Neighborhood Streetscape Design Guidelines
A Case Study for the Whittier Neighborhood.
LAURIE D. FOSTER Dept, of Landscape Architecture School of Environmental Design University of Colorado at Denver
A+P LD 1 190 A77
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Whittier Neighborhood Design Guidelines
By Laurie D. Foster
This study fulfills the requirements of the final project for the Master of Landscape Architecture degree through the Department of Landscape Architecture, College of Environmental Design, University of Colorado,
Special thanks to:
School of Environmental Design Universtiy of Colorado, Boulder
Center for Community Development and Design Martin Saiz, project advisor University of Colorado, Denver
Department of Planning and Community Development School of Environmental Design Kristan Pritz University of Colorado, Denver
This project could not have been accomplished without the unending support and interest of the People for the Whittier Community steering committee.
Crystal Gray B.J. Miller Sam Oltmans
Ted Bice Karle Seydel Margaret Clifford Copey McEntee
Funds for this project were made available by the Boulder Office of Community Development, Susan Purdy, Director
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I, Introduction .....................
' . -i
ft Scope and purpose of the project
II. The Neighborhood .................
o General description .............
o Problems ........................
III. The Process ......................
IV. The Guidelines ...................
o How the guidelines can be used .
o Organization ....................
o Character definition ............
o Guidelines ......................
V. Conclusion .......................
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In the fall of 1980 a household survey was conducted in the Whittier neighborhood of Boulder, Colorado. The purpose of the survey was to gather information that would serve as a data base in future planning decisions affecting the neighborhood. Among other important facts gathered in this survey was the fact that neighborhood character played an important role in the way residents felt about their environment. When asked why they had chosen to live in Whittier as well as why they had decided to stay, the reason most frequently cited was neighborhood character.
Whittier neighborhood is located adjacent to the downtown core of Boulder and it has historically been a major residential area for the city. It is an older neighborhood that has developed a distinctive character through time. However, because some past development has been insensitive to the character of the neighborhood, there is concern among the residents that continued unchecked development will destroy Whittier's unique quality.
In recent years Whittier has been through a series of zoning changes by the city that allow for higher building densities in the neighborhood than existed in the past. While the residents accept the city's objectives to obtain these higher densities, they would like to see this new growth accomplished in a way that enhances rather than detracts from the existing character.
It is the intention of this study to accommodate both the desire of Whittier residents to retain neighborhood character and the objectives of the city requiring future growth. In order to do this it was necessary to first be able to define the meaning of neighborhood character as it relates to the physical form of Whittier, and then to develop a series of guidelines that will help to preserve that character.
The process of deriving the guidelines was a community development approach involving a student design team from the University of Colorado and a steering committee from the People for Whittier Community neighborhood group. The students and the steering committee worked together on a regular basis, holding meetings throughout the spring of 1981. The purpose of using this approach was to reach a consensus on values that were supported by all the representatives from the community, rather than to develop a set of guidelines that embodied only abstract design considerations.
The following report includes the design guidelines for the Whittier neighborhood as well as a description of the neighborhood and the process used to derive the guidelines. It is hoped that this document will be useful not only to anyone wishing to enact change in Whittier, but also for other neighborhoods interested in developing design guidelines.
The city of Boulder is located at the base of the Colorado Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. To the west of Boulder the terrain rises sharply over 8000 feet in a distance of 20 linear miles. The continental divide forms the western border of Boulder county. To the east of Boulder lie the Great Plains of the central United States. Denver, Colorado is approximately 30 miles to the southeast.
The foothills form a dramatic backdrop for the Whittier neighborhood, which is located in the heart of Boulder. Whittier is bordered on the north by the North Boulder neighborhood, on the west by Mapleton Hill neighborhood and the downtown core containing commercial and public buildings, on the south by the Goss Grove neighborhood and the university, and on the east by the Crossroads commercial area. One of Boulder's major north/south streets, Broadway, runs along Whittier's western boundary, while another major thoroughfare, Canyon Boulevard, runs along the southern border.
A hill runs along the northern and north-western edges of the neighborhood (see special features map in section III). From the base of the hill the remainder of the neighborhood appears flat but actually slopes gently to the southeast.
Whittier is an urban environment built on what was once a shortgrass prairie. There is virtually nothing remaining of the original vegetation, but the plant materials found in Whittier represent a wide variety of introduced species that are adapted to the Rocky Mountain region. Many of the older street trees in Whittier are silver maples, but as they die they are replaced by other species including oak, ash and honeylocust. The shrubs are also varied ranging from evergreens to deciduous shrubs. The majority of homes have lawns in their front yards.
By 1878, the year that Boulder was reincorporated as a city, there was already a population of around 3000 people in town, a state university and a viable commercial district functioning around Pearl Street. Prior to 1878 there were three major mineral discoveries that lead to rapid population increases.
The first gold strike in 1859 was the catalyst for the establishment of the Boulder City Town Company. The company laid out the original 4,044 lots of the town with a selling price of $1,000 apiece. When a large silver strike was made at Caribou in 1870, the original lots were combined with three additions to become the town of Boulder in 1871. When Tellurium was found in the following year, another building boom lead to the re-incorporation of the town and the first mayor to be instated.
Following the re-incorporation of the town, gold was once again found in the mountains and oil was discovered in Boulder. Between 1890 and 1895, seventy -eight subdivisions were added to the original four.
Because Whittier neighborhood was adjacent to the main street and the commercial area, it became a major residential district. When the Whittier Elementary School, formerly the Pine School, was built in 1883, it acted as a true heart or center for the surrounding homes, making Whittier neighborhood a desirable place for business people, politicians, and university faculty members. By the 1900's Whittier was a well-established commu-
nity. Most of the available lots were taken by this time and the buildings were now incorporating porches and second-story terraces. Large gardens were a universal feature of all the homes. Many of the Victorian style homes that can be seen in Whittier today were built during this period.
As the city of Boulder grew, the residents of the neighborhood changed from being primarily single families to a mix of older residents, families, students and renters. The housing styles reflected this diversity. The neighborhood evolved as a mixture of large and small houses interspersed with detached and attached rentals.
In 1980 a survey was taken examining the perceptions of Whittier residents about their neighborhood. Results of .this survey in conjunction with the opinions of the neighborhood association steering committee point to a deep concern over the effects of development on the character of the neighborhood.
Because the city has zoned the neighborhood for additional medium and high density residential development, the number of multiple-unit dwellings has increased considerably. Historically the neighborhood has been a mixture of large and small houses interspersed with detached rentals or rentals incorporated into the houses. However, some recent development has occurred which is insensitive to the scale and style of the existing houses. New structures have been built on lots that fill the entire buildable space allowed by the city zoning code. These structures are not only out of scale and style with the existing neighborhood, but they tend to disrupt the streetscape and unique atmosphere of Whittier.
If the patterns of history hold true, Whittier will continue to face increasing housing pressure. The state of Colorado is now on the verge of what may be the largest resource boom in its history: the development of oil shale. The need for housing will increase and the proliferation of apartment and condominium construction will continue. If development continues in Whittier that is not
based upon criteria rooted in the existing character of the neighborhood, then the community will face a loss of continuity in their physical environment. Whittier will grow increasingly less distinct from the rest of Boulder.
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The process used in the study was a combination of two methods. The rational method was a systematic approach that utilized objective data collected by the design team. The other method was an interpretive approach and was based on the feelings and observations of the community residents. The end product, the guidelines, was derived from an integration of these two methods.
The study was conducted in three phases: inventory, analysis, and guideline development. The following description explains more fully each of these phases.
In order to understand the housing patterns within Whittier the major land use types were plotted.
These included single family residences, multi-unit dwellings (duplex and four-plex) and commercial property locations. The neighborhood broke down into a cluster of commercial properties along Pearl Street, some areas of purely single family dwelling and then mixed areas of interspersed, multi-unit and single family dwellings.
Housing ages were derived from a computer inventory obtained from the County Assessor's Office. Although building ages are mixed throughout the neighborhood, the older homes are concentrated in the core areas while the relatively newer buildings are located in the peripheral areas.
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In A Pattern Language by Christopher Alexander, it was reported that the amount of traffic present on local streets was a major factor in determining the residents' perception of neighborhood boundaries. Circulation in Whittier was considered and it was found that there are major roads along the neighborhood boundaries (15,000 cars/day) with several additional large capacity roads traversing the area. There are four existing bike paths in and around the neighborhood. Also included on the map were possible bike paths suggested by the surveyed residents plus a bike path proposed by the city. Pedestrian circulation occurs throughout the neighborhood.
Input from the steering committee at the community meeting constituted the interpretive aspect of the study. The meetings were held approximately every two weeks throughout the spring of 1981 and were attended by members of the People for the Whittier Community steering committee and the student design team.
In the inventory phase the committee was asked to divide the neighborhood into sub-areas that seemed to have noticeably different characters and to identify a block within each sub-area that appeared to be representative of that sub-area. The following week, the committee members and the students went on a neighborhood walk to look at the sub-areas and the representative blocks. The residents were asked for their conments on what they felt characterized each area and the problems that they perceived there. The residents were also asked to comment on special features that existed in the neighborhood that helped give Whittier its unique personality. Some of the features mentioned were the Whittier School, the "jog" in Walnut Street, the old alley buildings, the views from the hill and the neighborhood parks.
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In the analysis phase of the project, the inventory maps and the residents' sub-area delineations were overlaid to examine patterns in the neighborhood.
It was found that there was an agreement, almost to the exact blocks, between the objective data and the community input on the boundaries of sub-areas in the neighborhood. This indicated that not only were the residents very familiar with their physical environment, but that the housing ages and land use were important factors in determining character.
The determination of representative blocks was then made. Pinpointing characteristically representative blocks was a way of breaking down the neighborhood into a more comprehensive size for the study. The block is a significant visual unit in the urban environment because it is less diffuse than an entire area, but has greater significance to a community than a single building.
Because the committee had been so accurate in determining the sub-areas, the determination of representative blocks reflected their opinion as to which blocks were representative of neighborhood character.
A photographic study was then made of the representative blocks. Every house on both sides of each street in addition to one alley were photographed. A slide show of the blocks was prepared for the committee in order to clarify physical design problems that existed on each block. From this meeting a list of issues was compiled that articulated the residents' concern with new devel-
opment that was not in character with the existing neighborhood. The character definition and guidelines grew out of the analysis of the following issues:
Incompatibility of new structures with surrounding buildings.
Long lots: how to meet the allowable density level and stay in character.
Parking: how to keep increased parking from dominating the neighborhood.
Pedestrian paths are not continuous through the neighborhood.
Too much traffic on neighborhood streets.
The visual impact of garbage is increasing.
Noise from high density buildings.
Scale of new buildings and renovations is inappropriate.
Architectural style is inappropriate.
Setbacks: open space around buildings has been minimized.
Privacy fences block views of houses, create a claustrophobic feeling for a pedestrian walking along the street.
Property line fences too close to the street.
Gravel ground cover on the rights-of-way does not fit in to neighborhood.
Excessive overhead utilities create eyesore.
In areas where alleys back onto commercial properties the alley conditions are deteriorated.
Non-human scale of streets: too wide.
A photomontage was then made of each block in order to provide a two-dimensional recreation of each block. The list of issues was then used as a starting point to analyze what was out of character for each block. It then became possible to make character statements about what was character with the neighborhood. An example of this process is the issue of privacy fences. The committee voiced concern over the use of tall, solid privacy fences around the front yards of Whittier homes.
In examining the houses on the representative blocks it was found that the properties of Whittier have open front yards and the homes are visible from the street. This can be turned into a character statement that reads: "One factor that contributes to the character of Whittier is the open quality of the front yards." The following pages graphically depict examples from the list of issues that were applied to the representative blocks in order to articulate a character description of Whittier.
The character statements were then organized into groups of similar content. An articulation of the content of each group of statements lead to a series of vocabulary words that described apparent themes existing in the overall physical composition of the Whittier neighborhood.
The guidelines were then written in response to the character statements with the goal of preserving and enhancing the character of the neighborhood. Because the guidelines are going to be used by people who are designing new buildings as well as building additions for existing homes, the organization of the guidelines was based on steps used in a standard site analysis procedure. These site analysis factors would ideally be considered before any new design is constructed.
USE AND ORGANIZATION
By formulating the design guidelines, the People for the Whittier Community are taking responsibility for preserving the visual quality of their neighborhood. The guidelines represent what the residents feel are desirable design considerations for any new project that is planned. They make suggestions about ways to preserve and enhance the character of the neighborhood that designers and developers may find helpful.
These guidelines are not meant to regulate growth, nor are they trying to limit creativity. They are addressing the visual impacts of growth and attempting to suggest design solutions that can grow out of a more sensitive design approach.
When a designer or developer is considering the development of a site, his or her first step in the physical design process is a "site inventory and analysis." This is a way of getting to know the property, to inventory the existing conditions on and around the site, and to then analyze those factors that will contribute to the overall design.
The guidelines have been organized into some of the categories that are used in the site inventory and analysis process. At the beginning of each guideline category there is an explanation of the meaning of the category and how it relates to the character of Whittier.
The character definition of Whittier is in the form of vocabulary words that can be used to describe the neighborhood. These words generally reflect design themes that occur throughout Whittier. They were derived from the character statements that evolved out of the analysis phase of this study.
The vocabulary words can be used as a checklist for any new design project in Whittier to see if it is consistent with existing neighborhood character.
For example, a reviewer might ask: "Is the level of detail in the new project consistent with that of the surrounding buildings? Have neighborhood focal points been considered and preserved in the new design? Has the continuity of the block been disrupted by the new development?" By using the vocabulary words as a reference, the appropriateness of a new design can be determined.
Individuality diversity created when each property reflects a unique personal style.
Detail variation of common elements (i.e. fence design, trim, and ornamentation).
Continuity the cohesive feeling created by the repetition of common elements (i.e. single family residences, street trees, and front porches).
Proportion relation of elements of appropriate
Rhythm patterns generated by the placement of elements on a site (i.e. side yards).
Alignment setback pattern (i.e. front and back yards).
Edges the definition of an area through change of usage, change of topography, movement corridors, or special features..
Focal Points features of neighborhood significance, or visual prominence (i.e. Whittier School, the jog in Walnut, or the Pine Street Addition ditch, Lover's Hill).
The special features throughout Whittier help to define the unique character of the neighborhood. They are focal points that are outstanding to the people who live near them.
These focal points include parks which are often used for recreation, physical structures that have historical significance or are used as gathering places, and various locations which provide for unobstructed views of the neighborhood and surrounding areas.
MAINTAIN OPEN VISTAS FROM HIGHER ELEVATIONS IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD. (I.E. THE VIEW FROM BLUFF STREET TOWARDS THE FLATIRONS, VIEW FROM LOVER'S HILL).
PRESERVE VIEW OF SPECIAL FEATURES WHEREVER POSSIBLE.
THE OLDER ALLEY BUILDINGS ARE A DISTINCT PART OF WHITTIER'S PAST. THIS SHOULD BE CONSIDERED WHEN DEVELOPMENT IS PLANNED SO THEY MIGHT BE INCORPORATED.
THE BOUNDARIES OF THE WHITTIER NEIGHBORHOOD COULD BE FURTHER DEFINED THROUGH THE USE OF ENTRY MARKERS PLACED AT KEY ENTRANCES.
The overall character of Whittier is a reflection of the many ways in which people have developed their sites. At the same time, the continuity that exists throughout the neighborhood is primarily due to the similar alignment and orientation of the structures.
PROVIDE CONSISTENT SETBACK DISTANCE FROM THE STREET TO MAINTAIN THE OPEN FEELING CREATED BY FRONT YARDS.
MATURE VEGETATION IS IMPORTANT IN ESTABLISHING THE RESIDENTIAL FEELING OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD; CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN TO PRESERVE OLDER VEGETATION.
USE OF VEGETATION AND APPROPRIATE PAVING MATERIALS TO DEFINE THE BLOCK CORNERS AND PARK BOUNDARIES FURTHER ENHANCES THE DISTINCTION OF WHITTIER AS A UNIQUE NEIGHBORHOOD.
THE MAJORITY OF RESIDENCES WITHIN WHITTIER FACE THE STREET. APARTMENT BUILDINGS ORIENTED TOWARD THE SIDE LOT LINE SHOULD DEVELOP A STREET "FACADE"
(SEE GLOSSARY OF TERMS).
CONSIDER THE SOLAR ENERGY POTENTIAL OF A STRUCTURE WHEN ORIENTING IT ON THE SITE.
Access refers to movement throughout the neighborhood, whether by car, bike, or by foot.
While the automobile is the major means of transportation in Whittier, pedestrian and bicycle use are also important and they deserve adequate consideration.
TO REDUCE THE IMPACT OF PARKING AREAS IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD:
A. ADEQUATE OFF-STREET PARKING SHOULD BE PROVIDED.
B. LARGE OFF-STREET PARKING LOTS SHOULD INCLUDE ISLANDS OF VEGETATION.
C. PROVIDE BUFFERS TO SEPARATE PARKING LOTS FROM ADJOINING PROPERTY.
D. ENCOURAGE A VARIETY OF PAVING MATERIALS.
PEDESTRIAN MOVEMENT IS AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE WHITTIER STREETSCAPE. THEREFORE, KEEP SIDEWALKS CONTINUOUS THROUGHOUT THE NEIGHBORHOOD.
TO PRESERVE THE PEDESTRIAN FEELING, AND TO PROMOTE SAFE PEDESTRIAN/BICYCLE MOVEMENT THROUGH THE NEIGHBORHOOD, AUTO TRAFFIC COULD BE SLOWED BY THE USE OF NECKDOWNS, RAISED CROSSWALKS, AND CHANGE OF PAVEMENT.
KEEP ALLEYS OPEN AND ACCESSIBLE FOR PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC.
Throughout Whittier, large multi-unit structures and single-family additions are being built. Many of these structures are out of proportion with adjacent buildings, destroying the continuity and rhythm once present in the streetscape.
REDUCE THE VISUAL IMPACT OF MASSIVE STRUCTURES BY PROVIDING ARCHITECTURAL DIVISIONS WITHIN THE BUILDING.
WHEN CONVERTING A BUILDING TO A MULTI-UNIT DWELLING, A SECOND STRUCTURE MAY BE PREFERABLE TO AN ATTACHED STRUCTURE.
WHEN ATTACHING A UNIT TO AN EXISTING BUILDING, ATTEMPT TO PRESERVE AND ENHANCE THE CHARACTER OF THE ORIGINAL STRUCTURE.
REDUCE THE SCALE OF EXISTING TALL FRONT FACADES BY:
A. LAYERING VEGETATION.
B. STEPPING BUILDING DOWN TOWARDS THE STREET.
C. USING FRONT PORCHES.
THE USE OF PITCHED ROOFS ON A VARIETY OF DIFFERENT LEVELS BREAKS UP A LARGE STRUCTURAL MASS.
BY PROVIDING AN AMPLE SIDE YARD BETWEEN BUILDINGS THE IMPACT OF SCALE VARIATION WILL BE REDUCED.
The individuality of Whittier is in part due to the variety of building and not necessary in a new project to consider only materials presently in use, not the materials to be used are compatible with those already prevalent in
plant materials. It is therefore but just to determine whether or the neighborhood.
USE GRASS AND OTHER VEGETATION AS GROUND COVER ON THE RIGHTS-OF-WAY AND IN THE FRONT YARDS RATHER THAN HARD SURFACE PAVERS (I.E. AVOID USING GRAVEL, ROCK, FLAGSTONE, OR BRICK).
WHEN REPLACING SIDEWALKS USE FLAGSTONE, IF POSSIBLE.
THE STREET TREES OF WHITTIER PROVIDE SHADE AND A UNIFYING CHARACTER FOR THE STREET. ON THE RIGHTS-OF-WAY, USE LARGE DECIDUOUS TREES.
THE ALLEYS IN WHITTIER ARE FREQUENTLY USED AS PEDESTRIAN PATHWAYS THROUGH THE NEIGHBORHOOD. WHEN THE ALLEYS ARE PAVED THEY LOSE THEIR PEDESTRIAN APPEAL. THEREFORE:
WHEREVER POSSIBLE TRY TO KEEP HARD PAVERS TO A MINIMUM IN THE ALLEYS.
PRIMARILY SIDING MATERIALS SHOULD BE WOOD, BRICK OR STONE.
WINDOW DETAIL SHOULD BE ACCOMPLISHED WITH WOOD TRIM.
AVOID BUILDING WITH STRUCTURAL CONCRETE. IF BUILDING WITH CONCRETE, USE AN EXTERIOR SIDING OVER THE CONCRETE SURFACES.
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The variety of styles and construction detail of the homes within Whittier help to create the unique character of the neighborhood. To allow new structures flexibility in design while preserving the neighborhood identity, it is necessary to identify the unifying structural elements.
TO ACHIEVE CONTINUITY OF BUILDING STYLE:
A. USE A ROOF PITCH SIMILAR TO THAT OF SURROUNDING STRUCTURES.
B. AVOID THE USE OF FLAT ROOFS.
C. RETAIN A SIMILAR SIZE AND SHAPE OF WINDOW OPENINGS, ALIGNING THEM WITH THOSE IN ADJOIN-
D. USE WINDOWS SIMILAR IN DESIGN TO THOSE IN EXISTING STRUCTURES, PREFERABLY USING PANED WINDOWS.
THE APPROACH TO THE BUILDING IS A VERY IMPORTANT ELEMENT OF THE FRONT FACADE. THEREFORE:
A. PROVIDE A FRONT ENTRANCE PROJECTION OR PORCH FROM WHICH A RESIDENT CAN SIT AND VIEW THE STREET.
A PORCH DESIGN WHICH SUGGESTS SOME ELEMENT OF POST AND RAIL IS COMMON AND OFTEN WORKS WELL.
LOCATE TREES AND OTHER PLANT MATERIALS SO THAT WHEN THEY REACH MATURE SIZE THEY WILL NOT BLOCK SOLAR ACCESS TO EITHER THE IMMEDIATE OR NEIGHBORING SITES.
MAINTAIN AN AREA OF VEGETATION BETWEEN THE REAR OF THE BUILDING AND THE ALLEY.
The homes of Whittier traditionally have open front yards. It is therefore important when considering fencing for privacy and/or security, that consideration be given to aesthetic as well as functional qualities of its design.
FENCING MATERIAL AND DESIGN SHOULD BE COMPATIBLE WITH OR COMPLIMENTARY TO THE STYLE AND BUILDING MATERIALS OF THE RESIDENCE.
DISCOURAGE THE USE OF PRIVACY FENCES IN THE FRONT YARD.
IF A PRIVACY FENCE IS DESIRED FOR SECURITY OR PET CONTROL, IT SHOULD BE DESIGNED TO MAINTAIN THE FEELING OF THE OPEN FRONT YARD.
A PRIVACY FENCE WHICH RUNS ALONG THE PROPERTY LINE SHOULD NOT EXTEND BEYOND THE FRONT FACADE OF THE BUILDING.
AVOID IN FPONT
Public utilities as well as trash containment and collection are an integral part of the Whittier neighborhood. At the same time, they should have as little negative visual impact as possible.
PLACE UTILITY METERS AWAY FROM THE FRONT FACADE OF THE BUILDING. IF IT IS NECESSARY TO LOCATE THE METERS IN FRONT, IT IS DESIRABLE TO SCREEN THEM WITH VEGETATION.
LOCATE TELEPHONE AND ELECTRICAL LINES UNDERGROUND WHENEVER IT IS PRACTICAL TO DO SO.
COMMERCIAL/ RESIDENTIAL EDGE
DEFINE TRASH COLLECTION AREAS BY ENCLOSING GARBAGE CONTAINERS WITH APPROPRIATE FENCING OR VEGETATION.
In Whittier there are blocks where commercial and residential properties are adjacent to each other. In this situation it is common for both properties to be adversely impacted.
DISCOURAGE SPECIAL REVIEWS FOR NON-RESIDENTIAL USES IN PREDOMINANTLY RESIDENTIAL AREAS.
AVOID THE CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS OF OVER 35 FEET ADJACENT TO RESIDENTIAL AREAS.
DELINEATE THE PROPERTY LINES AND AUTO ENTRIES OF COMMERCIAL PROPERTIES WITH APPROPRIATE MATERIALS SUCH AS FENCING, VEGETATION, AND VARIATION IN PAVEMENT.
The Whittier neighborhood is involved in a continuing process of growth and development. The residents have chosen to take an active role in determining the direction of this evolution by developing a set of design guidelines for the neighborhood.
The purpose of the guidelines is to accommodate necessary growth while at the same time preserving and enhancing the character of the neighborhood. The guidelines are only suggestions. It is hoped that they will be used by designers and developers who are considering new projects in Whittier.
This study has not addressed Whittier's commercial properties. In order to insure an integrated physical environment in the neighborhood it will be necessary to address this aspect of Whittier in a future study.
element Any architectural or landscape feature found within the neighborhood. facade The main face or front of a building.
rights-of-way The "parking strip" or public property located between the street and the sidewalk.
streetscape The view along a street including everything that can be seen from the street (i.e. buildings, yards, sidewalks, trees, etc.).