Citation
Odeon

Material Information

Title:
Odeon
Creator:
Gamper, Tom
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
79 unnumbered leaves : illustrations (some color), charts, maps, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Motion picture theaters -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Motion picture theaters ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 57).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Tom Gamper.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
13775762 ( OCLC )
ocm13775762
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1986 .G35 ( lcc )

Full Text
ODO
ARCHIVES
LD
1190
A72
1986
G35


Date Due





To Beth


ODO
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture.
Tom Camper Spring, 1986


The Thesis of Tom Gamper is approved.
Ron Abo, Principal Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver Spring 1986


TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Thesis
Project Description Brief History Thesis Statement
Site
Legal Description Analysis Utilities Map
Climate
Description
Charts
Codes
Building Codes Zoning Codes
The Program
Space Requirements Relationships and Analysis
Bibliography
Appendix
Handicapped Requirements Acoustics
Toilet Requirements Soils Report
The Design
Conclusion


Doing an airborne dance across the street, a page from the evening edition escapes the rush of an oncoming stream of traffic. A street lamp illuminates it briefly before it floats into darkness.
Unaware that it is part of the same performance, a crowd gathers beneath a glowing tower. Their faces turn a thousand colors as the city becomes part of them.
"One, please."
"Two, please."
And just as quickly as it gathered, the crowd disappears, behind the doors, into a house of dreams .


SISI1M


PROJECT DESCRIPTION
The project entails the design development of an approximately 30,000 square foot cinema which includes office, retail and restaurant space. The site, eight empty lots on the corner of 16th Street and Blake Street in Denver, Colorado, is part of a district called "lower downtown" which is known officially as the B-7 zone. Historically, the area had supported light industry, warehousing, and scattered commercial uses, but current revitalization efforts have included office, retail, residentail and entertainment land uses as viable alternatives.


Like structures for transport, communications, modern engineering and science, the movie palace is a distinctly twentieth century building type. With their origins stemming from the theatre and fairground nickelodeons, cinema buildings became an integral part of the urban scene, where they were characterized by large, distinctive facades and signage.
BRIEF HISTORY OF THE CINEMA
Obviously, the new art form, cinema, demanded a novel approach in designing the structure which housed it. Maybe "novel" is not the best way to describe the often bizarre design approaches which ran the gammut of the wildly ecclectic to the imitatively thematic. And, seemingly, not since the Medieval Ages had there been so much rivalry revolving around a particular building type. Owners like Marvin Loew, the former head of one of the largest movie palace empires, declared, "We sell tickets to theatres, not movies."1 As patrons gathered in crowds at each grand opening, architectural critics clucked in distaste at the borrowed language of Mayan ruins, Spanish Villas, and Babylonian gardens and at the replicas of the royal palaces of Europe and the Orient. But if we dare condemn these architects for their pandering to their audience's escapist tendencies, we must also applaud them for their "placemaking" and their adherence to a certain populist notion of creating "palaces for the people."


But blatant historicisra did not solely color the stylistic language of the picture palace. "Streamlined" designs, being best described as Art Deco or Art Moderne, became fairly prevalent during the thirties. And in Europe, particularly, there were many examples of modernist experimentation; there, Mendelsohn, Taut, Poelzig, Le Corbusier, and van Doesburg contributed in the design exploration, and often produced, though in a radically different way from their predecessors, a much more synthetic expression where sight lines, ample circulation space, seating comfort, and auditorium size were the key factors.
The decline in the cinema during the past decades can be attributed to many causes. Television and home entertainment systems certainly have taken their toll. Also, the reduction of the number of cinema buildings, especially in urban and "Main Street" settings, has contributed to this decline. But the mall, the strip, and the VCR hardly provide the visual and aural excitement which was traditionally a part of movie theatre entertainment. The spatial, social, and aesthetic experiences of the cinema have their roots in "downtown" where the montage of stimulation most resembles the art form of film itself. And as downtown has recently been rediscovered, so too those remaining movie palaces which have survived the wrecking ball. Subsequently, many of these survivors are being saved and refurbished. Even more encouraging, there has been a resurgence in building new theatres. But, of course, the question remains, "How will these new theatres fit into the history of an unique typology?" This thesis, in many ways, is an exploration into that question.
"'Naylor, David. American Picture Palaces: The Architecture of Fantasy. New York, New York, 1981.


THESIS STATEMENT
A movie theatre complex in an urban setting poses a problem whose solution departs radically from the contemporary suburban genre theatre design. My thesis will explore the various unique factors inherent in this problem, and the solution will depend on the following three goals (and the related objectives as they pertain to each goal):
Goa 1 1 : To use the typology of the
movie palace as the model from which to
depart in the design process.
Obj ectives:
A. Use of the night architecture model (i.e., dramatic night illumination)
B. Use of the street architecture model (i.e., interest at the pedestrian level).
C. Use of the self-advertising, high profile facade model.
D. Use of the grand inner lobby model.


Goal 2: To respond contextually to the existing urban fabric.
Obi ectives:
A. Respond to the existing scale of the context.
B. Respond to the existing materials of the context.
C. Respond to the past, present, and future development of the context.
D. Respond to the spirit of the context.
Objectives:
A. To use elevations, sections, perspectives, and models to convey the message.
B. To use graphic devices which unify the presentation and relate it to the typology of the movie theatre.
To be adequately prepared to explain and defend the solution.
C.


SITE


Legal Description
Lots 25 through 32, Block 19, East Denver.


Context
Lower Downtown is Unique. The old warehouse district is an odd assortment of juxtapositions -- viaducts, glass-block windows, beautifully patterned brickwork, alleys full of electrical lines and fire escapes, train whistles, detailed cornices and cast iron columns, water towers with a platonic geometry, human scaled buildings with a be-bop rhythm. All of these evoke a sense of place that is profoundly urban. It is gritty, complex, and subsequently, interesting. And as such, it serves as dramatic counterpoint to the slick high rise development of the central business district.


Inventory
1. The Neighbors
J.P. Plaza
This new five-story building makes a contextual response through color, materials, and scale, yet its ribbon windows and flat skin treatment seem somewhat suburban and out of place. It is located across 16th Street, to the east of the site.
Berardi and Sons Restaurant and Stores Equipment Corp.
These two-story turn-of-the-century commercial buildings define the urban edge along Blake Street. Again, there is strict proportioning in the facades, where "bases" are denoted by tall cast iron storefront framing. Intricate brick patterning is evident on all three buildings, but only the Berardi and Sons building is capped with a cornice. The structures are located immediately adjacent and to the west of the site.


The 1 6th Street Transit Mall
I am making the assumption that the 16th Street Transit Mall will eventually be extended into Lower Downtown and the Central Platte Valley. The two-lane mall caters to pedestrian and shuttle buss traffic. It is denoted by subtly patterned granite paving, formally arranged trees, small water elements, and futuristic lamps.
Diagonally opposite, and to the southeast of the site, is the RTD terminal which is comprised of a number of glass sheds with structural steel members. Those passengers not riding on the shuttle arrive and depart in the underground part of the terminal whose bus entrance and exit is on Blake Street. Rerouting of this bus traffic will have to occur should the mall be extended, yet exact solutions to this problem have not been reached at this point by any of the consultants working on the problem.

The Great Western Sugar Building
This six-story building has ornate blond brick detailing and displays a tri Pfr*-i-te facade capped with a heavy cor-
*Tce Xt is located to the northwest of the site.


2. Views
Views in an urban setting are often enhanced, if not dictated, by the perspec-tival orthogonals of the buildings which define the urban edge. Because the site is located on a corner four views are afforded, two of which are spectacular. As one looks south on the 1 6th Street Mall, the skyline creates a strong backdrop in which significant focal points are evident, such as the ever-present May D & F Tower and the State Capitol Building, which serves as the key focal point at the end of the mall. Looking west, down Blake Street, the dominant focal points are the old Tivoli Brewery, denoted by its tower and stack, and the mountains beyond. The mountains, again, are an ever-present element in all westerly-oriented views and that also pertains to the view down 16th Street as one faces Lower Downtown.


3. Nodes of Synergy
The concept of synergy has been u lately to describe the fusion of nodes of human activity. These nodes where people gravitate and linger, thus creating dynamic and vital areas human energy, both during the day and night. The shops, restaurants, offices and nightclubs at Larimer Square, Writer Square, Tabor Center, and Market Center have all contributed to this phenomenon in the area just south of Lower Downtown. The housing developments along Larimer Street have also contributed to this phenomenon, though, if not architecturally, at least by the mere fact that people live there.
I have chosen the site at 16th and Blake not only because of the unique physical characteristics of the context but also because of the site's proximity to the nodes of energy described above.


Utilities Map
water line
..... sanitary sewer
storm sewer = gas line
Note^ overhead electric lines in alley
16'" STREET


CLIMATE


CLIMATE
Denver experiences a semi-arid climate which is characterized by ample sunshine, mild average temperatures with wide daily and seasonal extremes and light precipitation. During the summer months, high temperatures of 90 F. are not unusual but these are often relieved by afternoon thundershowers. Some of these storms, though, pose a drainage problem due to the intensity of the rainfall. Winter temperatures can be quite cold, and Colorado is known for a freeze-thaw cycle which can cause serious design problems. Occasionally accompanying these sudden drops or rises in temperature are strong, sometimes damaging northerly and westerly winds. Snow can fly from September to May, yet statistically, March is the snowiest month, with a mean depth of 12 inches. However, isolated storms can dump up to 18 inches in a 24-hour period.
Climatic Analysis Denver, Colorado
Latitude
Longitude
Altitude
39.45 north 104.52 west 5,280 feet
Average Yearly Precipitation Average Yearly Temperature Average Yearly Snowfall Average Relative Humidity Degree Days Heating Cooling
Percent Possible Sunshine (Yearly)
14.53" 50.2 F. 59.0"
40%
601 6 623
70%
Source: U.S. Weather Bureau


Mean and Extremes of Winds Denver, Colorado
Month Mean Wind Speed (mph) Prevailing Direction Maximum Wind Speed Recorded (mph) Direction Associated with Maximum
Jan. 9.2 S 53 N
Feb. 9.4 S 49 NW
Mar. 10.1 S 53 NW
Apr. 10.4 s 56 NW
May 9.6 s 43 SW
Jun. 9.2 s 47 S
Jul. 8.5 s 56 SW
Aug. 00 s 42 SW
Sep. 00 to s 47 NW
Oct. 8.2 s 45 NW
Nov. oo -0 s 48 W
Dec. 9.0 s 51 NE
Annual 9.1 s 56 NW
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1977




Climate Summary
Because of Denver's unique climate, there is ample opportunity for solar applications, with daylighting of interior spaces being the foremost consideration in urban environments.
Climate conditions also promote outdoor activity, even in winter months. Strolling pedestrians and urban sunbathers often take advantage of the benefits of the Colorado sun, except on oppressively hot summer days.
Denver's altitude also allows for unique natural lighting effects. Building outlines take on a vivid sharpness and large expanses of reflective surfaces become canvases for splashes of color, especially in evening light.
Finally, as mentioned in the introductory paragraph, on occasion high winds, extreme daily temperature variations and both summer and winter storms pose design problems which are unique to this climate.


CODES


BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS
DENVER BUILDING CODE AMENDED THROUGH 1979
1. Occupancy Group: B-2 (Table 5-A) Description: An assembly building without a stage and an occupant load of 300 or more.
2. Type of Construction I (Table 5-C)
3. Building Located in Fire Zone No. 2 (Sec. 1601)
4. Maximum Height of Building: Unlimited (see zoning codes)
5. Allowable Floor Area: Unlimited (Table 5-C) (See zoning codes)
6. Requirements for Group B Occupancies (Chapter 7)
A. The slope of the main floor of the assembly room shall not exceed one in eight.
B. Location on Property
Buildings shall front directly upon or have access to a public street at least 20 feet in width. The access to a public street shall be 20 foot minimum width right-of-way maintained solely as access to the public street. At least one required exit shall be located on the public street or access way.
C. Fire Resistive Protection of Exterior Walls and Walls as Determined by Location on Property
Fire resistance of exterior walls = 4 hour. Openings in exterior walls -- for a setback of less than 20 feet from the property line, must have a 3/4 hour rating.
D. Light Ventilation and Sanitation
All portions of the buildings used by human occupants shall be provided with natural or artificial light. The mechanically operated ventilating system shall be capable of supplying a minimum 56 C.F.M. outside air with a total circulated of not less than 15 C.F.M. per occupant during occupied times.


7. Description of Construction Type I
A. General (Section 1801)
The structural elements in Type I buildings shall be of steel, concrete or masonry. Walls and partitions shall be noncombustible fire-resistive construction except that interior nonbearing partitions of one hour or 2 hour fire-resistive construction, which are not part of a vertical enclosure, may have fire retardant treated wood with the rated assembly.
B. Structural Framework (Section 1 802)
Structural framework shall be of structural steel, reinforced concrete or masonry.
(2) Exterior nonbearing walls may be of one hour fire resistive noncombustible construction where unprotected openings are permitted and 2 hour fire resistive noncombustible construction where fire protection of openings is required.
D. Floors (Section 1804
(a) Floor Construction. Floor assemblies shall be of noncombustible fire-resistive construction except that wood flooring may be applied over a concrete floor slab.
(b) Mezzanine Floors. Mezzanine floors shall be constructed of one hour fire-resistive noncombustible materials.
E. Stairs (Section 1805
Stairs and landings shall be constructed of reinforced concrete or
structural steel.
C. Exterior Walls and Openings (Section 1803
(a) Exterior Walls. Exterior 8. walls and all structural members therein shall comply with the requirements specified in Table 17A.
Exceptions:
(1) Nonbearing walls fronting on streets or yards having a width of at least 40 feet may be of unprotected noncombustible construction.
Fire Resistive Requirements Construction : Type I
(Table 17-A) Ratincr
Exterior Bearing Walls 4 hour
Interior Bearing Walls 3 hour
Structural Frame 3 hour
Permanent Partitions 1 hour
Shaft Enclosures 2 hour
Floors 2 hour
Roofs 2 hour
Exterior Door and Window 3/4 hour
Parapets 4 hour


9. Occupancy Unit Live Loads (Chapter 23 Table 23-A)
General -- Design for a minimum of 2000 lbs 2 1/2 sq. ft.
Occupancy or Use Live Loads/Sq.Ft.
Assembly
Theater 60
Lobby 100
Corridors 100
Storage
Light 125
Heavy (not less than) 250
Offices 50
Restrooms occupant load
but no greater than 50
Stairs 1 00
Restaurant 1 00
Snow Loads (Table 23-B)
Slope Pressure
Less than 4 inches per foot 30 psf
Between 4 inches and 12
inches per foot 25 psf
Greater than 12 inches
per foot 20 psf
11. Wind Loads (Table 23-C)


12. Exits: Group B Occupancies
Divisions 1, 2, 3 (refer to section 3315)
A. The main exit shall be of width to accommodate one-half of the total occupant load, but shall be at least the total required width of all aisles, exit passageways, and stairways leading thereunto, and shall connect to a stairway or ramp leading to a public way.
B. Every auditorium shall be provided with exits on each side. The exits on each side of the auditorium shall be of width to accommodate one-third of the total occupant load served. Side exits shall open directly to a public way or into an exit court, exit stairway, exterior stairway, or exit passageway leading to a public way. Side exits shall be accessible from a cross aisle.
C. Every balcony having an occupant load of more than 10 shall be provided with a minimum of 2 exits. Balcony exits shall open directly into a stairway or ramp. When there is more than one balcony, exits shall be accessible from a cross aisle. The number and distribution of exits shall be as specified in this chapter.
D. All exit doors specified in Sections A, B, and C shall not be provided with a latch or lock other than panic hardware.
E. No point in a building within an automatic fire-sprinkler system shall be more than 150 feet measure along the line of travel, from exit door, horizontal exit, exit passageway, or enclosed stairway. In buildings not more than two stories in height, protected throughout with detectors of products of combustion other than heat, the distance may be increased to 175 feet. In a building protected throughout with an automatic fire sprinkler system, the distance may be increased to 200 feet.
F. Interior rooms may exit through adjoining or intervening rooms, provided the total distance of travel-through rooms to an exit corridor does not exceed that specified and provides a direct, and unobstructed means of travel. The routes of exit travel shall not pass through kitchens, storerooms, rest rooms, closets, laboratories using hazardous materials, industrial shops, or similar spaces. Foyers and lobbies constructed as required for exit corridors shall not be construed as adjoining or intervening rooms.
G. Corridors shall be at least 6 feet in width except where the number of occupants served is less than 100, in which case, the corridor may be 44 inches wide.
H. Stairs serving an occupant load of more than 100 shall be at least 5 feet in width.


C. Determination of Occupant Load
13. General Requirements for Exits (Section 3302)
A. Determination of the Number of Exits Required
Building or floors, including basements, cellars, or occupied roofs shall have not less than two exits where required by Table No. 33-A. In all occupancies, floors above the first story having an occupant load of more than 10 shall have not less than two exits.
Mezzanines. Each mezzanine used for other than storage purposes, if greater than 2,000 square feet in area or if more than 60 feet in any dimension, shall provide at least 2 stairways to the adjacent floor below.
B. Multiple Storv Determination for Exit
The number of exits required from any story of a building shall be determined by using the occupant load of that story plus the percentages of the occupant loads of floors which exit through the level under consideration as follows:
1 Fifty percent of the occupant load in the first adjacent story above, and the first adjacent story below when a story below exits through the level under consideration.
The occupant load permitted in any building or portion thereof shall be determined by dividing the floor area assigned to that use by the square foot per occupant set forth in Table no. 33-A. When the number of square feet per occupant is not given for a particular occupancy, it shall be determined by the occupancy which it most nearly resembles. In determining the occupant load, all portions of the building shall be presumed to be occupied at the same time, except as permitted by the Department.
TABLE 33-A
USE ROOMS SQ.FT.
2 or More Exits PER
Required When Occu-. OCCU-pant Load Exceeds: PANT
Dance Floors, Halls,
Banquet Rooms 50 7
Theatres 50 7
Dining Rooms 50 15
Classrooms 25 20
Kitchens 30 200
Libraries and
Reading Rooms 50 50
Locker Rooms 30 50
E. Side Exits
Side exits must open to a public way, exit court, exit stairway, or exterior stairway.
2. Twenty-five percent of the occupant load in the story immediately above and below the first adjacent story.
3. The maximum exit width required from any story of a building shall be maintained until egress is provided from the building.
F. Miscellaneous
(a) Minimum height for corridor = 7 feet.
(b) Maximum distance for dead end corridor = 20 feet.


General Requirements for Stairs
- Rise 4" minimum, 7-1/2" maximum
- Run 10" minimum
- Landings equal to width of stairway
- Maximum 12* vertical distance between landings
- Headroom Minimum, 7'-0".
Theatre Requirements
16. Film Projection Rooms or Booths
A. Aisles (Section 3313) a.
Standard Seating: Minimum Width
3'-0" One Side Only 3'-6" Both Sides
, B.
Add 1-1/2 inches width for each 5 feet in length from the farthest distance to an exit.
Continental Seating: Minimum Width
At least 44 inches.
B. Seating (Section 3314)
Standard Seating: 12 inches from the back of one seat to the front of the most forward projection of the seat behind. c.
Continental Seating:
Clear Width
18 inches
20 inches
21 inches
22 inches
Number of Seats in Row
18 or less 35 or less
45 or less
46 or more
All equipment located in any Group B occupancy shall be enclosed in a projection room of a size which will permit the operator access to all parts of the projector.
The room shall have a floor area of at least 80 square feet for a single projector and at least 40 square feet for each additional projector. Each motion picture projector, floodlight, spotlight, or similar piece of equipment shall have a clear working space of at least 30 inches by 30 inches on each side and at the rear thereof, but only one such space shall be required between two adjacent projectors.
Sanitary facilities shall be required in all projection rooms or booths, except those located in churches or schools.
D. There shall be posted within the projection room or booth a conspicuous sign with one-inch block letters stating "SAFETY FILM ONLY PERMITTED IN THIS ROOM" (in caps).
E. The aggregate of openings of projection equipment shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the walls between the projection room and the auditorium. All openings shall be provided with glass, so as to completely close the opening.


17. Fire Protection Systems
A. Fire Sprinkler Systems (Section 3803)
1. Where floor area exceeds 1500 sq. ft.
2. Enclosed usable space under stairs.
3. Dead-end corridors.
B. Fire Alarm Systems (Section 3811 )
Required in all new Group B Occupancies .
18. Requirements for Toilet Facilities
(a) See Tables 5-E and 5-F in Appendix
19. Handicapped Requirements (Chapter
64)
General:
(a) at least one primary entrance per building
(b) at least one restroom per floor
(c) at least one water fountain per floor
(d) rise over run for ramps (1:12)
(e) Assembly areas with audioamplification systems shall have a listening system to assist a reasonable number of people, but no fewer than two, with severe hearing loss in the appreciation of audio presentations .
(f) fixed theatre seats must be located within 50 feet and have a complete view of screen when listening systems are provided.
(g) each theatre to have 7 viewing positions for the handicapped (Table A4.33.1)
(h) wheelchair areas shall be an integral part of any fixed seating plan and shall be dispersed throughout the seating area. They shall adjoin an accessible route that also serves as a means of egress in case of emergency and shall be located to provide lines of sight comparable to those for all viewing areas.
Note: See the appendix for handicapped code requirements as shown in graphics from D.B.C.


ZONING CODE REQUIREMENTS
1
. Zoning: B-7
This district is intended to provide for and encourage the preservation and vitality of older areas that are significant because of their architectural, historical, and economic value. A variety of land uses will be permitted in order to facilitate the re-use of existing structures without jeopardizing or reducing zoning standards promoting the public safety, convenience, health, general welfare, and the preservation of the comprehensive plan. To preserve the existing scale of buildings in the area, the floor area is minimized. Premiums for additional floor area are provided to encourage new buildings to conform to the style and character of the area. (See Section 59-380 Zoning Ordinance.)
J!


2.
Floor Area Ratio: 2 to 1
3. Set Back Requirement: None
4. Bulk Plane Requirement: None
5. Parking Requirements
Based on Class IV designation of land use (theatres, shops, restaurants): Parking class four, being composed of all uses by right which are enumerated in the schedule hereinafter provided: There shall be one off-street parking space provided for each two hundred (200) square feet of gross floor area contained in any structure containing a use by right.
6. Signage
A. For a zone lot having two or more uses by right:
For each use by right two and one half square feet of sign area for each horizontal linear foot of that portion of building frontage occupied by the use by right, for the first one hundred (100) feet of building frontage, then one half square foot of sign sign area for each horizontal linear foot of building frontage thereafter.
B. Illumination
May be illuminated but shall not flash, blink or fluctuate and all direct illumination shall not exceed twenty-five watts per bulb.


t/
THE PPOGPfltt


PROGRAM
Space Sq. Ft.
Entrance Foyer Theatre Lobby Theatres (4 @ 2,100) Projection Corridor Ticket Booths (2 @ 50) Concession Stand and Storage Theatre Restrooms Employee Locker Manager's Office 1,500 2,900 8,400 1 ,200 100 500 500 200 300
Offices 5,425
Retail 2,1 00
Cafe 2,1 00
Fire Control Pump Room Electrical Room Emergency Generator Transformer Room Trash/Receiving Maintenance 36 150 120 120 150 1,200 120
Mechanical 300
Circulation § 1 5% 4,038
TOTAL 32,539
Parking (based on Zoning Code)
162 spaces


NOTES & DIAGRAMS
o exit stairwell and elevators feed theatres at this level
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
o this space defines "corner1' of building
o open, spacious
o major entrance statement at street level


NOTES & DIAGRAMS
SPACE
Theatre Lobby
SQ FOOTAGE
3050

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
o elevator for handicapped access o preview kiosk o concession area
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
o grand scale
o circulation patterns that allow easy flow for access and egress o large expanse of glass of pedestrian § level
o level changes to add interest to spatial experience o dramatic lighting o durable floor surface


NOTES & DIAGRAMS
SPACE
Theatre{s)
SQ FOOTAGE
4 § 2100
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
o emergency and exit signage o acoustically treated walls and ceilings
o zoned mechanical system o handicapped seating (7 positions) o adequate sightlines
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
o atmospheric lighting o dark colored interior o steeply pitched floor allows screen to be as close to the floor as possible
/rrUvy. Y y
i
I -0
n


NOTES & DIAGRAMS
SPACE
Projection Corridor
SQ FOOTAGE
1200
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
o 2 W.C.'s
o exhaust for each projector o efficient HVAC system o adequate storage for films, bulbs, and projector equipment
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
o dust free environment (cleanable surfaces
o subtle yet efficient task lighting
>1
/


NOTES & DIAGRAMS
SPACE
Ticket Booths
SQ FOOTAGE
2 @ 50
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
o two stations per booth
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
T
C3P
cs>
eSS


-
ax>
C2> c3C> %
CHALK
ya 'vui
o tie design to overall concept o allow enough room for ample queing o booth should have a kiosk type character


I
NOTES & DIAGRAMS
SPACE
Concession Stand
SQ FOOTAGE
500
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
o adequate storage included o hand sink
o minimum of 4 stations

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
o tile floor o focal point of lobby
o allow for as much access as possible (is land concept) hard cleanable surfaces for work areas
o


NOTES & DIAGRAMS
SPACE
Theatre Restrooms
SQ FOOTAGE
500
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
o handicapped accessibility o water fountain in close proximity o sound proofing o vandal resistant construction o floor drains
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
o attractive tile work o theatrical style lighting around mirror
o allow for janitorial space (20 sq. ft.)
o make bathrooms "a place"


NOTES & DIAGRAMS
SPACE
Theatre Employee Locker
SQ FOOTAGE
200
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
o lockers o private W.C. o benches
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
o close proximity to manager's office o carpet flooring


SPACE
Theatre Office
NOTES & DIAGRAMS
SQ FOOTAGE
300
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
o security monitors o 2 desks o vault
o adequate task lighting
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
o close enough proximity to lobby to allow for observation of lobby o natural lighting if possible o carpet flooring o work area included (i.e., light
table, supplies, photocopy machine)


NOTES & DIAGRAMS
SPACE
5425
SQ FOOTAGE
Offices
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
o office floor to have restrooms (250 sq. ft.)
o handicapped accessibility
UrnvLf ru4 /
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
o acts as a buffer for theatres' blank wall
o daylighting for hallway o maximize opportunity for daylighting in office space


NOTES & DIAGRAMS
SPACE
Retail
SQ FOOTAGE
21 00
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
o service access o small W.C. for each space
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

nn nu rm
^ UM (m /3Ukjb
M
o transparency at the pedestrian level
o acts as buffer to theatres' blank wall


NOTES & DIAGRAMS
SPACE
Cafe
SQ FOOTAGE
2,1 00
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
o bar/lounge o kitchen o restrooms o office
o service corridor
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
o close proximity to entry lobby o transparency at the pedestrian level
o possible incorporation of a mezzanine level
o acts as a buffer to theatres' blank wall


NOTES & DIAGRAMS
SPACE
Fire Control Room
SQ FOOTAGE
36
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
O-fbsts a

^ fac&i'iri
o signage indicating equipment within room
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
o proximity to service area


SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
o signage indicating equipment within room
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
o proximity to service area


SPACE
Electrical Room
NOTES & DIAGRAMS
o 2 hour fire rating
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
o proximity to service area o proximity to mechanical room


NOTES & DIAGRAMS
o 2 hour fire rated construction
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
o proximity to electrical room and transformer


NOTES & DIAGRAMS
SPACE
Transformer Room
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
o 3 hour fire rated construction o 400 gallon overflow storage (below) o well ventilated
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
o proximity to mechanical room o allowance for overflow storage o location must allow for removal of transformer


NOTES & DIAGRAMS
SPACE
Trash/Receiving
SQ FOOTAGE
1200
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
o well ventilated o loading dock
-/mhj /Yl£eAvi*tj
/ \ * v
r /
<^.74>/ !Ch-)c
a- V / /
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
o destination point for service corridor
o direct accessibility from alley


NOTES & DIAGRAMS
SPACE
Mechanical Room
o ample ventilation
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
o proximity to electrical room
- /> ht z

NbLIOGPfiPtlY


BIBLIOGRAPHY
DiChiara, Joseph, et al. Time Saving Standards for Building Types. McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1980.
Krier, Rob. Urban Space. Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York, 1979.
Mumford, Lewis. The Urban Prospect. Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc. New York, 1968.
Naisbitt, John. Megatrends. Warner Books, 1984.
Naylor, David. American Picture Palaces; The Architecture of Fantasy. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. New York, N.Y., 1981.
Pena, William. Problem Seeking; An Architectural Programming Primer. Cahners Books International Boston, 1977.
Sharp, Dennis. The Picture Palace. Frederick A. Praeger, Inc. New York, N.Y., 1 969.
Silverstein, Murray. "Restructuring the Hidden Program: Toward Architecture of Social Change." Facility Programming. Preiser, Ed. pp. 7-26. Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross. Stroudsburg, Pa.
1 978.
Schon, Donald A. The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. Basic Books, Inc. New York, 1983.
Shanahan, James. "The Arts and Urban Development." Ekistics. Volume 48, No. 288. May-June, 1981.
Tetlow, Karin. "Palace Evolution." Interiors. Vol. CXLIV, No. 6. January, 1985.
Valerio, Joseph. Movie Palaces: Rennaissance and Reuse. Educational Facilities Laboratories. New York, N.Y., 1981.


INTERVIEWS
Rob Austin-Murphy
The Austin-Murphy Partnership
Denver, Colorado
Doug Goedert
Denver Planning Office
Denver, Colorado
Tim Hildebrandt
Construction Manager, The Tivoli PCL Construction Co.
Denver, Colorado
Bob Karn Studio 37 Denver, Colorado
Jerry Nery
RTD, Construction Division Denver, Colorado
Jeff Powell
Manager, Tivoli 12 AMC Theatres Denver, Colorado




Graphics for Handicapped Standards
TABLE 64-D FIGURES
Minimum Gear Width
Minimum Gear Width
for Single Whedchair
for Two Wheelchairs

(a)
60-in (1525-mm) -Diameter Space
Fig. < 3)
Wheelchair Turning Space
(b)
T-Shaped Space for 180 Turns
015


TABLE 64-D (Continued)
Fig 11 (19)
Stair Handrails (continued)
NOTE The automatic door reopening device is activated if an object passes through either line A or line B Line A and lint B represent the vertical locu tions of the door reopening device not re qumng contact
Fig. 12 (20)
Hoistway and Elevator Entrances


TABLE 64-D (Continued)
Fig. 20 (28)
Clear Floor Space at Water Gosets
(a)
Back Wall
rt
Side Wall
Fig. 21 (29)
Grab Bars at Water Gosets


Acoustics
C. First Raflactad Sound Hatching Parforaar.
PuL Ill'll I I ll| I,
iL
IQ
20 30 *vo JO
60 7 0
80

S. Diract Sound, sad First Reflections, Rsaching Listsnar.


TABLE 5-E
MINIMUM PLUMBING FACILITIES (a) (Fixtures per Occupants Except where Noted)
TABLE NO. USE WATER CLOSETS MALE URINALS **> LAVATORIES Drinking (D FOUNTAINS
MALE FEMALE MALE FEMALE
5-E-l Places of Assembly (c) 1 - MOO 1 1-75 2 - 101-600 2 76-200 3 - 601-950 3 201-400 Add 1 fixture for each additional 500 males and 1 for each 200 females 1 1-100 2 101-600 3 601-950 Add 1 fixture for each additional 200 males 1 - 1-250 1 1-200 2 - 251 600 2 201-600 3 - 601-775 3 601-1100 Add 1 fixture for each additional 500 males and 1 for each 600 females 1 per floor
5-E-2 Industrial, ofTice, retail. A Public Buildings 1 - 1-30 1 1-10 2 31-60 2 -11-30 3 61-90 3 31-60 For additional occupants 1 per 30 1 per 20 0 1-10 1 11-60 2 61-120 For additional occupants 1 per 60 1 1-30 1 1-30 2-31-60 2-31-80 3 61-120 3 81-120 For additional occupants 1 per 40 1 per 40 1 per 75 with 1 per floor minimum
5-E-3 Taverns and Lounges 1 - 1-30 2 - 31-90 3 - 91-150 1 - 1-30 2 - 31-60 3 - 61-90 1 -1-30 2 - 31-60 3 - 61-90 1 1-60 1 1-60 2 61 120 2-61-120 3 121-180 3 121-180 1 per floor
For additional occupants 1 per 60 1 per 30 For additional occupants 1 per 30 For additional occupants 1 per 60 1 per 60
5-E-4 Schools (b) Elem. A Jr. High 1 per 100 1 per 45 1 per 30 1 per 2 water closets and/or urinals 1 per 100 with 1 per floor minimum
5-E-4 All others 1 per 100 1 per 45 1 per 30 1 per 2 water closets and/or urinals 1 per 100 with 1 per floor
5 E 5 Dormitories 'gl See Section 609 (a) and (b) for additional requirements.
a. The plumbing facilities shown are for the number of persons indicated or any fraction thereof
b. Provide one shower for each 5 pupils of a gym or pool class.
c. Where alcoholic or malt beverages are served, the requirements for urinals for males and water closets for females shall be doubled.
d. Whenever urinals are substituted, one closet less than the number specified may be provided for each urinal installed, except the number of water closets in such cases shall not be reduced to less than one half of the minimum specified. (Revised 5/82 Ordinance No. 245
e. Where food is consumed, water stations may be substituted for drinking fountains.
f. Drinking fountains shall not be installed in toilet rooms.
g. Provide one bathtub or one shower for each 8 persons. For womens dormitories, additionsl bathtubs shall be installed
h. Provide one laundry tray for each 50 persons. In excess of 100 persons provide one laundry tray or one automatic laundry washing machine for each additional 50 persons.
i. For service sink requirements, see Section 509 (b) 5H.
Tables for Calculating Toilet Facilities


TABLE 5-F
ASSUMED OCCUPANT LOAD AND INDEX FOR TOILET FACILITIES
USE OR OCCUPANCY SQ. FT. PER PERSON SEC. 509 () TABLE
Arenas or Field Houses 7 1 5-El
Armories 30 1 5-E-l
Assembly Halls 7 1 5-El
Auditoriums 7 1 5-E-l
Banquet Rooms 15 1 5-E-l
Barber Shops 30 10 5-E-2
Beauty Parlors 30 10 5-E-2
Billard Rooms 15 1 5-E-l
Bowling Alleys N/A 1 5-E-l
Cafes (b) 15 1 5-E-l
Cafeterias (b) 15 1 5-E-l
Churches N/A 1 5-E-l
Dance Floors 15 1 5-E-l
Day Nurseries 150 9 N/A
Dining Rooms 15 1 5-E-l
Dormitories 50 3 5-E-5
Drive-in Restaurants 2/car 1 5-E-l
Drive-in Theatres 2/car 1 5-E-l
Dwelling Units N/A 5 N/A
Employment (Gen. Places of) 100 10 5-E-2
Foundries 500 6 5-E-2
Gymnasiums 15 1 5-E-l
Homes for the Aged 80 7 N/A
Hospitals 80 7 N/A
Hotels N/A 4 N/A
Libraries (Public) N/A 1 N/A
Lodges 15 1 5-E-l
Lounges Manufacturing 300 6 5-E-2
Meeting Rooms N/A 1 5-E-l
Mental Hospitals 80 7 N/A
Motels N/A 4 N/A
Nursing Homes 80 7 N/A
Offices 100 10 5-E-2
Orphanages 150 9 N/A
Parking Lots N/A 6 N/A


TABLE 5-F (contdJ
ASSUMED OCCUPANT LOAD AND INDEX FOR TOILET FACILITIES
USE OR OCCUPANCY SQ. FT. PER PERSON SEC. 509 (a) TABLE
Penal Institutions N/A 8 N/A
Restaurants lb) 15 1 5-E-l
Retail Establishments 150 10 5-E-2
Sanitariums 80 7 N/A
Schools, Class Recitatiqn & Library Reading Room 20 11 5-E-4
Study Rooms 15 11 5-E-4
Gassrooms seated with Tablet arm Chairs or seats without desks 10 a 5-E-4
Shops & Vocational Rooms 300 11 5-E-4
Skating Rinks 100 1 5-E-l
Stadiums (a) b. c. 7 1 5-E-l
Stages 15 1 5-E-l
Taverns 15 2 5-E-3
Theaters 7 1 5-E-l
Tourist Courts N/A 4 N/A
Warehouses N/A 6 N/A
Workshops 300 6 5-E-2
a. Seating area projected horizontally.
b. Use one person for each 200 sq. ft. of preparation area.
c. For Fixed seating, use 1 occupant per seat.


Soils Report
r o
I
10
10
IS
30
35
EXPLANATIONS!

IS
1
1
0
B
FILL. SANO, SUIT, GRAVELLY, WITH CONCRETE RUBBLE ANO DEBRIS ANO COVEREO BT ABOUT 3 OF ASPHALT PAVEMENT. LOOSE TO MEDIUM DENSE. MOIST TO VERY MOIST. OARK BROWN. CRAY. RUST.
SANO. SILTY. SCATTERED GRAVEL. FINE TO COARSE SIZED GRAINS. HEDIUM DENSE. HOIST. LIGHT IAN TO BROWN. RUST. SM
SANOSTONE BEDROCK. SILTY TO CLAYEY. FINE TO MEDIUM SIZED CRAINS. POORLY CEMENIEO. VERY HARO. MOIST. BROWN.
SANOSTONE BEDROCK, SILTY. CLAYEY. FINE TO MEDIUM SIZED GRAINS. MOOERAIELT CEMENIEO, VERT HARO. MOIST, BLUE-GRAY.
SANOSTONE BEDROCK, WELL CEMENTEO, EXTREMELY HARO, MOIST, BLUE-GRAY.
CLAYSTOHE BEDROCK, VERY HARD. HOIST, BLUE, DARK GRAY.
9/11 I MO I CATC S THAT 9 BLOWS OF A HO POUNO HA*1ER FALLING 30 INCHES WERE REQUIRED TO DRIVE A 1.5 INCH O.D. SAMPLER II INCHES.
INDICATES FREE WATER LEVEL ANO HUMBER Of DAYS AFTER DRILLING MEASUREMENT WAS TAKEN.
INDICATES DEPTH AT WHICH BORING CAVED 8 DAYS AFTER DRILLING.
40
NOTES:
1. THE EXPLORATORY BORINGS WERE DRILLED 9/4/85 WITH A 4 INCH DIAMETER CONTINUOUS FLIGHT AUGER POWEREO BT A CMC 55 DRILLING RIG.
45
l 50
|] SO/3
£] 50/3
LOGS OF EXPLORATORY BORINGS
I. WC WATER CONTENT (x)


UDISW 3H1


003/H
uyid mis
0
y


vmm PLfin
n
N/6 0


ALLEY
GROUND fLOOR PLAN
1=1/0 on
)


yO 9/1=1
m aoou GUOD3S


SE ELEVflllOn H/6
nt fiEvnnon


nw EMiion
M/6


SfCTIOn 5 H/6


the conausion


CONCLUSION
As this was my second thesis, r've had a chance to reflect on the process and gain some insights into what contributes to a successful project and what contributes to a unsuccessful one.
For the sake of brevity, let me say that the first and most important factor contributing to the design process is the program. Because I was unable to finish the program for my first thesis due to the complexity and size of the project, I was subsequently unable to finish the design process because the program was inadequate. By placing more energy on the program of my second project, the design process became just that, and it is uncanny how many of my goals, both specific and general, were met as a result.
On a more se 1 f-critica1 level, there were shortcomings to the second project, the most blatant of these being the violation of code requirements for the brick stairs leading to offices (a fire corridor leading to the alley would remedy the situation). Also, the tools of communication, drawings and models were not quite as developed as I had wished them to be. Though I believe they communicate the design, they don't communicate the sense of urban excitement of "glitziness" (as Francine would say) as well as I would have liked.
Finally, I'd like to comment on the thesis process. In understanding the dialectical process on a more mature level, I have begun to more deeply appreciate the idea of "affirmation through negation."