PK / bS*G
MILL STREET PROJECT MORRISON, COLORADO
MAR6A F R I BERG UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO SCHOOL OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN DENVER,COLORADO
graduate thesis project program
THERE'S JUST A LITTLE BIT OF MAGIC IN THE COUNTRY FOR SINGING,
SO LET'S BEGIN
BRINGING YOU BACK DOWN HOME WHERE FOLKS ARE HAPPY
Richie Fur ay 1968
Mor rison, Colorado was celebr ated as a fashionable spa town at tHe turn of the century.
With the combination of the train that came through town, the spa, and the easy connection to Red Rocks Park; Morrison was a famous place to go for one day trips from Denver.
With the floods that r ampaged the town in the 30's and the decline and demise of the railroad, Morrison has taken on the character of an odd little sleepy town in the foothills.
As the planning of C470 has becomed more focused, Morrison is now in a position to be usurped and lost in the residential and commercial growth that traditfonally follows the new urban circulation routes. 1 he new C 470 will help the town of Morrison by removing the traffic that passed through on their way between highway 70 and 285. These people in their cars congested the street and as a general rule never stopped to use the commercial stores.
The problem that must be dealt with in Morrison on an urban scale is how to allow C470 to benefit the town in therteTouting of the traffic, but still limit the highways negitive impact.
The city must find a way to keep its own identity and not be melted into the Denver suburban sprawl .
Asection of this problem must be solved by actually identifying the physical reasons why this small town should in fact be celebrated as a town separate from Denver and its surrounding bedroom communitites. Part of these reasons lie in the physical location of this town with its natural physical beauty. Part lies in the written history of this small town which grew and thrived as a separate entity from Denver. Part of man's history is the physical environment that he planned and built. Morrison has a chance to celebrate its uniqueness to its origin and its relationship to its environment. This celebration will be a major aspect of any fight that Morrison can muster to stay an individual entity.
The town has experienced an age when it could be safe in its isolation and stay safe for its inhabitants. Today it will be forced to make a more aggressive stand and statement and celebration of its own unique character or be swallowed by urban sprawl .
As Morrison's commercial area must be identified as one homogenous unit, it is advantagous to build new building to fill in the open areas in town. A site has been proposed for a new retail development. The new site has been chosen because it is ,ia unique site. Briefly the site will be thie focal point of the new town green and at the same time the development will add approximately 12000 square feet of new retail space.
This retail space will add new types of retail stores to the commercial area. The hope is that with more types of store, specifically specialty stores, Morrison could become the pleasurable one day trip from Denver that it was traditionally. At the same time this could bring added revenue to tfie town and the commercial area.
The new Mill Street Project will include extensive site work and a cluster of buildings for retail rental spaces.
The site development will include earthwork, pedestrian walkways, service roadways, utility i u extentions and provisions for effective waste handling, as well as landscaping which will be both functional as well as providing visual assets to the town center as a whole.
Mill Street will be an assembly of approximately four building, incorporating an historically designated building which already exists on the site. This new commercial shopping street will actually revitalize the old existing Mill Street which is now a dirt alley. The new buildings will enhance and define the new town green. Much effort will be put into designing the new buildings to be products of architecture of tfie 1980's and still heip to enhance and compliment the historical district.
This entire report is to act as the problem definition for the designer to use in the process of defining the forms of these buildings. The report will include an evaluation of the form generator, the forces that will shape Mill Street Project into a workable shopping area.
Every design process has limitations and restrictions set upon it which become the influencing factors for the design decisions made. These include program requirements, site constraints legal restrictions, energy and ecological influences, and design philosophies.
Indealing with these constraints it is necessary to deal with the entire Mill Street Project, as opposed to the separate buildings involved. It is not proper to take any individual building out of the context of the whole. It will be necessary to deal with this site as a single entity and each building having an inter-relationship with the others.
Although the developer will supply raw space to any renter, it is necessary for the designer to have some knowledge of the space requirements that each user will have. Because of this, the following is a basic break down of the spaces in the project and their individual needs and reiationships to one another.
TOTAL SPACE SQUARE FOOT ALLOCATIONS
SPACE DESCRIPTION TOTAL AREA in square feet
Retail Stores 9100
Restrooms and Loungs 460
Total Assignable area
It is understood that in a development of this speculative nature, the square foot allocation is the minimum. Any areas that can be added without compromising^he values of the design will be accepted.
Exterior Entry Space
To catch the eye of the pedestrian, attract attention, induce tfie customer to enter, dramatize the merchandise give identification to the space inside
Must be located so as to flow with the pedestrian traffic and easily I'ead one inside, must lead directly into sales area inside
THE WINDOWS: must display merchandise as if in a picture frame, window can either expose the interior of the store, or be closed for- the privacy of the shopper inside
THE DOOR: should be off center so as to form one large display area instead of two symmetrical windows, drafts and cold should be controll ed no stairs at entry door, door may either be flush with the pedestrian pathway or indented to form a lobby space, doors can hold identification
none, pssive solar could help keep the microclimate pleasant and free of snow and ice in winter
outlets are necessary for exterior lighting and sign lighting,special attention needs to be giver to quality of light for focal points and safety, floodlighted exterior should be provided with 5-50 footcandles, light source should be shielded, allow for flexible lighting plans
Store signs to meet Design Guidelines; Canopies, porches and collonades can be used to control sun exposure and meet guidelines for architecture, and control glare on window; benches and waste receptacles may be proper at certain locations
RetaiI sales space
To he an efficient selling machine inserving customers and pleasing employees so as to help them give better service
This should be the center space of a retail store; doorways should be off this space, any storage or back office should be directly related to this space
The circulation should expose the customer to as much merchandise while still allowing simple circulation; organize goods into impulse, luxury, convenience and demand ogject; staple should be unobtrusive but accessable, luxury should be placed where they can not help but be noticed; architecture should he secondary to displayed objects; vistas in tlie store can be bolder than close in spaces; floors should be designed for aesthetics and the individual standing all day
Allow for summer ventilation; design for maximum solar gain and storage winter; mechical heating and cooling must be availabe and control able in each separate store
Lighting should be 30 footcandles in circulation; 200 footcandles in self merchandising areas; display shouid have 500 footcandles arid outlets in every show window for versitility
Center stands 13' x 9'6"; floor fables 4'7" x 2'6" or 3'; showcases 10' x 5'1 0" check out stands; telephones; shelving units 2' or 3' x dimensions built to; easily accessable storage
Retail Non Selling Space
Storage for out of season and excess merchandise, smal I office space and oranizational area, private area for emplayees, space to recieve initial deliveries of merchandise
Must be near check out stand in sales area; good relationship to outride waste receptacle
Possible display area on the outside of tlie room divider; Minimum size 4' x 6' preferably larger room for 20% of the stock; pleasant airy light private space for getting out of the public eye
Heating and cooling required; summer ventalation may save on energy Requires 30 footcandles
Possible desk, possible table 3'x 5'; shelving; lockers for emplyees personal belongings; secur storage for reserve cash
to prepare food to service the customer, provide adequate pleasant working conditions for the empl yees
Must have direct access to the dining room and food storage area
F loors and Walls must be constructed to withstand frequent claning, must be provided with half the square feet of the dining room
Requires cooling and ventilation, hot and cold water required Requires 70 footcandles
Work Table aisle spaces 36"-42" 60" for traffic lanes
spoce Restaurant Storage
functions To store deliveries of food and needed materials
relationships Must have direct relationship to kitchen and to delivery area
spoce naracteristics Must have adequate dock for truck unloading 8' x 12'; Must be large enough to hold food for 30 days; approximately 250 square feet
mechanical electrical Minimum heating and cooling necessary; because of the mechanical equipment used floors must hold 300 pounds per square foot Requires 30 footcaridles
i equi foments
Shelving, top accessable be individual, refrigeration equipment
spoce Restaurant Sanitcitiori
functions to receive dirty dishes, room to scape them, clean them and dry them
relationships Must be accessabie from kitchen and have direct connection to the d'hning room
space naracteristics Seven foot area required for the washing machines; must have surfaces that can withstand constant moisture; must provide floor that allows emplyees to stay dry Noise should be able to controled within the area
mechanical electrical Large hot and cold water requirements; ventilation required; highly unlikely heating will be nneded Provide 30 footcandles
equipment equipments Dishwashers, storage and shelving
To serve visitors and employees to the complex; restaurant shali have its own facilities Centrally located within the Mill Street Project, but not in prime location
Walls should be resistant to water damage; surfaces should be easy to maintain
Good heating and ventilation 'equired
Provide 30 footcandles wall recepticals ro meet code
Toilets, stalls sinks, mirrors and hand drying equipment
Boundaries are shown around the site. The site is of an adequate size for the development being proposed.
The site slopes to the south and the Fiast allowing for good solar access. The building area is limited by the 20% slope on the north and west sides of the site. I he creek on the east is an excellent feature of the site. Views all around from the site are of the mountains.
To the east is the Hogback which is a natural landmark feature to the town.
Prevailing wind come down the valley but the site is relatively protested and this will not need to be a major design criteria.
The following prints are from photgraphs taken looking onto the site. They are taken from the creek looking west along the site. The building shown is the historical house on the site.
Morr ison is an old historical town. Without (his uniqueness Morrison will lose its identity and its reason for being. Any new building developed in this town need to respect building proportions and elements that were used at the time these buildings were designed .
At the same time Morrison is not a Disneyland that has been built for todays traveller. Any old buildings must retain their integr ity as being old, any new building must not mimic these and thereby cheapen them. It is necessary that any new building respond to those design criteria that are valued today arid yet in elements and massing respect the past.
Because of these concerns, guidelines for design follow:
FENCES: Screening shall be provided around any service area where refuse is stored or deliveries are made.
Screening may be done with wooden fences, planting of indiginous evergreens, stone wall or pi aster wal Is.
These wall must be of a height so as to restrict, the pedestrians view into these areas.
BUILDINGS: No building shall be in excess of 36 feet. Towers and spires shall be allowed to ask for variance from this ruling.
ROOFS: Two types of roofs will be approved for use. Flat roofs with the minimun slope for drainage can be used. These roofs will have cornaces so as to visually cap the roof.
Gabled roofs can be used with a minimum slope of 2:1 .
WALLS: All walls will be clapboard wood siding, plastered or stone.
Dominant wall color will be in the yellow range. Trim and caonopies will be less confined. Canopies, roofed porched, collonades,and arcades will be highly desirable.
Proportions of the facades will seem to be one and one half times the base dimension.
Glass areas will not exceed more than 70'!o of the wall surface.
Windows will be proportioned so that the height is at least twice the base dimension.
No plastic will beaccepted in place of glass.
No reflective glass will be used.
PAVING: No asphalt will be used. Stone, wood or stained concrete will be used.
SIGNAGE: All signs will be of natural materials. They will either be hung flush against the facade of the building or perpendicular to it. Window signs at eye level will be used. All lighting will be mounted to sign onto the sign not from it.
After all the program information is correlated, it is important to note formally that part of the program includes designing to Frank Lloyd Wright's criteria:
The following are the legal restrictions that have been researched from the 1979 UL3C. Zoning requirements have been written specifically for Morrison. A parking district will be formed so that there are no parking requirements on the site.
FIRE ZONE DESIGNATION
OCCUPANCY CLASS I F ICAT ION
CONSTRUCTION 1 YPE
EXTERIOR WALL FIRE RATING
EXTERIOR WALL OPENINGS LIMITAT IONS
FLOORS F IRE RAT INC
ROOFS F IRE RATING
PART IT ION FIRE RATING
MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA
NUMBER OF EXITS
NUMBER OF STAIRS REQUIRED
DOOR WIDTH REQUIREMENTS
STAIR WIDTH REQUIREMENTS
STAIRWAY LANDING REQUIREMENTS
CORRIDOR WIDTH REQUIREMENT
TRAVEL DISTANCE LIMITS
DEAD END CORRIDOR LIMITS
DOOR SWING REQUIREMENTS
STAIR AND BALCONY RAIL REQUIREMENTS
Type two one hour One hour 2 hour 2 hour 2 hour
1 hour Fire treated wood okay
18,000 Sprinkled triple one story; double 2 F our story Sprinkled add one story
3' x 6' 8", no more than 4' wide 36"
Min width of stair cannot be deminished be door more than 3.5"
150' Sprinkled 200'
in direction of exit travel
not to obstruct corridor by more than 7"
Rise equal to or less than 7.5"
Tread greater than or equal to 10"
1:12 slope maximum
EXIT LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS CEILING HEIGHT MINI MUMS MEZZANINE RESTRICTIONS L I GHT I NG AND VENT I LAT I ON
TOILET ROOM F IXTURE REQUIREMENTS
SPRINKLER REQUIREMENT DRY STANDPIPE REQUIREMENTS
Separate circuit 7'6"
One hour or heavy timber construction
Windows at least 1/10 of foor area
Ventilation 1/20 of floor area
One for every building, one for each sex
when over four emplyees, may be located
in adjacent building
Must be in all but M and R zoning
Class I I
iVhile no soils test where performed on this site, an interview' was conducted with Jerry Klug, Jerry Klug Inc, Evergreen, Colorado. Mr. Klug has had vast experience with soils testing in this area and was able to give a fair amount of information as to the soils on this specific site. It is understood that before any construction documents arc drawn soil core would need to taken and analysed. Mr. Klug determined that the site is between the Morrison Formation and the Alberta Formation. On top of this are numerous marles, noneof which would be of an expansive clay. From top soil down 6 to 8 feet is cortinary river gravel wash. This natural wash would make it necessary to build on caisson with a grade beam.
All buildings will be designed for a live load of 30 pounds per square foot, except for area specifically called out in the program. The wind load will be 25pounds per square foot. Because a new flood control dam is being built to control tfie flooding on Mount Vernon Creek before any building consturction shall take place, no flood load will be considered against the side or foundation of these buildings.
Once an engineer has made an inspection, it is expected that design process will take place around the existing building on the site.
The mechanical system will generally be of a converitiortil type. However, conservation measures will be considered. A passive solar system and building orientation will be discussed in the energy influences in the paper, i here is also the possibility of using the heat generated in the kitchen area of the restaurant t'o help in the heat exchanger process.
The required mechanical utitlities for the Mill Street Project will include water, gas, electrical and sanitary sewer. The water, sanitary sewer and gas will be e\..ertued from the existing lines Northwest of the site. The electricity will be from the existing lines as they come through the site. These will be put under ground where they run through the site on their Public Service right of way. A standby generator will be available for skeleton lighting, and refrigeration equipment with set up for natural gas. All electrical will meet 1979 UBC Code requirements.
Storm water' retention will be designed into pools near the existing stream. These pools will then lime release the water so as to cause no flooding conditions on Mount Vernon Creek or Bear Creek downstream.
n urnpV Growing energy cost and dwindling resources have made energy uses a major concern in L I ML LI VV I building design. Two aspect of this will be used in the building design process in reference to healing and cooling energy sources. They are energy conservation.and alternative energy sources.
In this project, energy conservation will be given consideration in the building massing, space efficiency and energy effective mechanical systems.
Whenever possible passive solar collection will be used in the aid of heating spaces.
Cross ventilation by natural means will be incorporated in the design for summer cooling.
Masses will be used to temper environments and for storage of the sun's energy whenever possible.
Water is one of Morrisons most valuble resourses. This will be kept in consideration
at all times in the design development. Indigenous plant materials will be used in any landscaping.
Wa er v-ill be treated as special and only used in that aspect.
The area around Morrison is considered emi-arid. In summer the weather is influenced by dry warm air from Mexico In the winter, short periods of extreme cold are attributed to artic cold air masses. Because of the elevation approximately 5800 feet, in the winter the sun can make it extremely comfortable to be outside in the sun, in the summer the elevati on can control the temperature so that the shade is very comfortable.
Normal Daily Mean Temperature for January Normal Daily Temperature for July Annual Precipitation Mean annual snowfall
Mean annual number of clear days(all day)
40-50 F 80-90 F 16-32 inches 60-100 inches 120days
The following is a Time Schedule of the design development from the fall 1980 through the spring 1981 The culmination of this project will be a juried presentation in the middle of May. All my design consultants will be present.
> c -Q C_ c >.
f o Z O ti. :> < 2
URBAN DESIGN CONCEPTS
GOALS FOR TOWN
DESIGN GUIDELINES WRITTEN
SITE ANALYSI S SURVEY SOILS
MICRO CLIMATE GENERAL SITE DATA SITE MODEL BASE
ORIENTATION MEETING W/ CONSULTANTS FIRST PRELIMINARY DESIGN REVIEW BY CONSULTANTS SECOND PRELIMINARY DESIGN REVIEW REVIEW WITH SCHOOLADVSORS THIRD REVIEW WITH CONSULTANTS FINAL PRESENTATION DRAWINGS VIDEO PRESENTATION
FINAL PRESENTA TI ON
The design process for this problem is meant to be an educational experience for the student designer. Because of the nature of the project, design consultants have been asked to be involved throughout the spring in the process of the design.
They are to act as critics and in that role, educators to this designer. The following people have graciously accepted this position for the spring.
Robert K. Behrens, Environmental Sculptor (Bob will not be on the final presentation jury) G. Cabel Childress, Childress Architects
El izabeth Wright I ngraham, Architect, Wri ght-1 ngraham Institute Peter Orleans Architect
John Prosser, Architect, Urban Planner, Dean School of Environmental Design UCD
RonRinker, Architect, Barker, Rinker, Seacat, Architects, Inc.
SCEMATIC ONE POINTS
v-T2l.. 'im f.nh*tjmhnt
ftmju* er BJflSr f ***-*vx> rLr>^"- -VWJ6L CAt*. .r HjxT^> <** ~--*** A*rls TT3Ar>rrv^u if** r*T
H^Hi/jAP ^ 9ui:vJttrtAlMtk
ocv- in*, ueem
HiJtfJ fAlkXi ? Wip i*wd- b At itOA
Lliil T f! I 'lJcJ rPT
ll * ' 1L
Wf t ,L^
oefc> 'ZfoU'B WALL flÂ£2T VI^V
mrura \ $ /
MORRISON DESIGN STUDY
UCD-COLLEGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN
TOWN CENTER MAP
/ 1 f
h^^rnrnmmmm B Â£ 4K:
While individual spaces have certain requirements for this project, the entire shopping "street" has certain goals and objectives that must also be met and should therefore be considered part of the program.
The Mill Street Project should:
make for close integration between all shopping levels
spaces should be designed so as to interest shops of all sorts, and restaurants
provide an overall circulation plan so as to situate the largest stores or restaurants on the ends, no small stores should be tucked in where they will have a hard time attracting pedestrian traffic
provide no dead end corridor without largest stores as terminus
provide visual connection from one level to the next, with adequate vertical circulation between levels
provide periphery service court that is shielded from the pedestrian
provide a strong focal point as the termination of the new town green which the city of Morrison is planning
provide seating for groups and individuals so as to add to the amentities of the whole town provide landscaped exterior spaces for thevisitor to Morrison provide sculpture and other art forms as a major design feature
Morrison is situated on the West side of the Dakota Hogback, between this uplift and the Red Rocks formation. The town is almost halfway between tfie interstate 70 and the Highway 28 5. Both are major transportation routes through the Rocky Mountains. Colorado State Highway Department is in theprocess of designing Colorado 470. THis highway will be thie major link between I 70 and 285.
Morrison is almost entirely surrounded with open space. Red Rocks Park is tothe North,
Mount Carbon Recreation area is just Fast of the Hogback, and Mount Falcon is to the Southwest. The steepness of the land ipstream on Bear Creek will prohibit any large development in that westerly direction. Lakewood is planning more residential development in their jurisdiction on the east side of the Elogback. However it is hoped that this development will be buffered by a Busi ness Park which is being planned between Lakewood and the eas t side of the Hogback.
The site is located in the middle of the historically designated area of the town of Morrison. The boundaries are on the west side of the new town green and directly opposite the Cliff House which is a major historical Landmark that was built in 1873.
A preliminary market study would seem to suggest that a specialty retail area could be profitable to its owner && well as to the citizens of Morrison in the form of taxes.
C470 will make Morrison easily accessible from Denver and its suburbs. The location of C470 on the opposite side of the Hogback from Morrison will not detninish the small town atmosphere that will be necessary for Morrison to retain its uniqueness. The residential developmert east of the Hogback is an excellent sign for commercial expansion.
The Carbondale Regional Shopping Center is being planned for west Lakewood. Caution needs to be taken that Morrison does not see itself in competition with a shopping center. Morr ison must define its commercial area as a specialty shopping area.
Because of its location, Mlrrison will be meeting special needs for its neighbors.
As anew business park is being planned, the commercial area of town should look to accomodate the businessman and his needs. As ihe park system becomes better known, more hikers will be frequenting the area. "This will also be a major market segment. Stores that celebrate looking and browsing more than store fulfilling everyday services will be more lucrative to the town as a whole.
This map focuses in on the &4+e. As can be seen, the site is surrounded by mixed use.
To the southwest is Bear Creek Avenue which is the major shopping,street in town. Across the green is the Cliff House, used both for residential and for- commercial. Its owner has also developed the small buildings fronting Mount Vernon Creek Avenue and Stone Street. These buildings are also commercial specialty stores.
The Mount Vernon Creek Borders the site on the east. This creek has flood control dams streams so as to protect the historical area of Morrison from devasting floods that have occured in their past.
There is an existing historical house on the site. It has been residential in the past.
To the North is also residential building sites.
The site access is shown on the following map. The easements running through the site wi II stay easements for fire vehicles and pedestrian pathways. Any building projecting out into these easements will need to leave clearance for 15' off grade.
Gas, water, and sewer lines are dotted in on the map.
Electrical is shown in red. These lines are above ground at the moment.
New pedestrian pathways planned for the historical distric t are shown in blue.
The site is excellently located for pedestrian traffic which will be emphasised for the downtown area. Parking districts are being formed so as to allow commercial development within the downtown area without increasing the congestion.