural Arts Center Citizen's Advisory Committee.
"Minutes of Tours of Local Facilities". February to July 1983.
DeChiara, Joseph and Callender, John. Time Savers Standards for Building Types. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980.
Don. Public Assembly Facilities Management. N.Y., New York: John 1978.
Planning and Wiley & Sons,
Jordon, Vilhelm Lassen, PhD. Acoustical Design of Concert Halls and Theaters. London: Applied
Science Publishers Ltd., 1980
Key and Company. "Master Site Plan, Belmar Park Development". February 1982.
Lakewood Players, Inc.." Report to Cultural Arts
Committee, City of Lakewood". May 1983.
Mielziner, Jo. The Shapes of Our Theaters. New York:

Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., 1970.
"The New Madison Civic Center By Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer Associates". Architectural Record. July 1980, pp. 77-87.
Roberts, Howard C. Acoustiks, An Introductory Lecture Series On Acoustics For Architects. Denver, Colorado, 1983.
Schubert, Hannelore. The______Modern______Theater :
Architecture, Stage Design, Lighting. New York: Praeger Publications, 1971.


When designing a space that will accommodate verbal or musical performances the main concern is to achieve uniform distribution of sound throughout the hall. Sound should reach each seat with as little distortion and loss of intensity as possible. Reverberation time, the length of time it takes a sound pressure to decay to 60 dB after the sound source has stopped is a critical concern for acoustically designing a hall. Ideally, a listener wants a long reverberation time for musical performances for depth and richness of tone. A short reverberation time is desired for speech to facilitate clearity. How sound is distributed throughout the hall and the length of reverberation time desired will govern the shape of the walls, ceilings and balconies. The problem facing the design of a multi-purpose theater is that the hall must either be compromised, designed for the most frequent use or incorporate changing apparatus for each type of performance.
1. Echoes are long delayed sound reflections that are loud enough to be disturbing. They occur when the reverberation time is longer than 1/16 sec. or 70' or by reflections off of large surfaces more than 50' away from the source.
2. Flutter echo is a standing reflection back and
forth between two non-absorbing parallel
3. Dead spots are areas which do not receive any reflected sound.
4. Focal points are areas of concentrated sound and are caused by concave surfaces.
5. Noise from the exterior environment or the internal building components such as vibration from the mechanical and ventilating systems must be isolated from the theater. There should be no background noise interference in the space.
6. The greatest sound loss occurs directly above the stage.

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8 A*.