Citation
Hotel Durango

Material Information

Title:
Hotel Durango
Creator:
Grant, David Michael
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
approximately 120 leaves : illustrations, maps, color photographs, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Hotels, motels, etc -- Designs and plans -- Durango (Colo.) ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
David Michael Grant.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
11279148 ( OCLC )
ocm11279148
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1984 .G717 ( lcc )

Full Text
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i
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DURANGO
AN ARCHITECTURAL THESIS PRESENTED TO PLANNING. UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO FULLFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR
THE COLLEGE AT DENVER THE DEGREE
OF DESIGN Si IN PARTIAL OF MASTER OF
ARCHITECTURE.
DAVID MICHAEL
MAY
IS,
1984


THE THESIS OF DAVID MICHAEL GRANT IS APPROVED
RON RINKER

JOHN DIEKEN
GARY LONG
COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN
PRINCIPLE ADVISOR
ADVISOR
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER


A SPECIAL THANKS TO THE FOLLOWING FOR PROGRAMATIC INFORMATION
ZUCHELL.I, HUNTER 8< ASSOCIATES TROY WILLIS, REAL ESTATE APPRAISER & CONSULTANT CITY OF DURANGO, CITY PLANNING DEPARTMENT DAN GRANT FOR EDITING REVIEW


T ABLE (JF CON I EN1 S
INTRODUCTION
T T
BH!
H .
B.
Iz .
G.
AGROUND INFORMATION HISTORIC OVERVIEW ECONOMIC OVERVIEW
1981 MARKET RECONNAISSANCE & DEVELOPMENT POTENTIALS SIZE CHARACTERISTICS
1. IDENTIFICATION OF SUBJECT PROPERTY 2- NEIGHBORHOOD ANALYSIS & DESCRIPTION 3. NEIGHBORHOOD PHOTOGRAPHS-CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT 4- NEIGHBORHOOD PHOTOGRAPHS 5. SITE ANALYSIS
b. UTILITIES
c. ZONING
d. SUMMARY
6- SUBJECT PHOTOGRAPHS CLIMATE
TRANSPORTATION
BUILDING CODES: 1932 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
III. GUIDELINES PROGRAr
IV. BUILDING D£SIGN
CONCLUSION
BIBLIOGRAPHY


INTRODUCTION
HoteI Durango i s a 1 uxury hote 1 and com(nercial cornp 1 ex located in the downtown district of Durango, Colorado. The downtown business district of Durango is one of the few towns with a national historic preservation district.
Located one block from the busiest intersection in Durango, a traffic count of 25,000 cars per day, the traffic funnels main street in front of the hotel site and to the west of hotel on Cami no Del Rio Avenue. For this reason, Hotel go has one of the best exposures in Durango.
The subject property is the only vacant parcel of land on Main Avenue in the business district. The lot was at one time occupied by buildings that have since been torn down. The topography of the land is fitting to provide underground garage levels with entrances on 12th Street, which is one story lower than Main Avenue. The lot size is 125x 200'" with the shorter 1 e n g t r i f a c i n g M a i n A v e n u e.
The Durango/Si 1 verton Narrow Guage train runs within 40'" from the west end of the hotel. There are approximately 1400 to 1500 persons riding the train daily from May 15 to October 15, with double expansion expected in the near future.
Durango, nestled at the base of the San Juan Mountain Range, offers year-round tourism. The Durango area offers tourist attractions along with many outdoor activities and sightseeing which are natural resources available to the traveler.
The hotel will consist of two levels of hotel rooms, one level of commercial spaces and two levels of underground parking.
Hotel Durango deals with two major propositions:
1. The Hotel shall adapt to the streetscape by dealing with both old and new contexts. The new building characteristics shall blend with the historic district streetscape in order to be a significant and successful piece of "architectural mix." The hotel should connect in such a way to accent the old, not copy it. Here, both old and new shall relate with compatible usage, correct scale and the like.
2. The Hotel shall be designed with a luxury vocabulary wh i1e en c omp ass in g h ot h p ublie and p r i v at e sp ace. Th e guest s staying here want a certain degree of luxury, and at the same time, control of their own private space. Travelers to Durango would rather stay at a special place, not your run-of-the-mill day lodge. Luxury does not mean overextravagance in design, but r a t h e r a w e 11 cl e s i g n e d, pie a s a n t p 1 a c e t o s t a y.
By resolving these two issues, both exterior facade and interior design resolve into design, which becomes a major Ii n k age for t h e d ownt own historical di st r i ct.
wi th down the Duran


ACKGROUND


HI3T0RIC OVERVIEW
The name "Durango is said to have been chosen by a founder because of a recent trip to the Mexican town of that name. It translates as "enduring" or "meeting of ways or "watertown." And Durango was all of these and more to an editor of the Durango Herald: "another monument to the energy, pluck and perserverance of the American people who consititue the planters of empire."
To read other early chroniclers, one would think they had discovered the promised land. Durango was well situated in the Animas Valley. with its mild climate, agricultural and grazing lands and hot springs. It benefited from the Animas River for irrigation and had outlets on each of its four borders, thus m a k in g exp an sion possible. The 3an Juan s t o t he n or t h h e1d gold and silver deposits and the La Plata Mountains lay to the west.
Durango was selected as a townsite by the Denver and Rio G r and e Rai1r oad b y d ef au11 af t er t h e r ai1r oad clashed with t he town fathers of Animas City. In late 1379 the Durango Trust was established to organize the purchase of coal land and townsite property. Ex-territorial Governor Alexander Hunt and British physician William Bell headed the Trust and purchased 160 acres f or $ 105,000.
The history of the Main Avenue district virtually begins wi t h t he or i g i na 1 p 1 a11 i ng of t he t own The 1 ayout p 1 an was t h at Main Avenue would be the "wholesale street". Second Avenue the "retail business", and Third Avenue the "residential boulevard," with "rows of trees down the middle like Colorado Springs", Third Avenue was also to be known as "church street." The rationale for this scheme was to situate businesses; near the river and residences on the elevated land with a view away from t he n o i se, t r af f i c an d dust.
Early on the Trust recommended that the towns; central four blocks be constructed in brick and stone, the first "design standard" for Durango. Although many Main Avenue buildings went through a wood frame cycle, others originated as brick. Several of the buildings left today are the first built on that site. Endur i rig yes.
Local industries supplied many of the construction materials: brickyards, lumber yards and sawmills were among the f i r s t in operation. The San Juan and Mew York Smelter also moved here from Silverton. The proximity of the coal fields and extensive railroad 1inew helped make Durango the major smelting cen t sr of s o u t h w e s t Colo r a d o w i t h m i n i n g t h e s e c o n d m a j o r i ndustry.
The speed and quality with which the core of Durango was built is evidenced in this visitors observation in 1381:


*
Ninth Street looking west to the River this area is now the Camino Del Rio (Photo: Colorado Historical Society)
from Main Avenue Design Review
Much
Distr i c
rf 0


"Substantial brick blocks line the business streets, there
are three hotels in full b 1 ast and all kinds of business
represented and represented wel1...And i n t n i s really wonderful
1i tt1e town, 1 ess than a standing." year ago r lot a single house was
The raspected Engi neer i n q and iv 1i ni rig Journal descr ibed
Durango as "an unusually attractive community with a class or buildings doing credit to any new town." Surely The First National Bank and Strater Hotel were two reasons for these good i i n pi r e s s i a n s.
Durango became the regions commercial center, Farmer's, ranchers and personnel from Fort Lewis shopped here and arranged shi ppi ng on the railroad. Hi stor i an Duane Smi th thi nks Durangos "instant urbanization" resulted from the settler's combination of optimism and opportunismfaith in hard work and hopes for a quick buck. The motto "grow or die" meant more than words, it was the towns raison detre.
Th e E i g ht :L es and Ni n et i es wer e dec i d ed 1 y mater i a 1 :L sti c year s when the quality of life translated as wealth and greatness. The young businessmen from the East and Midwest who were also town leaders fought against a frontier image. The downtown went from log cabins to frame and brick construction overnight. They would have "no pioneer cabins for corporations." The town proudly pointed to electricity, telephone service and water companies. Smoke from wood stoves and the smelter covered the town in soot, a factor ignored by these "planters of empiire."
In their haste to settle the town, the riverfront garbage dump was also ignored. This area, sometimes called "poverty flats," was home for Mexicans, Chinese and other minorities throughout the years.
The early boom years had their reckless side. The area west of the railroad, or the "saloon block", housed prostitutes, gambling halls and saloons. And although these activities were officially prohibited, fines levied against the ladies of the line became a source of "official" town revenue.
The fire of 1389 proved to the "blessing in disguise" some hoped it would be. Seven blocks of the residential and business district were destroyed and then rebuilt in brick and stone. Many of these buildings stand today.
Photographs document the character of Main Avenue in the early 1900ss brick structures were predominant, varying in height from one to four stories, but most were two stories.
Corner buildings tended to be taller, presenting a finished, almost fortified, look for the block. Most first floors were used for store; thus a pattern was set with display windows, awnings and cornices aligning down the street. Most buildings assumed individuality with the use of architectural detailing and a r n a m e n t a t i o n i n s t a m p e d m e t a 1
or stone


These Store-fronts survive today on Lewis College)
Main Avenue.
(Photo: Port
Fp5ES3SSJW


The a rea west of Mai n c
smatl 1 fra me houses were mi X
and an oc ca s iona1 re tail b u
was left u nd eveloped or ut. i I
Resi d e n tiai and c offline r
A ven ue. A twostar y brie k
be f 1 ank ed b y onesto ry gab 1
were typi c al elements of th e
ontained a wi de var i sty of ed among warehouses, boar si ness. A great deal of izsd as storage yards.
c i a 1 bui 1 d i ng s wer e mi x ed store wi th squared f a 1se-eroofed cottages. Trees
Second Avenue streetscape
bui 1 d i n g s:
d i n g houses
open space
on Second
f r on t m i g h t
and 1 awns
Throughout the Durango held on. Th 793 brought a depr 1i 111e mini ng t owns a smelter and unrest in
har d ships of t h e Ni n ere was a drought in ession and the drop r o u n d D u r a n g o. T h e t h e m i n e s a d d e d t o
eti es ,
1891; the 1 ast h al f of
in si 1 V er P r i ces hurt
tempor ar y c! osi ng of the
the woes
south esc. ab progr c i t i z rnai n t from drug
Now that the unabashed promotion of the "the Denver of the west was subdued, by 1910 a comfortable routine was lished. The first, part of the century was a reforming and essive time for Durango. The government listened to ens7 complaints about unpaved roads and the poorly
ainsd wooden sidewalks. The business district now stretched the depot to 11th Street. There were the usual hardware, and retail stores and 22 saloons for a population of 4686.
Farming made a major contri Twenties and Thirties. Most agr i cui turail c 1 i entel e. And to gr Dwellings were discovered, Mesa and became a strong attraction, outoftowners. A days pass cost
Will Rogers beauti f ul little silver, and Mesa f 1 o u r i s h e d b e f o r e
said of Durango city, out of th Verde Cliff Dwel it started to go
bution to the e businesses ca owi ng t ouri sm Verde was named Newly groomed twenty-? ive ce
i n t h e t w e n t i e e way and glad ling Ruins, wh backwards."
con om i cs of the
ter ed to the
the P ueb 1 o Cliff
a n a tin al park
s k i r uns br ought
nt s -
s: II a
of i t: g old,
ere c i vi 1 is at i on
New buildings that appeared downtown in thirties expressed the changing styles of the facades, with curving corners, derivative of used a new materialglazed terra cotta tiles, used, which helped these buildings fit in neighbors.
During World War II the smelter was reop and uranium refining and its revenues were res post-war boom. Ci1 and natural gas also beef Houses were built on farm and ranch lands in th such as Crestview and Riverview. Smith c rslocat i on as the mas t si qni f i can t event si nce century. The college, built in 1957 on the brought in new jobs, fresh ideas and cultural a
t h e t wenties and hi me: steam!i ned
"Modern" styles, E a r t h t o n e s w er e with their o1d er
ened for vanadium p on s i b 1 e f or t h e ed up the economy, e new subdivisions ites Fort Lewis the turn of the mesa above town, ctivi ties.
In the fifties, the town model of an Eastern metropolis
that had once struggled to be a capitalized on its wi1d and woo1y


The Palace Grocery in 1900 exhibited typical storefront components, such as a kickplate, display window, and clerestory. (Photo; Fort Lewis College)


frontier image for the tourist dollar. Hollywood shot several films here, not so much for legends, as for the scenery.
Eioosterism brought the generic American "miracle mile" of restaurant chains, motels and gas stations to the northern end of Mai. n Avenue. Fami 1 y-owned busi nesses were cha 1 i enged by chai n stores opeining. The small town feeling and quality of life were somewhat threatened when the emphasis once again turned to expansi on.
Main Avenue archi tecture. 11 s
them went deco and a1umi n um and wr oug h t
was not frozen in bui 1 d i. ngs some i r on
t urnof~thecent ury the times some of "r emode1ed" wi t h
changed with older bui1d i ngs were in the Fifties.
The S growth and T omorrow
}even'd es the means committee awareness about the town, and later
were a time in which discussion focused on with which to control it. The Heritage for was est ab1i shed to hei ghten communi t y
ar chi t ec tura1 and busi ness charact er af the
o.!
enhancement of Mai ns 300 block
anni ng eff arts conti nusd
of the
downtown. whe
burnt in 1974,
to call west side
n a portion it was rebuilt as the Main Mall
vf
ot
These new bui1dings ref1ected a new trend which a11empted to provide new architecture that is compatible with historic structures. Redevelopment at the south end of Main Street was stimulated by the development of the Narrow Guage Railroad as a tourist attraction, The development expressed a "turnofthe century" image. More recently, the Burns Bank addition is an example of a very contemporary style blending with an historic building. Downtown Durango, despite suburban pressures and sprawl, continues to be a vital center. Government and citizens groups are interested in planning for a future that respects the oast.
Lester Gardenswartz, a Main Avenue merchant, once spoke matter-offact1y about the downtown districts
"There will always be a Main Street in Durango...there will always be a downtown."
The question that the community faces is: "How shall we
manage the quality of change downtown?" The design guidelines presented provides a direction for development that respects the heritage of Durango and preserves it for the future.


Change has always been a -factor in downtown Durango, as these photos demonstrate.
This picture in 197S, shows the building partially covered. Although now restored, the renovation issues are typical of other bui1di ngs.
The First National Bank in its original condition. (Photo: Fort Lewis College)


Early photos often provide details that can be reconstructed. In this photo, the Newman 31oc k di sp1 ays strang 11 a1i anate features, (Photo: Fort Lewis College)
Unsympathetic alterations often weaken the visual impa business, as these alterations to the Newman Block once
a n


Sympathetic renovations can incorporating new uses.
preserve the
i nherent
character
whi 1 e


ECONOMIC OVERVIEW & CITY DATA


DURANGO
Durango is the county seat o-F southwestern County. The region is noted for
opportunities and an expanding economic base
Colorados La Plata fine recreational


DURANGO
Durango, in La Plata County, is located along the Animas River in southwestern Colorado, The area is widely known for the picturesque mountains and the historic Indians and explorers that have lived in the region. Nearby are the ruins of the ancient cliff dwelling Indians at Mesa Verde National Park. The Ute Indian tribes lived in the area as many still do on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation today.
Agriculture and mineral production have continued to have a strong influence in the local economy. Tourism, attracted by the famous DurangoSi 1 verton Narrow Guage Railroad and the scenic surroundings also contributes to the economy. Fort Lewis College is located overlooking the City of Durango.
POPULATION
In the 1970 census, Durango had a population of La Plata County recorded 19,199. These statistics slight decline from the previous census periods, appears that this trend has been reversed in the Plata County has grown to an estimated 25,500 popul while Durango has grown to a estimated 14,100.
10,333 while reflected a However, it 1970s. La ation in 1977
The population in La Plata County is composed of approxi mate1y 75.2 percent Whi te, 19.4 percent Spani sh American and 4.8 percent Indian with the remainder including Black and other groups. Nearly 53 percent of the families in La Plata County earn annual incomes exceeding $10,000; 30 percent receive over $15,000 per year.
EDUCATION
Durango is served by the La Plata County School District 9R. There are seven elementary, two junior high and one high schoo1. Vocaticna1 training programs are found within the schoa1 system. There are also three parochial schools available.
Durango is the home of Fort Lewis College. This state-supported fouryear institution of higher education offers a variety of liberal arts programs. The Bachelor of Arts and Associate of Arts degrees may be earned.
LABOR AND WAGES
In 1977 there were 12,249 La Plata C
Tr>e s e r v ice Indus t r 083. Other leadinq
total labor force.
total employment at 2
were c ommerci a 1 trad e
The largest manu
governmen
i 'H
and aqr
aunty residents in the y recorded the largest emp1ovmen t c ategor i es i culture,
n the community are the


San Juan Lumber Company, Telluride Iron Works, Jackson David Bottling Company, Coca-Cola Bottling Company, the Durango Herald, a n d t h e R e d f i e 1 d C 6 m p a n y, M a j o r c o m rn e r c i a 1 a n d s e r v i c e e m p 1 o y e r s i n c 1 u d e t h e T a m a r o n R e s o r t, M e r c y H o s p i t a 1 C o m m u n i t v H o s p 1t a 1 The New Strater Corporation, the Ramada Inn, and Eventide of Durango.
CONSTRUCTION
Construction valuation of residential building permi
issuances in 1977 was up over previous years. There were 5 residential permits issued with a valuation of $2,194,903 in 1977, There were 22 commercial permits issued in 1977 with a valuat i on of $2,865,053.
RETAIL SALES
Retail sales in Durango and La Plata County have shown as increase nearly every year. Since 1970 retail sales have more than doubled in Durango to $113.1 million in 1977, Total retail sales in La Plata County have increased more than 100 percent since 1970 to $150,909,779 in 1977.
BUSINESS AND FINANCIAL RESOURCES
There are five financial institutions commercial banks and two savings and loan combined commercial bank deposits at the end $76.3 m i 11 i on
i n D u r a n g o s t h r e e
a s s o c: i a t i o n s The
of 1977 tota1ed over
TRANSPORTATION
Durango is served by the nearby Durango/La Plata County Ai rport. Frontier Ai r 1 i nes and Rocky Mountai n Ai. rways have dai 1 v scheduled commercial flights and there are facilities for private aircraft and charter services available. The Durango/La Plata County Airport has recently undergone expansion and is capable of accommodating commercial jet aircraft schedule daily.
Located on U.S. Highway 160 and 550 and Colorado 799, Durango has access to Trail ways bus service and motor freight transportation. Motor freight carriers in Durango ares NW Transport, Rip Grande Motorway and Garrett Freightiines.
Local transportation includes taxi, limousine and charter hus servi ce and the dai 1 y e>:cursions in the summer months of the D u r a n g oS i 1 v e r t o n N a r r o w G u a g e R a i 1 w a y.
01 rr


UTILITIES
E1 e c t. r :i c p o w e r :i. s p r o v :L ci e d b y t h e L a P1 a t a E1 e c t r i c C c m p a n y while Peoples Natural Gas supplies gas to the community The C i. t y o f D u r a n g o s u p p lies w a ter t h r a u g h a m u n i c i p a 1 u t. i 1 i t y system
The water treatment system has a capacity of 12 million gallons per day. Average consumption of water per day in the summer is 7.5 million gallons and in the winter is 3 million gallons. The peak daily consumption has been 11 million gallons in the summer and 3.5 million gallons in the winter.
Other utilities in the community include: sewage disposal,
city garbage and trash collection. sanitary land fill and t e 1 e p h o i "i e a n d t e 1 e g r a p h s e r v ice.
LOCAL GOVERNMENT
Durango has a counci 1manager form of local government with five elected counci 1 members. The council appoints a city manager to an administrative position. Durango is the County Seat of La
Plat a County and is located in Planning and Management Region #9.
The San Juan Basin Regional Planning Commission coordinates r eg i onal f unct i on s..
Law enforcement in the community is provided by the 33-member City Police Department and the 30member County Sheriffs Department.
Fire protection needs are met by 13 full-time and 30 volunteer members of the City Fire Department with six pieces- of
e q u i p m e n t. T h e fire i n s u ran c e c 1 a s s r a t .i n g .i n D u r a n g o is si x .
MEDICAL AND PROFESSIONAL FACILITIES
The Community Hospital with 52 beds and the Mercy Medical Center Hospital with 105 beds serve Durango area residents. There are 47 physicians, 13 dentists and other specialists are well represented. Supporting medical facilities include a nursing home, 24hour ambulance service and six pharmacies.
T h e p r of essional commun i t y i n Dur ango c ons i sts of 49 lawyers, 17 architects, IS accountants, 49 realtors, geologists, e n g i n e e r s, a n d t h r e e s t o c k broker a g e f i r m s.
RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL FACILITIES
Durango is in the center of a wide area encompassing a great diversity of excellent recreational opportunities. Activities can be found to suit nearly every recreational interest. In addition to Durangos fine parks, there are tennis courts,


bowli ng,
s w i :Ti m i n g pools and g o 1 ? c o u r s e s
In the area surrounding Durango can be -found exceptional hunting, fishing and boating at Vallecito Lake, Navajo Dam and the San Juan National Forest, Nearby are some of the ski areas that "Colorado Ski Country USA" is noted for. Purgatory, Telluride, Wolf Creek, Hesperus, and Stoner are all within easy reach of Durango. Wilderness trips may be taken in the rugged San Juan Mountains or visits may be made to the historic Indian ruins of Mesa Verde National Park or the historic mining camps such as Silver.ton, Telluride or Ouray.
Annual recreational events include the La Plat Navajo Trails Festival, the Fourth of July firewar Narrow Guage Days- Cultuiral activities incl concerts, art galleries- the public library, Fort and museums. The Southern Ute Tourist Center ha Ignacio, Colorado.
a Count y Fa i r, ks d i sp1 ay an d ude theaters, L ewi s Colleg e s a museum i n
A1 ong DurangoSi r ound trip remaini ng regi stered
with the many other attractions, Durango has the 1 v e r t o n N a r r o w G u a g e R a .i 1 w a y w h i c h m a k e s a 9 0m i 1 e excursion daily during the summer months. This last regularly scheduled narrow gauge railroad is a National Historic Landmark,


AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF DURANGO


ClFY DATA
Durango. the county seat of La Plata County, is located in the Southwestern portion o-f Colorado, being the second largest city and commercial center -for the San Juan Basin. The San Juan Basin is made up of 13 counties and an area of 35,203 square miles. Durango lies along U.S. Highways 550 and 160 approximately 325 miles southwest of Denver, 215 miles northwest of Albuquerque and 410 miles southwest of Salt Lake City.
The City has a strong economic base, providing the factors which allow the setting and stability for the neighborhood and property which is the subject in this report.
The following paragraphs set forth the informatin to the economic base considered pertinent and which will reader an insight into the factors which affect the p r o p e r t y i n t h i s r a p o r t.
"Tourism" is the most significant industry in the Durango economy. In recent years, despite the high gasoline prices and economic slow-down, over one million people visited Durango annually. According to reliable sources, Durango is rated the third most popular city in Colorado.
Maj or tourist attracti ons i n the area i nc 1 ude: the Narrow
GaugeSi 1verton Train (120,228 passengers in 1977)s Mesa Verde National Park (677,000 visitors in 1976); vallecito Lake (known for two state fishing records); and Purgatory Ski Area (193,734 Ii ft ti c ket s so1d i n the 197576 season), Th ese a11 r act i on s are
setting new records annually for total number of visitors. Another aspect of tourism in the area, attracting thousands of tourists each year, is its excellent fishing, big game hunting and overall "old west" appeal and atmosphere.
The local economy is also based on agriculture as the mountain slopes, valleys and mesas provide grassland ideal for c:a111 e and sheep gr az i ng I n the I ower e 1 evat ions there i s good
far m 1 and, bot h f or dr y f ar mi ng as we11 as i r r i gated 1 and. As
Durango is adjacent to three million acres of San Juan National Forest, commercial logging is an important sector of the economy. The general area is known also for its subsurface deposits of coa 1 . However , at the present time, very 1 i 111 e min.i ng is bs.i ng
c o n d u c t e d n e a r b y.
Durango is served by Frontier Airlines at the La Plata County Airport, which has recently been expanded to accommodate a 737 jet. The total cost of the project was estimated at $4
million. There are daily scheduled flights to and from Denver,
Albuquerque, and Phoenix. Other transportation available is the Continental Trail ways busline to all parts of the country.
rei ative give the sub ject


t h e
Following is a list of Durangos major employers and number o-f persons employed:
C o m m u n i t y H o s p i t a 1 140 School D i s t r i c t 9 ,R 320
M e r c y H o s p i t a I 306 L a P1 a t a E1 s c t r i c 60
Cream!and Dairy 28 C o c a C a 1 a B a 111 i n g C o. 47
Northwest Pi peli ns 70 Jackson Davi d Bo111 in g 44
F a r t L e w i s C o 11 e g e 300 Te1iuride Iron wcrks 17
M o u n t a in S t a t e s T e 1 e. 94 Tamarron 400
Red f i e1d Comp any 125 D u r a n g o H e r a 1 d 45
San Juan Lumber Co. 160 Rarnada Inn 70
San Juan National For. 60 New Strater Carp. 140
Scott Construction Co. 28
L ai P1 a t a C o u n t y, when a comparison'is made to state i ncome
levels, is rather low. The Colorado Legislative Council publishes a bulletin called "Colorado Statistics of Income which shows that La Plata Countys per capita income has steadily been a b out 73% of th e st ate 1eve1 foetween 1970 and 1975. Fur t h er mor e, the distribution of household incomes is significantly in the lowermiddle income levels < $9,000$15,000 annually) ..
From an education standpoint, Durango has an excellent school system with the studentteacher ratios being low in both the elementary and secondary level. Fort Lewis College is located at Dur ango, a fully accredi t ed, 1i ber a1 ar t s i nsti tuti on. The present enrollment at the college is in excess of 3,500 students.
AREA PROJECTS:
Purgatory Ski Area Located 25 miles north of Durango, being southwestern Colorados largest ski resort. Six double chairlifts serve Purgatorys 1,600 vertical feet and bout 30 miles of trails. Facilities include two restaurants, ski rental and sport shop, bar, condominiums and lodge facilities. Each year the expanding facility attracts additional skiers and continues to set new records.
Tamarron This $80,000,000 condominiurn/resort development is located 20 miles north of Durango, being opened in the fall of 1974. Its amenities include an IShole championship golf course, a theatresized auditorium capable of handling groups of up to 600, two gourmet dining rooms, four cocktail lounges, indoor tennis, skiing, fishing, archery, paddle tennis, health club and skati ng.
Pagosa This project is located along U.3. Highway 160, 60 miles east of Dur an go. The p r o j ec t i n vo 1 ves t he d eve 1 opmen t of 26,000 a c re s of 1 an d and i n c1udes a 1od g e, restsur ant, health sp a, nin e hole golf course, tennis camples, condominiums, cluster
communities and various sized residential homes!tes.
AnimasLa Plata and Dolores Projects Basically, these projects


involve diverting the flow of the Animas., La Plata and Dolores Rivers and the construction of huge dams and lakes. The result will be water for approximately 135,000 acres o-f potentially productive land, elimination o-f flooding conditions and even more recreation amenities. It has been estimated that these projects w i 1 1 b r i n g a n ax d d i t i o n a 1 5,000 r e s i d e n t s t o t h e D u r a n g o a r e a.. Con st r uct ion on the Do1or es pr ojec t i s p r esen 11y un d erway, construction starting in 1979.
Industrial Park The Durango Development Board has purchased 250 a c r e s i m m e d i a t e 1 y s o u t h o f D u r a n g o f o r i n d u s t r i a 1 d e v e 1 o p m e n t. Therefore, land is available for those companies seeking to 1ocat e i n Dur ango.
Animas Airpark, Inc. Ten local Durango businessmen purchased 143 acres and have options to purchase an additional 536 acres for a development which will include an airport facility and both industrial and residential sites. At the present, the 50x 5000 r unway has been const r uc t ed and fixed based oper ator f aci1i t i es are under construction. The residential and industrial sites are presently in the planning stages. This development is located five miles south of Durango.
This small sampling of area projects was included to show the reader that investors are placing their monies in the Durango area, realizing the great future and potential of the Durango area.
Summary With available industrial sites, a good labor market and abundant natural resources, Durango and the region it economically serves should continue to grow in a sound and steady manner. Land requirements for residential and commercial facilities should increase and when one considers that the normal rate .of population is substantially increased with the influx of new industry, it is evident that demand will be placed on practically every segment of the economy. The general feeling is that Durango is on the brink of a rapid physical and economic expansion. Where growth is occurring, as it is in Durango, one is assured of a continuing demand and a solid foundation for the real estate market.


1981 MARKET RECONNAISSANCE & DEVELOPMENT POTENTIALS ANALYSIS
In April, J. 99.1., the City of Durango contracted with Zuchel I i Hunter ?.< Associates., Inc,, of Annapolis, Maryland to perform a twophased economic assessment of the community. The first phase i s a m a r k e t a s s e s s m e n t r e c o n n a i s s a n c e o f e c o n o m i c: a c t i v i t y b o t h currently underway and proposed in Durango. The results of this phase of analysis are contained in this section. The second phase is the f ormu 1 ation of deve 1 apment and f inanci ng strategies to aid local decision makers in maximizing private investment while minimizing public expenditures to leverage such investment. Preliminary recommendations regarding the direction of the second phase of this work effort rare contained in this section.
In Section II, a general economic overview of conditions in Duran go and La P1 at a Coun ty Col or ado i s pr esen t ed. Sec tier. Ill reports the results of ZHAs analysis of the hotel market. The retail market reconnaissance findings are contained in Section IV. In Section V, the results of the office market
reconnaissance are detailed.
CONTENTS
I. I n t r o d u c t i o n
II. General Economic Overview
A. Gen er a1 Common i t y Pr of i1e
B. Population
C. Employment
D. Income
E. Const r uc t ion
F. Transportation
G. Educat i on/Med i ca1 Fac iIit i es
H. Recreationai/Cultural FaciIities
III. Hotel Market Reconnaissance
A. Introduction
B. Supply Characteristics
C. Demand Characteristics
IV Ret a j. 1 M a r k e t R e c o n n a i s s a n c e
A. Mar ket Area Ident i f :i. c at i on
B. Market Supply Characteristics
C. D e m a n d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
V. Office Mark et Reconnai ssan c e
A. Market Area Identification
B. Supp i y Char acteri stics
C. Dsman d Char ac t eri st ic s


TAB Lb.
.1ST OF TABLES
i
4
D
7
S
10 11 12
14
Characteristics o-f the Resident D u r a n g cj L- o 1 o r a d o
Population Characteristics. Age 1970 to 1980, Durango, Colorado
8 r o w t h o -f N o n -- A g r i c u 11 u r a 1 Wage Employment, La Plata County
List o-f Major Employers by Type,
Col orado
Employment in Seasonal Industries, 1981 Our ango, Co1 or ado
U n e m p 1 o y m e n t R a t e s, L a P1 a t a C o u n t y
Employment. in Downtown Area by Type 1980, Durango, Colorado
Per Capita Personal Income La Plata County and the State o-f Colorado
Building Permit Data, City o-f Durango and La Plata County, Colorado
F'opul at i on,
Qistri but ion,
and Salary 19 81 D u r a n g o,
Downtown Durango Deve1opment Act i vi t i es 1930, Durango, Colorado
PI anned/Prcposed F'roj ects Colorado
Type Durango,
Characteristics of Air and Transportation, Durango, Colorado
Highway
Summary o-f Competitive Lodging Durango, Co1 or ado
F'ropert i es
Summary
Segment
Durango,
o-f Current Market Demand in Competitive Lodging Colorado
by Market Props erti es,
Projected Fi rst-C1 ass Roomn i ght D u r a n g o, C o 1 o r a d o
15
Demand Growth


GENERAL ECONOMIC OVERVIEW
The contents of this section provide a general description of economic activities in Durango by detailing a number of relevant d emogr ap h i c, ec on o in i c an d o t h er c h ar a c t er i st i c s o f t h e 1 oc a 1 area. These findings are designed to provide the necessary background for understanding market forces affecting economic cond i t i on s i n Dur an g o.
The following economic base indicators were reviewed as part of the analysis; a general description of the historical and geographic context of Durangos development; a review of population trends and characteristics; a detailed look at employment characteristics in the community; an income profile; resi denti a1 and commerci a1 constructi on acti v i t i es i n the genera1 area; transportation services; the availability of educational/ medical facilities; and, the nature of recreational and cultural acti vi t.i es.
GENERAL COMMUNITY PROFILE
Durango was founded in 1880 and incorporated in 1881 as a trading center to serve the nearby mines, ranges and farms in southwestern Colorado. Population growth since that time has been steady but slow due to its isolation from larger population centers and trade routes. However, this area of Colorado historically has been one of the most popular summer tourist areas in the state and is close to several major alpine skiing facilities (within 25 miles of three major facilities) and within 50 miles of five major cross-country skiing facilities (within 12 mi 1es of three major f aci1i t i es5.
Mesa Verde National Park, the home of ancient American Indian cliff dwellings, is located 36 miles west of Durango. In 1980, over 541,000 visitors came to the Mesa Verde National Park. Significantly, the federal government owns over 30 percent of the land in Lai Plata County (San Juan National Forest); therefore, federal policies have a significant effect on land use in the county.
As indicated earlier, Durango lies in close proximity to several ski areas. The major ski area, Purgatory Ski Resort, is located approximately 25 miles north of Durango and has grown in skier visits at an annual rate of 16 percent since 1981. In 1981, approximately 177,000 skiers visited Purgatory, making it the tenth largest ski resort in Colorado. Purgatory has agressive expansion plans which call for tripling the current lift capacity of 3,750 skiers per hour within the next ten years. In addition to expanding lift capactiy, Purgatorys plans also call for the development of a base village including condominiums and hotels (future), and the addition of snowmaking equipment. The first phase of the expansion plain calls for the addition of a high-speed triple lift, construction of a mountain restaurant and


snowmaking tor 20 percent, of the beginner runs.. The addition of snowmaking equipment should help protect Purgatory from low skier attendance during poor snow seasons.
Geographically, Durango is situated at the south end of the Animas Valiev at an elevation of 6,400 feet above sea level. Elevations increase rapidly immediately around Durango to approximately 9,400 feet. This setting provides the visitor a backdrop of vast natural beauty and stunning scenic vistas; h o w e v e r t h e t e r r a i n h a s p r e s e n t e d p h y s i c a 1 c o n s t r a i n t s t o development opportunities at the same time that it has generated significant amount of tourism-related employment in the area.
POPULATION
As shown in Table 1, the City of Durango has grown from approximately 7,500 persons in 1950 to approximately 11,700 p s r s o n s i n 1980, a 5 6 6 p e r c e n t c h a n g e d v e r t h e 3 0y e a r p e r i o d o r a n a n n u a 1 p e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e o f a p p r o x i m a t e 3. v 1,9 p e r c e n t. However, when viewing the last decade., La Plata County grew at a faster rate. Between 1970 to 1980. La Plata County grew by 6,000 p e rson s or app r oxi mat s1y 31.3 p er c ent. Dur ango on1y g r ew b y
approx i. matel Y 1,300 persons or 13 percent. Much of the growth in La Plata County has actually occurred in areas immediately
surrounding Durango but not within the city limits because the city's boundaries take in only approximately 3.4 square miles in the area. Significantly, nearly 78 percent of all La Plata County residents live in or near the City of Durango.
Due to national trends regarding decreasing household size, to the maturing by age group of current residents in Durango and to the influx of some young professionals into the area,
population/age characteristics have changed during 1970 to 1930. T a b 1 e 2 indie a t e s t h a t t h e p e r c: e n t a g e o f t o t a 3. p o p u 1 a t i o n i n t h e
0 to 15 age group declined by five percentage points during this
period while the 25 to 34 age group increased by eight percentage points during this period, thus making reasonable conclusions regarding changing age composition difficult. However, demographers in state agencies feel that the population of La Plata County could double by the year 2000 and most of this growth would occur in or nearby Durango.
EMPLOYMENT
T a h 1 e 3 r e p r e s e n t s t h e 1 e v e 1 s salary employment reported by the ai n i ng fram 1975 t o 19S0. e m p 1 o y m e n t i n t h e c o u n t y h a s
and Tr total 6,400 peri cd,
0 f n o na g r i c u 11 u r a 1 w a g e a n d State Division of Employment T h e s e f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t
1 n c r e a s e d f r o rn a p p r o x i m a t e 1 y
p e r s o n s t o a p p r o x i m ax t e 1 y 9,600 p e r s o n s o v e r t h e
o r ax p p r o x i m a t e 1 y 640 e rn p 1 o y e e s p e r y e a r .
fi veyear
Table 3 also shows that distribution of nonagricultural wag e a n d s a 1 ar y emp 1 o y m en t amon g s e v era! emp 1 oy men t c at. eqori e s.


TABLE 1
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESIDENT POPULATION ____________DURANGO, COLORADO_____________
1950 1960 1970 1980 Change: Number 1950-1980 Percent Change: Number 1970-1980 Percent
City of Durango 7,459 10,530 10,333 11,678 4,219 56.6% 1,345 13.0%
La Plata County, Colorado 14,880 19,225 19,199 25,199 10,319 69.3% 6,000 31.3%
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census; Zuchelli, Hunter & Associates, Inc.


TABLE 2
POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS AGE DISTRIBUTION 1S70 TO 1980 DURANGO, COLORADO
Age GrouD Percent 1970 of PoDulation 1980
0-15 31% 26%
16-24 17 19
25-34 10 18
35-44 11 11
45-54 11 9
55-64 10 9
65 and Over 10 8
100% 100%
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census; Zuchelli,
Hunter & Associates, Inc.


TABLE 3
GROWTH OF NON-AGRI CULTURAL RAGE AND SALARY ENrLOYMZNT LA PLATA COUNTY. COLORADO
1975
Number Percent of Total
Construction 191 3.0%
Yanufacturing 392 6.1
Transportation, Camnnications and Utilities 302 4.7
Knolesale/Retail Trade 1,616 25.3
Finance, Insurance and Real Estate 274 4.3
Services 1,626 25.4
Government 1,992 31.2
Total 6,393 100.0%
1978 1980
Number Percent of Total Number Percent of Total
621 7.0% 618 6.4%
559 6.3 484 5.1
502 5.7 492 5.1
2,264 25.6 2,580 26.9
401 4.5 462 4.8
2,451 27.8 2,702 23.2
2,036 23.1 2,254 23.5
3,834 100.0% 9,592 100.0%
Source: Colorado Division of Enplcyrent and Training; United Banks of Colorado; Zucbelli, Eunter & Associates, Lnc.


Employment in whol esal e/retai 1 trade, -f i nance/i nsurancs/real estate, and services registered steady gains during 1975-1990. Growth in these sectors of the economy are a direct result of the impact of tourism on La Plata Countys economy. Fluctuating changes in the number of employees in construction, manufacturi ng and transpartati on/communi cati on/uti1i t i es ref 1 set regi ona1 and nationa1 econcmi c condi t i ons.
Interesting 3. y, i ncreases i n pr i vatesector emp 1 oyment have not led directly to large increases in public employment (as a percentage of total employment). Since 1975, the percentage of total employment that is government employment has declined..
Table 4 supplies a list of major employers by type and number of employees. The largest private-sector employers include the Purgatory Ski Resort and the Tamarron Resort fac.i 1 ity. Tamarran, 1 ocated 20 mi 1 es north of Durango, has a number of restaurants and lounges and has a national reputation as a meeting/conference facility. Tamarron is a destination resort drawing tourists and meeting/conference attendees, offering guests swimming, golf, tennis and horseback-riding recreatianal opportuniti es.
The largest public employers include the City of Durango and the La Plata County School District. Others include Fort Lewis Col 1ege, an d t h e L a P1 a t a Coun t y Governmen t.
Table 5 highlights employment in seasonal industries in 1981 in Durango. Tourism generates the largest number of employees of all seasonal industries, accounting for approximatsly 2,300 employees in hotels, motels, restaurants, and eating and drinking establishments. Construction and logging/saw mill operations account for an additional 800 employees.
Table 6 shows the unemployment rates in La Plata County from 3.973 to 1982. During the 3.975 national recessionary period, the unemployment rate in La Plata County rose to 7.5 percent. Since t h a t t :i. m e p er i od, un t i 1 t h e e a r 1 y mon t h s o f t his yea r t h e unemployment rate has steadily declined. Recent figures indicate that in March, 1982 the unemployment rate in La Plata County rose 5.9 percent, which again reflects national recessionary trends in the economy. La Plata Countys unemployment rate historical 1y has been slightly less than the state average and, in March, 3.982, was approximately 0.2 percentage points less that the state average, thus supporting contentions that unemployment conditions in La Plata County are slightly less severe that statewide unemp1oym en t av erages.
Statistics supplied by Downtown Durango Development for a 212 acre portion of the city indicate that employment in the downtown area has increased from approximately 4,500 persons in 1980 to approximately 5,100 persons in 1981. The bulk of these increases were in the private sector (with significant gains registered in personal and business services) and federal govarnment emp 1 oyment, eat i ng/dr i n k i ng/ent.artai nment facilities,


TABLE 4
LIST OF MAJOR EMPLOYERS BY TYPE 19 SI
________DUPANGD, COLORADO_______
Number of
Enoloyer Tvoe of Erralovment Eirolovees
Private
Purgatory Ski Area Ski resort 450
(seasonal)
Tammaron Resort hctel/conference complex 450
New Strater Corporation Lodging & food services 140
The Durango Eerald Newspaper SO
San Juan Lumber Company Lumber 85
Durango & Silverton Narrow Steam railroad 80
Gauge Railroad
Public
City of Durango Public services 600 La Plata County School District Public school system 400 Fort Lewis College 4-year state-supported college 350 La Plata County Government Public services 210 San Juan National Forest Forest acnin is traticn 150 State Highway Department Highway construction & maintenance 125
Semi-Public
Mercy Hospital Medical facilities 290 La Plata Community Eospital Medical facilities 175 Mountain Bell Telephone Company Telephone services 100 La Plata Electric Association Utilities company 95
Hunter 5 Associates, Inc.
Source: United Barks of Colorado; Zuchelli,


TABLE 5
EMPLOYMENT IN SEASONAL INDUSTRIES
1981 DURANGO, COLORADO
Seasonal Industry Places of Emoloyment Number of Employees
Tourism Hotels, Motels & Restaurants Combined 1,500
Eating & Drinking Establishments 800
Construction All Phases 600
Logging & Sawmill Operations All Phases 200
Source: United Banks of Colorado; Zuchelli, Hunter &
Associates, Inc.


TABLE 6
UNEMPLOYMENT RATES LA PLATA COUNTY, COLORADO
Year Unenployment Rate
1973 5.2%
1974 5.2
1975 7.5
1976 5.7
1977 5.7
1978 4.7
1979 4.5
1980 4.6
1981 4.4
1982 (March) 5.9%
Source: Colorado Division of Employrent
and Training; Zuchelli, Hunter & Associates, Inc.


TABLE 7
EMPLOYMENT IN DOWNTOWN AREA BY TYPE DURANGO, COLORADO 1980
1980 1981
Federal Government 200.0 302.0
State Government 255.5 169.0
County Government 120.0 130.0
City Government 231.0 185.0
Other Government (e.g., School District) 17.0 86.0
Telephone Company 150.0 150.0
Gas Company 15.0 10.0
Electric Company 35.0
Other Utility Company 50.0 87.0
Banks & Savings & Loan Associations 197.5 215.0
Brokers & Other Financial Services 14.0 41.0
Corporate Offices 12.0 7.0
Retail Stores 1 ,111.5 948.0
Wholesale Trade Establishments - 121.0
Insurance Companies 61.0 65.0
Law, Accounting & Other Professional Firms 260.0 267.5
Newspapers & Other Media 79.0 85.5
Hotels & Motels 190.0 362.0
Institutions (Hospitals, Schools, 53.5 98.5
Non-Profit Organizations, etc.) Manufacturing 22.0 92.0
Miscellaneous Personal S Business Services 1 ,192.0 1,417.5
Other Firms & Agencies 255.0 227.0
Total Downtown Employment 4 ,521.0 5,066.0
Private 3 ,697.5 4,194.0
Public 823.5 872.0
Source: Downtown Durango Development; Zuchelli, Hunter & Associates, Inc.


a n d e s p e e: i a 11 y r e t. a :i. I H ac i lities c : a t e r i n g t. o t o u r i s t s a n d others
i n c: r ea ses i n d own t ow n siiip 1 ayment n e a r t h e b o a r d i n q p o i n t for th
successful Durango anc are predictab1e, i Si 1 verton N a r r o w G a u g e R a i 1 r o a d Compan


INCOME
Table 8 highlights changes in per capita personal income r e s u 1 i. i n g f r a rn t h e e m p 3. o y m e n t. o p p o r t u n i t i e s d e t a i 3. e d i n T a b 1 e s 3 to 7. Historically, per capita personal income in La FI ata County has lagged behind statewide averages by as much as 30 percent. However, the percentage change? in per capita income from 1975 to 1981 in La Plata County was slightly greater than t h a t e x p e r i e n c e d s t a t e w i d e.. T h e s e i n c r eases i n p e r c a pit a personal income are likely a direct result o-f increased tourist spending and industrial development, which generates new ernp 1 oyment opportuni t i es i n the county
T h e se r esi d ent i nc ome ch arac t er i st ic s h ave resu11 ed i n t h e location of three commercial banks, two savings and loans and one industrial bank in Durango- The three commercial banks had approximately $91.6 million in deposits in 1930, the two savings and loan associations $78.4 million in deposits in 1980 and the industrial bank $2.9 million in deposits in 1980.
CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY
Consistent with fluctuating regional and national economic: conditions in the late 1970's, construction activity in La Plata County and Durango has not been stable. As shown in Table 9, bui 1 di ng piermi t data tor both the countv and c i ty ref lect this general economic instability. Residential building permits in the C i ty of Dur anq o h avs c on sist en 11y d ecr e ased since 1977 ta 1931, as have commercial permits with the exception of 1931 when permits for the Durango Mall and the Centennial Shopping Center were issued. La Plata County, however, has experienced a general increase in the number of residential permits through 1980, with a decline experienced in 1981. Commercial building permits in the county have fluctuated but generally declined toward the end of the 1970s.
In the downtown Durango area in 1930 approximately $419,000 was spent on 50 renovation projects while approximately $165,000 was expended in various ways on 41 projects. These activities
i. n c 1 u d e b u i 1 d i n q alt e r a t i o n s, side w a 1 k s, s t o r e f r o n t c o n s t r u c t i o n s i g n age, ut i1i ty mod i f i cat i ons, and ot h er b ui1di ng ac t iv i t i es. Approximately $10,000 in public funds was expended on paving activities on Main Street during the same period. These f ina n c i a 1 in v e s t m e n t s a r e r e f 1 e c t e d i n t h e h i g h q u a 1 i t y n a t u r e o f building conditions along Main Street in the downtown area, an area characterized by both charm and ambience.
A major public works projects slated for the area could also af f ec t pr i v ate const r uct i on acti vicy. Th e An i mas L a P1 ata Water
Project involves creating two reservoirs, one covering 2,300 acres and the other covering 1,300 acres. Both reservoirs would be wi thi n the area surroundi nq Durango. The water captured wou1d go to agricultural and commercial users within 50 miles of Durango. If developed, the project would provide the water


TABLE 8
PER CAPITA PERSONAL INCOKE LA PLATA COUNTY AND TEE STATE 0? COLOP-ADO
Year La Plata County State of Colorado
1975 $4,324 $ 5,982
1976 4,616 6,504
1977 5,037 7,077
1978 5,844 7,945
1979 6,617 8,944
1980 7,378 10,053
1981 $7,479 S10,7 62
Percent Change, 73.0% 70.6%
1975-1981
Source: Colorado Division of Employment and Training; Zuchelli, Hunter & Associates, Inc.


TABLE 9
BUILDING PERMIT DATA
CITY OF DURANGO AND LA PLATA COUNTY, COLORADO
City of Durango La Pla ta County
Year Number Valuation* Number Valuation*
R e sidential Perm its
1977 55 $2.2 269
1973 39 1.6 323 -
1979 34 1.6 350 $10.5
1930 23 1.1 411 12.9
1931 * 17 $1.0 323 $12.7
C ommercial Perm! t s
1977 \ 22 $2.9 12
1973 19 2.1 25
1979 14 2.6 49 $3.7
1980 5 1.3 30 0.9
1981 9 $9.2 49 $1.7
* In millions of dollars.
Source: City of Durango and La Plata County public records?
Zuchelli, Hunter & Associates, Inc.


TABLE 10
DOWNTOWN DURANGO DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES
1930
DURANGO, COLORADO
New Construction Renovation
Type of Investment Number of Projects Total Costs Number of Proi ects Total Costs
Private 41 $164,709 50 $419,190
Public 1 $10,000
Source:
Downtown Durango Development; Associates, Inc.
Zuchelli, Hunter &


P1 at a
and affect private construction activity.. The Animas La Water Project involves creating two reservoirs, one covering 2,300 acres and the other covering 1,300 acres. Both reservoirs would be within the area surrounding Durango. The water captured would go to agricultural and commercial users within 50 miles of supply so that coal mining and power generating projects planned for the area could move ahead. If the project were developed it w o u Id g e ner a t e c ommer ci a 1 1odg in g d emand t h r aug haut t h e
d e v e I o p m e n t s t a g e a n d t o u r i s t ( r e c r e a t i o n a 1 ) d e m a n d u p o n completion. The Bureau of Reclamation estimates the project will draw 3,000 people to the area at the peak of construction. It would also allow water intensive commercial ventures to move ahead with development. With Department of Interior approval, work on this 490 million dollar (1981 constant dollar) project started in October, 1982 and will take 10 to 12 years to compIete.
Informal surveys conducted by ZHA with City Council members, as well as confidential interviews held by ZHA with key private-and public-sector individuals, yielded information contained in Table 11 regarding pi armed/proposed projects by type of project in the Durango area. These pianned/propcsed projects had the best possibility of going under construction in the near-term and the list represents mere 1 y a suinmat i on of o f tendi scussed
b us in ess deals (d ur i n g Ph ase II, with project construction on a further ascertained). G1 ven the
developers, property owners and
deal s.
and
g i vi
?n the
t h e p r c b a b i 1 i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d projectbyproject basis will general 1y opt i mist i c nature of others associated with proposed curr en t nat i ona 1 r ecessi onary
business
economic conditions, it is reasonable to conclude that many of the proposed construction projects listed in Table 11 will not take place. A more detailed examination of each of these types of development. are contained in Section III to VIII of this sect ion of th e t h esi s.
TRANSPORTATION
Durango is served by the nearby Durango/La Plata County Airport. Frontier Airlines and Aspen Airways have daily scheduled commercial flights and there are facilities for charter services and private aircraft. Pioneer Airways, however,
recently announced a cessation of services to Durango and the impact of this reduction in air service is not known at this time. The airport is approximate!y 18 miles from mid-town and approximately 20 minutes driving time.
As shown in Table 12, total airplane enplanements (boardings in Durango to other airports) was up in 1980 compared to 1972. In 1980 approximately 50,000 enplanements occurred at the airport compared to approximately18,000 in 1972. This represents a .180 percent increase in 1980 over 1972 enplanements. However, enplanements declined to approximately 44,900 in 1981 -
indication of the national recessionary economic conditions.
an


TABLE 11
PLAKNED/PROPOSED PROJECTS 3T- TYPE ______DURANGO, COLORADO AREA______
Type Number Units/SF
Hotel 535 new rooms
Meeting Facilities 950 banquet seats
Condominiums 1,430 condominium units
Cluster Homes 932 tovrhouse and other attached units
Single-Family 503 detached units
Apartments 440 units
Other Commercial/ Industrial New Renovated 30.000 square feet 63.000 square feet
Source: Zuchelli, Hunter & Associates, Inc.


TA3LE 12
CHARACTERISTICS OF AIR AND HIGHWAY TRANSPORTATION
DURANGO, COLORADO __________________
Air 1972 1980 1981 Percent Increase 1972-1980
Total Enplanements 17,842 49,961 44,884 180%
Hichwav Average Traffic Daily Counts Percent Increase
1974 1930 1974-1980
U.S. 160 West of Durango (near bridge) 6,150 7,150 16%
U.S. 160/550 Southeast 6,750 10,200 51%
of Durango
Source:
Airport Manager, La State Department of Associates, Inc.
Plata County Airport; Colorado Highways; Zuchelli, Hunter &


Located on US. Highway 160 and 550 and Colorado Highway 789, Durango has access to Traiiways Bus Service and Motor Freight transportation. As shown in table 12, increases in highway counts, in conjunction with the large percent increase in air passengers between 1972 and 1-980, suggests that, overall, the Durango area is attracting an increasing number of both commercial and tourist travelers each year.
EDUCATIONAL/MEDICAL FAC ILITIES
Fort Lewis College
a state-supported
o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n variet y of liberal an increase
The
in enrollment Mercy Medical C
.i s located i n D u r a n g o arts programs and since
in 1970
from 2,078
f our-year i nsti tut i on The college offers a 1970 has experienced to 3,110 i n 1979,
wh i 11
RECREATI0NAL/CULTURAL FACILITIE
to the Durango and Si 1ve w .i n t e r s k i e r s and o t h e r surrounding Durango can b boat i ng opportuni t i es, p Dam, Lemon Dam and the San camps such as Silverton. Indian ruins, may also be
Tit er i s an accredited p ri va t. e hi osp ital
ac credit ed public hospi ta 1 .
LI TIES
r ecreat i on al opportuni ti es are off sred
r t on Nar row Gauge Rai1 ro ad pas sen gers
V i si tor s to Durango. I n th e area
e found num erous hun t i n 9< f i sh i ng and
ar t i c u 1 a r 1 y at Lake Va 1 1 ec i to, Na vaj o
J uan Na t i on aI Forest. H i s t or i c mi n i n g
Te 11uri d e or Ouray, as we 11 as h i st or i c
vi si ted.
HOTEL MARKET RECONNAISSANCE
INTRODUCTION
r ac t. f or profes si ona1 serv i c es with the Ci t y of
f or ZHA to acc ess all av ai 1 abl e and pert i nent
1 s wh i ch define the nature size and proj ec t ed
r on t emp 1 ated d evelopment P r ojec t s i n Dur ango.
ual P rovi si on was a nor ma 1 proc edure i n ZHA
ZHA7s cont Durango called ex i sti ng sud i e performance of This contract contracts, which status of current project negotiations to ascertian likelihood of devslopornent but also the reliability ot h e r da t a u sed t o mak e decisions regard!ng
programming of these projects. ZHA7s contractual designed to avoid duplication of efforts where a analysis had already been completed so that ZHA did c I i e n t r e s o u r c: e s u n n e c e s s a r i 1 y, b u t r a t e r r
p e r ti n en t data an d analyses pr t avoid "reinventing the wheel."
required ZHA to delve deeply into the current
not only the of market and d e v e 1 o o p m e n t pr ovi sion was pr ofsssion a1 not expend v i ews existing and ;pared by other professionals to
ensuing
8 u s p e c t i n g t h a t
s o m e d e v e 1 o p m e n t d i s c u s s i o n s
were



regarding additional transient lodging -facilities (given the exceptionally high room occupancy levels being experienced by present hote 1 s f aund during ZHAs conf idential interviews in Durango), ZHA, in discussions with interested development
parti es,
was presented a hotel market study completed in April, 1932 regarding a proposed hotel facility in Durango. Rather than undertake a dup1i cat i ve hot.e1 mar ket ana1ysis, ZHA chose to examine the findings of the report produced by a highly respected and nationally recognized accounting firm to see if the conclusions and recommendations seemed reasonable and logical in light of current economic conditions.
In some instances, ZHA was able to revise and update the findings made by the nationally recognized firm due to changing economic conditions since the production of the reports however, the necessitated revisions were minor and the bulk of the published report was found very reliable. Extracts of portions of the market supply and demand documentation prepared by the recognized firm are included here, along with ZHAs comments and findings based upon the market data, ZHAs confidential interviews in Durango and ZHAs knowledge and experience of the hotel i ndustry.
SUPPLY CHARACTERISTIC3
The present supply of competitive lodging facilities in Durango is shown in Table 13. Because of these properties location, quality, amenities, rate structure and condition, the ten properties listed in Table 13 were considered facilities which would compete with any new hotel built in Durango. In total, these 722 guest rooms had an average annual occupancy of 33 percent in 1931 with an average rate per occupied room of $34.23.
The 1 ar gest of t he Durango hate1/motel pr oper t ies i nclude t he Iron Horse Resort and Conference Center, which apparently was experiencing some financial difficulties. It is felt that the quality of construction as well as the renovation and upkeep of this property has not been that associated with a firstclass property and the resulting below-average annual room occupancy rates and aboveaverage room rate per occupied room can be considered indicators of these conditions.
I
The next largest hotel property in Durango is the 139room Holiday Inn located close to the boarding point for the Durango and Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad and the retail core of the central business district. Due to its national affiliation, this property attracts a wide variety and large number of guests, has a higher than average occupancy and an average room rate which is lower than the market average.
1 ocat
have
The Quality Inn Summit is one of two primary competitors ed north of the city, is well maintained and is estimated to an average occupancey and an average room rate both slightly


TABLE 13
SUMMARY OF COMPETITIVE LODGING PROPERTIES ____________DURANGO, COLORADO____________
Estimated 1981
Number of Average* Occupancy _____________Facilities and Amenities
Property Guest Roans Rate Range Ranqe Restaurant Lounqe Pool Meetinq Room
Quality Inn Summit 95 $25-30 60-65% Yes Yes Yes Yes
Iron Horse Resort and
Conference Center 140 40-45 55-60 Yes Yes Yes Yes
Best Western-Mountain
Shadows 65 25-30 60-65 No No Yes No
landmark Motel 41 35-40 70-75 No No Yes No
Adobe Inn 25 30-35 75-80 No NO Yes No
Holiday Inn 139 25-30 70-75 Yes Yes No Yes
Strater Hotel 94 40-45 75-80 Yes Yes No Yes
Dest Western-General
Palmer House 35 40-45 75-00 No Yes No No
Travelodge 30 30-35 60-65 No NO Yes No
Best We3tern-Durngo ! Inn 50 25-30 60-65 Yes Yes Yes YC3
722 $34.25 60%
* Published rates may vary during the year.
Source: Laventhol and Ilorwath; Zuchelli, Hunter & Associates, Inc.


below the market area average. The restaurant and lounge in the Quality Inn has been described -as preferable by skiers because of its proximity to the? ski slopes as compared to the downtown hotel and motel facilities.
i he
-r com
S t r a t e r H o t e 1
i n
g o o d c on d i t i o n,
h a s no nati L cnai r r Ct T T 1 1 i at i on but
i i t h touri si :s and 0 0. H ent s a T h e
i s 1 ocated in the cen t er of the
and near ti ie boar d i ng po i n t for
i Ga uge Rai] Lroad, and i s e s t i mated
hotel ii
retail section of the downtown the Durango and Silverton Narro to have an annual occupancy and average room rate higher that the market average. The hotel also captures a significant amount of food, beverage and banquet business.
The Best Western Mountain Shadows is a 65-room located approximately 20 blocks north of the central di str i ct and retai1 area and offers transportati on to Purgatory ski area during the ski season. The 65-room has no restaurant and lounge and is estimated to have
annual occupancy and average r
;om
are d e j. o w t n e m a r k e r.
propert y business and from property both an average.
The 35room General Palmer House is located on Main Street next to the Durango and Silverton Narrow Gauge Train Station. The property is well maintained, is estimated to have an annual occupancy and average room rate which are above market a but has no lounge or restaurant facilities. However, located in close proximity to area restaurants and it'"s ISOOs atmosphere helps to establish it as one of Durangos landmarks.
/er ages, it is
shown in Table 11, there are 53b pianned/proposed hotel
. n
n
urango.
One project the Riverside project would
a p p r o x i m a t e 1 y 400 n e w r o o m s i n t o t h e mar k e t 3 i nc e the R i ver
J us
north of
rooms b r i n g t own.
cont.ai ned, three to fc project she room supply,
the city if evidence regarding firm business and financial commitments to proceed are provided by project developers due to both direct and indirect impacts of the large-scale planned unit development project on the city.
d e hoi be 1 pro j e r~ t would h e a sel f
t i ng / con f er ence esort wi th r do ffl r at e s
t s of t he comp e t i t. i vs ma r ket f th i s
i er ed P ar t of t h e future comp et i t j. ve
, th :L s P roj ect s h ouid be en ccur ag ed bv
Similarly, current expansion plans at the Tamarron Resort should not be considered part of the competitive room supply given its destinationresort status. Other less-specified plans for additional hotel room construction should also be dismissed at this time. Thus, in terms of the provision of market rate competitive rooms to the Durango market, there are no apparent commitments made at this time.
uEMhND CHmRhC i ur; j. aT ICS
x n
There are four major sources of transient roomnight demand Durango: commercial business travelers; group/convention


attendees; tourists; and skiers. Commercial business travelers include sales people,, government employees, manutacutursrs representatives and others who generate a major portion of demand Monday through Thursday except during the summer season.
G r oup/c on vent i on a11 en d ees u sua11y r equ ir e first c1 ass accommodations, proximity to transportation facilities, recreational and social facilities, meeting space and quality banquet facilities. Currently, hotel and motel operators in Durango typically try to shift requests for group functions in the summer into the spring or fall season since demand tends to be strongest during the summer season.
Tourists are usually more price conscious than commercial travelers and yet tend to be oriented to national chains. The primary concerns of hotel property developers catering to tourists include access and visibility from highway exchanges as well as other locational considerations.
Skier demand usually accounts for most room night stays during the holiday and ski season. Not only is proximity and ease of access to the ski area an important consideration but also the quality of food and beverage service is important.
Table 14 summarises the current market demand by market segment in competitive lodging facilities in Durango. Over half of the current roomnight demand is generated by tourists with skiers demanding slightly fewer rooms than commercial business travel. Group/convention attendees dominate the smallest portion of current market demand.
Projections for future roomnight demand may be based on several indicators. in the commercial market segment, increases in population, employment, effective buying income and retail sales (see Section IV) are indicators of growth. With the projected increase in ski-area capacity at the Purgatory Ski Resort, as well as growth in air and auto traffic, lift ticket sales and retail sales, increase roomnight demand from skiers will ensue.
With the overall increase in population and economic growth being experienced in the Southwestern United States, coupled with visitors at the Durango and Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad and the national parks in the area, an increase in hotel rooms by tourists is predicted. Also, if additional first-class meeting/confersnce facilities can be added in the market, it would be reasonable to assume that an increase in group/conference demand would ensue. However, since current facilities are limited, growth in this segment of the market should not be expected until larger banquet and meeting facilities are provided.
Table 15 reflects projected firstclass roomnight demand growth for each of these market segments from 19S4 to .1988. These projections assume conservative composite annual growth


TABLE 14
SUMMARY OF CURRENT MARKET DEMAND 3Y MARKET SEGMENT IN COMPETITIVE LODGING PROPERTIES ___________ DURANGO, COLORADO ____
Market Demand Estimated Roonnights of Demand, 1981 Percen
Ccrcsercial 39,800 21%
5fclr 33,300 13
Tourist 97,400 51
Crcup/Convent ion 18,500 10
Total 189,000 100%
Source: Laventhol and Horvath; Inc.
Zuchelli, Hunter S Associates,


TABLE 15
PROJECTED FIRST-CLASS ROOMNIGET DEMAND GROWTH ______________DURANGO, COLORADO_______________
Estimated Group/ Composite
Year Commercial Secrment Tourist Segment Skier Segment Conference Secment Total Annual Growth Rate
1984 53,900 174,500 39,300 25,200 292,900 7.5%
1985 57,000 188,000 41,300 26,900 313,200 6.9
1986 60,100 201,400 43,300 28,700 333,500 6.5
1987 63,200 214,800 45,300 30,500 353,800 6.1
1988 66,400 228,200 47,300 32,300 374,200 5.7%
Source: Laventhol & Horvath; Zucnelli, Hunter & Associates., Inc.


rates which actually decline overtime during this time period yet assume growth in absolute numbers and are based on historical
1 o d g i n g t r e n d s a n d e x p e c t e d d e v e 1 a p m e n t i n t h e are a..
Based on ZHAs review of published data and the
recommendations made by other market professionals, the following conclusions can be made. It appears that city and county economic and demographic characteristics, as well as the present and potential sources of lodging demand, could support an
additional 150 to 200 hotel rooms. This support assumes that projected average annual occupance rates of 66 to 76 percent is achievable during the first five years of operation.
To meet these occupancy levels, it is assumed that a national
af f i 1 i at i on
i
arranged, that the hotel will have
national reservations network and that the facility as a firstclass quality facility by competent managers. Theme restaurants and lounges should be assist in achieving these occupancey levels as well and banquet facilities capable of handling at a r s o n s. S e r v i c: e s s h o u 1 d include t r a n sport a t i o n
f h
iccess to a be operated professianal
proviasd
f n
H
areas and pro;-: i mi ty Durango.
as meeting minimum 300 o and from ski
ns location of the hotel should be withing close to the central business, district and retail area of
+.
Depending upon the exact location, visibility, and accessibility of the facility (and the other factors described above>, the property shou1d ach i eve certai n levels of penetration in each market segment of demand. Since an exact determination of these latter characteristics cannot be made at this writing, it is not possible to estimate percentages of capture for each market segmenthowever, market dam and exists for an additional 150 to 200 rooms in Durango which would be supported from a mixture of these patronage sources.


SIT
E CHARACTERISTIC


IDENTIFICATION OF SUBJECT PROPERTY
The property which is the subject of this report is located at the southwest corner of Main Avenue and 12th Street in Durango, Colorado- Presently, the property is a vacant lot (1257 200)- The site is presently under ownership and the owners aire anticipating construction of a complex which would offer a hotel and a small percentage of it to be office and/or retai1/commercial space. Plans under consideration are for a 3 story building with each level containing 25,000 square feet of gross area- The building will reflect contemporary design and should blend very well with the theme of downtown Durango. This property is legally described as follows: Lots 11, 12, and 13, 14 & 15, Block 80, City of Durango, La Plata County, Colorado.
NEIGHBORHOOD ANALYSIS AND DESCRIPTION
The subject property is located along the west side of Main Avenue, being situated near the north boundary of the main business district of Durango- The property is approximate!y three blocks north of the 100% location in Durango, considered to be the Ninth Street and Main Avenue-
The neighborhood is which the subject is located is bounded on the north by 14th Street ; on the south by 6 th Street; on the east by 2nd Avenue; and on the west by the Animas River. Land use immediately around the Subject Property includes the Durango Herald the local newspaper, City market the largest retail food outlet in Durango, and several retail and office buildings.
The nei ghborhood itself i s typi ca 11 y commerc i a 1 i n charactsr as there are many free-standing retail establishments along Main Avenue and Camino del Rio. The most predominate establishments include the Town Plaza (a shopping center located along the east side of Camino del Rio in the 1100 block), and the Main Avenue Shopping Mall (located in the 800 block on Main Avenue). The latter facility opened June 13, 1976, and presently is 100% occupied. The anchor stores of the Town Plaza Center include Montgomery Wards, TG&Y, and Kroegers. Other establishments along Camino del Rio include the Holiday Inn (a 200 unit motel), two lumber and hardware companies, a Gibsons Store, several automobile dealers, a Yellow Front Store and Sambos. In addition to these business establishments, several small retaxi I and service outlets are located along either side of Camino del Rio. Of course, along Main Avenue there are many small individual retail stores, restaurants and office type uses. Among these are the post office, hotels, banks and lounge operations. It should be noted that most of the downtown
mar ch ants have, over the y e a r s, m a 1 n t a i n e d attract!vs store
front s and also have tried 10 mai ntai n the i nt erior port i on s of
their i ndi vi dual bui1dings.
The Neighbo rhcod has, in the past several months, beg un to


receive attention. The Federal Office Building was completed this year and is now occupied by local government agencies (this building is located in the 700 block of Camino del Rio). In the past, McDonalds has opened and is engaging a good trade (this facility is located along the south side o-f Sixth Street between Main Avenue and Camino del Rio). The Plaza Lumber complex was remodeled and converted into an office building offering 21,000 square feet with 200 off-street parking spaces. This complex is located across from the Plaza Shopping Center on Camino del Rio.
Other real estate activity in the neighborhood includes the remodeling of several older buildings for retail and office space. The most obvious are the Kiva Bui 1 ding and the Sunburst. The Kiva Building is primarily office area and the latter building is retail space. The three local banks are also r emode1i n g and expan d i n g t h eir facilities. The F i r st Nat i on aI Bank is building a multistory complex along the south side of Ninth Street between Main Avenue and Camino del Rio. Also, the new Federal Post Office has been completed in the neighborhood.
Other development within the neighborhood includes at dinner theatre along Sixth Street just east of Main Avenue and plans are to construct office space above the Durango Locker Plant building and the Basin Reproduction building. Overall. the commercial development in the Neighborhood reflects average to good architectural design and average quality construction.
Access to the Neighborhood is considered excellent. As one enters Durango from the North (US Highway 550) access is by Main Avenue to 14th Street, where Camino del Rio veers off to the right, or west, and proceeds around the downtown area of Durango, Access to the neighborhood, form the east side of Durango is via US Highway 160 along Sixth Street. The access to the Neighborhood will be further enhanced when a portion of US 160-550 is re-routed along the Animas River to a point south of town which will, in effect, by-pass the present access along Sixth Street. When this project is completed, the major portion of the US 160550 traffic will be routed along Camino del Rio, which should cause property values along the thoroughfare to appreciate considerable. It should be pointed out that the southwest corner of Main Avenue and US Highway 550 (Camino del Rio) and 14th Street carries the highest traffic count in Durango, with an average weekly count of approximately 25,200 cars. This traffic count estimate was obtained from the Colorado State Department of Hi ghways
The roadways throughout the Neighborhood are paved and the general appearance of the area is good.
Another important factor, within the subject Neighborhood is that of the Rio Erande Rai1road rightofway. Approximate1y 1,250 tourists per day will pass to the west of the subject property during the summer months. This exposure is very important to the subject, expecially if the subject were to be utilized for a hotel/mixed use complex.


There are several parks and recreational -facilities within one mile o-f the subject property. The neighborhood is appr ox i mat e 1 y 977. bui 11-up wi th the va 1 ue t rend bei ng up Wi t h Durango experi enc ing a good and st eady growt h, coupled wi th its having a shortage o-f available land -for development purposes in the downtown district, the subject neighborhood should begin to receive more attention -for higher density commercial uses..
The subject property has an excel 1 ant location -for a H o t e 1 /' m i ;< e d c o m m e r c i a 1 use. T h e b u i 1 d i n g (u p o n c o m p 1 e t i o n ) w o u 1 d be within walking distance o-f the banks, the savings and loan institutions, county court house, and many of the attorneys offices. Also, the building will be situated close to the other principal specialty shops along Main Avenue, affording potentail c u s t o me r s e c e 11 e n t s h o p p i n g s e 1 sctio n w i t h in a r e 1 a t i v e .1 y c 1 o s e prox i mi ty,.
SUMMARY
The economic future of the Neighborhood looks good, with the are showing signs of future development.. New development, coupled with the rerouting of US Highway 160550 from the
present KIUP Radio Station along the Animas River, should also
improve the property appreciation in the area.
With the subject property having excellent visibility to t r a f f i c a p p r o a c h i n g f r o m b o t h t h e N o r t h a n d Scut h p 1 u s t h e
N e i g h b o r h o o d i t s e 1 f h a v i n g m a n y p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s, t h e r e a r e n o
adverse conditions which would affect property values in the subject neighborhood. For the highest and best use of the site, this neighborhood offers more and superior amenities than any other site in Durango.


NEIGHBORHGOD PHOTOGRAPH
CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT


Neighborhood Photograph -Please note the rerouting
Central or U. 5.
Business District, 160 U.S. 550
Durango,
I


NEIGHBQRHOOD PHOTOGRAPHS


VIEW NORTH FACING ANIMAS VALLEY WITH CITY PARK ON THE RIGHT
VIEW SOUTH
LOOKING TOWARD THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT


VIEW OF SITE ACROSS MAIN
AVENUE
EXISTING SITE TOPOGRAPHY


VIEW OF SITE FROM CITY PARK
BUILDINGS DIRECTLY ACROSS FROM HOTEL DURANGO ON MAIN AVENUE


SITE ANALYSIS
RHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
The subject site is rectangular in shape, having 125 feet of frontage along the west side of Main Avenue and extends west a distance of 200 feet along the south side of 12th Street, Also, the site has 125 feet of frontage along the east side of Narrow Gauge Avenue, The site contains 25,000 square feet, more or 1 ess
The site slopes to the northwest in the general direction of the Animas river, located 1,5 blocks to the west of the subject. The west half of the site is approximately 6 feet lower than the east half. The proposed building will contain two lower levels, therefore the site will require excavation, There is the remains of a basement (floor only) on the site- These improvements will be removed from the site, before any construction is started.
The site appears to have adequate drainage. No soil tests or borings have been furnished so far, however examination of surrounding land improvements revealed no soil conditions exist that will adversely affecting any improvements that will be made in the area.
The roadways adjoining the site have asphalt base in addition to Main Avenue, which is surfaced with asphalt also and is equipped with concrete curbs and gutters and sidewalks along both si des. As the subj ect bu.11 di ng is proposed to cover the entire site, there will be no off-street parking provided. A parking study was made in the surrounding area of the subject (t wo bloc k s> wh i ch r evea1ed t hat ap proxi mat e1y 1,000 p ark i n g stalls are available, within a reasonable walking distance of the subject property. There is very limited onsite parking provided in the Central Business District of Durango. However, traditionally people are accustomed to parking and walking several blocks in their everyday business activities as well as doing their shopping. The subject property here will provide two 1 eve1s of park i ng to hand1e i ts quota
Access and exposure will be excellent from Main Avenue and Camino del Rio to 12th Street, which will be the frontage street to the building.
UTILITIES
1
All normal utility services are available to the subject site and the utilities are adequate for the proposed use of the site. Rates are reasonable and not detrimental to any permitted use of the property.
Electrical
S u p p 1 i e d b y L a P1 a t a E1 e c t r i c


Gas Supplied by Peoples Natural Gas
Water Supplied by the City of Durango
Source; Animas S< Florida rivers Treatment Plant Capacity; 12 m i 11 i on g a .11 on s / d ay Average Consumption: 7.5 million gailons/day summer, and 3 m i 11 i o n g a 1 / d a y win t e r Primary Main 24"
Pressure 110 gravity feed PS I Storage Capacity 10. S million gal. Systems Looped
Sewer Supplied by the City o-f Durango
Treatment Plants Tricklingfi1 ter primary treatment Capacity 5 million gal/day Average load 3 million gal/day Community Service -- 100%
Telephone Supplied by Mountain Bell
Television (Cable) Supplied by Cable T.V.. o-f Durango
ZONING
The subject property is coned Cl, "Thoroughfare Commercial, under the zoning regulations of Durango, Colorado. The permitted uses under this zoning classification include: ambulance service; any use intended to provide amusement or entertainment; any use intended to provide health treatment; apparal and accessory store; appliance store; art gallery; bank; barber and beauty shop; bicycle store; book store; boat store; camera and photography supply store; candy, nut and confection store; delicatessen store; department store; dressmaking shops; drug store; dry good store; eating and drinking place; floral shops; gift, novelty or souvenir store; jewelry store; liquor store; sporting good store; tobacco store; toy store; variety
store; and/or any similar use which in the opinion of the commission and council is suited to this district and which is
preponderantly retail in nature.
Maximum Height: 70 feet, or 6 stories
Yard Requirements: None required
Off--Street Parking: None In the Cl and C2 Business
Districts, the off-street parking r equ i r emen t s shall not ap p1y i n blocks where they are built-up to an extent greater than 30%.
In reviewing the proposed use for the subject site, there are no deviations from the current zoning regulations of Durango, Co.


SUMMARY
After inspecting the subject site, the site represents a good location for the proposed use. It has good access and exposure form Main Avenue as well as from Camino del Rio, in addition to being located near the north periphery of the principle business district of Durango. The only negative factor t o many people wou 1 d b e t h e p ar k i n g s i t uat i on i n t h e i mmed i at e area of the property. However, as was previously stated, the majority of all business establishments in downtown Durango are faced with similar situations, whereas this property will provide its own parking in accordance with the number of guest rooms provided. Based on the preceding discussion, the subject site offers many good amenities which should assist in supporting the downt own busi ness commun i t y of Dur ango


f
SUBJECTS PHOTOGRAPHS


VIEW OF SITE FROM RAILROAD AVENUE
VIEW OF SITE FROM CORNER OF 12TH AND MAIN AVENUE


CLIMATE
PEECI F: IT AT I ON
The total annual precipitation is IS.59 inches.
Average precipitation per manth, in inches3
January 1.70
February 1.14
March 1.47
April 1.36
May 1.12
June .S3
July 1.. 35
August 2.43
September 1.59
October 1.94
November 1.11
Dec ember 2.00
The average number of days between killing -frost is 90 days.
The months beginning and terminating the period are June to September.
Average Daily Temperature;
Mean
January 26.4
February 31.2
March y.
Apr i 1 44.9
May o3. 3
June 61.2
July 63.0
August 66.3
September 53. 5
October 49.0
November 37. 1
December \P / n /
Annual average temperature:
46. 7


TRANSPORTATION
HirJ. i ns:
i. Locat ion of n earest airp or t ser ved by sch ed uIed
coninierc i al airlines is Durango/La Plata County Airport.
a. Distance in miles form mid-town is 16 miles.
b. Approximate driving time is 20 minutes.
c Shuttle service is available from some hotels and motels; and local taxi and limousine service is avai1able.
d. Car rental service is avialable form Hertz-Rent-A-Car, RentA-Wreck and Carroll Motors Car Rental.
e. Length of runway is 9,200 feet.
1) Al t i t ude 6,6S4 f eet..
2) Type of surface is asphalt.
3) Capacity of runway is 110,000 pounds.
f. Other airport facilities (navigational and service)
1) VOR, DME, IFR
2) Fuel, jet and 100 octane
3) Certified base operator
g Scheduled Airlines
1) Front i er Ai rlines
E i g ht i nc om i n g daily f 1 i gh t s Eight outgoing daily flights
2) R o c k y M o u n t a i n A i r w a y s
Two .i n coming d a i 1 y f 1 i gh t s Two outgoing daily flights
Blis Lines
1. Continental Trai1 ways 7 Arrivals daily
7 Departures daily
2. Express: Trail ways and UPS Local Transportation
1. A city shuttle bus line
2. Charter bus service is available from Active Cab Co., San Jut an Tours, and Trail ways.
3. Taxi service is available.


Motor
Fr e igh t C arr isrs
1N W. Transport
Transfer -facilities
Hame base; Denver
Dai1y and Saturday service
2. Rio 3rande Motorway T r a n s f e r F a c i 3. i ties Home bases Denver
Daily and Saturday service
3. Garrett Freighlines Transfer Facilities
H o m e b a s e s P o c a t e 11 a Daily and Saturday service
4. United Parcel Service Rai1 roads
1. Passenger service
a- DurangoSi 3.verton Narrow Gauge Railway Daily excursions yearround
2. Freight service
a. There is no rail freight servi ce.
Number of days to; AIR TRUCi
Chi cago i
Dai 1 as l xi
Denver 1 1
Salt Lake City l i
Kansas City l
Los Angeles l
G. Major Highways
1- Interstate US 160 US 550
Col" o 789'
3County
Over 1,000 miles of County roads. Approximate! miles are hard surfaced.


BUILDING CODES
1932 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
OCCUPANCY CLASS IFICAT 10NS
HOTEL:
RETAIL: RESTAURANT: PARKING GARAGE:
R1 B2 B-2 B-3
CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATIONS
HOTEL:
RETAIL:
RESTAURANT
I
II
III
PARKING GARAGE: II
ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA
AREAS OF BUILDINGS OVER ONE STORY The total combined -floor area for multistory buildings may be twice that permitted for one-story buildings, and the floor area of any single story shall not exceed that permitted for a one-story building.
BASEMENTS A basement need not be included in the total allowable area, provided such basement does not qualify as a story nor exceed the area permitted for a one-story building.
MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF BUILDINGS
The height of the building is the vertical distance above grade to the highest point of the structure. The measurement is taken from the highest ground surface within a five foot horizontal distance of the exterior wall of the building, when such ground surface is not more than 10 feet above grade. The maximum building height is unlimited.
The clear height of a parking tier shall be not less than 7
feet.
Structures with open sides three-fourths of building perimeter may be increased 1 tier in weight. Structures with sides open around entire building perimeter may be increased 1 tier in height.
Open parking garage constructed to height less than the maximum may have individual tier areas exceeding those otherwise permitted, provided the gross tier area of the structure does not exceed that permitted for the higher structure.


ROOM DIMENSIONS
CEILING HEIGHTS Habitable space shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches except otherwise permitted in this section. Kitchens, halls, bathrooms and toilet compartments may have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling. Where exposed beam ceiling members are spaced at less than 4S inches on center, ceiling height shall be measured to the bottom of these members. Where exposed beam ceiling members is not less than 7 feet above the f 1 oor.
If any room in any building has a sloping ceiling, the prescribed ceiling height for the room is required in only one half the area thereof. No portion of the room measuring less than 5 feet from the finished floor to the finished ceiling shall be included in any computation of the minimum area thereof.
FLOOR AREA Every dwelling unit shall have at least one room which shall have not less than 150 square feet of floor area. Other habitable rooms except kitchens shall have an area of not less than 70 square feet. Habitable rooms other than a kitchen
shal 1 be not less than 7 feet in any dimension.
FIRE RATINGS
than Occupancies 3000 square more feet than two of floor stories in height or area above the first having more story shal1
be not less than one-hour fire resistive construction throughout.
Storage or laundry rooms that are Occupancies that are used in common be from the rest of the building by not resistive occupancy separation.
within Group R, Division 1 tenants shal1 be separated less than one-hour fire-
Every hotel three stories or more in height or containing 20 or more guest rooms shall have an approved fire alarm system as specified in the Fire Code.
Every guest room in a hotel used for sleeping purposes shall be provided with smoke detectors conforming to U.B.C. Standard No. 43-6. In dwelling units, smoke detectors shall be mounted on the ceiling or wall at a point centrally located in the corridor or area giving access to rooms used for sleeping purposes.
EXIT FACILITIES
Every least one excape or provide a All
a minimum
sleeping room below the fourth story shall have at operable window or exterior door approved for emergency rescue. The units shall be operable from the inside to full clear opening without the use of separate tools, escape or rescue windows from sleeping rooms shall have net clear opening of 5.7 square feet. The minimum net


clear opening height dimension shall be 24 inches. The minimum net clear opening width dimension shall be 20 inches. Where windows are provided as a means of escape or rescue they shall have a finished sill height not more than 44 inches above the f1oor.
LIGHT. VENTILATION AND SANITATION
LIGHT AND VENTILATION All guest rooms shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an- area not less than one tenth of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 10 square feet. All bathrooms, water closet
compartments, laundry rooms and similar rooms shall be provided with natural ventilation by means of openable exterior openings with an area not less than one twentienth of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 1.5 square feet.
All guest rooms by means of openable than one twentieth of of 5 square feet.
shall be provided with exterior openings with the floor area of such
natural ventilation an area of not less rooms with a minimum
In lieu of required exterior openings for natural ventilation, a mechanical ventilating system may be provided. Such system shall be capable of providing two air changes per hour in all guest rooms. One fifth of the air supply shall be taken from the outside. In bathrooms, water closet compartments, laundry rooms and similar rooms a mechanical ventilation system connected directly to the outside, capable of providing five air changes per hour, shall be provided.
For the purpose of determining light and ventilation requirements, any room may be considered as a portion of an adjoining room when one half of the area of the common wail is open and unobstructed and provides an opening of not less than one tenth of the floor area of the interior room or 25 square feet, whichever is greater.
Required exterior openings for natural light and ventilation shall open directly onto a street or public alley or yard or court located on the same lot as the building.
SANITATION Every building shall be provided with at least one water closet. Every hotel or subdivision thereof where both sexes are accommodated shall contain at least two separate toilet facilities which are conspicuously identified for male or female use, each of which contains at least one water closet.
HEATING Every dwelling unit and guest room shall be provided with heating facilities capable of maintaining a room temperature of 70 degrees farenneit, at apoint 3 feet above the floor in all habitable rooms.


YARDS AND COURTS
YARDS Every yard shall be not less than 3 -feet in width -for one-story and two-story buildings. For buildings more than two stories in height, the minimum width o-f the yard shall be increased at the rate of 1 foot for each additional story. For buildings exceeding 14 stories in height, the required width of yard shall be computed on the basis of 14 stories.
COURTS Every court shall be not less than 3 feet in width. Courts having windows opeining on opposite sides shall be not less than 6 feet in width. Courts bounded on three or more sides by the walls of the building shall be not less than 10 feet high unless bounded on one end by a street or yard. For buildings more than two stories in height, the court shall be increased 1 foot in width and 2 feet in length for each additional story. For buildings exceeding 14 stories in height, the required dimensions shall be computed on the basis of 14 stories.
Adequate access shall be provided to the bottom of all courts for cleaning purposes. Every court more than two stories in height shall be provided with a horizontal air intake at the bottom not less than 10 square feet in area and leading to the exterior of the building unless abutting a yard or public space. The construction of the air intake shall be as required for the court walls of the building, but in no case shall be less than one-hour fire resistive.
ACCESS TO BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES
Buildings containing more than 20 guest rooms shall be accessible to the physically handicapped by a level entry, ramp or elevator. The number of guest rooms accessible to the
physically handicapped shall be not less than the following:
21 through 99 one unit
100 and over one, plus one for each additional 100 units
or fraction thereof
To determine the total number of accessible units, more than one structure on a building site shall be considered as one building. Habitable rooms, bathrooms, toilet compartments, halls and utility rooms in units that are required to be accessible to the physically handicapped shall be accessible by level floors, ramps or elevators, and doorways to such rooms shall have a clear unobstructed width of not less than 32 inches.
TYPE I FIRE RESISTIVE BUILDINGS
DEFINITION The structural elements in Type I fire -buildings shall be of steel, iron, concrete or masonry.
resi sti ve


Walls and permanent partitions shall be of noncombustible tire-resistive construction except that permanent nonbearing partitions o-f one-hour or two-hour fire resistive construction, which are not part of a shaft enclosure, may have fire-retardent treated wood within the assembly.
OPENINGS IN WALLS -All openings in exterior walls shall be protected by a fire assembly having a three-fourths-hour fire protection rating when they are less than 20 feet from an adjacent property line or the center line of a street or public space.
FL0QF;S Where wood sleepers are used for laying wood flooring on masonry pr concrete fire-resistive floors, the space between the floor slab and the underside of the wood flooring shall be filled with noncombustible material or fire-stopped in such a manner that there will be no open spaces under the flooring which will exceed 100 square feet in area and such space shall be filled solidly under all permanent partitions so that there is no communication under the flooring between adjoining rooms.
STAIF: CONSTRUCTION Stairs and stair platforms shall be constructed of reinforced concrete, iron or steel with treads and risers of concrete, iron, or steel. Brick, marble, tile or other hard noncombustible materials bay be used for the finish of such treads or risers.
ROOFS Roofs and their members other than the structural frame more than 25 feet above any floor, balcony or gallery may be of unprotected noncombustible materials.
AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM When provided, the automatic sprinkler system shall be designed using the parameters set forth in the U.B.C. Standard No. 3S-1 and the following: Shutoff valves and water flow device shall be provided for each floor. The sprinkler riser may be combined with the standpipe riser.
OCCUPANT LOAD
In determining occupant load, all portions of a building shall be presumed to be occupied at the-same time.
EXITS
EXITS REQUIRED Every building or usable portion thereof shall have at least one exit, not less than two exits and additional exists as required by this section,
For purposes of this section, basements and occupied roofs shall be provided with exits as required for stories.
The second story shall be provided with not less than two exits when the occupant load is 10 or more. Occupants on floors


above the second story and in basements shall have access to not less than two separate exits -from the -floor or basement. Every story or portion thereof having an occupant load of 501 to 1000 shall have not less than three exits. Every story or portion thereof having an occupant load of 1001 or more shall have not less than four exits. The number of exits required from any story of a building shall be determined by using the occupant load of that story plus the percentage of the occupant loads of floors which exit through the level under consideration as foilows:
1. Fifty percent of the occupant load in the first adjacent story above and the first adjacent story below, when a story below exits through the level under consi derati on.
Twenty-five percent of the occupant load in the story immediately beyond the first adjacent story.
WIDTH The total width of exits in feet shall be not less than the total occupant load served divided by 50. Such width of exits shall be divided approximately equally among the separate exits, The total exit width required from any story of a building shall be determined by using the occupant load of that story plus the percentages of the occupant loads of floors which exit throught the level under consideration as follows :
1. Fifty percent of the occupant load in the first adjacent story above the first adjacent story below, when a story below exits throught the level under consideration.
2. Twentyfive percent of the occupant load in the story of a building shall be maintained.
ARRANGEMENT OF EXITS If only two exits are required, they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served measured in a straight line between exits. When three or more exits are required, they shall be arranged a reasonable distance apart so that if one becomes blocked the others will be available.
DISTANCE TO EXITS The maximum distance to travel from any point to an exterior exit door, horizontal exit, exit passageway or an enclosed stairway in a building not equipped with an automatic sprinkler system throughout shall not exceed 150 feet, or 200 feet in a building equipped with an automatic sprinkler system throughout. These distances may be increased by 100 feet when the last 150 feet is within a corridor.
DOORS This section shall apply to every exit door serving an area having an occupant 1 Ocsd of 10 or more, or serving hazardous rooms or areas.


Exit doors shall swing in the direction o-f exit travel when serving any hazardous area or when serving an area having an occupant load o-f 50 or more.
Double-acting doors shall not be used as exits when any ot the following conditions exits:
1. The occupant load served by the door is 100 or more.
2. The door is part of a fire assembley.
3. The door is part of a smoke and draft control assembly.
4. Panic hardware is required or provided on the door.
A double-acting door shall be provided with a view panel of
not less than 200 square inches.
CORRIDORS AND EXTERIOR EXIT BALCONIES
This section shall apply to every corridor serving as a required exit for an occupant load of 10 or more.
WIDTH Every corridor serving an occupant load of 10 or more shall be not less than 44 inches in width. Regardless of the occupant load, corridors in Group R, Division 1 Occupancies shall have a minimum width of 36 inches.
HEIGHT Corridors shall have a clear height of not less than 7 feet measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling.
ACCESS When more than one exit is required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to go in either direction from any point in a corridor to a separate exit, except for dead ends not exceeding 20 feet in length.
STAIRWAYS
Every stairway having two or more risers serving any building or portion thereof shall conform to the requirements of this section.
WIDTH Stairways serving not less than 44 inches in load of 49 or less shall Private stairways serving be not less than 30 inches
an occupant load of 50 or more width. Stairways serving an be not less than 36 inches in an occupant load of less than in width.
shal1 be occupant wi dth. 10 shal1
RISE/RUN The rise of every step in a stairway shall be not less than 4 inches nor greater than 7.5 inches. Except as permitted, the run shall be not less than 10 inches as measured horizontally between the vertical plances of the furthermost projection of adjacent treads. The largest tread run within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than three-eighths of an inch. The greatest riser height within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than three-eighths of an inch.


LANDINGS Every landing shall have a dimension measured in the direction of travel equal to the width of the stairway. Such dimension need not exceed 4 feet when the stair has a straight run. A door swinging over the landing shall not reduce the width of the landing to less than one half its required width at any position in its swing nor by more than 7 inches when fully open.
E-iASENENT STAIRWAYS When a basement stairway and a stairway to an upper story terminate the same exit enclosure, an approved barrier shall be provided to prevent persons from continuing on into the basement.
DISTANCE BETWEEN LANDINGS There shall be not more than 12 feet vertically between landings.
HANDRAILS Staiways shall have handrails on each side, and every stairway required to be more than 88 inches in width shall be provided with not less than one intermediate handrail for each 88 inches of required width. Intermediate handrails shall be spaced approximately equally across with the entire width of the stai rway.
RAMPS
Ramps used as exits shall conform to the provisions of this sect i on.
WIDTH The width of ramps shall be as required for stairways.
SLOPE The slope to 12 horizontal, than 1 vertical to
of ramps shall be not steeper than 1 vertical The slope of other ramps shall not be steeper 8 hori zontal.
LANDINGS Ramps having slopes steeper than 1 vertical to 15 horizontal shall have landings at the top and bottom, and at least one intermediate landing shall be provided for each 5 feet of rise. Top landings and intermediate landings shall have a dimension measured in the direction of ramp run of not less than 5 feet. Landings at the bottom of ramps shall have a dimension in the direction or ramp run of not less than & feet.
Doors in any position shall not reduce the minimum dimension of the landing to less than 42 inches and shall not reduce the required width by more than 3.5 inches when fully opened.
HANDRAILS Ramps having slopes steeper than 1 vertical to 15 horizontal shall have handrails as required bor stairways, except that intermediate handrails shall not be required.


OPEN PARKING GARAGES
DEFINITIQN An open parking garage is structure of Type I or 11 construction which is open on two or more sides totaling not tess than 40 percent of the building perimeter and which is used exclusively for parking or storage of private pleasure cars. For a side to be considered open, the total area of openings distributed along the side shall be not less than 50% of the exterior area of the side at each tier. The area of openings may be reduced below the minimum 50% for 40% of the perimeter, provided the percentage of the preimeter in which the openings are contained is increased proportionately.
Qpen parking garages are further classified as ei access or mechanical-access. Ramp-access open parkin are those employing a series of continuously rising fl series of interconnecting ramps between floors permi movement of vehicles under their own power from and to level. Mechanical-access parking garages are those parking machines, lifts, elevators or other mechanic for vehicles moving from and to street level and in whi occupancy is prohibited above the street level.
ther rainp-g garages oors or a tting the the street employi ng al devices ch public
AREA AMD HEIGHT In structures having a spiral or sloping floor, the horizontal projection of structure at any cross section shall not exceed the allowable area per parking tier. In the case of a structure having a continuous spiral floor, each 9 feet a inches of height or portion therof shall be considered as a tier.
The clear height of a parking tier shall be not less than 7 feet, except that a lesser clear height may be permitted in mechanical access open parking garages when approved by the building official.
AREA AND HEIGHT INCREASES In structures with sides open three-fourths, the building perimeter may be increased 25 percent in area and one tier in height. Structures with sides open around the entire building perimeter may be increased 50 percent in area and one tier in height.
Open parking garages constructed to heights less than the maximum established may have individual tier areas exceeding those otherwise permitted, for the higher structure. At least three sides of each such larger tier shall have continuous horizontal openings not less than 30 inches in clear height extending for at least 80 percent of the length of the sides, and no part of such larger tier shall be more than 200 feet horizontally from such an opening. In addition, each such opening shall face a street or yard accessible to a street with a width of at least 30 feet for the full length of the opening, and standpipes shall be provided in each such tier.
Type II-0ne hour construction, with all sides open, unlimited in area when the height does nor exceed 75 feet, side to be considered open, the total area of openings al
may be For a ong the


side shall be not less than 50 percent of the exterior area of the side at each tier, and such openings shall be equally distributed along the length o-f the tier. All portions of tiers shall be within 200 feet horizontally from such openings.
STAIRS AND EXITS Where persons other than parking attendants are permitted, stairs and exits shall meet the requirements of Chapter 33, based on an occupant load of 200 square feet per occupant. Where no persons other than parking attendants are permitted there shall be not less than two stairs 3 feet wide. Lifts may be installed for use of employees only, provided they are completely enclosed by noncombustible materials.
ROOF DESIGN
Roofs shall sustain, within the stress limitations of this code, all "dead loads" plus unit "live loads." The live loads shell 1 be assumed to act vertically upon the area projected upon a horizontal plane.
DISTRIBUTION OF LOADS Where uniform roof loads are involved in the design of structural members arranged so as to create continuity, consideration may be limited to full dead loads on all spans in combination with full live loads on adjacent spans and on alternate spans.
UNBALANCED LOADING Unbalanced loads shall be used where such loading will result in larger members or connections. Trusses and arches shall be designed to resist the stresses caused by unit live loads on one half of the span if such loading results in reverse stresses, or stresses greater in any portion than the stresses produced by the required unit live load upon the entire span. For roofs whose structure is composed of a stressed shell, framed or solid, wherein stresses caused by any point loading are distributed throughout the area of the shell, the requirements for unbalanced unit live load design may be reduced 50 percent.
SNOW LOADS Potential accumulation of snow at valleys, parapets, roof structures and offsets in roofs of uneven con-figurations shall be considered. Where snow loads occur, the snow loads shall be determined by the building official.
Snow loads in excess of 20 pounds per square foot may be reduced for each degree of pitch over 20 degrees by R, as determined by the following formula:
Rs = S/40 -.5
where F;s = Snow load reduction in pounds per square foot per degree of pitch over 20 degrees.
S = Total snow load in pounds per square
foot.


WHERE INSTALLED An automatic sprinkler system shall be i nstal1ed:
1) In every story or basement of all buildings when the floor area exceeds 1500 square feet and there is not provided at least 20 square feet of opening entirely above the adjoining ground level in each 50 lineal feet or fraction thereof of exterior wall in the story or basement on at least one side of the building. Openings shall bave a minimum dimension of not less than 30 inches. Such openings shall be accessible to the fire department from the exterior and shall not be obstructed in a manner that fire fighting or rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior.
When openings in a story are provided on only one side and the opposite wall of such story is more than 75 feet from such openings, the story shall be provided with an approved automatic sprinkler system, or openings as specified above shall be provided on at least two sides of an exterior wall of the story.
If any portion of a basement is 75 feet from openings required in basement shall be provided with an sprinkler system.
located more than this section, the approved automatic
2) At the top of rubbish and linen chutes and in their terminal rooms. Chutes extending through three or more floors shall have additional sprinkler heads installed within such chutes at alternate floors. Sprinkler heads shall be accessible for servicing.
GROUP A OCCUPANCIES (nightclubs) An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in rooms primarily used for entertaining occupants who are drinking or dining and unseparated accessory uses where the total area of such unseparated rooms and assembly uses exceeds 5000 square feet. For uses to be considered as separated, the separation shall be not less than as required for a one-hour occupancy separation. The area of other uses shall be included unless separated by at least a one-hour occupancy separation.
BASEMENTS An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in basements classified as a Group A Occupancy when the basement is larger than 1500 square feet in floor area.
EXHIBITION AND DISPLAY ROOMS An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in Group A Occupancies which have more than 12,000 square feet of floor area which can be used for exhibition or display purposes.


HOTEL DURANGO PROGRAM
MAIN FLOOR AREA 7. OF TOTAL
RESTAURANT 5.234 3.76
SEATING 5,074
BUS 160
KITCHEN 3,675 2.64
COOKING 1,073
WAITRESS 236
PREPARATION 818
DISH 600
BREAKFAST CENTER 148
STORAGE 390
ADMINISTRATION 2,245 1.61
REGISTRATION 171
DIRECTORS OFFICE 290
CONFERENCE 504
MANAGEMENT OFFICE 800
LUGGAGE STORAGE 168
LOBBY 5.605 4.03
VESTIBULE 504
WAITING 1. 188
"MAINSPACE" 2,816
GALLERY 1,097
RETAIL 3, 180 2.28
SPACE 1 1,200
SPACE 2 1,980
RESTROOMS 504 0.36
MEN 252
WOMEN 252
LOUNGE 856 0.67
UPPER LEVEL GARAGE
EMPLOYEE CENTER 1,088 0.78
LINEN STORAGE 494 0.35
LOADING 684 0.49
LAUNDRY 220 0. 16
MECHANICAL 1,980 1.42
PARKING 19.042 13.68
LOWER LEVEL GARAGE
PARKING 22,924 16. 47
SUB-LEVEL GARAGE
PARKING 17,439 1 *> *=!?
HOTEL ROOMS
SINGLE-30 ROOMS Q 350 SF/ROOM
10,500 7.54
DOUBLE-84 ROOMS @ 350 SF/ROOM
29,400 21. 12
SUITE-6 ROOMS 900 SF/ROOM
5, 400 3. 88
TOTAL CIRCULATION 3,714 6. 26
TOTAL SQUARE FOOTAGE 139,184 100.007.


BUILDING DESIGN



HOTEL DURANGO
THESIS, SPRING 84
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO
DAVID MICHAEL GRANT


I4THST


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MAIN FLOOR PLAN
HOTEL DURANGO
scale l/8* f


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UPPER LEVEL GARAGE
HOTEL DURANGO
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HOTEL DURANGO scale l/8*r
LOWER LEVEL GARAGE
HOTEL DURANGO
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HOTEL DURANGO
CUT-AWAY SECTION


CONCLUSION
I
1
i
I
I
I


CONCLUSION
HOTEL DURANGO BRINGS BACK TRADITIONAL VALUES TO CONTEMPORARY DESIGN IN A HISTRORIC DISTRICT CONTEXT. THE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN STIMULATES NEW IDEAS WHILE CAPTURING THE IMAGINATION OF THE PUBLIC. THIS NEW VISION OF ARCHITECTURE HAS A DESIRE VISION TO CAPTURE THE OVERALL VISUAL IMPRESSION OF THE DURANGO STREETSCAPE. WHILE ACHIEVING ALL ITS OBJECTIONS IN AN ELEGANT WAY.
THE BUILDING IS DESIGNED WITH A SENSE OF POETRY, A QUIET BEAUTY THAT PRESENTS A FORM GROUNDED IN PAST ARCHITECTURAL TRADITION, YET MOVING VIBRANTLY FORWARD INTO THE FUTURE.
THE PHYSICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL PARAMETERS DEALT WITH PROTECTING THE VISUAL INTEGRITY OF THE HISTORIC DISTRICT BY DESIGNING A NEW BUILDING THAT IS COMPATIBLE WITH OLDER STRUCTURES. THE END RESULT IS A PRODUCT OF THE PAST. NOT A FALSE PRODUCT OF THE PAST.
THE FOCUS TOWARDS CENTRAL ISSUES FOR THE DESIGN CONCEPTS AND THE LANGUAGE USED TO DESCRIBE THE BUILDING ARE STRAIGHTFORWARD AND EASILY UNDERSTOOD BY THE GENERAL PUBLIC.
THE PROPORTIONS OF HE BUILDING ARE COMFORTABLE AT EACH LEVEL OF THE BUILDING, WHILE FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION IN EVERY ASPECT OF THE BUILDING DESIGN.
IN THE HISTORIC DISTRIC. THE DESTINCTION BETWEEN ALL PARTS OF THE BUILDING WERE MAINTAINED THUS ALLOWING FOR A CONTEMPORARY INTERPRETATION OF OUR HISTORIC PAST. THIS INTERPRETATION AS WELL AS THE TYPICAL DOMINANT ELEMENTS AND MATERIALS ESTABLISHES THE OVERALL PATTERN LANGUAGE OF BOTH INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR RELATIONSHIPS. THESE PATTERNS ARE MODEST INTRPRETATIONS, AS WITH JUXTAPOSED FACADE ELEMENTS THAT MAINTAIN VISUAL CONTINUITY, TO PRONOUNCE THE CONTEMPORARY PIECES IN THE FABRIC OF A HISTORIC SETTING. THE CONCLUSION HERE IS BASED ON THE LOCALIZED SITUATION, WITH FIRST PRIORITY TO DESIGN ISSUES THAT HOLD THE GREATEST IMPORTANCE.
THE ATRIUM IDEA USED IN HOTEL DURANGO IS A VERY OLD IDEA. IT HAS A 2000 YEAR HISTORY AS A GRAND ENTRANCE SPACE. FOCAL COURTYARD AND SHELTERED SEMI-PUBLIC AREA. THE MODERN INTERPRETATION APPLIED TO HOTEL DURANGO DEAL WITH THE ATRIUM URBANISTICALLY BY LETTING THE CITIES FABRIC AND SITE CONTEXT SUGGEST THE DESIREABLE OUTER ENVELOPE OF THE BUILDING AND LET THE ATRIUM BE A PUBLIC SPACE. CLIMATICALLY. THE HOTEL IS ARRANGED BY AN OUTER ENVELOPE AND INNER FABRIC TO BEST SERVE THE GUEST THROUGH NATURAL VENTILATION FIRST, AND THE REST TO BE PICKED UP BY PURCHASED ENERGY. KINETICALLY THE HOTEL ALLOWS PEOPLE TO MOVE INTO AND THROUGH THE BUILDING AS AN EXPERIENCE. SOCIALLY THE HOTEL GIVES THE PEOPLE A HEART AND FOCUS, THUS CREATING A SPACE FOR PEOPE TO APPRECIATE. COME TOGETHER AND ENJOY. GREEN PLANTS ARE A DEVELOPED PART OF THE SPACE AS THE MOST ACCEPTABLE BRIDGE BETWEEN TECHNOLOGICAL OBJECTIVITY OF THE BUILDING AND THE SUBJECTIVE NATURE OF THE PEOPLE. THE USE OF CULTURAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL INFLUENCES ANIMATE THE CONCEPT. WHILE THE JESTIVE ESSENCE OF THE CONCEPT NEGATE A STERILE ATRIA.
THESE PHYSICAL AS WELL AS PHILOSOPHICAL GOALS HERE SETFORTH ARE TO ACHIEVE THE ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE" AS THEORIZED BY SIR HENRY WOTTONS: FIRMNESS. COMMODITY S< DELIGHT. WITH THESE ACCOMPLISHED IN
THE PROPER WAY. HOTEL DURANGO IN 100 YEARS, WOULD MEAN MORE TO DURANGO, THAN THE STRATOR DOES TODAY!


BIBLIOGRAPHY


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Atkin, WiIlian W., Joan Adler. interiors Book of Restaurants, Whitney Library of Design, New York, 1960, 212 pps.
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BBC, Colorado Bank Data System, as published in The Denver Post, selected dates.
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Qi.lQ3§ti_i.ogi.cal_ Data Annual Summary,, Colorado £980. NCAA, Jan. 13, 1983, 19 pps.
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1103.1
"Colorado Tax Profile Study, 1980," Legislative Council, January 1981,
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Fenglsr, Max. BSeLaurant Architecture §0 Design. Books, New York, 1971, 176 pps.
universe
Friba, Louis E, ElLQ£LSL§!= 21 !dgte£ Design. The Archi tectural Press, London, 1974, 87 pps.
Goeldner, C.R., Ted Farnwell. Economic Analysis g£ North America. Business Research Division Graduate School o-f Business Administration, University o-f Colorado, Boulder, 1981, 136 pps.
Goeldner, C.F:., Karen Dicke. Co£orado Ski .Industry. Research Division Graduate School of
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