Citation
The lodge @ [i.e. at] Eldora

Material Information

Title:
The lodge @ [i.e. at] Eldora
Alternate title:
Lodge at Eldora
Creator:
Gies, Russell J
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
117 unnumbered leaves : illustrations, charts, map, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Ski resorts -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Eldora ( lcsh )
Ski resorts ( fast )
Colorado -- Eldora ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 109-110).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Russell J. Gies.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
13775731 ( OCLC )
ocm13775731
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1986 .G524 ( lcc )

Full Text
An
THE LODGE @ ELDORA
Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design & Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture
Russell J. Gies Spring Semester, 1986
The Thesis of________________________ is approved.
Committee Chairman
Principal Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver December6, 1985
Date Due


TABLE UF CONTENTS A c: kngwl edg e m e n t s
i Introduct:i on
-Thesi s Stat oment -Projact statement V i c i n i t y m a y -Area history A r a a eco n o m y
E x :i s t i n q f a c :i. I i t i e s & m o u n t a i n t e r r a i n
--Maps (local., regional)
- D e s c rip t i o n o F a r e a -- E x i s t i n g b u i 1 d i n q s a n d use s -Existing vegetati on Topoqrap hy and soi1s Traf f i c ci rcu 1 ati on and auto acc:ess
S i t e p h o t o g r a p h s
3- Analysis
Zoning review
-applicable zoning ordinance -building 1imits/allowable square footage a 11 a w a b 1 a u s e s -minimum bulk requirements Bui 1di ng code analysis ap p 1 i c ab 1 e cod e -occupancy c1assif ications -con st ruc fc i on t v p e
- maxi m u m p e r m i 11 e cJ floor a r e a
- - m a x i m u m p e r m i 11 e c j h e i. q h t well and opening protection of occupancies -required separation in buildings of mixed -fire resisti ve requi rements based on type
construction
-open parki ng garaqes area and hei ght r a q u i r a m a n t s b a s a a o n o c c u p a n c y g r o u p
.design loads
C1 i m a t e a n a 1 y sis
-t a b 1 a s o f c I i m a t i c d a t a
- cj r a p h s o f c:!. i m a t i c d a t a s u n a n g 1 e c h a r t
an erq y ef f i c ien t c: on s truc: t i on
U t i 1 i t i e s 1 o c a t i a n s
4. Program
-Spaces and descriptions -Uses and areas
- R e 1 a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n p r o g r a m e 1 e m e n t s Relationships within individual program el
5. D e s i q n s o 1 u t i o n -Drawinqs -Photographs
(1) u
Appendix Az ij pendi x B: Appendix Cl
Hotel Data
Restaur an t /1< i th an Data Parking Data
7.
oc: cupancy of
aments
Cone1usion


THESIS STATEMENT
"From the forest end wilderness come the tonics and harks which brace mankind!"
Henrv David fhoreau
A skiing vacation in the Colorado Rocky Mountains can be an experience one may never forget, It is not merely
s t r a p p i n g s k i i s to the bottom of ones T e e t
and sliding down a snow covered mountain. It
is much moi e. f h e d r i. v e in a n d t o i... Cl) t?
mountains, the excitement, anticipation and
fear of seeing a challenging run for the f i r s t t. i m e t h a t d a y,, a n d t h e e n s u i n g
chai r 1 i f t lip the mountai n to t he breathtak i ng views at the summit', and the crispness of the air are all overwhelming. These are all part o-f the natural sensory perceptions of skiing, hrofi! this point, one Teels a power and strength generally not associated with everyday life. Along with the natural
environs and perceptions., skiing also consists of the necessary manmade
envi ran men t, Ljkiing is a series of acti ons.


realizations and perceptions that create a total experience between man and his surroundings. If any one part is askew or out of place the feeling can be lasting when placed against the near perfect surroundings, If the natural setting is accepted as being in .am order that places the man-made environment in a tantamount position of mak j. ng or br eak i ng the users rnountain experi ence.
As Architecture, buildings have a responsibility to enhance whatever experience the user is undergoing. Buildings placed within the microcosm such as a mountain landscape create a set of architectural as well as social, personal, etc. issues that need to be addressed concerning their impact on the project. In this case the? "project" is the union of both the natural and of the built environments, creating a larger and more comprehensive development. The issues that are raised consist of scale, imagery, orientation, materials etc. How these issues are related to a project placed in a mountain context will be predicated upon a series of
set up at the conception
goaIs and objectives


of the design process.
11 i s f r o in t h e s e
goals and objectives that one must base all of the design concept 11 questions" upon. Does this relationship strengthen my concept is a question all designers need to answer prior to a successful endeavor.
In a mountain setting such as Eldora Ski Area the landscape is the metaphor against which everything else must be judged. It must act as a form giver as well as a form generator. The Landscapes at Eldora can be described as being expressive of its surroundings. That is, upon inspection one can see all the nuances of the terrain, ie, hills, gullies, valleys, ridges, etc. while still not being able to grasp the entire scenario of the landscape. This can only come with further inspection. The buildings placed within this contet shauId a 1 so posess simi I ar qlia 1 i ties.
The pure function of the building may be
workings of the project may not be quite so apparent.
After spending much time at the site and similar sites, it became apparent that a site
expressed exterioral Iv


of the scale and grandeur that mine is has the unique quality of being outward focusing. One must actually be placed within the microcosm of the landscape in order to perceive that which is occurring around them. Viewing the hillside from a highway does not allow one to experience the activities occurring within, therefore affording them the ability to understand what is occurring on the adjacent hillside, which
i s sti11 within the scope of the context.
They are allowed a modicum of knowledge and
a n a p p r e c i a t i o n of the beauty but not an
under s t an ding of the hill as a
self-sufficient support system.
is
Here again, any portion of the built
THl6 CLXl T^*T
environment placed within must once again
draw from the landscape and interpret the
natural metaphor being expressed. Failure to
do so will only weaken the combined
j+ -tnu ironnaenT
experience of the hill being placed within t h e n a t u r a .1 environ m e n t.. T h e u s e r s m u s t
become an integral part of the design, placed within the design, in order for them to have the abi1ity to truly understand the bui1ding an d its i n n er worki n g s. It is also fr om


this understanding that one will be able to
absorb that which is occurring in adjacent areas (both interior and exteriorly).
As my final interpretation of the landscape, it can be thought of as being non-demanding of ones attention in an object oriented fashion. One perceives the landscape from a macro scale rather than a micro scale. Individuality within the landscape is replaced with continuous harmony and a subtlety of change, and variation. One tree becomes two which become a forest which become a hillside. This pattern is repeated c o n t i nuou s1y t h r oug hout the system. The beauty of the landscape is the way this pattern can be momentarily broken or
disturbed. A small stand of aspens on a hillside of lodgepole pines, a large
outcropping of boulders along a treelined ridge or a sharp valley between continuous ridqes. These interruptions of the natura1
pattern can in fact change over time. More
aspens sprout up or boulders slide down the hill and an infinite number of other things can happen which may alter the perception of the landscape. It is through this amorphic


nature o-f the landscape and its everchanging
characteristics that the rnataphoric nature o-f the environment becomes apparent. The ability of the architecture t.o accept change will be key to its ultimate successful ness as wel 1 .
Context is an architectural issue in this
project that is extremely important.
Centexturalism is a concept which strives for
environmental harmony and a conscientious
imagery that can expand the user's realm of
the entire mountain experience. In this case
imagery is the expression in and of the built
environment and its responsiveness to the
landscape. Conscientious imagery is that
automatic feeling one gets when experiencing
and understanding a building. All of
architecture consists of context and it is
the way in which context is uti 1 ized that. can
create an impressionistic image. Webster
defines context as "the overall situation in
I
which an event occurs". In this case the event is the union of the manmade and natural
e n v i r o n m e n t s. The image created by the
ar chitecture shal .1 b e e x pressive of the
context in whi ch i t is placed. The statement


of continuous harmony and subtlety of change and variation is critical to the architectural solution. Imagery can draw from many sources, most importantly, in this instance, the surrounding context.
The image expressed in the architecture of this site shall be one of continuation of the experience. The user will either be educated as to what will come or a continuation of the mountain experience they are coming from. If the u s e r is just a r r i v i n g a t t he site?, t h e n the architecture shall be used as a tool to enlighten the user as to what the surroundings hold in store for them. If they have been at the area for a time and are coming to the buildings at the end of a long day, the user will be able to continue some of the basic premises upon which the surrounding landscapes are based upon. This continuation will also serve as an enhancement in that areas of quiet contimplation will be provided in which the user can reflect upon his surroundings both i n s i d e t h e b u i 1 d i n g a n d o u t.
As is also true of the landscape, the


structures must -function as a background for the activities within. This will be achieved through the imagery perception of the buildings. When one looks at a forested mountainside, the acitivity of nature that occurs beneath the trees is unseen from afar but as one approaches and eventually enters the forest, this activity becomes quite apparent. The architecture shall express the activity occurring within while maintaining the "quiet" expression on the exterior. This will be achieved through the use of materials, forms, solids and voids and additional architectural 1anguages.
Presented here are what I believe to be the expressive qualities and truths of the site which .incorporates the El dor a Ski Area and their impact upon the built world. The architecture must accept these inherent truths and express them throughout the design solution or create the possibility of a non-consistant situation that may be rejected by the surrounds and/or the users. As arch i t ect s, we must utilize t he medium of a r chi tect ure and it s comp on en t s to expr ess, i n t It e b e s t rn a n n e r p o s s i b 1 e, a c o n tin u i t y a n d


enhancement enhancement any and all
of i n
arch
the users experience turn is the ultimate iteeture. -firn


This goal o-f
V


PROJECT STATEMENT
The Lake Eldora ski area which is located 2 miles outside the town of Nederland, Colorado, was shut down due to constant financial losses over a period of the last five years. The E.R.T.L. Corporation could no longer justify the loses and so locked the gates to the area in May of 1985. Eldora has since reopened with the backing of the new Eldora Resort Corporation (E.R.C.). Until recently (since the new ownership), expansion of the physical plant was disallowed under the current Boulder County Comprehensive Plan that stresses downzoning in the unincorporated sections of the County. An amendment has been granted to the E.R.C. allowing for expansion of the base facilities, which include a day-use lodge, overnight lodge, horse stables, and additional recreational
cl 0 ci 3 a
The subject of viability and reality become issues that must be addressed in this project, not just from an economic standpoint, but from an organizational standpoint. A winter only ski area is no longer a competitive possibility. The project must t ar get a four-seasons i mp act ar ea. Flexibility in design becomes the means to the potentially crippling problem of expremely varied seasonal uses associated with a year round resort. The summer months users become just as important to the success of the project which is the final issue of all architecturethe success of all the integral parts combining to create that wholeness associated with pure architecture.


DEVELOPMENT
POTENTIAL
PROGRAM
~wr
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11
In the preparation of this program, consideration was given to the development potential of the remaining private land, presently owned by the Corporation, in terms of a complete recreation center.
Given the natural setting of the area, Lake Eldoras close proximately to Boulder and Denver, and the existing capital investment in the winter recreational facilities, the area has a good potential for further recreation oriented development. This will include a number of programs from low key summer picnic and hiking facilities to a major lodge facility for overnight public accommodations with formal summer recreation facilities such as tennis, swimming, etc.
The 430 acres of private land are served by the county access road from the east into the base area facilities and parking lots in the approximate center of the property. The southwest corner and west end of the property contain the ski lifts and trails and are, therefore, undesirable for other forms of development.
To the north of the access road and the base area facilities, the land is generally too steep for any development with 25% and over-grade slopes, but the lower slopes of Lite and Spencer mountains do contain some developable areas. The Ute Mountain site is particularly well suited for development because it has good proximity to the base area facilities, southern exposure, good tree cover, access, etc. The Spencer Mountain site is isolated from the ski mountain and presently contains numerous small summer cabins.
To the south of the access road, the terrain is more gentle and rolling with Peterson Lake, Lake Eldora, and numerous other wet areas. There are several potential areas that offer privacy, excellent views of the ski mountain, access, etc.


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HISTORIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
The history of the Lake El dora Ski Area and the surrounding region is both interesting and somewhat unique. Gold was discovered in the region in the late 1850s, which opened the mountains up to the large influx of would-be fortune seekers. Eiy 1361, the Grand Island Mining District was established in the upper Boulder Creek area, but only a trace of low-grade gold ore was found. The Lake Eldora area was again prospected with little success in 1869, after the discovery of silver in the Caribou Area three miles to the north.
In 1891, John H. Kemp established the Happy Va11ey Placer a1 ong Midd1e Bou1der Creek to the north and just below the present-day ski area. Mining technology changed over the years, making the poor ore of the area more profitable to extract. E-fy the mid to late 1890s, the Happy Valley settlement became known as Eldorado Camp, which was later shortened to Eldora. The mining activity increased with the speculation by eastern investors in the Enterprise Mining Company and ot h er s 1 oc at ed pr i. mar i 1 y on Sp enc er
Mountain. The town of Eldora was
incorporated in 1898 and boasted a population of 1,200, with a bank, a post office, a school, a telephone, and a coming mining boom to rival Cripple Creek.
The boom fever was further increased with the rumor that Eldora was on the proposed route of the Colorado and Northwestern Railroad that was trying to cross the Continental Divide into Middle Park. This was a much needed development. since both the mining and the growing timber industries were dependent upon cheap transportat i on costs f or t.hei r
raw materi a1s.
One business speculation at this time was the formation of the Eldora Resort and Power Company. This organization was formed by a group of prominent businessmen, which
included the farmer state govenor, Alva
Adams, Denver attorney, f.D. Stuart, and g e n e r a 1 m a n a g er, J .. T. 8 lair o f t h e C o 1 o r a d o Northwestern Rai1road. They purchased from


C.T. Petersen, in Nobember 1398, the Petersen Lake Addition Subdivision along the north side of Petersen Lake, which Petersen had previously platted with the County in March of the same year, on his homestead patent.
The intent o-f the El dor a Resort and Power Company was to provide both electrical power and water to the town of El dora and mines below and to ail so operate a summer resort along the shores of Peterson Lake, one of the first such resorts in the area. The Pine Log Lodge was built and operated for several years and the resort was described as a "charming family and fishing resort" for sale. Plans called for a rail spur to extend to the resort or possibly an aerial tram up the side of Spencer Mountain to overcome the steep and difficult access trail.
Neither the railway spur nor the aerial tram were completed, probably because the Eldora boom enthusiasm declined sometime in 1399. The Colorado and Northwestern Railroad did arrive in 1904, but did little to improve the economy. By 1917 all mining operations were i noperati ve.
In 1924, the Eldora Resort and Power Company was dissolved and the property purchased by Annie D. Morris, a Denver socialite. She had the Pine Log Lodge destroyed and created the "Dixie Lodge" on a hill to the north of Lake Eldora, above Peterson Lake. Japanese laborers were utilized to dam Lake Eldora and to build connecting oriental bridges to the numerous islands created by the rising water. Mr s. Morr i s renamed the 1 ake to Lake Kaanawha, reminiscent of her native West Virginia, and used the lodge as a summer showplace for her family and friends. After the death of Mrs. Morris, the Dixie Lodge was abandoned; it was destroyed by fire in 1969.
Today, historic remnants of the rich past include scattered cabins and the dam around Lake Eldora, the old stone chimney of the Dixie Lodge, a few summer homes in the Peterson Lake Addition, and the old road and m i n e s o n S p e n c s r M o u n t a i n.
Several years after Mrs. Morris, Gabor Cseh studied the Lake Eldora area and proposed to build a ski area on the slopes of Bryan


joined by other George C. Sweeney, £(. Robertson, and Bob team coach. The Lake established in July,
Mountain. Cseh was businessmen including Frank M. Ashlye, Donald Beattie, a U.S. Olympic El dora Corporation was .1961, to build and operate the Lake Eldora Ski Area on 480 acres of private land. In October of 1962, a U.S. Forest Service Special Use Permit was secured on Roosevelt National Forest land adjacent to the private land. Operations started in 1963 with a 4,000-foot long, 1,000-foot vertical T-bar east of Guinn Mountain and a 1,400foot, 250-foot vertical T-bar on private land. The #3 T-bar, a 1,600 foot, 230-foot vertical lift, opened in 1965.
From 1961 to 1967, the Corporation experienced total economic failure due to a lack of snow and poor management. The Corporation was acquired in 1967 by Energy Resources Technology Land, Inc. Dr. Tell Ertl, President, improved the ski area by expanding the skiable terrain, adding new lifts and improving the existing ones, installing an extensive snowmaking system, and lighting the east face of the ski mountain for night skiing.
1 I -I -
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BOATHOUSE IN 1976
Gage Davis and Associates
LAKE KAAiMAWHA (ELDORA) (ci rca) 1925 Ben Lawe1l
BOATHQUSE AND BRIDGE


LAKE ELDORA ALPENHORN LODGE 1976 Gage Davis and Associates
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M 0 L J N T AIN P L A N / T e r r a i n
There are 188 acres of skiing terrain at the Lake El dora Ski Area, both on Corporation and U.S. Forest Service land, which are b rok en down i n t o t i i ree separate skii n g pads. T h e s e in c i u d e t h e E5 u n d a n c e P o d t h e Cannonball Pod, and the Corona Pod, as ill u s t r a t e d o n t h e M o u n t a i n D e v e 1 o p, n e n t P i. a n (Map 3).
The Sundance Pod, the smallest of the three pods, is served toy two chairlifts and one Tbar lift. This pod is located totally
wi thi n the Corporat i on property and i s
c o n s i d e r e d p r i m a r i 1 y to e g i n n e r a n d
inter rn e d i a t e t e r r a i n
T h e C a n n o n b a 1.1 P o d C a r p o r a t i o n 1 a n d a n d P e r m .i. t A r e a T h i s
chairlift and is t e r r a in w i t h s o rn e
a d v a > c e d fc r a i 1 s.
is located on both the the U. S. Farest Servi ce area is served by one considared intarmediate upper i nTer"rnedi ata to
The Corona Pod is located totally within the U.S. Forest Service Permit Area on the steep northern slope of Bryan Mountain. The area is served by one chairlift and is considered an upper intermediate to advanced area. Historically, the area is known for its poor s n o w d e p o s i t i o n a n d r e t e n t i a n a n d i s
subjected to the gusty wind conditions that frequent the area. For these reasons, the a r e a i s 1 i 111 e u s e d, e x c ep t un d er e t r eme 1 y favorable snow condilions usually occurring 1 a t e r i n t h a s k i ~> e a s o n.
The ski terrain difficulty for the total mountain is broken down into the foliowing percentages in fable 2. Since the Corona Pod is unusable most of the time, the total usab .1. e inaun t a i n t er r a i n i s 18,37, to eg i t \n er, 74.43 i n termedi rte, and 7. I V.. advanced.


TABLE 2
SK1 TERRAIN DIFFICULTV SUMMARY
Total Usable
Terr ain Terra!n
Sundance Pod Beqinnsr 13. 37,
In termedi ate 16.97.
Advanced 0.07.
C a n n o n b a 11 P o d Beqinner 0.07.
Intermediate
czy
ij / ia -J /
Advanced
Corona Pod Beg i nner
0.07.
I n t e r m e d i a t e 0. 07.
Advanced 0. 07.
11 17. 10.37.
0,07.
0.07. 35. 07. 4.47.
0.07.
4.07.
*4r /
J n S... fm
TOTAL. 100.07.
100. 07.
MOUNTAIN CAPACITY
The existing downhill capacity of the mountain is approximately 5,000 skiers per day, assuming a 12 1/2-hour day and the use of only the Sundance and Cannonball Pods. This is approximately 3,600 skiers during the day, w i t h a n o t n e r 3. 400 s k i e r s d u r i n g t h e e / e n i n q. C o n v e r s a 1 y, t h e e x i s t i r i g u p h i 11 c a p a c i t y o f I... a k e E1 d o r a, w i t h o u t i h e C o r o n a L i f t, i s approximately 3,200 skiers per day.


CROSS COUNTRY SKIING
During the 1975-76 ski season, the
Corporation initiated a fee cross-country p r o g r a m w h i c h i n c i u d e d t h e e s t a b 1 i s h in e n t o f s e v e r a I in a i n t a i n e d t o u r i n g t r a i I s a s i 11 u s t r a t e d o n t h e M o u n t a i n PI a n. Eld o r as
40 kilometer trail system is the only-maintained cross country track in the Front
Range,, and there is room for expansion-....the
Forest Service has asked El dora if they would b e i n t: e r e s t e d i. n a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h sir t r a i 1 s w e s t o -f E1 d o r as t r a c k, a n d t h a n e i g h b o r i n g landowners have been cooperative in allowing skiers to use their land, but currently the t r a i 1 s a r e 1 o c a t e d t o t a 11 y o n p r i v a t e property, both Corporation property and other adjacent private property, and includes 35% b e g i n n e r, 3 4 % i n t e r in e d i a t e,, a n d 317. a d v a n c e d -
The popularity of cross country skiing at El dora can be measured in the increase in trail passes sold (from 10,000 last season to
14,000 this year) and the number of people taking lessons (900 last season and 1500 this year).
SUMNER REGREAT ION POTENTIAL
Summertime is an untapped resource at El dora. The ski area is only 4 miles from a popular summer tourist loop., Thousands of potential customers pass on Highway 119, the Peak to P e a k H i g h w a y,, e v e r y s u m i n e r E s t e s P a r k a n d Central City make al1 their money on summer t o u r i s t s. T w e n t y m i 1 e s n o r t h o f E 3. d o r a, P e a c f1 ..t 1 V a 1 I e y, a p 1 e a s a n t,, El u r o p e a n s t1 a dude ranch with about 150 rooms, does a brisk business from June 1 into October,,
El s t a b 1 i s h i n g a s u m m e r b u s i n e s s s i m i 1 a r t o P e a c e f1 j I V a 1.1 e y a t E1 d a r a w o u 1 ci o f f e r r h e opportunity to round out the cash flow p icture.
Probably the most con vi lie i nq argument for summert i me at El dora is the beauty. The lakes: the forest, and the magnificant vi sws, make i. t one of the most beauti ful places In the world. Flunking,, h iking, and horseback i i. 13 i r111 wu 1 ti be insur passeA Vi ews i nc 11xd the pr :)j rI es o! Col.or-jdo 1 (.>u miles oast and


north of Denver, and the Front Range R o c k y !1 o u n t a i n s -f r a m i 4,, 000- f o o t II o u n t to 13,000+ Arapahoe Peak.
of the Elvans


LX IS!IMG
RESOURCES
1. Physi cal f- ac; i 1 i t i es
Included i n the assets of the ski area:
10, 000 squar e
f oot rust. i c day 1 odqe wh:i. ch i nc 1 udes a
pleasant bar and
cafeteria with a view of the slopes and a n e w 1 y e x p a n d e d
retail shop? a 300) square foot building that houses the
rental shop and the nu.r sery; a t h r e es t o r y
b u i ]. d i n q t i i a t
i n c 1 u d e s a s k i s c h o o 1 I o c k e r r oorn, the ski
p a t r o 1 r o o rn,
and an apartment, for the r"* fc? rn a n a ger ,, e a c h
of which is
approximatelv 2000 square f f-et; a s ri o w m a k e i s
house above the pump room5 a mainten square feet; a n d a f a w s m a 11 b u i 1 d i n g s. a n c e g ar age of 5000
2. Ex i st i. ng Fac i 1 i. t i. es The following is a s ex i st i ng f ac: i 1 i. t i es a t i.... a k e £. 1 d o r a: ummary of current.
f A CI L I 1 Y A t' P R 0; <111 ATE GRi
i. Day Center
Lounge 1200
O ff i ces 500
Nursery 200
R e £> t. r o o m s 1500
Cafeteria !< r- i. t c h e n 7000
Sport shop
S k i K e t t a i i 5 o o
A p a r t m e n t 15 0 O
3. Managers Apartment 900
1. Ski Patrol 900
' J Ski School 900
S u 1'! a i t i t en an c e F a >i. 1 i t y Star age & Repair of 90< >
i 1 :.i L n L t-.-.'l 1 1 i i... I-- M t?! i 3. L. I t:* ~ 3500
Oi o p i" a i:: i 1 i i i e s 1 5' H )


E i d o r a h a s f i. v e 1 i f t s:
LIFT NAME MANUFACTURER DATE BUILT
LENGTH IN FEET
Ho Hum Miner-Denver 1967
150 vertical
Corona MinerDenver 1969
1400 verti cal
Cannonbal1 Heron-Poma 1973
1000 vertical
S u n d a n c e L i f t E n q i n e e r i n q 19 7 6
375 vertical
Snai1 Lift-Engineering 1980
300 vertical
All of these lifts, with the exception of Cor on ah a ve b e en v er y we 11 ma i n t a i n ed, an d, with the routine maintenance, shou1d be ab1e to operate for many years to come. Corona would require more than routine maintenance to be brought to present standards. The required expenditure wouid be approx imate1y $30,000.
3. Land
The 1 and consi sts of approximately 480 acres. Th i. s i n c 1 ud es 440 acr es af un sub d i v i d ed 1 an d arid 38 one-acre
lots. Included in the boundaries of this 1 a n d a r e t h r e e
cabins owned by people who are not related to t h e
owners. These cabins are on small lots.
about one tit of an acre. i r d There are al so seven one-acre
lots in the subdivi si on t h a t are owned by unr el a ted
parties, in addition to t h e 38 1 at s owned b y t h &
Carporation. A11
of this land is 1 eased under a 99-year lease wi. th an
option to buy for $100,000. This option must he exerei sed o y m i d 1.9'(it..


ENVIRONMENT
S i nce L a ke E1 dor a i s a 1 ready an ex i st i nq sk i area with a properly secured U.S. Forest 3er vi c.e Spec i a 1 Use Per mi t, emphasi s h as been placed primarily on continuing operational environmental programs rather than a detailed environmental inventory and analysis. Consideration has been given to several major environmental -factors which affect the ski
area and are summarised in Map ........It is
understood by- -Lake Eldora, the County, and the U s. Forest Service that, shou1d the
C o r p o r a t i o n d e s i r e t o e x p a n d o u t s i d e the U. 3.. Forest Service permit boundary as part of some possible future long-range development g o a 1, a d e t a 11 e d e n v i r o n m e n t a 1 s t u d y
prepared by qualified persons would be required for that area covered by the expansi on
From Map it can he seen that the Lake
Eldora 3k i Area i s 1 ocated i n the front range a r e a o f t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i r t s, j u s t f i v e m i 1 e s east of the Continenta1 Di vi de in Boulder County, Colorado. The area is in close pi r a x i m i t y t o t h e p a p u 1 a t e d -f r o n t ra n q e communities, being only 21 miles from Boulder a n d 4 5 m i 1 e s f r o m D e n v e r . T y p i c: a 11 y, t h e
area is frequented by area college students and families characterised by beginner, i i) t e r m e d i a t e, a n d a d v a n c a d s k i e r s f o r
t r a i n i n g p u r p o s e s.
The elevation of the area varies from 9,250 feet <2319 m) at the base area to 10,600 feet (3231 m> on the ridge of Bryan Mountain, resulting in a 1400---foot (427 rn) vertical d r o p. P r i t n a r i 1 y, t h e s k i m o u n t a in h a s a
northeasterly orientation with major ski runs facing almost directly east. Several 1 o n q r a n g e v i e w c o r r 1 d o r s a r e v i s i b 1 e f r o m several points on the ski mountain, which include Arapahoe Peak and James Peak on the Continental Divide to the northwest and southwest respect1vely, and to the east the town of Nederland, the Boulder Creek Valley, and Barker Reserved r. Conversely, the upper P or k i. on s af t i i e sk i. t er i a n ar & :riost v J. si b i e
from the town of Nederland and along certain stretches of the Peak to Peak Mi oh way. State Routes 72 and i.i. 9,
A neqat i ve -_*n vi r onmen ta 1 -f ac cor M- ec t :i ng the ski area is wind, The area has severe wind


gusts which occur primarily during the winter months, wi th January beinq the most severe. The prevailing wind is from the west, with the ski trails acting as ventures tunneling coaler westerly air downslope to the base area, creating a secondary wind source in the base area,,
The annual precipitation tor the area is over 2 51',, w i t h a n a n n u a 1 yea r 1 y s n o w t all a t 15 0''.
Snowmaking at the ski area improves the snow conditions and adds to the net water runoff in the summer, but more importantly, the snowmaking gives the ski area a competitive edge in the early part. of the ski season over
0 t h e r C o 1 a r a d o are a s w h i. c h d e p e n d w h o 11 y u p o n n a t u r a 1 s n o w f a 11
Any avalanche problems at Lake El dora are confined to the littleused Corona Massif Lift area on the steeper north side of Bryan Mountain- These areas are controlled by the s k i p a t r o 1 w i t h m a d e r n a v a 1 a n c h e t e c h n o .1 o g y and methods. There are no potential avalanche areas on the maintained
c r o s s c o u n t r y t r a i 1 s y s t e m, b u t h a z a r d s d o exist outside both the corporate land and the U. S Forest Service Permit. Area for the wand ering cross-coun t r y sk ier. C t a rr en11y,
the ski patro 1 is campi. 1 ing information an these hazard areas to better inform the public! no avalanche control in the future is planned for these areas.
The geology of the area consists of basically two types: tertiary intrusive igneous rock
and alpine glacial land forms of till, ground moraines, alluvium, and colluvium. The
1 g n e a u s r a c k a c c u r s b a s i. c a 3.1 y a n B r y a n
Mountain which typical 1v has thin, poor soils wi t h paor dr ai nage char ac; t er i. s t i cs an d i s subject to seasonal runoffs,, The glacial deposits occur at. the base area and are characterized by seasonal high water tables w i. t h p oar dr a i. n ag e -


In an attempt to allow for better drainage of the mountain and the base area, a deep open drainage ditch was dug at the top of the ski mountain several years ago from the present lodge site east, past the lower parking lot. A11hough thi s di tch has all evi ated some of the drainage problems, it is not. a final solution and further study is needed for a better so1uti on.
The wildlife in and around the Lake El dora a r e a i s d i v e r s e, b u t r e 1 a t i v e 1 y s m a 11 populations exist because of the increasing presence of man and his dogs. The Corporation encourages the habitation of wi1d1i fe by prohibiti ng uncontro11ed pub1i c access, dogs, hunting, and fishing on the p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y.
In recent years, there has been an increase in the fox, elk, and deer populations, with frequent sightings of these animals on or near the ski trails', the animals are starting to congregate in the area. There is little c o n f 1 i c t w i t h t h e e 1 k m i g r a t i o n p a. 11 e r n s, since the migration occurs before and after the ski season.
A formal meeting was held with the local Colorado Wildlife; Conservation Officer to confirm that the critical w I. ldl. fe ranges on Tennessee and Buckeye mountains will not be i mpac ted, since no expn si on outsi de the private land or the U.S.. Forest. Service Special Use Permit. Area is proposed.


ENVIROMMENTAL OPERATIONS
Any passible impact of the snowmaking and n i ght 3. i gh t i nq on the ei st :i. ng na fcur a 1
ecosystems have been addressed by the C c j r p o r a t i. o n. F i r s tt h e C o r p o r a t i a n h a s equipped the compressors with the proper mufflers and located them to the north edge of the upper parking lot away from the lodge facility and the ski slopes Future consideration will be given to screening the area from public view. Second, the lights on the ski trails have-; been carefully spotted so p r o p e r 1 y 1 i. g h t s k i t r a i 1 s t o t h e
without lighting the surrounding s uc h as oth er pri vate pr operty.
Mountain screens the town of El dora t h e n o i s e a n d t h e 1 i. q h t. T h e s e
are not used unnecessarily by the
as to maxi mum areas, Spencer from both uti1i ties
Corporation. To date, there have been no comp 1 a.L nts conterni ng these ac fci vi ti es, bufc t he Cor poration wi11 con t i n ue ef f ort s fc o minimize these potential problems. (See the Mountain Plan and the Base Area Plan for
at her en v i r onm ent a1
con s i d sr a t i on s. )
operational
ARCHAEOLCGICAL AND SCIENTIFIC CONSIDERATIONS
There are no s c i e n t i f i c s i fc e s proper ty or the Ar ea.
k n o w n a r c h eolo q 1 c a 3. o r o n e :L t h e r t h e C a r p o r a fc i o n U.S Foresfc Servi ce Permit


DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL
Real Estate?
The? 1976 D a v e 1 o p m e n t Associ at.es, areas; (see
Lake El dora Ski Area Master
Plan, written by Gage Davis and 1i sted f ive possi b1e deve1opmen t a p p e n ci ix) T h i s p 1 a n e n v i s i o n e d
the possibility of building a maximum of two hundred units on the property.
Approx imately one third of the 480 acres of f e e 1 a n d i s o c c u p i e d b y s k i t r a i 1 s < o f w h i c h
a b o u t. 1 :l. 0 a r e s k i a b 1 e ..t h e r e s t i s f o r e s t,
parking lots, etc). Of the remaining 300 acres, only about. 30 acres needs to be developed to achieve the 250 units that might b e e c o n ami ca 11 y a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a 11 y
desireab1e. That, of cour se, 1eaves 270
acres of open space, water, hiking and additi ona1 skiing trai1s, atc.
The main obstacle to development at the P r e s e n t t i m e i s t h e a 11 i t u d e o f B o u 3. d e r C o u n t y t o w a r d s m o u n t a i n b u i 1 d i r g. I h e 0 o u n t y has approved the construction of a new day lodge as outliend in the program.
A d j a c e r i t P r o p e r t i a s
Approximately 5000 acres to the south and north of the ski area are owned by* Dr. Henry Toll of Denver. At the present time, the ski area leases several hundred acres of land from Dr. Toll for use as cross country ski trails in exchange for property taxes and a share of the profits. If expansion into Gilpin County is envisioned, Dr. Toll would probably be a cooperative partner. Ha has, i n f a c t, i n d i c a t e ci a n i n t e r e s t i n h a v i n g a conf ererice center on his proper ty. Adj acent to his 1 and in Gilpin County is a tract of 900 acres owned by the Zarlenqo family. They are qui te 3 n teres ted in selling at least, part o f t h e i r I a n d . (S e e a p p e 11 d i x f o r 1 a n d
o w n e r s h i p i n a j.:?)
Also in the lol l and valley,, about 2.5 miles sou til of the ski area, is the main east-west line for the Denver --Rio Grande railroad and til e r ot.d; e + or ii k I Til A K..
AI I
Lh.:?
r e'l'i.A i. i i 1 .Of!
neighbor! ng i in. i


owned by the Forest Service. In the past
five years, the Forest Service has adopted a p o 1 i c y o f in o n i t o r i n q, r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r previ ous, mor e act i ve poI i cy of tel 1 i ng ski areas how to operate. Any ski terrain
expansion onto federal 1 and would probably be approved, although of course it would require a r at. h er ex t ens i ve study and p erini 11 i n q
process.
INFRA-STRUCTURE
Li t i 1 i t i es
The area is served by a 26,000 volt, primary f e e d p r o v i d e d b v P ub 1 i c S e r v i c e C a in p a n v a f Colorado. This power is then transformed down to the required voltages at three
substat ions on ski area property. A1so, the
m a i n n a t u r a 1 g a s p i p e 1 j. n e o f t h e W e s t e r n Slope Gas Company passes through the property.
Water rights are an important factor in sn o w makin g a n d f ut ur e d eve1opmen t p1 an s.
Present1y, Lake Eldora Corporati on has first p r i or i t y f or 21 acr e f eet / ye ar of wat er f or diversi on, storage, reusa and consumpti on on South Bou3. der Cr eek . The corpor at i on has
also filed for rights to all the water in Peterson Lake and surrounding ponds.
SEWAGE SYSTEM
The collection line begins at the existing 3. odge, then cr osses the par k 3. n g 3. ot an d
appr ox ima t es the nat ur a1 dr a in age of the
basin. From the? collection line, the sewage enters two aerated ponds operating in series with holding capacities of 900,000 gallons an d 450,000 qalion s r espect ive1y. The aeration of t hese ponds is specifica11y d e s i q n e d f o r 1 o w -t e rn p e r a t u r e w i n t e r
operation. Treated effluent. exiting from the second pond .is chi or inated and released to t h e i j a t u r a 3. w a t ere: o u r s e a p p r o i m a t e 1 y 8 0 0
feet upstream from Peterson Lake.


SNOWMAKIIMG FAC 11.1T I £S
Th e p r esen t cap ac i t. y ga 1 1. ons per mi nute, p r e s e n 11 y e p a n d i n q systems can operate c o fit b i n e d c a p a c i t y
of each system is 600 b u t t h e C o r p o r a t i o n i s the system so that both s i m u 11 a n e o u s 1 y w i t h a
o f 1, 200 q a 11 o n s p e -
mi nute,
FIRE PROTECTION
Since the ski area is remote, it is presently outside any organized firs district. The !Mederland Vo1unteer Fi re Department is the nearest agency with a response time of 20 to 30 minutes in good weather.,
Therefore, the Corporation has made an effort to provide the following fire fighting capabi1i ties:
..Small local fires have the protection of
f i r e ex t i n q u i sh er s at poi nts of conearn.
The lodge, garage, and apartment have added protecti on of
t ap s an d 1 i n c h hoses whi ch operate off of t h e p a r t s. b 1 e w a t e r
water system and are backed by the storage reserve.
A tank trai1er is avai1 ab1e whi ch has a p e r m a n e n 11 y m o u n t s d pump.
T h e s n o w m a k i n g s y s t e m i s e q u i p p e d t o a. c c e p t fire hoses.


SOLID WASTE
Currently, all solid waste at. the area is c a 11 e c: t e d, s t o r e d, a n ti p e r iodic a 11 y h a u 3. e d t o collection dumpsters at nearby Nederland High School. The present system will probably c o n t i n u e i n t o t h e f u t u r e, b u t o t h e r m a a n s o f d i s p o s a 3. will b e c o n s i d a red w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i a n o f t. h e C e n t r a 1 S e r v i c e F a c i 1 i t y. These include an incinerator or a trash c o m p a c t o r o n s i t e, b u t f u r t h e r e c o n o rn i c s t u d y is required.
POSSIBLE SHORT TERM IMPROVEMENTS
T h e f o 11 o w i n q i m p r o v e m e n t s w o u 1 d sol v e rn a n y of Eldoras operating woes as a day area:
$100,000 for rehabi1itation and expansion of the d ay 1odge. The 1odqe i s be aut i + u11y
constructed and should be preserved. However, some repairs do need to be made to be brought up to date.
$30,000 for rehabi1itation of Corona lift. In order to assure acceptance by the Co 1 orado Passenger Tramway Safety Board, and to assure reliable operation, several months of work must be done.
$50,000 for installation of snow fences and other improvements on Corona. Small trees should be planted as soon as possible, even t h o u g h t h e y m a y n o t p r o v i ci e s f f e c t i v e w i n d breaks for many years.
$100,000 for a cross country center/warming hut
1.6 mi 11 i on for on-
i n c 1 u d i ri g r e c o n t o u r :i. n g i increased snowmak i. nq additionaI ammenities
c;ampeti ti ve v-*i thin thei t
m o u i i t a in e x p a n s i o n s
o} ex i st i n g t. r a :i 1 s, n a w c h a i r 1. i f t s a n d
to make El dora mar ket.


II
FINANCIAL STATUS P r e s e n t 0 p e r a t i o n a
Over the past five years El dora has experienced a loss of about $500,000 each year. Of this $500,000, $150,000 is interest and another $150,000 is depreciation.
The single most expensive item in the budget is snowmaking, averaging $300,000 per year. This includes compressor rental and diesel fuel as well as $55,000 for payroll and $15,000 f or supplies. A1so i neluded i s the
cost of electricity for the pumps and the electric compressor El dora presently owns.
An increase in revenue is not generally a c c o m p a n i e d b y a p r o p a r t i o 11 a 1 i n c r e a s e i n expenses. Therefore, after you have reached a skier day level that cover's operating expenses, about 757. of all additional revenue g o e s direc 11y t o the b o11 om 1i ne.
With the present operations, an increase of 30-40,000 skiers would mean a break-even accounting status for the ski area.
The following strenqths, c o n s i d e r a t i o n s
is a chart weaknesses of El dora.
show1n q curr an t and future
3


AREA HISTORY
Present Strengths Present Weaknesses
Close to Boulder Access via Boulder Canyon
Close to North Denver Snow making equipment Strong wind moves snow and creates poor skiing conditions
Close ski area near Poor access road from Neder1 and
university crowds, C.U., C.S.U. Greeley Ownership of private land Base area layout, i.e., ticket sales not near lifts
Publi c relat ions
Night skiing is an attract ion Low snowfall area
No other inventoried areas Poor base facilities
for ski development along Front Range USFS Special Use Permit dated 11/17/71 for 20 years No opportunity for overnight lodg i ng
USFS policy favors maintenance & development of ski areas
Good water supply
Provides employment to residents of small mountain commun i ty
Future Opportunities
Future Threats
Energy crunch will make this area more desirable because of easy access
Bussing to the area from Boulder
Managing snow on ski trails through fencing or other dev i ces
Improving public relations and business
Developing four season pattern of use
Business relationships improvi ng
Improving base area accommodations
More organized development and i mprovement
Create overnight lodging base to increase skier days.
Non-conforming entity in Boulder County
Poor state and national economy
Winds destroying more trees and the scouring effect on more open ski slopes


LAKE ELDORA CORPORATION BALANCE SHEET
as of 04/30/85 and 04/30/84
LIABILITIES AND EQUITY
As of As of
04/30/85 04/30/84
Current Liabilities
Accounts Payable $
Taxes Other Then Income Notes Payable to Related Parties Notes Payable Lease Rental Accrued Expenses
118,114.61 257,918.99 835,438.23 5,308.00 36,671.16
$ 145,757.09
146,453.51 905,438.23 0.00 27,463.49
Total
Current Liabilities
1,253,450.99
1,225,112.32
Long-term Debt
745,341.39
213,177.78
Total liabilities
1,998,792.38 1,438,290.10
Equity
Common Stock
1,315,611.74
1,315,611.74
Retained Earnings 06/30/83 1,946,337.50- 1,596,842.06-
Net Income (Loss -) 576,399.54- 277,834.68-
Current Retained Earnings
2,522,737.04- 1,874,676.74-
Treasury Shares
Total Equity
2,025.00- 2,025.00-
1,209,150.30- 561,090.00-
TOTAL LIABILITIES L EQUITY
$ 739,642.08
$ 877,200.10


LAKE ELDORA CORPORATION BALANCE SHEET
as of 04/30/85 and 04/30/84 ASSETS
Current Assets Cash
Accounts Receivable Inventor i es Prepaid Expenses
Total Current Assets
Depos i ts
Property and Equipment Equ i pment
Buildings and Improvements Ski Lifts Ski Trails
Leasehold Interest Ski Lift
Utility Faci1i t ies
Dam
Furniture and Fixtures
Parking Lot
Road
Master Plan
Total Property and Equ i pment
Less Accumulated Depreciation
Land
TOTAL ASSETS
As of As of
04/30/85 04/30/84
$ 70,665.96 $ 63,756.42
14,860.50 20,049.85
59,709-95 51,349.81
46,098.37 13,501.66
191,334.78 153,657-74
11,462.53 11,900.00
964,608.57 946,787.44
535,622.09 522,009.81
503,178.03 503,178.03
321 ,418.84 321,418.84
163,537-50 163,537-50
161,607-21 161,607-21
32,932.55 32,932.55
36,012.55 36,012.55
38,197-60 38.197.60
23,739.00 23,739.00
134,458.57 134,458.57
2,915,312.51 2,883,879.10
2,366,984.07- 2,210,785.07-
548,328.44 673,094.03
38,548.33 38,548.33
586,876.77 711 ,642.36
$ 789,674.08 $ 877,200.10


ELDORA SKI AREA
TICKET SALES SUMMARY 1977-1985
Tickets by category
Year Full Day Half Day Commuter N i ght TOTAL
1976-77 83,793 30,356 12,225 31 ,863 163,237
1977-78 31,991 28,012 14,117 4l,005 165,125
1978-79 68,066 28,294 12,174 21,799 130,333
1979-80 75,276 27,303 16,123 28,370 147,022
1980-81 53,710 19,373 6,060 15,757 94,900
1981-82 55,920 19,198 9,311 15,544 99,373
4 Hour 2 Hour
1982,83 61,685 20,955 4,597 21,282 108,519
1983-84 66,074 13,910 4,429 14,076 93,489
1984-85 64,512 8,933 5,816 21,758 101,019


SIX-YEAR COMPARISON OF SKIER-VISITS
Member Areas 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1930-81 1981-82 1982-83
Aspen
Aspen Highlands 216,1*00 221,877 201,422 141,000 163,492 156,679
Aspen Mountain 241,9^3 263,793 253,127 141,603 245,471 254,581
Buttermi1k 225,092 235,000 250,239 214,399 169,839 192,627
Snowmass 61*5,430 699,568 715,812 572,688 619,364 679,349
Beaver Creek - - - 112,129 218,562 229,573
Berthoud Pass 15,021 17,010 21,261 19,500 17,100 16,000*
Breckenr idge 623,292 627,540 724,779 195,718 681,895 673,129
Ski Broadmoor 15,817 27,625 23,856 13,663 21,174 16,743
Conqui stador 10,1*68 11 ,980 - - 10,128 20,244
Ski Cooper 27,279 30,491 33,636 34,980 43,996 42,267
Copper Mountain 1+73,387 536,184 612,135 531,199 605,084 641,771
Crested Butte 207,631 260,088 282,933 161,895 276,015 304,422
Eldora 165,125 130,333 147,022 94,900 99,360 108,519
Geneva Basin 38,1*1*9 50,684 38,358 - 33,822 17,120
Ski Golden 3,371+ - - - - -
Hidden Val1ey 1+5,171 44,995 45,297 16,205 40,023 28,923
Ski 1d1ew i1d 21*,807 19,877 21,554 16,467 16,361 18,242
Keystone/ 522,561 554,693 641,285 600,029 679,585* 732,164*
Arapahoe Basin 1i*8,199 167,858 214,254 107,913 250,759* 260,000*
Loveland 210,324 172,479 186,694 177,954 184,842 200,533
Monarch 93,711+ 100,015 99,352 73,173 119,405 127,221
Panadero - - - - 12,567 22,263
Pikes Peak 3,226 4,469 7,954 - 11 ,338 11,031
Powderho rn 1*3,220 62,751 65,444 48,397 63,951 79,272
Purgatory 218,019 258,659 271,550 176,944 250,779 278,911
S i1verCreek - - - - - 54,749
St Mary's Glacier - - 3,478 - 3,177 2,777
Steamboat 535,032 605,675 630,307 243,000 613,354 745,104
Sunli ght 1*4,811* 50,578 58,236 45,265 69,730 71,051
Ski Tamarron - - - - 5,483 -
Tel 1ur i de 88,752 105,522 106,279 55,295 122,735 124,765
Va i 1 1,048,607 1,172,478 1,284,545 918,514 1,125,605 1,255,626
Winter Park 664,698 739,569 886,358 707,573 764,110 757,647
Wolf Creek 49,014 43,525 55,014 73,554 73,076 76,639
TOTAL 6,648,866 7,215,316 7,887,181 5,493,962 7,622,182 8,200,442
Precent of Inc/Dec. over previous year + 8.51 + 9.31 - 30.28 + 33.61 + 7-58
Skier-visits are lift tickets issued by Colorado Ski Country USA areas for the purpose of skiing any part of the day or night including half day, child, complimentary and season pass uses. Spectator rides are not included.
^Estimated by Operator
6/6/33


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF THE BOULDER COUNTY
COMPREHENSIVE PLAN
BACKGROUND ON LAND USE/DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES IN BOULDER COUNTY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BOULDER COUNTY COMPREHENSIVE PLAN
Boulder County -first instituted zoning in 1944 and shortly thereafter formed a Planning C o mm iss i on f or the purpose of adv i si ng t he Board of County Commissioners on land use and deve 1 opment ma11 ersMaj or chang es wer e .nade i n t h e B o u 1 d e r C o u n t y Z o n i n g R e s o 1 u t i a n i n 1954 and again in 1965. By the end of the 1970'' s, approximately 165 residential subdivi sions with a t ot a1 pot en ti a1 o f mor e than 12,300 dwelling units were approved in the unincorporated portion of Boulder County. Many of these lacked public: water and sewer services, while in other unincorporated areas, most notably both north and east of the City of Boulder and in Sunbarrel area, more in ten s ive r esiden ti a1 deveIopmen t w a s all aw ed using a mix of water and sewer services made a v a i 1 a b 1 a t h r o u g h a v a r i e t y o f s p e c i a 1
districts and City extensions. Residential bui 1 ding permi t acti vity in the
unincorporated County peaked in 1972 with the i s s u a n c e a f 1,625 p e r m i t s f o r n e w d w e 11 i 11 q units. It was during this period also that a number of mai or i ndust ri es 1oc at ed in Bou1der County. The IBM f ac i 1 i ty on the 0i. aqona 1 Highway and the STC installation northeast of U.S.. 36 in Louisville were both original iy
approved in the unincorporated County as part o f a n e f f a r t t o s u p p o r t e c: a n o m i. c d e v a 1 o p m e n t. Between 1959 and 1974, Boulder County ranked first in the State in the conversion of a g r i c u 11 u r a 1 1 a n d t o a t h e r u s e s.


SUMMARY
PLAN
BOULDER COUNTY
COMPREHENSIVE
OF THE
The Boulder County Comprehevsive Plan is an official document designed to be utilised by both the public and private sectors of the Coun t y as a pol i cy qui de 1 i ne f or mak i ng orderly and desirable decisions concerning the future use of land in the County, The p 1 ann j. ng per i od addr essed i s appr ox i mate 1 y i 5 years or until the year 2000. The Plan has been formulated by the Boulder County P1 a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n a n d t h e L o n g R a n g e
P1 a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n
The re 1 at i onshi p be 1 ween a comprehensi ve p 1 an and other local planning documents such as z o n ing r esolution s, sub div ision r eq u1 at ion s, and building codes i s often canf used. The Comprehensi ve P1 an c on sists of br aad-b a sed 1 a n d use goa1s, policies, and pr oposals i n t e n d e d t o g u i d e f u t u r e d e v e lop* n e n t T i i e zoning, subdivision, and building code requirements are much more specific documents and, respectively, deal with exact boundaries of d i str i c ts and the uses permi 11ed wi t hi n such d i s t r i c: t. s, t h e d e t a i 1 e d s t a n d a r d s o f subdi vi s i. on desi gn, aiid tl ie mai ntenance of mi n i. mum s t an dards of struct ur al i nteg r i t y, safety, and soundness. These documents are referred to as "Land Use Regulations" and are intended to Implement the goals, policies, and land use proposals of the Comprehensive PI an.
T h e B o u 1 d e r C o u n t y C a i n p r e I ~i e n s i v e P1 a n
consists of four ma j or components intended to guide current and future 1 and use decisions of the County. The first component. County Goal Statements, forms the framework for Pub 1 i c and pr i va r. e dec j. a i on -mak i nq .


The second major component is the Policies, r e 1 a t i v e 1 y d e t a i 1 e d s t a t e rn e n t s t h a t d e t e r m i n e particular courses of action to follow to move 'coward the attainment of particular goals. Whereas, the goal statements indicate '1 w h e r e w e a r e g o i n q wit h o u r c o m p r e h e n s i v e p 1 a n n i n g a p p r o a c h, t. h e p o 1 i c: y s t a t e m e n t. s determine "how we get there".
The third component of the Plan is the Cornp!'ehensi v& P1 an Maps,, t.he qraph i c
i11ustrati an of the PI an.
The fourth component of the Plan consists of the background information or Elements. The E1 emen t. s i. n c 1 ude Gea 1 og y, En v i r on rnen t a 1
Resources., Open Space, Transpor tat i on,
H o u s i n g S o 1 i d w a s t e, B o u 1 d e r V a 11 e y Subregion, Sout heast 3ub r egi an,
Lefthand/Niwot/Boulder Creek Subregion
Lyons;/Eft. Vrain Subregion, and Mountain
Subregion, and summarize the detailed inventories and analyses of various land-use determinants that have been used to establish t h e r a t. i o n a 1 e f o r P1 a n d e v e 1 a p m e n t.
GOALS FOR THE BOULDER COUNTY COMPREHENSIJE PLAN
The following statements, represent goals for future land uses within Boulder County.
A. Design of the Region
A1 Ex i sti ng commun ities s1iou1d qrow at
whatever rate they
consider desirable, within the limits of what 1 s
acceptable to the citizens of areas p at en t i. a 11 y a f f ec:t ed
by that growth, and to the citizens of the County, whi1e
preserving and improving the quality of life and the
aesthetic and functional fitness of land uses
w i t h 1 n c I; e
County.


B. En viron men ta1 Manaqemen t
B.. 1 lJn i que or d i 51 i n c t i ve nat. ur a 1 f eat ures
and systems and
cu11 u i' a1 features and sites shou1d be
conserved and preserved in recognition of the i r r e p I a c e a b 1 e c h a r a c t e r
of such resources and their importance to the quality of
life of Boulder County.
82 Ai r water and noise po 1 1 ution
B. 3 C r i t i c a 1 w i 1 d 1 i f e h a b i t a t s s h o u 1 d b e conserved and preserved in order to avoid the d e p 1 e t. i o n o f w i 1 d 1 i f e a n d
to perpetuate and encourage a diversity of species in the County
B.4 Critical plant associations and rare plant sites should be conserved and preserved.
B. 5 Wet .1 ands whi ch are i mpcrtant. t<3
m a i n t a i n i n q t h e o v er a 11
b a 1 ari c e o f e c o 1 oq i c a 1 s y s t em s sh oul cl b e conserved.
B. 6 Unique or critical environmental resources identi fied
pursuant to Goals 8.1, B.3, 3.4 and B.5 shall be conserved and preserved in a manner which assures their protection from adverse
i. rn p a c: t s, w i t h t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r n o n c o u n t y agencies and other governmental jurisdictions being encouraged to participate.
C. Parks and Open Spaces
C.t Provision should be made for open space to meet human needs throughout the County in o r d e r t o p r o t e c fc a n d
enhance the quality of life and en ioymen fc of t h e
environment.
C. 2 A County -wide trai 1 system pi cifttot ed l o s er v e
tractspi ii--1 a t i on and recio- a t i. on pur pose
shai1 be


D. Econcdmi c Condi t i ans
D. 1 A ba 1 anced, di ver si f i ed econamv shouI d be a n c: o u r a q e d i n
order to assure desirable local employment opportuni. ties
and to strengthen and stabilize the tax base.
0,2 A d e q u a t & r e g i a n a 1 , c o m m u n i t y a n d
ne:L ghborhood commerc i a 1
faci1it i es shou1d be en cour aged wh i1e a v o i d i n g c o n f 1 i c t i n g 1 a n d u s e s a n d t h e proliferation of new commer c i a 1 areas
E. Tran sportat ion
E. 1. An efficient, coordinated, multi-mode transportation system, which will provide adequate and safe movement, of
pecdp3. e and goods, shouId be promoted whi. 1 e avoiding
u n d e s i r a b 1 e e n v i r o n m e n t a 1 i m p a c t s.
F. Pub 3. i c: I nvcd 1 vamen t
F. 1 The County shall encourage citizen public p arti cipa tion in t he maki ng of d ec isions by p u b 1 1 c an d qu a s i p u b 1 i c
bodies which significantly affect citizens.
G, Go'varnmen ca 1 F el at i ons
G,1 The County should encourage and promote c o o r d i n a t i o n a n d
cooperation between Federal, State and Local G o v e r n m e n t a 1
a n t i t i e s c h a r q a d with m a k i n g d a ci si o n s w h i h significantly affect land used in Boulder Coun t. y


H. So 1 i d W aste iian ag ement
H.i The County shall develop and maintain a C o u n t. y.w i d e s o 1 i d
waste management plan that is an integral part of the
Gounty Comprehensi ve P1 ansub j ect to the other goals and
po 1 i c i es af the Comprehensi ve P1 an,,
H. 2 T hi e C c j u n t y s hall p r o m o t e c o n v e r s i o n o f
the Countys solid
waste from an environmental and social 1iabi1i ty to a pub11c asset by consi dering solid waste as a viable resource.
FUTURE LAND USE FORM
The Community Service Area Concept is a basic tenet of the Boulder County Comprehensive P1 a n w h i c h e v o 1 v e d f r a m t. h e g a a 1 s t a t e m e n t. encouraging new urban development to locate in and around existing urban centers where an adequate range of urban services could be provided in an efficient and effective manner accauntab1e author i ty) to the ant i ci pated
populus.
The Boulder County Comprehensive Plan also addresses the subject of residential density in the non-urban parts of tine unincorporated C o u n t y,, o u t s i d e o f C o m i n u n i t y S e r v i c e A r e a s.. Tine policies on minimum lot sizes for the creation of new building sites were enacted in 1973 following expensive publie debate and w e r e t h e s u b j s c t o f a d d i t i o n a 1 s c r u t i n y during the Three Year Review and the Five Year Review efforts of the Boulder County C o mi p r e h e n s i v e P1 a n
NOTE: This is an abbreviated summary of the
iiia i or concepts of the Boulder County Comprehensive Plan. Please contact the Boulder County Land Use Department for a d d i t i o n a 1 i n f o r m a t i a n o r c o p i e s o f c h e P l a n j. tsel f..


There will be no competition from new ski areas developed along the Northern Front Range in Colorado.
Master planning will dictate some additional base facilities and improvement of the foot and vehicular traffic flow patterns.
BOULDER COUNTY Current Status Zoning Regulations
At the present time, the Lake Eldora private land is zoned as "forestry". This zoning being established for the purpose of efficiently using land to conserve forest resources, protect the natural environment and preserve open space. This zoning classification, as amended as of March 2, 1972, does not permit ski areas within the classification.
Because the area was established in July of 1961, prior to the amendment of Boulder County Zoning Resolution (1965), which does not allow ski areas as a use by right, the area is considered by the County as a legal non-conforming use.
Although it is quite likely that building permits would continue to be granted for limited ski area improvements, realistically it is only a question of time until the County becomes more restrictive in this regard in view of the fact that any additional development is technically an expansion of a legal nonconform,ing use which is an unacceptable policy.
Quite possibly, the above conflict could be resolved by one of the following means: reconsideration of a zoning change which would permit ski areas within the forestry district classification, consideration of ski areas being permitted by a special review requiring a change in the special review section of the zoning resolution, conceivably review intended projects and issue building permits under a resort lodge classification, or seek a new zoning classification such as Economic Development.
The Economic Development district applies to areas for special uses which have economic value for Boulder County and which can be developed to be compatible with surrounding agricultural, forest, or residential developments. Before approving any special development, the County Planning Commission shall find that the contemplated development will be of sustained
66


desirability and stability; that it will be in harmony with the character of the surrounding neighborhood; that it will be consistent with the overall long range plans for Boulder County; that it will not result in an over-intensive use of land; that it will not result in undue traffic congestion or traffic hazards; that it will not cause water pollution; that the plans indicate that the development will be adequately landscaped, buffered and screened; and that the special development will otherwise promote the health, safety, and welfare of Boulder County. It is reasonable to assume that a ski area development such as Lake Eldora generally is in compliance with the intent of the economic development district zoning classification.
Another viable alternative to resolving the non-conforming use problem, and considered at this writing to be more preferable, is an approach to amend the subdivision regulations and zoning resolution, Section 15 of the Uses Permitted by Special Review, to include ski areas.
In all likelihood, should this amendment be recommended by the County Planning Staff and Long Range Planning Commission and adopted by the County Commissioners, development criteria for ski areas would be prepared as a basis for determining the appropriateness of the proposed plans. 3ecause these development criteria, in all probability, would generally conform to U.S. Forest Service Master Planning requirements, compliance would not represent a substantial burden in terms of time and approvals from both agencies.
Boulder County Comprehensive Plan
At this writing, Boulder County is preparing a County Wide Comprehensive Plan with expectations for completing the final document by fall of 1976. Clearly, any substantial expansion of the Lake Eldora Ski Area will necessitate coordination and compliance with, not only proper zoning classification, but also the general goals and land use considerations as eventually adopted in the Boulder County Comprehensive Plan.
The County comprehensive planning process will require that the ski area be reviewed in terms of County goals
f
67


FIGURE 1-A BOULDER COUNTY COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING PROCESS
COLORADO
REVISED STATUTES
X
GOAL
STATEMENTS
I
DELINEATION OF SUBREGIONS
^ CITIZEN MUNICIPAL
COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PARTICIPATION COMPREHEVSIVE PLANS (CP)
L ELEMENTS Subreg iona1 Bou1der Valley CP
Subreg ionaI Elements: Southeast Boulder Valley Lefthand-N iwot-Boulder Creek
Lyons-St. Vrain Valley Mounta i n
Environmental Elements: Environmental Resources Geology Open Space Hous i ng
Transportat ion Solid Waste
Meet i ngs
CP
Erie CP Lafayette CP Longmont CP Lou i sv i11e CP Lyons CP Nederland CP Superior CP Jamestown CP
f 1 POLICY
BOULDER COUNTY PUBLIC FORMULATION
COMPREHENSIVE PLAN MAPS HEARING Base Po1icies
OFFI ADOF CIAL >T 1 ON

1
Agricultural Land Use Mountain Land Use Environmental Resources Geology Open Space Hous i ng
Transportation Solid Waste Fi re Protect ion Land Use Surrounding Airports Subregional Land Use Southeast Subregion Boulder Valley Subregion Lefthand-Niwot-Boulder Creek Subregion Lyons-St. Vrain Valley Subregion
IMPLEMENTATION COMPREHENSIVE PLAN AMENDMENTS
Land
Boulder County Use Reaulations
1
Zoning Resolution Subdivision Regulations Building Code Open Space Acquisition H.B. 103**
Municipal County Agreements H.B. 1041
Admi n i st ra t ion
CONTINUOUS 3-5 YEAR
UPDATE
PERIOD


Group A-3
1. Floor Area
Construction type
Occupancy type
Basic allowance area (505a)
Added stories increase(505b) Side(s) separation increase(506a) Total Allowable area
2. Fire Resistive Requirements
Construction type Exteior bearing walls Interior bearing walls Exterior non-bearing walls Structural frame Permanent partitions Shaft enclosures Floors Roofs
Exterior doors and windows Inner court walls( 504c)
Attic draftstops required(3205b)
Attic ventilation required(3205c)
3. Wall and Opening Protection
Fire resistance of exterior walls Openings in exterioir walls
4. Building Height
Allowable stories
Fire sprinkler increase(507)
Total allowable stories Maximum height
5. Occupant Loads
Story
Occupancy group
Area/story
Sq. ft. per occupant
Total persons per floor
Total persons in building
III
A-3
13500 SF 13500 SF 3375 SF 30375 SF
III
4
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
2003b
1
enclosed attic space: 30000 SF
enclosed rafter 1/150 or 1/300 for 2 vents
1
3/4 hr.
2
1
3
65 ft.
3
A-3
16875 SF 15
1125
3375


6. Exit Requirements
Number exits required each floor(3302a) Number exits required total building(302a) Required exit width(3302b)
Ramps required Corridor widths(3304b)
Dead end corridor limit(3304f)
Corridor construction(3304g)
Stairway widths (3305b)
Staiway landing depths( 3305f)
Stairway to roof(3305o)
Exit signs required(3312b)
Exit signs separate circuit(3312c)
7. Occupancy Unit Live Load
Uniform load Concentrated load
8. Other Requirements
Separations between occupancies-Fire ratings and construction
Enclosure of vertical openings(1706)
Light( 05 sect., ch. 6-14)
Ventilation
Sanitation
Fire extinguishing system required(3802b)
Dry standpipes required(3803)
Wet standpipes required(3805)
Combination standpipes required(3802)
2
50 divided by occupancy yes 44 in.
20 ft. see above ;44 in.
36 in.
only if more than 4.stories yes
not required
100 psf 0
A-3 and B-2= N A-3 and E-2= N more than 2 floors,
1 hr. rated Natural light from min. opening of 1/10 floor area
min. 1/10 floor area min. 3 SF window or 100 sq. in. duct for ea. W.C.
when floor area exceeds 1500 SF no no no


Group B-3 1, Floor Area
Construction type Occupancy type Basic allowance area (505a) Added stories increase(505b) Side(s) separation increase(506a) Total Allowable area (see attached codes) 2. Fire Resistive Requirements 111 B-3 50,000 s N.A. 12,500 -62,500 -
Construction type Exteior bearing walls Interior bearing walls Exterior non-bearing walls Structural frame Permanent partitions Shaft enclosures Floors Roofs Exterior doors and windows Inner court walls( 504c) Attic draftstops required(3205b) 1 1 1 hr. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Attic ventilation required(32Q5c)
3. Wall and Opening Protection
Fire resistance of exterior walls Openings in exterioir walls , 1 hr. 1
4. Building Height
Allowable stories Fire sprinkler increase(507) Total allowable stories Maximum height 10 tiers 1 1 1 1
5. Occupant Loads
Story Occupancy group Area/story Sq. ft. per occupant Total persons per floor Total persons in building N.A. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
.f.
25.000 s.f
75.000 s.f


6. Exit Requirements
Number exits required each floor(3302a) Number exits required total building(302a) Required exit width(3302b)
Ramps required Corridor widths(3304b)
Dead end corridor limit(3304f)
Corridor construction(3304g)
Stairway widths (3305b)
Staiway landing depths( 3305f)
Stairway to roof(3305o)
Exit signs required(3312b)
Exit signs separate circuit(3312c)
7. Occupancy Unit Live Load
Uniform load Concentrated load
8. Other'Requirements
Separations between occupancies-Fire ratings and construction
Enclosure of vertical openings(1706)
Light( 05 sect., ch. 6-14)
Ventilation
Sanitation
Fire extinguishing system required(3802b)
Dry standpipes required(3803)
Wet standpipes required(3805)
Combination standpipes required(3802)
2
yes 36 in.
20 ft. see above 36 in.
36 in. yes
yes
yes


709-710
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
parking attendants are permitted there shall be not less than two stairs 3 feet wide. Lifts may be installed for use of employees only, provided they are completely enclosed by noncombusiible materials.
(h) Standpipes. Standpipes shall be installed when required by the provisions of Chapter 38.
(i) Sprinkler Systems. When required by other provisions of this code, automatic sprinkler systems and standpipes shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 38.
(j) Enclosure of Vertical Openings. Enclosure shall not be required for vertical openings except as specified in Subsection fg) for stairs, exits and lifts.
(k) Ventilation. Ventilation, other than the percentage of openings specified in Subsection (b), shall not be required.
(l) Prohibitions. The following uses and alterations are not permitted:
1. Automobile repair work. '
2. Parking of busses, trucks and similar vehicles.
3. Partial or complete closing of required openings in exterior walls by tarpaulins or any other means.
Hnlistops
Sec. 710. (a) General. Helistops may be erected on buildings or other locations if they are constructed in accordance with this section.
(b) Size. The touchdown or landing area for helicopters of less than 3500 pounds shall be a minimum of 20 feet by 20 feet in size. The touchdown area shall be surrounded on all sides by a clear area having a minimum average width at roof level of 15 feet but with no width less than 5 feet.
(c) Design. Helicopter landing areas and supports therefor on the roof of a building shall be of noncombusiible construction. Landing areas shall be designed to confine any Class 1,11 or III-A liquid spillage to the landing area itself and provision shall be made to drain such spillage away from any exit or stairway serving the helicopter landing area or from a structure housing such exit or stairway.
(dj Exits and Stairways. Exits and stairways from helistops shall comply with the provisions of Chapter 33 of this code, except that all landing areas'located on buildings or structures shall have two or more exits. For landing platforms or roof areas less than 60 feet in length, or less than 2000 square feel in area, the second exit may be a fire escape or ladder leading to the floor below.
(e) Federal Aviation Approval. Before operating helicopters from helistops, approval must be obtained from the Federal Aviation Administration.
52
1965 EDITION
7-A, 7-B
TABLE NO. 7-AOPEN PARKING GARAGES AREA AND HEIGHT
r*PEOf CONSTRUCTION AREA PER TIER (SquaraFoot) HEIGHT
RAMP-ACCESS MECHANICAL-ACCESS
Automatic Flra-axtlngulahlng System
No Ym
i Unlimited Unlimited Unhmiied Unlimited
II-F.R 125,000 12 Tiers 12 Tiers 18 Tiers
II-1 -hour 50,000 10 Tiers 10 Tiers 15 Tiers
II N 30,000 8 tiers 8 Tiers 12 Tiers
TABLE NO. 7-BOPEN PARKING GARAGES^EXTERIOR WALLS
DISTANCE FROM PROPERTY LINE TO BUILDING WALL CONSTRUCTION
0'-20' One-hour
/
53


706-709
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
\
EXCEPTION: In Group B. Division 4 Occupancies, exits shall be enclosed as specified in Chapter 33. but other vertical openings need not be enclosed
Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems
See. 707. When required by other provisions of this code, automatic sprinkler systems and standpipes shall be installed as specified in Chapter 38.
Special Hazards
Sec. 708. Chimneys and heating apparatus shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 37 of this code and the Mechanical Code.
Storage of Class I liquids shall not be allowed in Group B, Divisions 1,2 and 3 Occupancies and the handling and use of gasoline, fuel oil and other Class I. II, or III-A liquids shall not be permitted in any Group B Occupancy unless such use and handling comply with the Fire Code
Devices generating a glow or flame capable of igniting gasoline vapor shall not be installed or used within 18 inches of the floor in any room in which Class 1 flammable liquids or gas arc used or stored.
Every room containing a boiler, central heating plant or hot-water supply boiler shall be separated from the rest of the building by not less than a one-hour fire-resistive occupancy separation.
EXCEPTION: Boilers, central heating plants or hot-water supply boilers where ihc largesl piece of fuel equipment does not exceed 400,000 Btu per hour input.
Buildings erected or converted to house high-piled combustible stock shall comply with the Fire Code.
Open Parking Garages
Sec. 709. (a) Scope. Except where specific provisions are made in the following subsections, other requirements of this axle shall apply.
(b) Definitions. 1 General. For the purpose of this section, certain terms are defined as follows:
OPEN PARKING GARAGE is a structure of Type I or Type II construction with the openings-as described in Subsection 2 on two or more sides and which is used exclusively for the parking or storage of private or pleasure-type motor vehicles.
EXCEPTION: The grade-level tier may contain an office, waiting and toilet rooms having a total area of not more than 1000 square feet, and such area need not be separated from the open parking garage.
MECHANICAL-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES are open parking garages employing parking machines, lifts, elevators or other mechanical devices lor vehicles moving from and to streel level and in which public occupancy is prohibited above the street level.
RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES arc open parking garages employing a series of continuously rising floors or a scries of interconnecting ramps between floors permitting the movement of vehicles under their osvn power from and to the street level.
2 Openness. For natural ventilation purposes, the exterior side of the structure shall have uniformly distributed openings on two or more sides. The area of such openings in exterior walls on a tier must be at least 20 percent of the total perimeter
1985 EDITION
709
wall area of each tier. The aggregate length of the openings considered to be providing natural ventilation shall constitute a minimum of 40 percent of the perimeter of the tier. Interior wall lines and column lines shall be at least 20 percent open with uniformly distributed openings.
(c) Construction. Construction shall be of noncombustible materials. Open parking garages shall meet the design requirements of Chapter 23. Adequate curbs and railings shall be provided at every opening.
(d) Area and Height. Area and height of open parking garages shall be limited as set forth in Table No. 7-A except for increases allowed by Subsection (e).
In structures having a spiral or sloping floor, the horizontal projection of the structure at any cross section shall not exceed the allowable area per parking tier. In the case of a structure having a continuous spiral floor, each 9 feet 6 inches of height or portion thereof shall be considered as a tier.
The clear height of a parking tier shall be not less than 7 feet, except that a lesser clear height may he permitted in mechanical-access open parking garages when approved by the building official.
(e) Area and Height Increases. The area and height of structures with cross ventilation throughout may be increased in accordance with provisions of this subsection In structures with sides open [a*, defined in Subsection (b)] on three fourths of the building, perimeter may be increased by 25 percent in area and one tier in height. Structures with sides open [as defined in Subsection (b)[ around the entire building perimeter may be increased 50 percent in area and one tier in height.
Open parking garages constructed to heights less than the maximums established by Table No. 7-A may have individual tier areas exceeding those otherwise permitted, provided the gross tier area of the structure does not exceed that permitted for the higher structure. At least three sides of each such larger tier shall have continuous horizontal openings not less than 30 inches in clear height extending for at least 80 percent of the length of the sides, and no part of such larger tier shall be more than 200 feet horizontally from such an opening. In addition, each such opening shall face a street or yard accessible to a street with a width of at least 30 feet for the full length of the opening, and standpipes shall be provided in each such tier.
Structures of Type II-F.R.; Type II One-hour or Type II-N construction, with all sides open, may be unlimited in area when the height does not exceed 75 feet. For a side to be considered open, the total area of openings along the side shall be not less than 50 percent of the exterior area of the side at each tier, and such openings shall be equally distributed along the length of the tier. All portions of tiers shall be within 200 feet horizontally from such openings.
(f) Location on Property. When located adjacent to interior property lines, exterior walls shall be of the degree of fire resistance set forth in Table No. 7-B and such walls shall be without openings.
(g) Stairs and Exits. Where persons other than parking attendants are permitted, stairs and exits shall meet the requirements of Chapter 33, based on an occupant load of 200 square feet per occupant. Where no persons other than
51


59
HANDICAPPED CODE REVIEW
State of Colorado Handicapped Code Review 1975
Entrances:
At least one primary entrance to each building shall be useable by those in wheelchairs.
Public Walks:
Public Walks shall have a 48 inch minimum width, 5 perceant maximum slope, and extend 1 -foot beyond each side o-f a door.
Ramps:
Ramps will have a maximum slope o-f one vertical to 12 horizontal and have a level plat-form -for every 30 -feet o-f run.
Stairs:
If possible the riser should not exceed 7 inches in height.
Rest Rooms:
Their should be at least one handicapped toilet stall in each toilet room. Urinals should be mounted 19 inches above the floor or at floor level. Lavatories should be accessible to individuals in wheelchairs. Mirrors and towel racks should be no more than 40 inche;
above floor level


60
Water -fountains:
Water -fountains shall be accessible to the handicapped.
Telephones:
Telephones shall be accessible to the handicapped, and an appropriate number equipped -for those with hearing disabilities.
Doors:
Doors shall have a minimum clear opening o-f 32 inches, and level for at least 5 feet on either side. Doors not intended for use and potentially dangerous shall have knurled knobs.
Elevators:
Elevators shall have an opening on the same level as the entrance.


\ tlih'ERATURE
Temperatures typically range s u /ii m e r M a x i m u m t e m p e r a t u r e s
from cold rise into
i n w i. n t e r t o c a a 1 i n the comfort sons frorr
June through September.
Ni gh11 me mini murn temperatures are be 1 ow f reez i nq usual 1 y f ro/r October to May, although longer periods may occur. This permits a growing season of 1U'J days or less.
High temperature swings between day and night occur in both winter and summer
Extreme temperatures occur only for short durations usal1y. Few or no cooling degree days for the average year.
A p p r o x i m a t e 1 y 8500 h e a t
Maunt ai n tempera t ur es
i n c r e a s e ~ a n a v e r a g e o f
i n g d eg r ee days dur inq
d e c r e a s e s ubs t a n t i. a 1
3 'o degrees F / 1 uUo ft.
an
ly
average w i t h
year. el evatioi
fMZTA&t PA! uT


HUMIDITV
H u m i d i t y 1 e v e 1 s a r a g e n e r a 11 y 1 o w (R e 1 a t i v e h u in id.it y a v e r ages 507.) .
H i q h I e r h u m i d i t y 1 e v e 1 s o c c u r a t. n i g h t i m e t h a n d a y t i in a.
H u in idit y 1 e v e 1 s a r e q e n a r ally si m i 1 a r t. h r o u q h o u. t t h e yea r..
Ab s o1u te h umidity dec raases wi th a 1 avation out re1 at iva humi di +
ac: tual 1 y i ncreases.
MM. (fP/HL'f)

(2
HdM!P!TT


SOLAR RADIATION
Frequent. sunshi ne char ac:ter i zes the cl i mate5 less than one third of the days in an average i n o n t h a r e c 1 o u d y.
Solar radiation intensities are typically h i q h e r i n s u m m e r t h a n w i n t e r..
I n c: i d e n c e o f s o 1 a r r a d i a t i o n i s h i q h e r a s
e1evat ion inereases since 1ess i s absorbed by t h e a t fii o s p h ere a s t h e a i r t h i n s o u t, alt h o u q h
c 1 o u d c o v e r i s q r e a t e r -
At 40 degrees N. latitude, solar angles at noon are 73 degrees on June 21 and 26 degrees a n D e c e m b e r 21

f. AkI
r L -* / l|


PRECIPI TATION
Rainfa 11 is q enera 11 y srna 11 averaqing 1.9 inches per month; maximum amounts occur in the spring.
A t t e r n a a n a n d e v e n i n q i h u n d e r s h o w e r s i n s u rn m e r c o rn rn o n 1 y o c c u r . 7 his h a s a c o o 1 i n g
e f f ec: t. d u r i in q p e a k t e mp er a t ur e p &r :i. o d s.
Snowfall occurs in September through May, with the largest. amounts failing in March < a v e. 12.5 i n ) S r i a w d e p t h s v a r y d e p a n d i. n g
on t o p o g r a p h y a n d o r i en t a t i on w i t h sun n y s o u t her n s 1 o p e s rn e 3. t i n g q u i c k 1 y a n d s h a d e d northern slopes often retaining snow for rnon t h s.
Total yearly precipi tation averages 23 in.
Prec: i. pi tat i on typi ca 11 y i ncreases wi th
elevation.


Mean
min.


WIMOS
The primary winds are from the west as a result of Pacific air masses rising over the con t inen t a1 d i vi de. Wi rds i ncr ease in speed
and become warmer as they lose moisture over the mountains. These warm, intense winds characterize the Chinooks which often occur f r o m N o v e m b e r t o M a r c h.
Maximum wind speeds are from the northwest and occur in January.
Average yearly wind velocity is 7 rnph.
Secondard winds come from the south, b r i. i i g i n g m o i s t a i r f r o m t h e S3 u 1 f o f M e x i. c o w h i c h a f t e n p r o d u c e s h e a v y s n o w f a 1 1 s i n spri ng.
Artie air masses coming from the north p r o d u c e e x t r e m e 1 o w t e m p e r a t u r e s i n w i n t e r .
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15'
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attitude angtes


Design recommendations generated by CLIMAT, a computer energy program for climatic analysis:
BUILDINGS SHOULD BE ORIENTATED ON AN EAST-WEST AXIS* THE LONG ELEVATIONS FACING N0RTFI AND SOUTH TO REDUCE EXPOSURE TO THE SUN.
SPACING
COMPACT PLANNING IS RECOMMENDED IF THE AIR MOVEMENT REQUIREMENT IS SIGNIFICANT.
AIR MOVEMENT
IF AIR MOVEMENT IS NEVER ESSENTIAL*
AND IS DESIRABLE FOR NOT MORE THAN A MONTH* ROOMS CAN BE DOUBLE BANKED AS THERE IS NOT MUCH NEED FOR CROSS VENTILATION.
OPENINGS WBHMHWWHMaartMrtttW
'VERY SMALL'* LESS THAN 20 % OF THE WALL.
WALLS
BOTH EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL WALLS SHOULD BE MASSIVE.
ROOFS
A HEAVY ROOF* WITH SUBSTANTIAL THERMAL CAPACITY* GIVING A TIME LAG OR AT LEAST 3 HOURS.


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MONTHLY AND SEASUNAL UUULlNb ULbhLL uhid BASE = G5 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT
STATI ON
SHAM 2 E
STRATTON M R A Y 1 E
Y UH A
PLATTE DRAINAGE BASIN
ALLENSPARK 2 NNM
ANTERO RESERVOIR BAILEY BOULDER
BR1GGSOALE BRIGHTON 1 NE BYERS 5 ENE CABIN CREEK CASTLE ROCK
CHEESMAN
CHERRY CREEK DAM
OENVER MSFO AP ESTES PARK EVERGREEN
FORT COLLINS FORT MORGAN GRANT
GREELEY UNC JULESBURG
KASSLER
KAUFFMAN 4 SSE
LAKE GEORGE B SH
LAKEWOOD LITTLETON
LONGMONT 2 ESE
MT EVANS RESEARCH NEDERLANO 2 NNE NEW RAYMER NORTHGLENN
NUNN
PARKER b E RAMHIDE RESERVOIR REO FEATHER LAKES 2 SEDGMICK 5 S
SPICER
STERLING
STRONTIA SPRINGS M A L DE N MATER DALE
WHEAT RIDGE 2
0 4
/ / R
STATION
S E
0 A M
I
RIO GRANDE ORA1NAGE BASIN
ALAMOSA M S 0 AP BLANCA
CENTER 4 SSM
05
CRE S TONE 1 SE
DEL NORTE
GREAT SAND OUNE S N M
HERMIT 7 ESE MA N A S S A / /
MONTE VISTA 1 E
RIO GRANOE SAGUACHE RESERVOIR / /
SAN LUIS 2 SE
JAN FFB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC TOTAL
0 0 B 0 0 - b 5 2 1 8 2 3 7 6 t 1 0 B 0 8 0 -
_ _ _ - - - - 0 -
0 0 0 0 4 b 1 b 7 3 8 R 4 1 0 1 1 8 7 0 0 113 7
0 0 0 0 4 0 ' 3 i 3 0 3 2 8b b 2 0 0
B 0 0 0 2 7 0 0 0 . _ -
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 3
0 0 0 0 3 2 8 2 2 7 1 2 1 1 5 R B 0 0 0 B b 5 5
B 0 0 0 0 1 b 7 7 2 7 1 2 1 4 4 1 0 0 0 B b 1 R
0 0 0 0 3 0 R 1 2 b b 2 0 8 b 0 0 0 0 b 5 5
0 0 0 0 2 b 8 7 2 8 3 2 2 R b 1 0 0 0 b 8 b
0 B 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 B 0
0 0 0 0 1 2 3 5 1 5 8 7 b 1 3 0 B 0 B 0 B 2 R 4
0 0 0 0 5 R 7 7 1 4 3 0 0 0 1 0 8
B 0 0 B 2 2 1 4 3 2 8 7 2 1 3 R 8 0 B 0 B 0
0 0 0 0 3 3 1 0 4 3 1 5 2 1 8 b 0 0 0 U 7 3 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 2 R 2 3 0 0 0 3 4
- - - 4 1 R - 0 s> 0
0 0 0 0 1 5 b 5 2 3 7 1 R 0 4 1 0 0 0 5 4 8
0 0 0 0 5 R 1 4 R 3 b R 3 3 7 1 0 1 0 0 0 10 15
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 "
0 0 0 0 3 4 R 7 2 R 3 2 2 5 4 4 0 0 0 b R 3
0 0 0 0 4 3 1 b b B 3 b b 3 4 7 R 7 0 0 0 B 1 0 1 R
0 0 0 0 2 3 8 b 2 7 0 1 8 8 7 5 0 0 0 b 4 2
0 0 0 0 8 4 5 1 R 1 1 7 4 3 5 0 0 0 4 5 3
0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 3
0 0 0 0 1 7 4 b 2 02 1 b R 5 R 0 0 0 4 R 3
0 0 0 0 5 5 b 7 2 S 1 2 1 2 3 2 0 0 0 b 1 7
0 0 0 0 3 1 1 0 0 2 7 0 1 b 4 4 4 0 0 0 b 0 R
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 B 0 0 0 0 B 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 8 0 0 0 0 0 R
0 0 0 0 4 4 3 2 1 8 2 0 2 4 0 0 0
- - - - B 4 5 0 B 0 B 0
0 0 0 0 2 0 b 8 2 5 0 1 8 2 4 2 0 0 0 5 b 2
0 0 0 0 2 0 5 3 2 2 S 1 5 2 5 5 0 B 0 0 B 5 0 5
B 0 B 0 e o B 4 B 2 7 1 8 b 1 1 b B 2 3 B 0 - B 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 1 B 0 0 0 B 8
0 0 0 0 3 0 1 3 3 3 0 7 3 b 0 R b 0 0 0 R 2 b
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 B 0 0 0 0 0 B 0
0 0 0 0 1 R 1 0 b 3 0b 3 2 4 7 0 0 0 H 0 B 8 2 5
0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 3
0 0 0 0 1 0 4 1 1 R b 1 3 4 b 5 0 0 0 4 4b
0 . , 0 0 1 0 4 4 2 1 3 1 3 1 2 5 0 0 0 4 2 3
0 0 0 0 2 1 4 5 8 0 0 0 0 5 b
0 0 0 0 0 5 5 2 1 R 0 0 0 0 7 b
0 0 0 0 0 1 5 5 0 0 0 0 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 2 0 8 2 2 5 0 0 0 0 1 3 7
0 0 0 0 0 0 3 8 1 4 0 0 0 0 5 2
0 0 0 0 2 5 e a 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 Ob
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 2 . 0 1 8 4 0 0 0 0 2 4
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 B 0 0 0 B 4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 R R 0 0 0 0 1 8
0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2
seasonal
NORN
R 0 1 R 7 7
2 G
4 1
7 R 0
b 4 8
1 8 0 5 5 4 b B 0 2 R
4 7 1 7 b 0
b 4 7
7 1 3
4 3 1
b 3 R
5 5 5
4 b 0
7 2 1 4 1 0
b R 7 b
4 1 1 1 I
7 7
8b
SEE REFERENCE NOTES FOLLOWING STATION INDEX 20


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STATION INDEX


AVERAGE TEMPERATURES AND
STATION
KANSAS ONAINACC SIN 0
AKRON 4 E AKRON PAA AP ONNT LAKE
URL INGTON
CMC'CNNC NELLS PLAGLER 2 NM MOLTOKE LEROT 5 MSN SHAN 2 E
STRATTON NRAT 1 E TUNA
DIVISIONAL OAIA----
PLATTE DRAINAGE ASIN 0
ALLENSPARK 2 NNN AN T (. R 0 RESERVOIR
A (LET
OULDER
BRIGGSOALE BRIGHTON 1 NE
ters 5 ene
CABIN CREEK CASTLE ROCK
CHEESNAN
CHE RR V CREEK 0AN DENVER NSFO AP ESTES PARK EVERGREEN
TORT COLLINS PORT MORGAN GRANT
GREELET UNC JUL E SBURG
KASSLER
K A UPPNAN 4 SSE LAKE GEORGE SN LAKEHOOD LITTLETON
LONGNONT 2 ESE NT EVANS RESEARCH STATION NEOERLANO 2 N NE NEN RATHER NORTHGLENN
NUNN
PARKER G E RANH IOE RESERVOIR REO PEATHER LAKES 2 SE SEOGNICK 5 S
SPICER STERLING
STRONTIA SPRINGS DAN NALOEN NATEROAlE MMIAT RIOGC 2
JAN
FEB
UJ a: c w ir. tJ me me m. X m 3 a. r CE c a. 0
2 1.7 30 1
22.9 -2.7 29 b - 9
2 3 0 -2 7 131.9 . 2
27.0 -2.2 34 5 . b
2b 5 -2.2 35 3 1 9
23.4 3 1.0
2b 5 - .5 33.4 1 3
20 J 29 4
21.4 20 1
1 1
27.0 - 3 3b 8 3.0
24 3 32.2
24 1 -3.3 32 0 - 4
1 1
3 3 9 2
10.7 b 4 25 1 -2.2
29 0 -2.8 35.8 - 5
121 b 3 1.4
22 9 34.5
19.2 -7.8 2b 7 -5 3
19.9 12 1.5
2b 3 31.3
22 5 -4.9 29 2 -1.4
1 1
2 7.3 -2.2 34 1 . 5
25 7 - 1 b 30.2 1 1
25 3 - 1 b 34 2 2.4
1 b 2 -7.4 30.5 . 1
18.1 22.0
214 - 3 b 31.9 . 7
24.2 34 3
28 1 -3.3 33.2 -1.9
25.9 . 2 33.5 3 1
3 5 11.7
20 9 -2.0 33 b -1.2
29.2 35 3
20 0 -5 7 33.1 1 b
13.7 1 b b
22 7 27.0
21.4 30 b
22 b 32.0
29 0 . 1 31.7 . 0
12b 5 1
22.0 25 7
22 7 33.0
13 5 10 4
19.1 4.0 3 1.2 . 7
11.7 -30 1 b 3 -1.8
24 * 3 5 119 1
2 112
MAR APR
35 9 35 I 1 7.2 J b L
40 2 37.4
25.3 21.2 29
40 .
3 b (3 38 8
39 1 37 L 2b 9 J0 0 30.5
3b .0
35 21 2 3b 4
39.4
3b
17.9 29 2
33.5
35
34
135
27
37
24
3b
24
3b 1
- 4 5 -2.5 -2.0
1 B
t 0
-2.9 1
3.2
- 1 9 2 5
- .0
- .2
40.0
40.0
42 b 4 1 b
43 2 40.9
43.3 39 5
40.4
I
45.4 4 1 b
3 1.9 28
32.9 43 .
40.7 42 5 41.5 27.1
39.7
30 9 42 b
42.3 35 2
42 7
4 3 2
3 1 b
4 1 2 42 2
39 7 40.2 139 7 30.4 41 .b
29.7 4 1.5
29 5 39.9
-b 1 -5.9 -9.1
-b 5 -5.4
-5.1 b 9
-b 2 -5.1
- 3 -3 9 5.1 -4.4
-3.7 4 b
-5.9
- b 0 -5.9
50
50 9 59
59.5
bO 2 57 b bO b 5b 0
b 2 0
bO 3
59.3
4 7
45.0 49 7
bO 4l
59.5 59 8
58 5 44 2
57.7
53 9
IbO 1 bO 0 52.4
59.0 bl 5
49.1 bO 4 59.9
57.7 57.3 4 7
-5.9 570 b 2
59 39
4 7.7 5b 4
57 57 15b 4 7 59 .
45 59
4b 2 5b 9 59 b
SU AIMAIKU ROM S fOllOMlBG SIAIIOM IMOCI
:
ID DEPARTURES FROM NORMAL 1 F) COLORAOO 1.30 4
AY JUN JU-L AUG SEP OCT N ov D EC ANI WAL
at me. S me = K 5 0 5 me * me m. X * w
7 3.9 73.7 bO 0 45 b 39.5 29 4 7.9
bb 2 0 7 3.0 . 3 73.4 1 9 59 b - 2 b 45.8 -5.0 39 r 3.5 30 b 1 B 40.0
75 .O - 0 75 0 1 3 b 1 2 -3.0 1 39 3 1 2 27.7 -2.5 1
. 1 b 9 5 -1.2 75.2 - 1 75 3 2.3 b 3 9 - .b 49.0 -4 b 41.8 2.2 33 2 1.0 50.5
b 9 9 -1.2 74 2 *-1.3 *7 4 ** 7 1 3 b 3 2 - 1 b 50 1 3 3 4 1b 2.4 31.7 . 2 50.5 -1.0
73.3 7 3 5 hi H 145 5 38 7 31 .5 14 B 2
1 7 1 b 0 3 - 0 74 7 - 3 75.4 2 4 bO 9 -2.5 4 7.9 -4.2 39 1 1 . 27.5 -2.7 149.7
b 5 3 73.9 74.4 59 1 45 5 39.4 27.0 4 7.2
b 4 1 7 1.0 72.4 159.8 45.0 137.7 130 B
1 1 1 1 1 33.0 1 4 1
1 4 b 9.4 -1.3 77.3 7 79 0 3 0 b 4 2 - 7 50 9 -2.4 42 0 3 3 30.2 -1.1 52.0 .2
b 9.0 74 4 73.9 b 1 4 40.7 39 fl 1 1
. 7 b 7 1 -1.9 74 3 - 7 74 5 1 b bl 4 -2.5 4 7.4 -5 3 39 9 1 9 30.3 - 3 49.0 -1.4
5 3.2 -1.3 bl 0 . 5 57.7 - 4 50 1 1b 33.4 -9.9 1 1 1
50 9 50 1 55 0 49 3 30.4 20 2 19.1 33.2
8 5 3 0 -3.0 bO 9 -1.3 58 3 -1.7 50.2 3.0 34 4 -9 7 3 14 1 .0 24.0 2 7 JB 8 3.3
1 0 b 5 b - 2 b 73.5 - 5 71.5 - 4 bl O -2.0 14S 0 -0.2 40 0 - 4 33.9 1.0 150.2
b 5 0 73.5 7 1.0 5** 7 4b 0 38 4 27.4 14 7 b
73.4 7 1.4 1.3 45 7 . 39 5 31.9 49.0
1 7 b 5 0 - 9 73.9 9 72 1 1 3 bO 9 -1.5 45 1 -b 0 30 9 1 9 33.0 2.0 4 7.5 -1.8
49 7 55.9 54.0 48.0 31.3 28 7 24.1 135.7
b 2 4 b 9 7 b 7.0 5b 7 4 1.9 119.5 133.2 14b b
59 7 -1.0 b 7 0 1 .0 b 4 0 . 0 5b 9 - .5 40.9 -b 9 37.3 1.2 32.7 2.5 44 5 -1.0
b 7 8 2.0 74.1 2 1 7 1.7 1 9 b 3 1 1.5 4 7.1 -4.3 142.1 3.5 1 Jb 9 4.5 1
bb 5 - 5 74 9 1 b 7 1.8 . 4 bO 7 1.9 44.8 -7.1 39 7 1.0 32.9 . 2 49 .
4.2 5b 3 - b bJ.fl 1 b bO 9 .5 53.7 . 1 30 5 - b 7 35.5 1 1 27.5 -1.7 42 b - b
b5.4 b 2.0 38.3 35.9 30.2
2.9 b 4 3 -1.3 72 5 1 1 70 9 2 0 59.7 - b 45.1 -4.8 39 4 2 b 31 .b 1 2 48 b . 1
3.2 b 0 4 - 2 7b 7 1 9 75 8 3 0 b 2 0 . 4 4b 7 4 3 30 7 2 b 27 1 - b 40.7
52.4 59 b 57.0 49 1 1 2B 7 20 9
2 b bb 4 -1.2 74 2 . b 72 1 1 3 59.5 2.2 45 7 - 4 8 39 2 2.9 29 5 . 9 40 5 . b
b9.4 1 7b b 75.9 b 1.0 40 1 39 9 25 149 b
-2.5 73.4 . 0 70.0 - 0 bO 2 3.5 44 b -9 9 40 5 . 0 32 1b 48 b -2.7
2.5 b 2 0 -1.5 7. aJ . 4 70.4 1 7 58.0 -1.7 44.7 4 4 3b b 1 1 29 b - 7 4b 9
5 3 5 bi 0 59 1 52 0 35 5 30 2 1.4 35 .
b 2.4 -4.3 7 1.3 -1.3 70 2 - 4 59 H 2.4 4 3 0 -9.4 40 5 1 0 33.1 -1.1 10 2 -2.3
b 4.4 72.9 7 1 b 5B b 42 9 37 9 31.0 49.0
bb 4 . 1 73.5 1 3 70 0 . 1 58.4 2 7 42.9 -.5 3 7 8 . 9 JO 1 0 4 7b -1.2
4 3.7 51.7 40 1 14 1.5 23.3 19.2 14.5 129.2
53.1 b 13 58 3 49 7 35.3 33 8 29 3 39.7
b 2.9 7 1.7 7 1.3 58 3 4 3 b 35 0 l
1 159.5 44 5 119 9 131 .5 1
b 3 8 72.9 70 b 5 7.7 42 7 3b 7 2b 7 4b.5
3 1 b 3.5 - 9 72.0 1 3 b 9 7 1 1 bO 2 - .5 4 3.4 -7.0 140.4 3.5 33.5 2.4 147.9 - 2
1b 1 2 70 7 b 8 4 15b 4 140.0 1 130.1
53.2 b 1 2 59 2 49 9 134.5 31.8 2b .0 139.1
b 7 9 74 7 7b 4 b 1 9 49 0 40.0 2b .5 49.1
50 b 59.5 h5 7 3 49.9 34 3 2b 5 20.2 N35.7
bb 4 -1.0 74 b 3 75 2 3.5 bO R 7 4 7.1 -3 0 30 7 2.9 N29 7 1 2 948.2 - .V
31 5
51.9 -1.4 b 1 0 2.4 50 0 3.0 49.0 1 .5 j . -4.1 27.1 l 1 20.0 *0 35.9 - 4
1 0 b 2 4 -1.9 7 1.1 . t b 9 1 . 7 59 1 -1.0 4 3.4 -b 9 10 4 1 0 30 b
b 3 4 7 1.7 11.0 50 2 42.4 18 0 J 1 l 1 4 i rl
T
1
1
1


TEMPERATURE EXTREMES AND FREEZE DATA 1F)
STATION
KANSAS DRAINAGE BASIN 0
AKRON 4 C AKRON r A A AP BONNT LAKE BURL INC TON
CHCVENNE NELLS flAGLER 2 NM HOLTOKE LEROT 5 MSN SHAM 2 E STRATTON MRAT 1 E TUNA
PLATTE DRAINAGE BASIN 0
ALLENSPARK 2 NNM ANTERO RESERVOIR
A ILET
bouloer
1
BRIC6SDALC BRIGHTON 1 NE TEAS ENE CABIN CREEK CASTLE ROCK
cmeesnan
CHERRY CREEK OAR OENVER MSrO AP ESTES PARK EVERGREEN
FORT COLLINS TORT RORGAN GRANT
GREELEY UNC JULESBURG
KASSLER
KurrrAN 4 sse LAKE GEORGE B SM L AKEMOOO L I T TLE TON
LONGHONT 2 ESE RT EVANS RESEARCH STATION NEDERLAND 2 NNC NEM RATHER NORTHGLENN
NUNN
PARKER G E RAWHIDE reservoir REO FEATHER lakes i s SEDGMICK 5 S
SPICER STEAL ING
STAONTIA SPRINGS DAH naloen NA terdale
NMCAT RIDGE 2
88
80
too
SB
88 8 7 88 SB S fe
t os
H
02 H 2 0 fc SB t 00 Sb SB
7 B S3
S 1
100 S 7
8 b
S 4
100
SB
1 0 3
S b SB
B 1 S 5 SG
SS
73 0 b SB
SS S 4 SB
04
1 0 1
7 / 20 7 / 1 S 0 / 30 7 / 7
7/12 S / b 7 122 0/2 S S / b
0/20
B/31
- 2 1 1 0 30
1 i
- 22
2 S 1 S
2 3 2 S
7 / 8 7 / 22 7 / 7 7 / 7
3 7 20 1 S
7 / 1 S 7 / 1 S 7/21 7 / 1 S
7 / 20 b/ 2S 7/21 7 / 1
7 / 1 7 / 20
7 /
7 / 20
7 / 20 7/13 7 / 22 7 / 20 7 / 1 S
7 / 20 7 / 7 7 / 8 7/18
7/14-H 7/24
7/21
8/31
7/21
7 / 20
7/21
7 / 1 b
22 32 IS 22
28
- 2 1
1 S 1 0
2B
32
2 S 22
2 3 2 5 38 1 8 20
30 20 -2? 30
- 3 1 2 S
/ 1 8 / 1 0 / 1 8 / 1 0
/ 1 7 / 1 0 / 1 8 / 1 S / 1
/ 1 8 / 1 B / 1 B
/ IB / 1 8 / 1 0 / 1 7 / 1 8
/ 1 0 / 1 0 / 1 8 / 18
/ 1 8 / 1 0
/ 1 0 / 1 0
/ 1 8 / 18 / 1 8 / 1 0
/ 1 8 / 1 8 / 1 8 / 1 0
/ 1
/ 1 8
/ 1 0 / 1 B
/ 1 0 / 1 S
/ 1 0 / 1 0
last spring minimum of
1b OR
BE l OH
4 / 4
3 / 8 3/10
3 / B
3/ 0
4 / 20
3 / 0 3 / B 3 /2b
NONE
3/10
3/ S
4 / 30
5 /
S / 8
3/10
4/12
3 / 0
4 / 4 4 / 2 S 4 /
4 / 4
3/2b 3/ 5 4 / 20 NONE
3 /
3/10
4 / 2 S 3 / 8
3 / 0
4 / 4 4 / 4 4 / 20
3 / 8 3/ b
3/10 S/
4 / 2 S 4/20
NONE 4 /
4/27 4/20 S/ 3 3/10
S/ 7 3/12 NONE 5/ 7 4 /
20 OR BEIOM
4 / 20 4 / 20 4/20 4 /
3/20
4 / 20
3 / 2 S 4/20 4/20
NONE
4 / S 4 / 20
S/ 5 S / S 1 S/ 8 3/10
4/20
3/10 4/27 S / 3 4 / 2 S
4/27 4/27 3/10 4 / 28 NONE
4 / 4
4 / 4
5/ 7
4 /
4 /
4 / 28
4 / 28
5 / 8
4 / 4
3/10
4/ 4
b / S 4 / 28
4 / 30 NONE 4 / 28 4 / 20 4 / 28 5/ 7
4 / 20
5/ 0 / S NONE
5 / 8
4 / 28 4 / 28
FIRST FALL MINI MUM OF
24* OR BE L OH 28' OR RELOH 32* OR BELOH 32* OR BELOH 29 OR BELOH 24* 0 BELO R 20* 0 BEl 0 R lb* 0 BELO R
o a r tx u> ^ m o K | m a a. K bJ 5 a w w Ui m o
4 / 20 1 S 4 / 20 1 s 5 / 8 3 2 * .8/2 4 32 8 / 25 29 10/17 24 11/ 1 1 b 11/ 1
4/20 1 7 4 / 30 20 5 / ' fe 3 2 S / 24 32 8 / 25 20 10/18 2 11/ 1 1 4
4/20 20 4 / 20 20 5 / 32 S / 25 10 8/2fl 2b 8 / 30 2 2 11/ i 1 0
1 s 4/20 2 1 4 / 30 20 5/ 0 32 S / 25 3 1 8/20 20 10/17 2 2 11/ 1 20 11/10
18 4 / 2 b 24 4 / 2 S 20 4 / 2 S 20 S / 2 7 28 8 / 20 20 10/31 22 11/17 20 12/ 1
1 b 4/30 24 4 / 30 24 5 / 0 30 8/25 30 S / 20 25 10/15 22 10/17 1 5 10/17
1 s 4/20 2 1 4 / 20 2 1 4 / 10 30 S / 25 30 8 / 30 25 11/ 1 1 7 11/ 1
4/20 1 s 4 / JO 28 5 / 8 32 8/ 23 32 8/24 2b S 7 20 24 11/ 1
1 7 4/20 1 7 4 / 2 S 2 7 4 / 30 3 1 8 7 25 20 8 / 25 20 10/17 1 b 10/17 1 b
NONE NONE NONE 12/ 1 20 12/ 1 20 12/ 1 20 12/ 1 20 12/
20 4/20 27 4 / 20 2 3| 4 / JO 28 S / 27 2b 8/27 2b 10/28 2 11/ 1
20 4 / 20 20 4 / 20 20 4 / JO 30 8 / 25 32 8/20 20 11/ 1 1 8 11/ 1
S / 0 2 3 b / 1 2b b 7 2 2 32 S 122 3 1 8/24 20 8/ 25 23 8/ 2b 1 0 8/28
1 S S / 20, 2 3 b / 1 0 20 b / 22 30 S / J 10 8 / 25 2b S / 2b 24 8/30 8/30
s / B 1 b b / 1 0 2 7 b / 24 12 S / 1 7 32 8 / 25 23 8/ 25 2 8/23 1 5 8/28
1 s 4 / 20 23 4 / 30 20 4 / 30 20 8 / 25 32 8 / 30 20 10/17 20 10/17 20 12/ 2
1 0 4 / 20 1 0 5/ 0 2B 5 / S 30 8/ 25 2b 8/ 25 2b 8/28 2 1 1 0 / 2b 1 8 11/ 1
1 7 4/20 24 4 / 20 24 5 / 0 3 1 S / 25 3 1 1 0 / IS 27 10/17 1 8 10/17 1 8 11/10
4/20 2 1 4 / 2 9 2 1 5 / 0 3 1 S / 2 S 10 8/20 20 1 0 / 1 b 24 10/17 1 8
S / 1 0 24 b / S 2b b / 1 1 2 S 8/17 32 8/ 25 24 8/25 24 8 / 20 1 b 8 / 2 w
20 4 / 28 20 5 / 8 25 5 7 8 25 S / 2 J 12 8 / 2S 2b 8 / 2b 20 8 / 2 * 20 10/15
5 / 0 2 3 s / S 2 7 b / s 32 8 / 25 30 8 / 28 20 8 / 30 2 10/17 1 0 11/10
20 4/20 22 4 / 30 28 5 / 8 30 S / 25 30 8/27 2 7 10/15 24 10/17 20
4/27 24 4 / 20 2b 4 / 30 3? S / 25 32 10/15 27 10/17 2 1 11/15 2 0 11/25
4 / 20 2 3 s / 0 2b b / 1 0 3 1 S / 25 24 8 / 2 S 24 8/ 25 24 8/28 20
NONE NONE NONE 10/ 1 1 1 10/15 1 S 10/15 1 8 10/15 1 8
1 7 4 / 20 24 4 / 20 24 4 / 30 2 Si S / 25 3 1 8/20 20 10/17 2 1 1 / 1 b 1 8 11/10
4/20 2 3 4 / 28 2 3 4 / 30 21 S / 25 32 8/20 20 10/18 2 4 11/ 1 20
S / B 2 3 b / 1 0 2 7 b / 2 3 32 S / 1 7 32 8 / 2 S 24 8/25 24 8/28 1 1
1 S 4/20 24 4 / 2 n 24 4 / 30 2 S S / 25 30 8/2B 2 7 8 / 30 24 1 1 / 1 b 1 8
20 4/20 22 4 / 20 22 5 7 S J 2 8 7 25 30 8 / 21 2^ 8/28 2 2
1 0 s / 1 2b 5 / 8 3 1 S / 25 3 1 10/15 25 10/17 1 0 10/17 1 0 11/10
4 / 30 24 4 / 30 24 57 2 S 3 1 S / 1 b 32 8/25 2 1 8 / 25 2 1 8 / 28 1 b 8 / 28
5 / 0 1 S b / 1 0 2 7 b / 1 0 2 7 S t 25 30 8 / 28 24 8 / 28 24 10/15
4/20 2 3 s / 1 20 5 / 0 12 S / 25 30 8 / 20 20 10/17 1 8 10/17 1 0 10/18
1 0 4 / 2 H 24 4 / 20 24 4 / 30 2 S S / 25 3 1 8 / 20 2R 10/15 2 10/17 1 0
4/20 2 3 4 / 20 2 3 5 / 1 S / 25 2b 8/ ?5 2b 8 7 20 22 107 17 1 0 11/10
b / S 20 b / 1 1 2b b / 2 1 32 7 / 1 3 1 S / 1 7 2 7 8 / 25 1 b 8/25 1 b 8/25
b / 1 0 2b b / 1 0 2b S / 1 5 J 2 8/25 24 8/25 24 8 / 28 1 0
4/30 20 s / s 20 b / 1 O 2 S S / 2 3 30 S 7 24 25 8/25 20 8 / 25 20 8 / 28
NONE NONE NONE S / 25 30 S / 20 20 10/17 20 10/17 20 11/27
20 4 / 30 25j 5 / R 30 8 / 25 20 8/ 25 20 10/15 24 10/2 3 20 1 1 / 1 b
20 s / 7 20 5/ 0 11 S / 25 2b S / 25 2b 8/20 20 8/20 20
2 3 s / 7 2 7 b / 1 0 12 S / 24 28 S 7 24 20 10/14 2 1 10/15 20 1 0 / 22
1 0 25 b / 24 2 S / 2 32 S 122 20 8 / 25 2 3 8 / 20 1 8 8 / 28
1 S 4/20 1 s 4/28 1 S 5 / 7 32 8 7 24 3 1 8/ 25 2 7 10/18 24 11/15 2 0| 11/20
1 7 5 / 20 22 b / 1 0 2b b / 1 0 12 8/ 2 28 8/ 25 20 8/25 20 8 / 25 20 8 / 28
20 4/20 2 3 *4 / 2 0 28 5 / s 32 S / 25 32 S / 28 20 10/22 24 11/ 1 1 8
NONE NONE NONE 12/ 1 1 9 12/ 1 1 B 12/ 1 1 0 12/ 1
S / 28 2 3 b / 1 0 25 b / 2 3 32 S / 2 20 S / 2 20 8/25 1 4 8 / 2 '> 1 4
20 4 / 20 20 4 / 30 2b 5 / 0 J 1 8 / 25 3 1 S / 20 2 B 10/17 2 3 10/2 1 1 b 10/21
1 S 4/28 1 S 5 / 8 2b 5/ 8 2b S 12 4 3 1 S / 20 2 7 8/ 30 24 \0 / 11. 1 0 10/17
r a /*! u f - u " j- wflf
I 1 8
1 4|2 38 I B 7
1 3253 1b?S
epbOp 3 4 1 0 8)1 S2jl S 1 1S1721721b0 1 b 2S 12 1 7 1 0 7 1 SS|1 40 1 2 30 10 7 1S3l4 7|l37 1b?0S1 7 2|1 7 2|1
1b(2S t|2 1 Ojl 04|l S2|l SO
1S2S2
SIS 1 4 S IS 1 44 1 4 2b
COIORAOO
HB4_
NUMBER OF OATS BETHECN OATES
S 2 1 1
2|1 4 4 1 4 4 1 44
7 22
1 4 20 3{1 1S2S 14|}2fl|1 52 1 1 S4
0 1
S|2 2 7 3 40
1 b|2 S 2 ? 1 1 1 S 3 1
1 S ?5** 1 3 ? S
1 b 220|1 Ibl 7
1 7 1 1 b 2 2 1S2S7
1 0 1 S
1 b 1 S 4
1 322b 7 2 14
1 4
is?b
1 b 200 1 1 Sb
7 1 J
721 SO 1 3S 174140141 7 1SS 1 S 3|1 40 721*
1b
IS
1 4 2 2 Oil 1 S 2 3 7 1 1 S 2 b
1 o)l 72jl S4 1 1
1 bb S Si? 2 bit 7 2jl S 3
7217 0 1 S4 1 4 1 bO 1 4 S 1 Sb 1 7
1 4(25 3]1 Sb 1 S 10 100
0 1 0
3 1 S
1 7
IS 7 1
sit 44
320
1 S 4 1 72 1 7 1 1 30 ISO
7 311 4 S
7 3 170
bpSOjl 7 3 1 48
1 0 71 S3 140
140 1 1 20 1 140 1
1 72 1S3ll 40
10 7 73
1 0 7 0S
1401JS 170140 IS 3(1 4 0 SB
143100
170140
140107
4 S 1 4
22b
1 S 3 Oil 0 7
1SS(1 Sl2 1 Oil S
S 3 1 40 4 1S4138
2 1 b7140 0 1401 10
2 1S0 1 40 0 1 S 3 1 40
314 14014
SB
107 0(1 3
S|14S140 120 107 1 3 2 S ip'Ol1 77 153(1 38 S 1 4
140120 7b 1 72
15S 1
7 0)1 40(1 40 3(153 1 4 1 b 7 1 1 4 1 2|1 7 4
04
151
140
140
8b
10
87
B(i05
7 I 140


TOTAL PRECIPITATION AND DEPARTURES FROM NORMAL (INCHES)
COLORADO
STATION
c s t c s park
EVERGREEN
roi COLL INS
roll MORGAN
GRANT
GRtCLCT UNC GROSS RESERVOIR INTER CANTON JULESBURG
K A S S L E R
KAUFFMAN A SSE LAKE GEORGE 8 SN LAKEHOOO UITlETON
LONGMONT 2 ESE NT EVANS RESEARCH STATION NEOERLANO 2 NNE NEW RATMER NORTHGLENN
NUNN
PARKER G E PERRT PARK RALSTON RESERVOIR
ramhioe reservoir
RED FEATHER LAKES 2 SE SEOAL I A 4 SSE SEOGMICK S S SOUTH PLATTE SPICER STERLING
STRONTIA SPRINGS DAM N A L 0 E N NATEROALC MELDONA 2 SE NHEAT RIOGE 2 NINOSOR
DIVISIONAL DATA......
RIO GRANDE DRAINAGE
BASIN OS
ALAMOSA MSO AP
BLANCA
CENTER 4 SSM
CREEOE 2 S
CRESTONE I SE
DEL NORTE
6REAT SAND DUNES N N
MERUIT 7 ESE
H A N A S S A
MONTE VISTA I E
RIO GRANOE RESERVOIR
SAGUACHE
SAN LUIS 2 SC
NOLF CREEK PASS I E
--DIVISIONAL DATA......
JAN FEB MAR APR M A Y J L N
PRfCIP Of PARTURf PRfCIP Of PARTURf PRfCIP Of PAP 1URE PRfCIP DEPARTURE PRfCIP OfPARTURl PRfCIP OfPARTUHf
1 1 -.11 M .32 8 e . 2 0 2.22 8 8 b 2 -1.51 2.45 8 1
3 8 -.01 1.4b 3 8 3.40 1 b 5 18 4 -.85 2 2 3 4 8
! 2 b 0 2 h .04 1.31 . 7 5 1.41 . 2 1 1.43 -110 2 4 2 . 5 0
7 b 2 0 8 1.0b . 7 2 1 b 3
. 1 0 5 1 7 1 1.70 8 b 2-. 8 1.21 1 4 H -1.02 2.38 b 2
4 5 2 0 2 2 3 7 18 0 . 4 0 2 4 0
3 H 2 2 8 3 2 2 4 13 . 8 3 1.18
. 1 5 -.25 1.05 b 4 . 0 5 -1.08 3 2 5 1 b 0 1.28 -2.18 1.38 - 1 b b
2 8 -.31 1.18 . 3 5 2 17 . 7 0 2 b 1 . 5 3 . 8 2 -2.17 . 7 0 -.03
. 1 5 -.15 T .00 -.18 1.0b . 3 8 2.5b 1.34 1.03 - 1 4 b 1.80 -.45
2 1 1.08 1.05 2 3 4 4 1 1.23
. 0 8 -.42 1.08 . 4 8 1 .12 . 5 0 1 b 3 -.12 . 8 4 -1.8b 3.44 1.70
. 0 8 . 8 b 1.47 1.87 . 8 1 . 7 0
. 5 4 . 1 5 . 3 1 -.10 1.38 . 4 7 1.83 . 1 3 . 5 3 -2.05 1.4b -.15
. 8 b 2.80 10.20 7.85 1.88 3.77
. 3 0 8 2 1.41 2.71 . b 2 1.12
. 1 8 M .02 1.27 2.05 1.82 2.27
. 2 1 . 2 0 1.05 2.41 1.45 1.70
. 2 5 -.02 . 7 5 . 3 8 1.21 . 5 8 2 2 8 8 5 . 7 0 - 1 b 3 1.83 . 2 b
. 8 0 1.1b T .25 3 5 8 . 0 7 M
. 1 8 H 1.3b 1.80 3 0 3 . b 3 2.03
. 2 5 M M 1.04 3.20 1.44 3 3 8
. 1 b . 3 0 1.1b 3 3 4 . 3 7 1 2b
. 3 8 1.72 2.30 3 4b . 4 8 10 2
. 3 8 1.58 b 7 3 b 3 1.22 1.31
. 1 2 1.34 1.75 2.37 . 5 4 1.37
. 2 7 -.84 . 2 1 -.58 1.48 . 5 4 2 2 7 1.13 . 7 4 - b 5 2 0 A 8 3
. 2 1 -.10 . 0 8 -.13 3.52 2 8 2 1 b b . 3 8 1.88 -1.04 1.07 -.72
. 1 5 -.43 . 1 1 -.34 1.14 . 5 7 1.48 . 7 8 . 5 0 -.71 1.72 . 7 J
. b 3 . 1 8 . 1 3 -.37 1.73 b 8 3 4 8 15 7 . 4 1 - 2 b 2 2 4 5 . b 7
M H M M n M
. 2 0 1.08 1.81 2 4 3 . 8 7 3.1b
. 4 5 . 1 7 . 0 4 -.18 M . 7 8 -1.57 2.52 . 8 1
. 2 8 -.22 . 7 b . 2 4 1.74 . 7 3 2.54 . 8 b . 8 2 -1.53 1.88 . 0 8
. 1 4 -.13 . 2 8 . 0 2 1.12 . 7 b 4 8 -.01 . 1 B -.52 . 5 5 . 0 0
. 2 5 -.02 . b 2 . 4 0 . 3 8 . 0 1 . 5 b 1 1 . 5 5 -.45 b 8 . 0 2
. t 1 -.12 . 1 1 -.10 . 2 5 -.07 1 4 .34 . 2 1 -.48 . 4 3 -.07
. 2 8 . b 0 . 8 8 8 5 . 2 0 1.55
. 2 0 . 4 7 . 7 4 . 8 7 . 3 8 . 4 5
. 1 b -.21 . 28 -.Ob 1.02 4 1 . 5 8 -.08 . 3 8 -.50 . 8 b . 2 5
. 2 0 -.1b - S 4 . 2 7 r 4 8 -.01 . 3 7 -.3b 8 0 -.25 . 7 2 -.11
. 3 5 - b 1 . 5 5 -.11 1.55 . 35 2.20 . 8 4 . 8 5 -.12 1.55 . 8 5
. 1 3 . 3 5 . . 7 4 4 4 . 1 8 . 4 3
0 1 -.23 . 2 5 . 0 8 . 7 4 . 3 7 . 2 e -.18 . 3 3 -.23 . b b . 2 3
M .00 1.22 18 5 2.75 8 4 2.02
. 2 1 -.08 . 0 4 -.20 . 2 3 -.1b 5 2 -.10 . 2 5 -.53 . 3 3 -.22
. 1 2 . 5 b 10 8 . 5 3 . 7 0 8 3
4.7b 2.08 3.38 4 b 8 1.32 b 2 5
. S 5 -.10 . 5 7 . 0 0 1.04 . 2 2 1.11 . 3 0 . 5 4 -.37 12 1 5 b
SEE REFERENCE NOTES lOLLOHlNG STATION INl.rs


SEASONAL SUMMARY
Spring: Wettest, cloudiest, windiest..
F1uctua t i on s between
storms and mild sunny weather.
SummerC1 ear , sun n y i n mor n i n g s Sc at t er ed
thundershowers i n af t er noons/eveni n gs.
Autumn: Least cloudiness, sunny, mild
Winter: High snowfall, medium cloudiness,
shor t sever e per iods a f c o 1 d w e a t h e r .
C0NCLU3IQNS
I- i e a t i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s g r e a t e s t i n w i n t e r .
needed most of the year.
3ho t t cj r o w i n g seat son
Sunny climate well adapted to passive solar design
L o w i i umi d i ty i mp r oves comfor t 1ev e1s duri nq Lerriper at t ure ex tr a;mes
Low rainfall, high snowfal1
H i g h w i n d c o n d i 11 a n s r e q u i r e c o n t r o 1
iTl 0 Ha LI I 0 S .


CLIMATIC DESIGN GUIDELINES
I. Keep Heat In
- Minimize surface area
- Cluster buildings and functions tightly
- Use earth/ site to minimize heat loss
- Place secondary spaces on cold and windy sides
- Insulate entire perimeter
- Use double/ triple glazing, insulating shutters/ curtains at night
- Avoid cold air pockets, utilize slopes
- Minimize number of doors, provide airlocks
it
- Centralize1 stoves/ furnaces/ fireplaces
II. Let the Sun'In
- Build on south slopes
- Avoid sun obstructions in winter
Use sunspaces/collectors on south side
- Collect solar heat and store in building mass
- Locate most windows on S, SE, and SW sides; minimize N, NW, and NE windows
III. Protect from wind
- Site building to minimize exposure to wind, provide windbreaks
- Doors and entrances should be sheltered from winds by roofs, walls and landscaping
- Protect entries and south facing windows from drifting snow
IV. Utilize Mass to Dampen Temperature Fluctuations
- Use thick south walls to store solar heat
- Use earth, masonry materials, and water for thermal mass/ storage


V. Miscellaneous Guidelines
- Provide SE and east windows for early morning warm-up from solar gain
- Provide west and SW sun protection in summer
- Place outdoor spaces on south sides of buildings
- Provide steep pitched roofs for optimal winter solar gain and minimal snow load
- Utilize natural daylight to reduce electric light loads
- Use natural ventilation to reduce overheating (operable windows, building configuration)
VI. Daylighting
- Keep room widths less than 15-20 ft.
. Orient building along east- west axis
- Provide adequate window areas for each space
- High windows will allow light penetration more deeply into spaces
- For each 4' overhang, daylight in room is reduced 50%
- Toplighting : Effective to increase general illumination, but must be balanced against undesirable summer heat gain


6)
ENERGY EFFICIENCY CONSTRUCTION
State of Colorado Colorado Model Energ and Renovation Stand Effective Date: July
Section 3 Design Con 301.0 Design Criteri
(a) The criteri requirements -for the and established crit parts.
< b) A building shall meet the more as provided in this differ.
(c) When a bui1 o-f the building shal housed therein.
y Effeciency Construction ards -for Nonresi denti al Buildings 1, 1978
di t i ons a
a o-f this section established the minimum
rmal design o-f the exterior envelope o-f buildings
eria -for the design o-f the HVAC systems and their
that is designed to be both heated and cooled stringent o-f the heating or cooling requirements Code when requirements -for the exterior envelope
ding houses more than one occuoancv, each portion 1 conform to the requirements for the occupancy
302.1 Exterior Design Conditions Outdoor Design Temperature:
1. Wi nter
Design Dry Bulb -22 deg. Far.
Summer


62
Desi gn Dry Bulb 76 deg. Far
Desi gn Wet Bulb 58 deg. Far
Degree Days Heating 8,000
4. Degree Davs Cooli ng 18
er 302.2 Interior Design Temperature
(a) Indoor design temperature shall be 72 deg. Far. -for heating and 78 deg. Far. -for cooling. Other design temperatures may be used far equipment selection i-f they result in lower energy usage.
302.3 Mechanical Ventilation
Ventilation air shall con-form to Std RS-3 (ASRAE 62-73. Standards for Natural Ventilation). The Minimum column value o-f Std RS-3 for each type o-f occupancy shall be used -for design.
402.0 Buildings Utilizing Nondep1etab1e Energy Sources
Any proposed building utilizing solar, geothermal, wind or other nondep 1 etab 1 e energy -for all or part o-f its energy source shall meet the requirements o-f Section 401 o-f this Code, except such nondep 1 etab 1 e enerqy may be excluded -from the total annual energy consumption allowed -for the building by that section. To quali-fy -for this exclusion, such energy must be derived -from a specific collection, storage and distribution system.
403.1 Solar Processes
The solar energy passing through the glazing shall also be considered as qualifying if such glazing is provided with:


63
(a) Operable insulating shutters or other devices which, when drawn or closed, shall cause the glazing area to reduce maximum outward heat -flows to those in accordance with Section 502.2(a) and Section 502.3.
403.2 Nocturnal Processes
This provision shall also apply to nocturnal cooling processes in lieu o-f energy consuming processes. The exclusion paragraph 403.0 shall also apply to nocturnal cooling processes used in lieu o-f energy consuming mechanical equipment.
503.1 Calculations of Heating and Cooling Loads
(a) The design parameters specified in Section 3 shall apply for all computations. Heating and cooling design loads for the purpose of sizing HVAC systems shall be determined in accordance with one of the procedures described in Chapters 24 or 25 of Std RS-1 (ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals) or an equivalent computation procedure.
510.4 Building Exteriors
In exterior spaces, the lighting power budget shall be based on the use for which the space is intended (for task performance, safety or security) and on effecient energy utilization.
(b) Facade Lighting
Facade lighting for power budget purposes shall be no greater than 2 percent of the total interior lighting load of the building.
602.1 Building Envelope Requirements Design Criteria
(b) The proposed design may take into consideration the thermal


64
m m
Pmass. orientation and exterior color of the buildina components,
'
verified criteria developed by a recogni:ed research organization considering energy conservation when approved by the Building Official .
I
,J
I
sing i n


67
Double glazing will always pay -for itsel-f in -fuel savings. Annual heat loss through glazing in this environment is extremely high where investigation o-f even triple glazing is warranted.
Footings -for -foundations should alwavs be well below the -frost line and poured well before 30 days before the -first expected -freezed date.
Criteria -for E-f-fective Cold Roo-f Design
Roof Pitch Cold roofs are ineffective on any pitch less than 6/12. due to small vented spaces, frictional slowing of the air is high. Length of Run Longer length runs also create great friction and slow air movement. Guidelines:
5/12 pitch 16 foot maximum 6/12 pitch 20 foot maximum 7/12 nitch 30 foot maximum Runs over 35 to 40 feet should be avoided.
Flow Balancing The surface area of the intake vents should match the area of the ridge vent as closely as possible. Imbalanced situations restrict air flow.
Ridge Clogging The total air flow in the roof system must be great enough to overcome heavy 18" to 24 snow storms; which will attempt to clog the ridge vent with ice. Once the vent is clogged, the entire roof reverts to a warm roof system and ice will begin to form.
Heat Tape The sole purpose of heat tape on eaves is to alow the water forming at the bottom side of the snow pack to run down the roof and over the cold overhangs without freezing. To do this, the heating


68
coils must extend -from 6 inches above the exterior -fall line to the bottom edge o-f the overhang. Loops should be spaced no further than 24 inches apart or ice will form between them, heat should be either controlled by a thermostat or set to run continuously from November to May.
Energy Effeciency Effective cold roofs will draw large volumes of air across the warmed bottom deck. This air movement removes the air film phenomenon and greatly increases heat and loss through the roof. Roofs must be well insulated and a sound vapor barrier must be installed or infiltration from the inside of the building to the roof vents will increase dramatical 1y.
Criteria For Warm Roof Design
The properly designed warm roof offers just as much performance as a cold roof with much less cost. The objectives of warm roof design are as follows:
Roof surface should be designed to maintain a 36 degree temperature or lower when it is snowing and the building is heated to 68 degrees.
Bar joist and metal deck roofs are expecially prone to heat distribution problems. Often the cold roof system is applied directly over the metal deck, this creates a condensation problem. The cool air moving through the cold roof cools down the metal deck and bar joists below the dew point. Batt insulation between the joists may keep condensation from forming on the metal deck but the exposed bottom cord of the joist will have heavy condensation.


69
One of the best ways to insure a uni-form temperature is to install 2 layers o-f 1.5" rigid polyurethane insulation between the -final roofing surface and the roof sheathing. Two layers are much better than one because the joints can be staggered 50'/. to reduce i nf i1trat i on.


SPACE: NO. REQD SQ. FT.
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optional
none
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optional
none
zone public
semi...
restricted !
lighting bright
moderate 1
special
flexible
natural
noise control reqd
0 n.a.
orientation 1 north
east
south
0 west
NOTES:
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SPACE- NO. REQD
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ACTIVITY/USERS:
DESIGN CHARACTER.:
SQ. FT.

CHECKLIST
flexibility expandable
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climate control high
normal
special
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optional
S none
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-optional
none
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semi...
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lighting 'bright
moderate j
special
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^
orientation t north
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south
west


SPACE: NO. HEQD SQ. FT.
pg^i/vL/cpi/JL 1 '1,^0$
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OTHER1
CHECKLIST
flexibility expandable
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normal
special
view in desirable i
optional
none
view out desirable j
optional
none
zone public
semi...
restricted
lighting bright
moderate
special
flexible
natural
noise control reqd
n.a.
orientation ? north
east
south
west
NOTES:
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SPACE1 NO. REQ'D 1 SQ. FT. | O0 X

ACTIVITY/ USERS
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NOTES
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climate control high
normal
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view in desirable |:
optional
none
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optional
none
zone public
semi...
restricted
lighting bright
moderate
special
flexible
natural
noise control reqd
n.a.
orientation * north
east
south
west




SPACE: NO. REQ'D j MU c^gpf | SQ. FT. |nro

ACTIVITY/USERS' "V ,=r/; CHECKLIST
flexibility expandable
versatile j
n.a.
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normal
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optional

! none
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. optional j
none
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lighting bright
moderate
special !
flexible

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ADJACENCIES: i i noise control reqd
n.a.
orientation 'i north
east
south
west

NOTES:

OTHER:


SPACE: NO. REQD SQ. FT.
1 ]
CHECKLIST "1
flexibility expandabk
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climate control high
normal
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view in desirable
optional
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view out desirable i
optional
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moderate
special
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noise control reqd
n.a.
orientation % north
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south
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NOTES:




DAY-USE SKI LODGE
PROGRAM
Room S.F.
Cafeteria *,,500
Kitchen :food prep : di shwasher : cooler : freezer : trash :janitor & storage :Ci rcu1 at i on : o f f i c e :food service J,850 ^ o
Bar/Lounge
Kitchen Recieving & Loading... . 100
Outdoor Decks & Seating . .3,500
Fntry PI 'ti ? ,000
Ski Rental & Retai1 'Zoos?
Nursery & Baby-sitting . sm
Restrooms. OIBM 'ZCxCG
Locker Rooms.- Day Lockers & Corridors . 1 Lift Ticket Sa 1 es .4 . MB '
Storage L ,00$
Retai1 Area ...
Ski School Ticketing.4 .cpffHAJSiS. .... aw ^
Video & Conference Room . 300
Mechanical & Electric ( 33F). . , SKI "ZCPtfC?
IfOPsTp.t-V.-ptfKl 'PfcC.K. I<2£?
2^,325 S.F.
'ZpO, O&o F.


Commercial
RESTAURANTS AND EATING PLACES
By LENDAL H. KOTSCHEVAR and MARGARET E. TERRELL
SPACE REQUIREMENTS
Adequacy of space will influence building and operating costs and efficiency. When space is too small, labor time and effort are likely to increase and the volume and quality of output decrease. When it is too large, building and maintenance costs are excessive.
Decisions pertaining to space allowance may be strongly affected by the limitations of investment funds and available space. Ample space is sometimes provided by means of low-cost materials and equipment of such inferior quality that they have short and unsatisfactory service life. In other instances, space is restricted to a point where it prohibits profitable volume or the best utilization of labor. Space allowances in relation to investment should be balanced in terms of (1) proposed permanence of the facility, (2) acuteness of need for the specific operation, (3) essentials for operating efficiency, (4) desirable standards in terms of appearance, sanitation, and good quality of production and service, and (5) immediate and future costs, depreciation, upkeep, and maintenance.
Facts peculiar to the particular establishment should be used as the basis for determining space needs. Requirements will vary for facilities of a given type and volume Location; type of operation; clientele; frequency of deliveries of supplies; kind of food used, such as fresh, frozen, or canned; and the completeness of processing to be done will cause variation in production and storage requirements. The policies of those in charge will have an influence. Certain general information, such as numbers to be served, turnover, arrival rate, and type of service, will be helpful in deciding dining area needs.
Study is required to clarify immediate and future needs in food production. Choices should be made between meat cutting or portion-ready meats, a baking section or use of commercially baked products, and the use of unprocessed versus processed foods. If enlargement is probable, studies made before the building is planned as to how space may be added and how the initial plan should be designed to minimize ultimate cost, will be helpful.
It is well to block out space allowances according to functions that the facility is to perform. Calculate area requirements in terms of: (1) volume and type of service, (2) amount and size of equipment to be used, (3) number of workers required, (4) space for needed supplies, and (5) suitable traffic area The dining area location and space allowance are usually determined first, the production areas next in terms of specific relationship to the dining area, and the other sections as required to these. Planners should be careful in accepting general space recommendations. There are many variations.
Fund Survno Planning. John Wiley & Sons Now Yoik I 907
Dining Area
Space for dining areas is usually based on the number of square feet per person seated times the number of persons seated at one time.
Space Requirement! The patron's size and the type and quality of service should be considered. Small children may require only 8 sq ft for a type of service in which an adult would need 12 sq ft for comfort. A banquet seating allowance might be as little as 10 sq ft per seat and that for a deluxe restaurant as much as 20 sq ft. The amount of serving equipment in the dining area and lineup space will influence needs. Lost space must be considered.
The diner s comfort should govern allowance. Crowding is distasteful to many people. It is likely to be tolerated more readily by youngsters than by adults It is more acceptable in low-cost, quick-service units than in those featuring leisurely dining. Both young and old enjoy having sufficient elbow room and enough space so that dishes of food and beverage are not crowded. Place settings for adults usually allow 24 in. and for children 1 8 to 20 in. (Table 1).
TABLE 1 Square Feet per Seat Used for Various Types of Food Operations
Type of operation Square feet per seat
Cafeteria. commercial 16-18
Cafeteria, college and
industrial . 12-15
Cafeteria, school lunchroom. 9-12
College residence,
table service 12-15
Counter service 18-20
Table service, hotel,
club restaurant 15-18.
Table service.
minimum eating 11-14
Banquet, minimum 10-11
All of the areas in a dining room used for purposes other than seating are a part of the square footage allowed for seating. This does not include waiting areas, guest facilities, cloakrooms, and other similar areas. Excessive loss or use of space for other than seating in the dining area will, however, increase needs. Structural features of the room should be considered. Width and length of the room, table and chair sizes, and seating arrangements affect capacity.
Service stations may be estimated in the proportion of one small one for every 20 seats or a large central one for every 50 to 60 places The advisability of having a central serving station will be influenced by the distance of the dining area from the serving area. It is of special value when production and dining are on different floors Plumbing and wiring and whether supplies are delivered mechanically will influence location of the stations Small substations for silver, dishes, nopery, bever-
ages, ice. butter, and condiments may measure 20 to 24 in square and 36 to 38 in. high. The size of central stations varies from that for a small enclosed room to that of a screened section measuring approximately 8 to 10 ft long by 27 to 30 in. wide by 6 to 7 ft high.
Table size will influence patron comfort and efficient utilization of space In a cafeteria, for example, where patrons may dine on their trays, it is important that the table be of adequate size to accommodate the number of trays likely to be there. Four trays 14 by 18 in. fit better on a table 48 in. square than on a table 36 or 42 in. square. Small tables, such as 24 or 30 in. square, are economical for seating but are uncomfortable for large people. They are only suitable in crowded areas for fast turnover and light meals. Tables having common width and height allowing them to be fitted together will give flexibility in seating arrangements. These are particularly good for banquette or cocktail-type bench seating along a wall. Tables for booths are difficult for waitresses to serve if they are longer than 4 ft. The width of booths including seats and table is commonly S'k ft. A lunch counter will have a minimum width of 16 in. and a maximum width of 24 to 30 in The linear feet are calculated on the basis of 20 to 24 in. per seat. The maximum area best served by one waitress is generally 16 ft of counter. This will give eight to ten seats. U-shaped counters make maximum use of space and reduce travel. Space in depth of 8/. to 11 ft will be required for every linear foot of counter. This will provide 3 to 4 ft of public aisle, 2% ft for aisle space for employees. A width of 4/£ ft is-desirable where employees must pass.
Calculate aisle space between tables and chairs to include passage area and that occupied by the person seated at the table A minimum passage area is 1 8 in. between chairs and, including chair area, tables should be spaced 4 to 5 ft apart. Aisles on which bus carts or other mobile equipment is to be moved should be sized according to the width of such equipment.
The best utilization of space can often be arrived at through the use of templates or scaled models. Diagonal arrangement of square tables utilizes space better than square arrangement and yields a more trouble-free traffic lane. Lanes that pass between backs of chairs are likely to be blocked when guests arise or are being seated.
Table heights in schools should be chosen for the comfort of children. In units patronized by many grades a compromise height will be needed between the 30 in. normally used for adults and the 24 in. suitable for children, or two sizes may be used in different sections off the room. A table length to seat four, six, or eight is preferable to longer one6.
Number of Persons Allowance The number of persons to be seated at one time is the second point of information needed for calculation of the dining room size. The total number of seats required at one time, multiplied by the space required for each seat, will give the total number of square feet needed in the
7


Commercial
RESTAURANTS AND EATING PLACES
dining area. The number of times a seat is occupied during a given period is commonly referred to as "turnover. The turnover per hour, times the number of seats available, gives the totel number of patrons who can be served in an hour. If peak loads, or number to be served at one time, are known, the number of seats required can be estimated.
Turnover rates tend to vary, for they are influenced by such factors aa the amount of food eaten, the elaborateness of the service, and the diner's time allowance. A breakfast meal of few foods may be eaten more quickly than dinner, and a simple fare faster than a many-course meal. Turnover is quickest in dining rooms where food has been prepared in advance for fast service and where patrons serve themselves and bus their soiled dishes. The turnover time is speeded up 10 percent by patrons removing their soiled dishes so that tables are quickly available for other guests. Deluxe service for leisure dining, involving removal and placement of several courses, takes the longest time. Although specific turnover may vary from 10 minutes to 2 hours, actual eating time is normally 10 to 15 minutes for breakfast, 15 to 20 minutes for lunch, and 30 to 40 minutes for dinner.
The calculation of occupancy of seats in a dining room must take into consideration a certain percentage of vacancy, except where a given number are seated at one time according to assignment. In table-service dining rooms this has been estimated as 20 percent of total capacity, in cafeterias from 12 to 18 percent, and for counter operations 10 to 12 percent. Many factors influence this percentage, such as patrons arriving at different times, irregular rate of turnover, and reluctance to share a table with strangers.
The table sizes used in the dining room will affect occupancy. It is often desirable to provide for groups varying from two to eight, with a predominance in most dining rooms of those for two people. The deuces may be of a size and shape that can be put together to form tables for iarger groups. In metropolitan areas where many tend to dine alone, wall bench-type seating and tables for two with a center ridge or line denoting space for one have been used successfully. Chairs with a tablet-arm" that will hold a tray have been used for fast turnover in crowded areas.
The utilization of seating capacity tends to be greater for cafeterias than for table service. The patron may spend 25 to 50 percent of the time while seated at the table waiting for service. The cafeteria diner may begin eating as soon as he is seated. One cafeteria line can serve four to eight patrons per minute depending on (1) the speed of the servers, (2) the elaborateness of food selection, (3) convenience of the layout, and (4) the type of patrons. At these rates. 240 to 480 patrons will need to be seated within an hour If the turnover rate is two per hour, then from 120 to 240 seats will be used. However, if 15 percent of the total capacity at the peak period remains unfilled, then between 140 and 280 seats will be required. An additional 14 to 28 seats or 10 percent would be needed if the patrons do not bus their soiled dishes
Patronage estimates for facilities of different types may be guided by the number of persons in residence, enrollments in a school, an industry s payroll, the membership of a club, or the amount of truffic in an office or shopping area In each case a certain percentage may normally be expected to dine in the facility provided. The percentage will be influenced by such factors as its location in relation to other facilities, the patron's buying power.
the price plan (on the basis of subsidy or profit), patron a mealtime allowance, and convenience of the location.
The patronage estimate for a college cafeteria should take into consideration the number of students who live at home, are members of a live-in proup. such as an organized house, and the number of other dining facilities available on or near the campus. A college residence providing table service may have to allow a seating capacity that is 1 10 percent of occupancy if a policy exists for having special guest" occasions and seating all at one time.
An industrial lunchroom may serve as few as 25 percent and as many as 90 percent of the payroll. Clues to probable patronage may be drawn from such factors as nearness to other eating facilities, wage rates, type of work, prices to be charged, convenience, quality, and attractiveness. The attitude of management toward the lunchroom may affect patronage also. Pride in providing a good service for the industrial family as opposed to a take-it-or-leave-it attitude tends to win favorable response.
The size of a dining room in a hospital should be determined as to whether it is to be used for employees, patients, or guests, or any combination of these. The type of hospital and the number of ambulatory patients should also be considered. The type of hospital will also influence the number of personnel employed. The ratio of personnel to patients will vary from 1 to 3, depending on how much special care is required or how much teaching and research are done. Good food and reasonable prices will attract a high percentage of those eligible to eat in the facility.
School lunch participation varies 25 to 75 percent and a good percentage for planning is 60 to 75 percent of enrollment. Where prices are low. the food good, meaj selections appealing, and the food service carefully integrated with the educational program, the percentage will be high.
Banquet seating requires planning because maximum seating potential means maximum profits. Folding tables 30 in. wide are popular. These are obtained in varying lengths, but 72 and 96 in. are commonly used. The spacing for the legs should be such as to allow for comfortable seating when the tables are joined end to end and place settings are laid on 24-in. centers.
Restaurant operators should consider space in relation to patronage volume essential for a profitable business. Labor, food, and operating costs must be met and a profit realized that covers risk-bearing effort expended and return on investment. Essential income is weighed in the light of probable patronage and probable average check. The number of seats provided in planning must cover this need.
Flexibility in seating capacity is often desirable. People do not like to be crowded nor do they enjoy the lonely experience of being seated in a huge area occupied by only a few. Sparse patronage creates an impression of poor popularity. Separate rooms, folding doors, screens, or other attractive devices can be used to reduce size of an area during slack periods. Sections left open should be those easiest to serve. Balconies, back rooms, or other less desirable space can often be used for overflow numbers that occasionally require service.
A common experience in many dining room operations is the need for more seating at one meal than at others This may be due either to increased numbers or different turnover rates. A lesidence cafeteria serving
600 men has an overflow room seating 100, which it uses only at dinner. The night meal is not only larger but the men dine in a more leisurely fashion. The room is available for serving other groups at breakfast and lunch.
Commercial restaurants located in shopping or office areas often have a heavier demand at noon than at the dinner hour. Rooms used for general patronage at noon may be closed at night or provide space for private dinner parties. Entrances to these rooms should not require passage through the main dining room. Convenience for special service is important.
Production Areas
A frequently used rule for allotting space for the kitchen is that it should be one-third to one-half the area of the dining room. It has been found unsatisfactory, however, to go by a set space allowance for this area. Detailed study of space allocations leads to the conclusion that percentages in relation to the dining area are "completely unrealistic and unreliable." An analysis of specific needs is required. Many factors influence space requirements, such as:
1. Type of preparation and service
2. Amount of the total production done in the unit
3. Volume in terms of the number of meals served
4. Variety of foods offered in the menu
5. Elaborateness of preparation and service
6. Amount of individual service given, as in a hospital tray service
7. Seating and service plan, whether on one floor or many
The cost of providing space, equipment, and labor is sufficient to merit careful calculation of the best type of operation before planning. New products on the market, new cooking methods, and new equipment available should be evaluated. The use of preprocessed products in many metropolitan areas has made a pronounced change in the amount of space allotted for bake shop, meat cutting, and vegetable preparation areas. Where portion-cut meats are readily available, it is questionable whether even a large establishment can afford to equip and provide skilled labor for a butcher shop. The use of large quantities of frozen foods affects storage needs. The cost and quality of market products, their availability, and the frequency of deliveries are all to be considered.
Variety in menu selection and elaboration of foods tend to increase space needs in work areas and storage. Small amounts of numerous items do not permit stacking and bulk packaging. Elaboration of food often involves individual portion treatment, with individual casseroles, for example, as compared to bulk steam table pans A hospital food service requiring many special diets serves as a common example of menu variety and individual portion treatment imposing special space requirements.
The equipment provided will affect the space needs Garbage and refuse, for example, may require a sizable area for storage awaitinq pickup. Disposal units for food qarbaqe, incinerator for burnable refuse, and a crusher for tin cans will greatly reduce the amount to be held. Frequency of garbage collection will minimize the space needs
Structural features of the building may influence the utilization of space. The shape of the kitchen, location of ventilation and elevator shafts, support columns and |iartitions should be coiiNidered in relation to an efficient layout for work The location of entrances and


Commercial
RESTAURANTS AND EATING PLACES
exits for a good flow of traffic, window placement, suitable space, and relationship of sections need consideration. Eliminate partitions whenever possible; this will reduce space needs and also permit easier supervision of production areas
Kitchens serving a smaller number require a larger square footage per meal than those serving a larger number. The following data used for industrial cafeterias show the rate at which space needs per meal tend to decrease as the number served increases (Table 2).
TABLE 2 Variation in Space Needs in Relation to Numbers Served
Meal load Square feet per meal Variation in square feet
100-200 5 00 500-1,000
200-400 4 00 800-1,600
400-800 3.50 1,400-2,800
800-1,300 3.00 2,400-3,900
1,300-2,000 2 50 3,250-5,000
2,000-3,000 2.00 4,000-6,000
3,000-5,000 1.85 5,500-9,250
Planners are often asked to make estimates of space needs before having an opportunity to make policies or detailed plans for operations- Figures that will be found useful in making such estimates are given in Table 3. These figures pertain to average kitchen areas found in different types of food facilities. Their use is to be regarded as tentative and to be measured carefully in terms of specific needs. The square footage given is to be multiplied by the maximum number of meals estimated per hour of service, in order to find the total space requirement-
After production policies have been established, work areas may be blocked out in terms of the equipment needs and the number of workers required to do the work in a section. Linear space, depths, and heights for work centers should be controlled in terms of average human measurements. This will include the reach to and grasp of material or equipment used in working. The length and width of the work table is adjusted in terms of the amount and size of equipment that will rest on it during the progress of work. The linear measurement will vary in terms of the number of workers using it at one time
The width of the table may be 24 to 30 in. unless dishes or food containers are to rest at the back of the table Tables 36 in. wide are preferable when the back of the area is used for such storage. Where two workers work opposite each other, a table 42 in. wide may be used. A work area of 4 to 6 lin ft will be within convenient reach of the average person Tables 8 to 1 0 ft long are used if two people are working
side by side A height of 34 in., commonly used as a working height, should be evaluated in terms of specific work done and equipment used.
Aisle space should permit free, easy movement of essential traffic. The minimum width for a lane between equipment where one person works alone is 36 and 42 in. where more than one is employed and where workers must pass each other in the progress of work. Where mobile equipment is used, 48 to 54 in are recommended. At least 60 in. are needed for main traffic lanes where workers regularly pass each other with mobile equipment. If workers or equipment must stand in the lane while working, appropriate space should be allowed for this. Thought should be given to space for doors opening into an aisle and for handling large pieces of equipment, such as roasting pans, baking sheets, and stock pots.
Main thoroughfares should not pass through work centers. Compactness is essential for step-saving. It is well for the work centers to be in close proximity to main traffic lanes, with easy access to them. It is important both to avoid distraction from outsiders passing through work centers and to conserve space. Work centers at right angles to traffic lanes are efficient (Fig. 1).
The percentage of floor area covered by equipment varies according to production needs and the type of equipment used A satisfactory layout may claim less than 30 percent of total space for equipment while work areas, traffic lanes, and space around equipment for easy operation and cleaning may require 70 percent or more.
For hospital production and service areas. 20 to 30 sq ft per bed is suggested. The need is reduced as the number of beds increases approximately 30 sq ft per bed for a 50-bed, and 20 sq ft per bed for a 200-bed hospital. This allowance does not include major storage areas, dining rooms, employee facilities, or floor serving pantries.
Serving Areas
Space allowance of serving areas should be adapted to the needs of the specific facility. The menu, organization of work, and number served will influence size The type of service will also be influential in dictating space needed.
In cafeterias the counter length should be regulated by the variety and volume. Excess space partially filled is unattractive, but crowding is also undesirable An estimate that may be used for allotting width is 14 ft. This allows for 4 ft as patron lane space, 1 ft tray slide. 2 ft counter width. 4% ft for workers, and 2% ft for back bar. The size of the tray should dictate the width of the tray slide. The average length of counters in college residence halls and hospitals is found to be 30 to 32 ft, while those
in school lunchrooms aveiage around 1 5 to 20 ft. Some commercial cafeteria counters may be 70 to 80 ft long, but counters over 50 ft long are frequently considered inefficient. Twenty feet is usually thought of as a minimum but, under special conditions and where a limited menu is served, 6 to 8 ft may be sufficient. The trend is toward shorter counters with mobile serving units or dish holders set at right angles to the counter. Smoother service and greater speed are achieved. Counter height may be set at comfortable levels for workers and patrons Schools may have lower counters so that children may see the food and push their trays along a slide as they are served. For little folk. 28 to 30 in is desirable, with counters narrow so that servers may reach over to assist a child. A solid tray slide tends to result in fewer accidents than those made of bars or tubing. Plastic trays measuring 9 by 1 2 in., compartmented, and of pastel colors are popular. Slides for these may be on the servers' side of the counter for ease of service and to eliminate spillage or accidents The child picks up the completed service at the end of the line.
Some planners use. as a rough guide, one counter or line for every 250 to 300 patrons served, but arrival rate, speed of service, and turnover are more reliable factors to consider in establishing the number of lines required.
Hospital service space will depend upon whether central or floor service is used, trays are set up in serving pantries, and modified diets are set up in line or in a diet kitchen. Space must be allowed for bulk food trucks, tray trucks, small tray carts, or special dispensing units used
Short-order units where food moves directly from production to the consumer require the least service space. The need for an intermediate station is eliminated Step-saving compactness saves space The units requiring the most space are those furnishing elaborate or highly individualized service.
Receiving and Storage Areas
Space allocation for receiving and storage must be based on specific needs The volume and type of items received and stored should be considered. Although the average operation may find a dock 8 ft deep and 1 2 ft long sufficient for receiving items, this would not be sufficient for a large one The space requirement in square feet for food storage for 30 days has been calculated by some as approximately one half the total served or, if 1,000 are served, 500 sq ft may be used as a tentative figure for total food storage needs Cases of 6/10 s stacked 6 cases high on flat trucks will have a bearing weight of approximately 250 to 300 lb per sq ft. Skid sizes should be 3 by 2% ft by 8 to 12 in. high Where heavy items, such as 10-gal cans of milk, are stored, bearing weights may be increased. One case of 6/10 s. 24/2%'s, or 24/2's weighs approximately 50 lb and occupies 1 cu ft.
Common Storage The volume of canned food needed to serve 100 persons three meals daily for one month is estimated at approximately 45 cases of 6/10 s or equivalent. The maximum stack height will be 8 or 9 cases or approximately 72 in. Accessibility of items that differ, as well as volume, will govern the number of stacks needed. A total of 3 cu ft per stack is estimated to include floor space covered by a case of canned food, plus a share of aisle space One thousand cases piled eight high in 125 stacks will require 375 sq ft or a storage area approximately 20 by 20 ft Storeroom aisles may be as narrow as 36 in., but 42 or 48
TABLE 3 Square Feet of Kitchen Space per Meal for Food Facilities of Different Type and Size
Estimated maximum meals per hour
Tvoe of facility 200 or less 200-400 400-800 800-1,300 1,300-7.500
Cafeterias................... 7.5-5 0 5.0-4 0 4.0-3.5 3.5-3.0 3.0-1.8
Hospitals.................... 18.0-4.5 12 0-4.5 11.0-4.5 10.0-4.0 8.0-4.0
Hotels....................... 18.0-4 0 7 5-3 0 6 0-3 0 4.0-3 0 4.0-3 0
Industrial lunchrooms........ 7.5-5 0 4 0-3.2 3.5-2 0 3 0-2.0 2.5-1 7
Lunch counters............... 7 5-2.0 2.0-1.5
Railroad dining car.......... 16
Restaurants I service) 7 0-4 0 5 0-3 6 5.0-3 6 5 0-3 0 5 0-3 0
School lunchrooms............ 4 0-3 3 3.3-2 2 3 0-2 0 2 5-1.6 2 0-1 6
7


Commer
RESTAURANTS AND EATING PLA<
Restaurant Seating
rn wt'iren niMiti i tel* *e< HHhiiII t.alleys
IIIm I T |*
i
teWe Uaa l t Mt III
Ckerr - 1*1 f
tllee
f *1
j tOwlI I
Utica is t
t >-
well c
Fig. 1 Scat groupings around rectangular and circular tables.
table HlawMI -f- ItMaa.I l'i -
>ll
ii-ri*"
fig- 2 Banquette seating arrangements and limiting dimensions including spoce for access and service.
Fred Lawton, Restaurant Planning and Design, The Architectural Prett, Ltd London, 1973.


Lower range onJy i( chair*, etc do not project into ame
s

LIMITS OF AISLE
Width Length C Between units At Service aisle Ap Public circn
1-8 to 2-0 1-8 to 2-0 ^ o o lO i-0 i *1-10 to 4-6 Abs. Min.
to to i." i> K> K> 1 L O' o 3- 6 to 4- 0 2-3 to 5-0 5? 3 era
to to i- 1 O to A-0 i o 3-0 to 5-0 t£ o'
< al 3* Length C Between units B To wall > w i/ 9 O 9 9 9* Ap Public circn j
to 1 O 1 O oo to L o 1 O 03 oo o o to i> A> :r t o X O' o If
2-2 to 2-3 2-3 to 2-4 to to A-0 i tn to i i ?.? 3 J-
to to to to A- 1 i 1-0 to S i Comfort- able
WALL OR OTHER FIXED OBSTRUCTION
LIMITS OF AISLE

*e
-estaurants AND EATING PLACES
itaurant Seating