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THESIS PROPOSAL FOR THE ARTS AND TECHNOLOGY BUILDING *
"Without dreams, life would be very poor.
To Caridad and my family who have given me infinite support and encouragement throughout my architectural studies.
An Arts & Media Technology building proposed for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology located in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The College of Environmental Design, University of Colorado, as a final design requirement for the degree, Master of Architecture.
WILLIAM GORDON GREEN
TODAY'S DATE: August 11, 1980
APPROVED BY_: C. G. LONG
December 10. 1980
THESIS ADVISORY BOARD:
G. CROWELL FACULTY
C. NAGEL FACULTY
S. PEI ARCHITECT
J. PROSSER FACULTY
E. STERNBERG ARCHITECT
R.W. THOMPSON PLANNER MIT
G.K. VETTER FACULTY
Various faculty and student member of M.I.T. who will be occupying the Arts & Media Technology facility.
* M.I.T. History
GOALS & OBJECTIVES
* For Arts & Media Technology Building
* For Thesis
* Approach Proposed
* Site Context Location Description
* Building Context
* Relation to existing buildings
* Buildings to remain
* Building Heights
* Physical Analysis
* North and south corridor analysis
* Fire Safety Handicapped
* Electrical distribution
* Steam and chilled water distribution
* Landscaping Design Standards
* Existing Vistas
* Proposed vistas
* Paths, places, entry points
* Building material
* Roads, walks, plazas
* Benches and trash receptacles
* Utilization of outdoor spaces
* Physiographic Conditions
* Topographic situation
* Code Review
* Developmental Concept
* Developmental Potential Analysis
* Site Development and Evaluation
* Site and Land Use Calculations
* Grid Schemes
* Floor Planning Flexibility
* Design Modules
* Area Breakdowns
* Detailed Description
* Matrix and Bubble Diagrams
* Orgainizing Spacial Relationships
BIBLIOGRAPHY & INDEX
1. CITY OF CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS
2. M.I.T. CAMPUS PLAN
3. M.I.T. DEVELOPMENT DENSITY
4. BUILDING HEIGHTS
5. BUILDINGS TO REMAIN
6. CONTEXT & CIRCULATION
7. PEDESTRIAN SYSTEM
8. CORRIDOR ANALYSIS
9. TRAFFIC CIRCULATION
11. EXISTING SITE COVERAGE
13. EAST CAMPUS PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION PROPOSALS
14. CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA
16. EAST CAMPUS CORRIDOR EXTENSION
17. GRID ANALYSIS
18. SITE BOUNDRIES & CONTEXT
19. FLOOR PLANNING MODULE
20. BUILDING MODULE
The Arts and Media Technology Building is designed to house M.I.T's teaching, research and exhibition activities in the visual and media arts and advanced media technology fields. The new facility will provide 60, 065 net assignable square feet at a gross square foot area of 99,708 all of which will be built at one time.
The new building will provide exhibition galleries, laboratories, workshops, classrooms, and offices to be used for film, video, photography, graphics and electronic music. The program defines only those known requirements for the arts and media technology building to be housed in the the new facility. The architect should, however, give consideration to providing a flexible design to accomodate any future changes required in either the internal space arrangements or in the type and quantity of the services, or expansion of the building if this becomes necessary in the future.
The objectives in planning and organization of spaces, as well as the backround information, serve as suggested guidelines in developing the project. The program areas can be varied within a reasonable range to suite the planning module, or if it is necessary, ir order to accomodate the necessary persons, equipment, and functions. The design studies should reflect the functional needs regarding the relationships of spaces and equipment within the arts and media building as well as to address the psychological and aesthetic requirements inherent in this unique facility.
THE GROWTH OF VISUAL ARTS AT M.I.T.
Through the 1960's student response to the new programs in the Humanities grew despite early predictions that relatively few could find time for such work outside their professional areas. The annually increasing number of participants from every department in the Institute was only one sign of growth. Evidence abounds in the Institute's records of a plethora of proposals for workshops in photography and film, a laboratory
of city design, a studio for history and theory.
Further, and art commission, appointed in 1961 as an advisory group, directed the acquisition of contmeporary works of art for public spaces; a percentage-for-art program became Institute policy in 1968. The Student Art Association was formed in 1966. The same year, President Howard Johnson appointed a faculty committee on the visual arts to act as and advisory and coordinating body for the growing non-academic activities in the visual arts at M.I.T. Its responsibilities included overseeing and guiding the development of the permanent collection, administering the Hayden Gallery, initiating non-curricular lectures, symposia and workshops on issues of contemporary art and the environment.
In the outside world, student political unrest was spreading to harsh discontent with what one observer described as a linear third-person preparation for life in an intensely non-linear first-person world. Bastions of science and technology were perceiving the times moving away from them and acknowledging that the arts could be a new means of institutional survival. M.I.T.'s public image was particularly uncomfortable at the time M.I.T. was receiving some 70 percent of its operating income from the federal government, most of it through the Defense Department of defense-related industry.
To wed the new activites in the arts to Institute policy, M.I.T.
President Johnson in 1969 convened a group of distinguished humanists for a Commission for the Survey of the Arts. The Commission was asked by Johnson to help M.I.T. provide "opportunities for broader education for its students, and to study the role of the arts in future developments at M.I.T."
Following the report of the Commission which had determined that M.I.T.'s image of itself had definitely moved toward the humanistic and that its public image should reflect that change, the School of Architecture and Planning solicitied faculty papers on the general position of the arts at M.I.T. A faculty group for the existing visual arts cluster voiced their desires for a professional program, a team core-course approach to teaching, and audiences as a vital part of artistic effort. Subsequently, the School expanded the
exploration of modern visual media and of the relationship between visual art and science by building three new programs in the Department of Architecture, the Film/Video Section, the Visible Language Workshop, and Experimental Graphics laboratory, and the Creative Photopgraphy laboratory.
In addition, the new Architecture Machine Group expanded computer-based resources for designers and planners to explore the spatial environment.
The growth of the 1960's and 1970's was accompanied by the frenetic search for space. By 1973 a decade of activity in the arts showed that registration in visual design, photography, cinema, art history and architecture had more than quadrupled and the number of courses had tripled.
The largest percentage increases in Institute enrollment wer in the School of Architecture and Planning and theSchool of Humanities and Social Sciences. Also, increased numbers of students in science and engineering took arts and humanities as electives. Proposed futures for art at the Institute ranged from reshuffled tables of administration to relocated facilities specially adapted for an interactive program in the arts, media, and technology. Until the current plan refuted the idea of integration through dispersal.space planning for the arts was guided by a 1972 document on "Axioms for the Planning of Arts Facilities."
The consequent rising pressures on the facilities and staff, coupled with shared needs for equipment and substantial audience space, ultimately predominated over the earlier aversion to a centralized facility. The prevailing view conceded that A critical mass is needed to have effect. Collected and coordinated... we might be able to make more of an impact on ourselves and eventually on the Institute."
GOALS & OBJECTIVES
FOR ARTS & MEDIA TECHNOLOGY BUILDING
The Present Commitment:
As recently as eighteen months ago, plans for the Arts did not include Media Technology as such and did include a scheme for dispersing art activities to be engaged with as many communities at the Institute as possible. This has all changed.
The current commitment is for a central facility, with sophisticated and shared resources. In addition, Media Technology activities are seen as research-based programs with large amounts of external funding, patterned in the M.I.T. tradition of sponsored programs. However, rather than approaching the program as two endeavors, the proverbial Art and Technology dichotomy, current groups are seen as loose boundaries between disciplines, with varying degrees of practice and research. For example, Photography at one extreme has followed a tradition of excellence in photographic production, with comparatively little existing research. In contrast, Computer Graphics has been driven by large outside research contracts with little support for practicing artists to use existing resources. The hidden agenda of this program, by virtue of a shared facility, is for a rebalancing of our programs to address a more comprehensive curriculum and a broader research plan.
Two early programmatic notions, having to do with the architectural design of the new facility, are imporatnat. These are the notions of "workshop" and of "several public realms." The workshop idea is the more obvious; the facility should be, for the artist/primary user, a workshop. Since public exhibition and performance often play an essential role in the creative process for people in the arts and media, the exhibition and performance area must also be seen as workshop, manipul able by the primary users of the facilities complex. The idea of "several public realms" is more elusive. While the building complex should seem to be entirely a public realm, which accord with self-perceived use defintions. Thus, the building complex would ideally permit simultaneously different definitions by different definitions by different building users of what constitutes the public realm and of how the building can therefore legitimately be used.
Finally, the building should permit the primary users to define their areas as alternatively either workshop or public depending on what their intentions are at the time.
The new complex of buildings for Arts and Media Technology, located physically and symbolically at the heart of the new East Campus, will attempt to capture these ideas and will serve several disciplinary components.
The essential concept of the new facility is to house M.I.T.'s many teaching, research and exhibition activities in the visual and media arts.
Its distinguishing feature is the confluence of experimental art forms with technological achievement in communication, computation and image making.
Included in the program are gallery and presentation spaces, laboratories, studios, workshops, classrooms, offices, seminar and performance spaces.
The disciplinary components comprise film, videao, photography, graphics, environmental art, computer graphics and electronic music. These will be accompanied by two Institute-wide non-academic educational programs in exhibition and cable television.
The new facilities are designed to provide more than new and improved spaces for existing academic programs. The central aim is to build upon shared professional interests to create a many pronged but integrated teaching and research program based on recent advances in technology and addressed to new and emerging public needs. Combined, these new intellectual and physical resources will support a small, intensive graduate program, service general undergraduate needs, and maintain a large program of creative practices and research that is seen as aligned with the frontiers of such established industries as broadcasting, publishing, telecommunications, information processing, reproduction graphics, photography and film production.
The Exhibition Program, directed by the Committee on the Visual Arts, has two major functions: the acquisition and placement on the campus of art works in the M.I.T. Permanent Collection and the mounting of a series of
exhibitions. In addition, the List Student Loan Program and the Catherine N. Stratton Collection of Graphic Art provide students with works of art for their living spaces. A reference collection, including working drawings and plans, supports studies of the creative process.
M.I.T.'s Permanent Collection now comprises over 1000 works, including the major works of outdoor sculpture. Over the years the Haydem Gallery and Hayden Corridor Gallery have become a recognized center for shows of contemporary art, which are focused on innovative, experimental work by established as well as promising young artists of national and international fame. The gallery is open free-of-charge seven days a week and is visited annually by over 20,000 people from M.I.T. and the surrounding community.
Major exhibitions are accompanied by such educational materials as catalogues, brochures, video interviews, and wall text are reviewed regularly by local as well as national media. In order to underscore the specific qualities of individual artist's work, each exhibition entais a new in-
stallation design and a fresh configuration of interior walls. Professional exhibitions standards and procedures are maintained, and shows curated by CVA staff have traveled to other institutions.
The Environmental Art area of concentration results from the willingness of the artists at the Center for Advanced Visual Studies (CAVS) to share their experiences with students working towards related objectives. Among the primary fields of specific interest to CAVS are: environmental sculpture and painting and sculptural architecture of all scales; public leisure installations; celebrations; elemental, kinetic art, and easthetic/ psychological ecology.
Further disciplines of art and art research pursued by fellows of CAVS have become, consequently, and with increasing emphasis, developmental media work -- especially progressive video art -- and new forms of kinetic art, such as holography, laser research, and multi-modal performance.
The CAVS space in the new Arts and Media Technology Building will be devoted to Holography with Harriet Casdin-Si1ver as primary researcher.
Holography has developed as an important art and communications medium used as an art form, holographic movies, visual communications, and environmental installations.
Film and video at M.I.T. draw from a rich and distinguished tradition of documentary production. The experimental techniques and the range of subject matter, which characterize most work at the Film/Video department are rooted in cinema verite forms that emerged during the 1960's. Methods of spontaneous, unscripted moviemaking with a hand-held camera and sychronous sound remain at the focus of our teaching and practice. New approaches to social documentary and diary, experiments with film/video and performance along with the representation of physical space have extended that genre during the last ten years. Recently, the Film/Video department has engaged in interactive movies, which take advantage of new motion picture systems like the optical videodisc.
Interest in the new videodisc technology focuses on possibilities for improving subjects; and audience involvement in the creation and selection of visual programming. By revolutionizing the economics of reproduction and by liberating film and video displays from their one-way linear inertia, new systems like the videodisc may transform the way people acquire and look at motion pictures. Such interactive media require re-examination of traditional filmaking methods, development of new post-production techniques, and further research into digital video and computer retrieval.
The Film?Video department is equipped with sophisticated shooting and editing equipment in double system 16mm and super-8 film, in portable color and low-light black and white video. In addition, it has access to a cablecasting station, a color video studio, 2" video editing, film to video transfer, optical videodiscs, and computer resources for image processing and special effects.
Until recently, this area of concentration has been limited to the traditions of computer graphics. At this time it is expanded to include
other forms of communication which might be found at the human to
computer interface. This includes voice recognition and sythesis, eyetracking and body sensign, tactile interfaces, and large format graphic displays. A confluence is seen in the merging of previously spearate disciplines: computer graphics, image processing, and broadcast television, with a common denominator in digital television.
Directed by Nicholas Negroponte, this concentration is housed within the Architecture Machine Group, itself loosely tied to the Institute's Laboratory for Computer Science. It is heavily endowed with sponsored research and accordingly applicants are reviewed as potential research as-sitants with qualifications to engage in advanced computer programming, aspects of machine intelligence, and research into new qualities of computer interactions. Joint reseach with Film/Video has included personalized movies and maps; with Graphics it has included experiments in typography and the general theme of "books without pages."
The available facilites include six large mini-computers inter-connected by a sophisticated operating system. Interfaces include" four frame-buffer color displays, an octaphoic digital sound system, a voice recognizer, two voice sythesizers, and eyetracker, 2-D and 3-D digitizers, a so-called "media room," a dozen video disc players, and a full video sudio.
Photopraphy is a powerful basic element in contemporary visual communications. Understanding its complexity, force, and potential as a language and then personalizing it creatively is the central concern of photography at M.I.T. In addition to its graduate program, the Creative Photography Laboratory, directed by Starr Ockenga, currently serves about 150 undergraduates a year. The program is grounded in the solid tradition of the production and study of the silver print, the single photographic image. This continuing commitment, initiated by Minor White at M.I.T., has made the Laboratory a major Institute resource in creative image making for twelve years and a center of photographic activity in the Boston area.
Concurrent with this emphasis on still photography is faculty and student involvement in understanding and expanding photographic boundaries. This attitude fosters and supports the widest range of investigation and research into the photographic medium. Inter-disciplinary activities extending into other earner-produced activity, such as film, video, graphics, or computer graphics, involves the photography studen in a network of participation through all the visual studies.
The Creative Photography Gallery, an adjunct of the Laboratory, presents six professional and two student exhibitions each academic year. Student involvement is encouraged at all levels of the exhibition process.
The electronic revolution has broken traditional defintions of disciplines of photography, printmaking, graphic design, and graphic arts. Reproduction technologies and media proliferate and challenge personal and public print corminication modes.
The Visible Language Wordshop, directed by Muriel Cooper, is an interdisciplinary graphic laboratory, founded to respond to and to play an active part in these changes. The resources and the educational, professional, and research programs of the workshop have evolved out of such issues as: the effects of specialization on communication; the relation of image to words; the role of visual perception in communication; the aspect of quality in a user-based culture; and the relation of technology to art.
The workshop is committed to verbal and visual communication as information and as art. Emphasis is on the synthesis of the idea and its means of production, informed by both traditions and modern technology. The workshop environment functions as an interactive, hands-on tool in which mechanical, phot-mechanical, and electronic inputs and outputs may be used generatively. Print and Communication Graphics concers are expressed in workshop areas of Print, Photo, Computer, Electro, Media, and Typo Graphics.
An active research program is at the heart of the Visible Language Workshop. Research deals with the development and usage of word and image inputs, processing, and hard copy (print) outputs. Current projects include
a large, variable scale color plotter, a computer-controlled large-scale relief carving device, a large-scale electrographics printing device as well as experimental mixed media print and/or book publishing.
The Experimental Music Studio, directed by Barry Vercoe, supports the pioneering use of digital computers to produce new music for performance purposes and to explore creative uses of sound. Activities of the Studio include teaching and research as well as compostition.
The Studio has, over the past few years, developed a comprehensive system for composer-machine interaction through keyboard and optical terminals utilizing the natural tonal language of music. Two computers satisfy the computational needs of interactive music making.
The M.I.T. Studio is unique in that it permits man/machine interaction in natural musical modes. Using a specially developed score editor, the composer can communicate musiacian information to the computer via an organ-like keyboard. While doing this, he or she sees the information displayed in standard musical notation on a screen. The composer can create a large complex score, "scroll" a full-page display window over any part of this core, and make modifications along the way. Upon request, the computer system will synthesize and play back any segment of that score. It will also print copies of the score and parts for individual players.
Educational Video Resources:
Educational Video Resources (EVR), directed by Edwin Taylor, provides facilities, equipment, and advice to members of the M.I.T. community for educational, creative, scholarly, and research uses of video. Professors, students, staff, visiting fellows, and scholars from all parts of the Institute bring a wide variety of needs, from sudio productions to remote creative projects. EVR staff works regularly with members of the Center for Advanced Visual Studies, the Film/Video Section, the Exhibition Program, and the Architecture Machine Group.
Users have available a wide variety of studio, production, and editing
capabilities. A professional-format video facility, with studio cameras and two-inch tape recorders can be used to produce and edit programs that meet broadcast standards. The small-format video facility permits similar productions on half-inch tape or three-quarter inch cassette. An equipment library provides equipment for remote recording and playback of educational and cultural events, as well as for creative projects.
The services provided by Educational Video Resources are envisioned as widely as possible. Teachers, students, research workers, and creatores develop their ideas and products in the course of embodying it in the medium. In turn, the immense variety of users of Educational Video Resources allows it to act as a clearing house for ideas, techniques, and accumulated experience in what is effective for various purposes. All of these functions will be multiplied in theri effect in a facility where
tellectual proximity combine.
GOALS FOR THESIS
Architecture is a synthesis of ideas both real and imagined. The design for the M.I.T. Arts & Media Technology building will synthesize my concept of architecture in its marriage of art and technology which responds to the needs and expectations of the user and the society.
This, my final design at the University of Colorado will realize my abilities as philosopher, designer, technician and administrator while at the same time provide the point of departure for my professional career in architecture.
After having thoroughly analyzed all of the site and programmatic considerations called for by the university and occupants, I will translate the findings into a scheme which is responsive to the functional and psychological needs of the occupant, the university, and to the design philosophy of the architect.
VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM AMES STREET
VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM CENTRAL CORRIDOR
VIEW LOOKING NORTH FROM AMES STREET TOWARDS MUDD BUILDING
The East Campus Master Plan prepared by the Institute and the architects Gruzen & Partners Mitchell/Giurgola, includes the over all concept for development of this new area of the M.I.T. campus.
Included in this program section is the most pertinent information from the Master Plan and other sources for the design of the Arts and Media Technology Facility. The siting of this building and its relationship to existing and new buildings and to open spaces is a crucial part of the design.
Site Context Location Description:
The setting of the East Campus is heterogenous, consisting of a broad range of uses, building scales, and urban styles. At one corner ar the small-scale student apartments clustered around the President's house, and at another, the high office and residential towers around Kendall Square.
To the west is the Main Campus of M.I.T.; on the east side, Sloan and
Eastgate. Within the East Campus itself, the M.I.T. presence is concentrated
in two clusters (Webster, E-17-18-19). The northern edge of the Campus, one finds Main Street. Main Street, once a busy retail thoroughfare, now has only a handful of retail establishments. Kendall Square is a poor container of space, although the Kendall Square'Building has good potential and many attractive features. Its clock tower is a key focus of attention in the line formed by M.I.T.'s main corridor. The northern side of Main Street is about to undergo major development in accordance with the plan of the Cambridge Redevelopment Authority, with Boston Properties as the designated developer/ Thus is seems likely that this void will in time be filled by offices, commercial space and a hotel.
Main Street is also the location of the MBTA Red Line, with a stop at Kendall Square. The relocation of the Kendall Square headhouses of the MBTA will profoundly affect the development of Main Street as a focus for the expanded M.I.T., the climax of the M.I.T. central corridor, and as the central pivot for redevelopment across the street.
The East Campus plan is designed so that it can be developed in stages and adapted to future changing needs without weakening its design concept
for circulation patterns, open spaces and buildings. The first stage of development includes the Health Sciences and Health Services buildings with the Arts and Media Technology building to follow.
The East Campus Plan designated the southwesterly quadrant of the Ames, Amherst, Carleton Street block for the Arts Facilities. The area is now occupied by two academic buildings, E21 (Architecture and Film), and E10 (Psychology), and two buildings owned by M.I.T. and occupied by Polaroid.
The site, without compromising the foreground of the buildings for Health Sciences and Health Services, contains approximately 87,500 square feet of land which in turn could support Arts and Media Technology as well as all of the other Arts space requirements if desired.
The Arts and Media Technology Building should be designed in the context of the larger environment of the East Campus/Main Campus rather than as a single, individual facility.
There will be two types of buildings on the East Campus: general buildings and specialized buildings. General buildings will be designed to be adapted and modified for changing users, programs, equipment, circumstances, or demands. Withing a generalized building, departments will change, interdisciplinary groups will form or cease to exist, and boundaries will shift.
The building's structure, by size, partitioning system, utilities and circulation system must accommodate changing functions and user requirements. The design of these buildings should create a background for the special use buildings. The special use buildings are for a particular program and function which will not change significantly over time. Therefore, the design of the buildings can be unique in form providing variety and focal points for the East Campus: the Arts and Media Technology Building will be a special use building.
The height and placement of the East Campus buildings will not only continue the estabilished scale of the Main Campus but should enhance special views, patterns of light and shade, landmarks, circulation and activity.
The buildings will be in scale with the open landscape areas. The height of
most of the Institute buildings are relatively low, particularly when compared to the dimensions of the open space. These low buildings define the landscaped areas with vistas of both land and sky.
On the Main Campus the heights of the low rise buildings vary, but the lower buildings are on the southern river side of the campus and the taller buildings are on the nothern side. This progression from south to north, from lower to high buildings, not only emphasizes the perspective and aids in river views, but at the same time minimizes the areas of shade on the campus. This progression from low to high, from south to north, is continued in the East Campus site plan.
Typical Main Campus building heights are as follows:
Bldg. 1 53' Bldg. 2 53' Bldg.14 57'
Bldg. 3 67' Bldg. 6 65' Bldg.18 62'
Bldg. 36 115' Bldg. 38 - 88'
Bldg. 16 109' Bldg. 56 131' Bldg. 66 74'
On the East Campus only three existing buildings are scheduled to remain.
They are Building E40, The Kendall Building and Buildings E17, 18, & 19.
Again these buildings progress from a lower buildings progress from a lower building (E40 on the souther edge along Amherst Street to the higher buildings (E18 & 19) on the norther boundary, Main Street.
Kendall 45' (Approximate)
E17, 18, 19 73, 83'
The new general purpose buildings, Health Sciences and Health Services, The in height to street elevation from 93' to 44' with an English basement. The lower building is located towards the southern side of the site, Amherst Street and the higher building is located towards the northern side of the site, Main
The recommended heights for the East Campus buildings also take into consideration the scale relationship to two landmarks in the area the Kendall clock tower and the M.I.T. dome. By keeping the buildings low and placing them carefully, these two landmarks can be seen from several parts of the campus, thereby, acting as points of orientation for the visitor and providing continued pleasure for the occupants.
The following objectives in the design of the Arts and Media Technology Building should adhere to the following guidelines:
1. Integrate the open space plan with the pedestrian walkway system so that they reinforce each other, creating a chain of connected spaces.
2. Enhance open space by incorporating a sequence of views and vistas, such as river views which can be experienced by the moving observer.
3. Utilize open space to allow for the penetration of sunlight into built areas of the East Campus.
4. Open space should be used to define primary access points to the East Campus and to identify gateways.
5. Provide visual relief to the Main Street frontage. Open space can increase pedestrian accessibility to the East Campus where desirable.
6. Vary the scale, materials, location, design and amenitites of the open space so that a variety of activities, formal and informal, might occur. There should be active spaces and passive spaces,space for art works, for recreaation, for sitting, sunning, talking and observing.
7. Buildings should be physically conntected to extend the interior pedestrian walkways that link academic buildings on the Main Campus. These corridors should be characterized by stron design, for they are not just passage ways but places where intellectual interchange and contact occur. Attention should be give to lighting, display, amenities, color, texture, and accessories.
8. Buildings should be designed in the context of the larger environment of the East Campus/Main Campus rather than as single, individual facilities.
Buildings to Remain:
Based upon planning studies to date, three existing buildings have been determined to have long term utilization value within a development plan for the East Campus study area. These are the Ford/Mudd building (E17/18/19) at 325,000 g.s.f., the Webster building (E40) at 115,000 g.s.f., and the Kendall building (223-254 Main Street) at 90,000 g.s.f.
For purposes of developing the Plan for the East Campus, it can be assumed that all other existing buildigns in the study area can be removed. The fact that M.I.T. does not yet own every building in this area as well as the need to use other buildings temporarily for ongoing academic activity will, of course, require phasing plans for development.
Adjacent to the study area, existing academic buildings will be remaining. These include the East Campus dorms, Senior House, The President's House, Eastgate, Hermann, and Sloan. In addition, 100 Memorial Drive will remain as wel1.
The Red Line subway located beneath Main Street is a major arterial of the MBTA rapid transit system. It provides easy access to downtown Boston and will become an even more important part of the commuter transit system with its extension to Arlington during the next few years.
The design of the modernized Kendal1/M.I.T. Station will produce a longer, simpler, brighter, more legible station. A lengthened platform to accomodate six-car trains and re-organization of station access and circulation wll be accomplished. The station will be extended to the west toward the proposed Cambridge Center development and M.I.T.'s East Campus. The new headhouses will act as collectors and will anticipate and influence the new patterns of street level circulation.
The inbound headhouse is on the south side of Main Street, at the corner of Carleton Street, which will become a pedestrian street open only to service
and emergency vehicles. The headhouse has entries on the north and south, towards Kendall Square and M.I.T.
Pedestrian access between the Station and M.I.T. will be greatly enhanced by the proposed closing of Carleton Street to all but service and emergency vehicles. Carleton Street will serve as the pedestrian spine of M.I.T.'s East Campus and will be the pedestrian route between M.I.T. and the MBTA station. The proposed location of the inbound headhouse at the end of Carleton Street, actually in the street itself, will serve to orient pedestrian and establish a clear link between M.I.T. and the subway station. The location of the new headhouse in Carleton Street was determined after an examination of M.I.T.'s plans for its East Campus development in order to reinforce the flow of pedestrian traffic through the Health Science building, continuing on to the Arts and Media Technology building and then into the Main Campus.
The pedestrian circulation system should strenghten the parallel circulation systems that exist on the Main Campus. The multiple objectives of this circulation pattern are connectivity, clarity directness, relationship to the existing principle indoor/outdoor circulation system, and the provision for boundary shifts of academic departments. Buildings will be physically connected by interior pedestrian corridors that join the main campus corridor system at all levels. In addition, the East Campus/ Main Campus relationship will be further strengthened by a series of interconnected walkways and open spaces which will form a design of pleasant, visual events as one moves across the campus during all seasons. The events that should occur both indoors and outdoors at strategic locations along the walkways can consis of pasive rest areas, exhibitions, public spaces and works of art, kiosks, telephone, recreation, etc.
Since all of the buildings on the East Campus should be interconnected, the floor height should be the same, or stairs and ramps must be designed for junction points. New East Campus Buildings are to have handicapped
access at grade level, though all of the existing buildings do not have grade level entries. One route of future interior pedestrian circulation between the East Campus and the Main Campus will be by an underground connection under Ames Street linking the Mudd building, building 66 and the new buildings to be developed on the East Campus. Above ground connections should be considered as well. Major pedestrian corridors should have views to the exterior, seating areas, exhibition surfaces and other features to make them pleasant places to be in and pass through.
The exterior circulation system should accomodate the east/west traffic flow between ithe East and Main Campus, to the MBTA and Kendall Square, to Eastgate and the Sloan School and to the Charles River. It should be integrated with the open spaces providing pedestrians with vistas and events as they move through the campus.
The primary circulation path between the Main and East Campus will be from the building 66 area into the new campus; the secondary path will be from the Walker Memorial area along Amhers Street to the Sloan School. Both the exterior and interior circulation paths should be clear and direct leading people to their destinations.
North and South Corridor Analysis:
North Corridor: The Norhtern system is a paved exterior on-grade pathway, having one ipajor green space (adjoining the Bush Building Arcade) and a second (the landscaped Compton Court). The north corridor is bridged twice; once at Building 24 and once at the Compton Laboratories. Here the corridor forms an outdoor link between the Alumni Swimming Pool, the Compton Labs and the Landau Building.
The general appearance of the "alley" is as a contained series of highly urban spaces. The horizontal facades bright metal, beige, and light colored brick bive it a strong direction aspect.
South Corridor: The South Corridor is a series of short narrow interior halls half level above grade, separated by grade level open courts and pedestrian walkways. Continuing across Killian, the south corridor re-enters as an in-
door corridor in Building 2, and passes numerous doors and entries, winds through a number of stair halls, elevator lobbies and glass enclosures to a long open walk to the intersection of Amherst Street and Ames Street in the east. A wide number of vistas are generated.
Landscaping, treetops and sculpture are also a part of this environment. The Calder Sculpture within McDermott Court is a major feature as is the view of the Green Building to the east. Amherst Street is a continuation of this system in the East Campus.
The East Campus Plan develops a "Gateway that creates a perceptible zone of transition from public spaces along Main Street to spaces intended for the Institute's activities. This will have convenient, all weather, accessibility to Kendall Square since the retail, housing and community services that develop there will be a positive attribut to the East Campus.
A gateway from the main campus into the new East CAmpus could also be developed to act a a visual symbol of entry.
This gateway must relate to the relocation of the MBTA station at the end of Carleton Street as well as being closely tied to the design of the Arts and Media Technology building which will occupy the land at the "gateway" to the East Campus.
City traffic will be along Memorial Drive, Ames Street, Wadsworth Street and Main Street. The Institute would prefer to minimize traffic on Ames and Wadsworth Streets, but this will need to be discussed further with the City in relation to its overall plans for Kendall Square.
Amherst Street is to be used for limited vehicular access to the East Campus buildings, 100 Memorial Drive, parking etc. Hayward Street will be eliminated and in the future Carleton Street might be eliminated except for emergency and services.
Greater use of bicycles is expected at M.I.T. in the years ahead as the
Service Tunnel ^Primary Service Yard
Secondary Service Yard
Vehicular Flow Service Access
Ambulance Service Primary Service Yard
Fire Fiqhtinq Access
campus grows. Therefore, bicycle storage should be provided as part of the general development. The design of streets, paths, curb cuts, etc. should minimize the danger to both cyclists and pedestrians.
There is an existing underground service corridor system on the Main Campus linking most of the buildings. The goal is to extend this to the East Campus and through all the new buildings. Therefore, the long range plan is for an underground connection beneath Ames Street connecting Building 66, the Mudd Building and the new buildings on the East Campus. There should also be underground access from the East Campus loading dock/service area to the Arts and Media Technology Building.
In addition to this underground pedestrian/service corridor, there will be service and delivery vehicles which must reach the exhibition galleries in the Arts and Media Technology Building, and careful considerarion of this must be given in order to avoid the creation of a major service area on the site. One possibility for this service entrance might come off of Amherst Street behind the building currently occupied by Polaroid and onto the site.
Parking will not be provided adjacent to the new Arts and Media Technology Building. Future parking will be provided on the Eastgate/Sloan School parking area. This parking facility shall conform to the requirements of the City, State codes and Federal EPA regulations, existing or currently under study. Parking will be eliminated from AMes, AMherst and Wadsworth Streets, while landscaping and pedestrian amenities are improved or added.
There are presently approximately 1150 off-street parking spaces available on or near the East Campus Site Area. Twenty-five percent of these, or 235 spaces, are located directly on the 14-acre project site of the Arts and Media Technology Building.
Existing spaces at Ford, Polaroid and the Garage must be relocated as development is implemented on the East Campus. In addition, new spaces will
be added to accommodate an increased demand in the vicinity of 1200 spaces. Parking alternatives are illustrated on the following pages.
Approximately 100 metered parking places now exist along Main Street, from Ames to Wadsworth Street. These are subject to change as planning options by M.I.T. and other agencies are implemented. About another 160 street spaces can be realized in the present limited or no parking area surrounding the East Campus Site, eight spaces of which are on Amhers Street, and are presently metered for two hour use. 55 spaces could possibly be utilized along Memorial Drive, where parking is not allowed from 7:00 AM to 10:00 AM, in an unmetered zone.
Graphically, traffic lanes and access directions are symbolized on the adjoining drawing by arrow heads, and roadway widths are labeled on each street.
Fire Safety Handicapped:
Circulation systems should be designed to facilitate accessibility of fire, ambulance, and police vehicles. Pedestrian paths and right-of-ways should be designed to accommodate fire vehicles whenever appropriate. Circulation for emergency vehicles must be short, direct, and easily perceived.
All circulation systems must meet State and Federal requirements for access to the handicapped. The Department of Health, Education and Welfare has issued a series of regulations designed to carry out Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which bans discrimination of people with physical disabilities. These regulations took effect in August 1977, and become part of these criteria.
Electrical service throughout M.I.T. is now distributed from Cambridge Electric via three metered substations. From these points, distribution within M.I.T. is via lead cables in underground duct system loops. On the East Campus, a duct spine runs down Amherst Street to Eastgate, and there is an
empty duct down Memorial Drive.
Both underground and above-grade distribution is utilized on East Campus. Existing small buildings are fed primarily by the latter aboveground system. As demolition continues throughout the area this system will continue to be dismantled.
Due to the complexity of the Arts and Media Technology Building with respect to electrical distribution throughout the building, service cores will play an extremely important part in the planning of interior spaces and will most certainly influence the design concept of the facility as a whole.
Steam and Chilled Water System:
This system generally parallels the existing electrical distribution network. Steam will be provided to the East Campus from the Central Power House via the recently purchased steam main connecting to Sloan. From this main distribution, network lines to individual building should run in trenches. Chilled water for East Campus was the subject of a study by Syska and Hennessy. This study recommended a separate East Campus Central System run by electricity rather than steam turbines.
Landscaping Design Standards:
Through its experience on the Main and West Campus, the Institute has been able to evaluate past experiences and begin to formulate overall standards for the landscape development of M.I.T. The architect should work within this framework when planning the Arts and Media Technology building of the new East Campus.
The Main Campus affords us many examples of the crucial relationship between building height and outdoor space. Though our climate is harsh,
and perhaps because of this, our experiences and sensations of these outdoor spaces are important to us. Killian Court and McDermott Court are enjoyed by the M.I.T. community and generally accepted as pleasant spaces.
Bosworth, the original architect of M.I.T., was trained in the Beaux Arts tradition and in Farance and, in fact, worked on the restoration of Versailles. Killian and McDermott Courts reflect his interests and are derived from the 17th and 18th century Italian and French Villa gardens, hese historical precedents are important beyond mere academic curiosity for they embody design principles which are also present in the outdoor spaces at M.I.T. and are appreciated by and appropriate to the Institute. Consequently, the tow main M.I.T. courts, Killian and McDermott, are not fully enclosed outdoor spaces.
The sense of vista is one of the overwhelming and dominant features of Killian and McDermott Courts. Certainly a view of the Charles River and the Boston shyline beyond helps to create this effect of space, but this sense of vista is also present at Eastman Court, Dresege Plaza and elswhere.
The quality of continuing space, of progressions toward infintiy, and of the sky are of paramount importance to this sense of vista at the Institute. M.I.T. is a city campus and, therefore, is particularly fortunate and unique in having this sense of space present within an urban context. Accordingly, this spatial quality or an appropriate form of it is continued in the new East Campus master plan and should be strengthened by the design and location of the Arts and Media Technology Building-
There are three areas on the East Campus which provide vistas and also link the Main and East Campus. The first vista is from Walker Memorial down Amherst Street to the Herman Building. This street will remain for limited vehicular access but will be enhanced with lighting, planting etc.
The second vista defines campus circulation and is potentially one of the most spectacular. From Ames Street there is a view into the Main Campus culminated by the M.I.T. dome. This vista should not be cut off by a new building, but should be lengthened and developed directly into the center of the East Campus. Accordingly the new East Campus is also given a sense of
vista connecting the East CAmpus to the center of the Main Campus.
The third vista would be to extend the East Campus out to the Charles River. This will be difficult to achieve because Senior House and particularly 100 Memorial Drive cut off the East Campus from the river, but minor vistas can be created between these buildings and across the tennis courts adjacent to the Walker Memorial building.
Paths, Places, Entry Points:
A system of paths, places and entry points will be developed linking the activities withing the East Campus and also to Kendall Square, Eastgate, the river and Main Campus.
Because of the New England weather and the functional requirements of the Institute, two types of circulation paths will be developed: one exterior and the other interior. The exterior paths should be integrated with the open spaces.
As discussed previously, some of the open spaces will provide long vistas. All sopen spaces should provide a variety of scale, materials, location, design and amenities so that a variety of activities migh occur.
Not only the use of these spaces but the views into them from adjacent buildings is very important. People spend long hours in their offices and laboratories and, therefore, the view of the outside world is important to them.
The paved exterior paths should be as direct as possible from one point to another. Experience demonstrates that people will make their own paths if not provided in the proper location. Nevertheless, the open spaces should not be over paved. Large paved areas tend to be too hot in the summer and too cold in the winter. In general, the open spaces should be "soft" to contrast with the hard buildings.
The entry points to the East Campus from the Main Campus and other Institute areas should be open and reinforce the interconnections. This sense of entry must be considered in both the design and placement of the Arts and Media Technology Building and its adjacent open spaces.
A vocabulary of building materials has developed for the Main and East Campus which the Institute wishes to continue in the design of buildings, walkways, fences, lighting and benches. It is recognized that variations are desirable, but these standards should be followed by the architect.
In general, two materials dominate the building facades of the Institute; red-brown brick, and warm beige concrete or limestone. On the West Campus brick is used for the residences and concrete is used for the common buildings. On the Main Campus the warm beige tone dominates on most buildings.
For the new East Campus the Institute wants to continue the use of these materials and colors. Due to the existing buildings to remain on the site and the M.I.T. buildings surrounding the site, the selection of exterior materials for new East Campus buildings is crucial in creating visual unity in this area. The selection of red-brown brick or warm beige concrete can not be random, but should produce a visual system related to function, sturcture and form. The specialized nature of this building might suggest the use of other building materials for expression of the building's form and special nature. This could be suggested by the architect for review and consideration by the client within the overall established guidelines.
As previously explained, the organization of the new East Campus is to consist of a series of linked linear general purpose buildings accented by several special purpose buildings. The selection of building materials should reinforce this concept. It should also be noted that the three existing buildings to remain (Mudd, Kendall and Webster) are red brick, the buildings defining the eastern end of the campus (Sloan, Herman, Eastgate) are beige concrete/brick, while the buildings fronting the river (Senior House, Presidents House, 100 Memorial Drive) are either red brick or beige concrete/brick/1imestone. Also, the new Health Sciences and Health Services Buildings will be predominantly of red brick.
Roads, Walks and Plazas:
All service roads and pedestrian paths must be able to withstand winter frost heaves, snow plowing and heavy trucks. Therefore, the campus service roads are bituminous concrete with concrete or granite curbs; minor pedestrian paths are also bituminous concrete; major pedestrian walkways and plazas are concrete or bituminous paving blocks on concrete.
In special areas where plowing is not mandatory bricks layed in sand, small paving blocks, cobble stones, etc. can be used.
The lighting fixtures are to be coordinated with the system for vehicular streets, and pedestrian paths, modes, and entry points developed on the East Campus.
Globe lights have been used on the Main Campus in the McDermott Court and along the two main pedestrian paths leading to the East Campus. Globe lights have also been used at the Herman and Sloan buildings.
The architect can suggest other types of exterior lighting fixtures for the Arts and Media Technology Building, but they must be compatable in design with the globe lights on the Main Campus.
Benches and Trash Receptacles:
The outdoor spaces are important since the East Campus area will be used throughout the summer by year-round M.I.T. students, faculty and staff. Therefore, quiet and more open sitting areas should be part of the landscaping system. For durability and appearance either concrete or wood benches should be used. M.I.T. in developing an organized system of outdoor seating prefers wood benches with backs since they have proven to be more comfortable and functional for all seasons.
At present few waste receptacles are provided on the campus; these should be included. Though as yet no design standard has been set, they should be compatible with other landscape elements.
Utilization of Outdoor Spaces:
For this Arts and Media Technolgy Building the outdoor spaces could be as important as the indoor spaces for events and installations. Some spaces around this building and on the roofs could be for temporary and semi-permanent sculptures and environments, indoor/outdoor performances, etc. However, the outdoor spaces are part of the total East Campus environment and displays must be appropriate to and enhance this total environment without distracting from the academic and research activities within adjacent buildings. The outdoor spaces used for exhibitions should be highly accessible to the public, yet subject to control and security when necessary.
The Institute has developed a substantial collection of sculpture and other art work and plans to add to this collection. These acquisitions and gifts represent one part of M.I.T.'s continued interest in the arts. Presently, sculptures are located at Westgate, Killian Court, McDermott Court,
Sian Building, near the swimming pool and elsewhere. The aim is not only to provide appropriate settings for the sculpture, but to enhance the open spaces with scale and focus through the use of outdoor art work. It should enhance and define the visual and spatial environment of circulation paths, rest areas and work spaces.
The use of roof top areas will be important to the Arts and Media Technology activities. Possilbe roof terrace use will include Natural Light Modulaing Studio for photography, Inflatables work area, Visual Design area, projection surfaces for film video and lasers., possibly in conjunction with live performance, and a satellite television antenna.
Like the rest of M.I.T. East Campus was formerly mudflats and tidal marshlands. Cambridge filled the Kendall Square area by 1870. When a sea wall embankment of the Charles River was completed at the turn of the century, the remainder of East Campus was filled. Early development saw the construct-
ion of wood and brick, light industry and storage facilities of less than four stories with a single basement. Gradually the area continue to develop with light industrial and commercial buildings. In 1910 the Charles River dam was completed and freight barge activity was terminated in the area. It was at this time that the subway tunnel was also constructed.
Water levels in the Basin are maintained at elevation 13.5 feet, Cambridge City Base, this being the midway mark between the original low and high water levels. High water mark occurred in August 1955 humrricane-17.5 feet.
The basic findings of the soils analysis, based on 48 abailable borings, are as follows: Miscellaneous fill varies in thickness from about five to sixteen feet below the surface elevation of about 21 feet; Organic silt and peat underlay the fill in depths of one to eleven feet; Outwash sand and gravel underlies the organic material in thicknesses of 0 to 12 feet. Next, Marine Clay ("Boston Blue Clay") lies beneath the outwash sand and gravel stratum; here thicknesses vary from 30 to 52 feet under Main Street. Glacial till underlies the clay in depths of 13 to 24 feet before the entire strata finally comes to rest upon bedrock. The bedrock is composed of sedimentary rock madeup of silt and clay particles. The elevation of the bedrock varies from -63 to -52 feet below Main Street.
The Boston climate is tempered by marine influences from the east. Normal temperature range between day and night is only about 20 F. Normal average for July is about 72 F with an expected maximum of 92 F. Normal January average is 28 F with a minimum of -10 F.
Microclimatic and day-to-day variations may be much greater than these figures suggest. The M.I.T. campus gets about 55% of the possible annual sunshine with slight yearly variations, but again, large month-to-month and day-to day variations have been recorded. Roof and wall temperatures may rise to
C I imatolog i cal Data Temperature
Average summer temperature-70 6F. Average -intar temperature-303F.
Mean number of days at minimum )2F. and below 99 days/year Mean number of days at QF. and below-I day/year
Mean n^atar of days at 90F, and above*
Average date of last occurring tprhng freeze-April 8
Average date of first autumn freeze* November 7
Approximately one out of every three days may have an uncomfortable tamper* ature range for pedestrians
Pretipi tat ion
Mean number of days with precipi tat ion of .01 inch or more-128 days/year Mean number of days with thunderstorms 19 days/ycar
Maximum rainfall In 2k hours*8.finches Normal yearly precipi tation*J2.52 inches Months with the highest of precipi-tat ion-November,December.March Mean number of days with snow or ice pellets-1.0 inch or more-ll days/year Maximum monthly snowf a I I ** I 3 inches (February,19$9)
Mean number of days witf heavy fog/ visibility 4 mile or'less-23 days/year Mean-128 days year-i.e. over I day on three may have uncomfortable atmosphere condit ions
Winter winds-predominately northwest Summer breezes-predominateIy southwest
160 F and have been subject to rapid changes of as much as 100 F.
The problem is further aggravated by freezing and thawing cycles which can be expected 80 times during a typical winter. Average depth of frost is 30" with an extreme of 60". Local practice places all sewer and water lines at least four feet below grade.
Prevailing winds are from the northwest in winter and from the southwest in the summer, again with short term variations in directional intensity often experienced. M.I.T. has experienced some difficulties from high wind and buffeting at building entrances. This problem should receive special attention.
Rainfall distribution is fairly even through the year. Annual precipitation is about 40", with the low of 27" and a high of 67". Annual sonowfall average 42". Recorded maximum is 96" and the minimum 9". Snow fall is highly variable as small changes in temperature will turn rain to snow, and vice versa.
The Cambridge Planning Board in its "Goals for a City Plan" published in 1965, designates the East Campus area for expansion within the M.I.T. educational complex. Article 5 of the recently amended zoning ordinance of the City of Cambridge spells out dimensional requirements for an Industry B district and the East Campus Plan shall adhere to the guidelines of this classification though it will be exempt from certain regulations as stated. Because the Arts and Media Technology Building has been zoned for Educational Purposes, unless explicitly stated to the contrary, all bulk, height, yard, lot area, setback, open space, parking and building coverage requirements shall be considered reasonable regulations under the guidelines set forth by the M.I.T. campus plan.
A summary of the applicable guidelines from article 5 are as follows:
-In the case of multiple buildings on a lot, the minimum distance between such buildings shall not be less than the sum of the heights of the buildings divided by six, or ten feet, whichever is greater.
-No application for a permit for the erection of a new building, the substantial alteration of an existing building, or the development of a land use shall be approved, unless it includes a plan for off-street loading facilities
A* amomii r*>ur, |). imi AranM to JAN 1979
Community Development Department 1979
required to comply with the regulations set forth in this Article.
-Off-street loading facilities shall be provided for the following specified use: Institutional and Research Laboratory (51,000 to 100,000 GSF): one bay required.
-Each required loading bay shall be no less than ten feet in width, thirty-five feet in lingth, and twelve feet in height, such requirements to be exclusive of drives and maneuvering space, and all required bays, drives and maneuvering space shall be located entirely on the lot with immediate and direct ingress to the building intednded to be served. All such facilities shall be designed with appropriate means of vehicular access to a street or alley as well as maneuvering area, and no driveways or curb cuts shall exceed twenty-five feet.
A summary of the UBC applicable to the Arts and Media Building are as follows: Uniform Building Code 1979 Edition
Occupancy Group: A-3 Occupant Load: See Table 33-A Exists Required:
Rooms: See Table 33-A
Floors: Minimum of 2 exists per floor; if occupant load is 500-999 3 are required; if load is 1000 or more, 4 are required.
Multiple storey exit determination: Use occupant load of that story plus 50% of adjacent storey above plus 25% Of next adjacent storey.
Width: Total width of exits is Total Occupant Load Minimum.
Arrangement of exits: Should be remote from each other, so that from any room, exits will be accessible in at least two directions.
Distance to exits: 150' maximum, unless the building has a sprinkler system;,then 200' maximum.
Exit doors: must swing in the direction of exit; 3'-0" x 6'-8" minimum.
Corridors: Width (unobstructed) 6'-0" in classroom corridors; 3'-8" in all others; 7'-0" clear height minimum. 20'-0" dead-end corridor limit.
stairs: 44" width minimum; 50" width minimum for classrooms; maximum rise 715", minumum run 10"; landings must be as deep as stair is wide; vertical distance between landings is 12'-6" maximum; above first floor, a 25" x 42" space must be provided in each stairway for a handicap refuge; handrails provided on both sides/
ramps: width is the same as with stairs; slope not to exceed 1:10 with 1:12 preferable; landings required for every 5'0" rise, must be 50" in direction of travel.
width: 3'-0" minimum if single loaded, 3'-6" if double loaded, distance to exit: 150' maximum.
aisle spacing: 59 seats/aisle maximum with aisles at both ends, 12 seats per aisle maximum with aisle at only one end.
seats: space of at least 12" from back of one seat to most forward projection of the seat behind it.
Toilets: See table 5-E.
MINIMUM PLUMBING FACILITIES
Typa of Budding Bathtubs | Drinking Service Sinks
or Occupancy Weter ClaocU Urinals Levator ice or Shuwers 1 Fountains or Floor Sinks
Male Female Fiatures/Pcrauna Fixlurei/Pereon* Fiaturea/Pcrsons Fixturex/Pereon* Fiiture/Fler
FI* Fixture* Poroono
3 1- SO 1 3 1 per 100*
3 SI.LOO 1 1 one additional for 1
4 101.200 2 4 each 200 persona
f 201 500 3 4
F 2 Futures Persona 1 1. it 1 per 100*
1 1. i> 2It- 3t |
3 14 3S 334- tO one additional for
3 34 St 4tl- 90 sach 200 persona
4 St 50 5III2S
1 111 160 1 (441 for each 4t
1 *441 for eeeh 40
C Um Requirement* for Typ* E Occupancy
H A 1 * 1 tor each 4wllin( or epert 1 for acR dwelling or 1 for such dwelling |
mentunit apartment unit or apartment unit
THE FICURES SHOWN ARE BASED UPON ONE FIXTURE BEINC THE MINIMUM REQUIRED FOR THE NUMBER OK PERSONS INDICATED OR ANY rH^v TION THEREOF
a For reateurenta, um requirements for F I occupancy.
* For dormitories. um requirements for O occupancy.
c Where alcoholic or mall beverage* are served, the requirement* fur Uulula an^ lavatories hull be doubled.
4 Whenever urinals are provided, ana water clou el leas than the number specified may be provided for each urinal installed, eicopt the number oi -*.r closets m such cases shall not be reduced to leas than two third* To the minimum specified.
Where food is consumed, water stations may be suLaUlulad for drinking fountains.
NOTE. See Che pier U Ter eccupenl lea da.
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
USE' MINIMUM OF TWO EXITS OTHER THAN ELEVATORS ARE REQUIREO WHERE NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS IS OVER SQUARE FEET PER OCCUPANT* ACCESS BY MEANS OF A RAMP OR AN ELEVATOR MUST BE PROVIDEO FOR THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED AS INDICATED1
17. Offices 30 100 Yes
18. School Shops and Vocational Rooms 50 50 Yes
19. Stores Retail Sales Rooms Basement 20 Yes
Ground Floor 50 30 Yes
Upper Floors 10 50 Yes
20. Warehouses 30 300 No
21. All Others 50 100
'Refer to Sections 3318 and 3319 for other specific requirements. 'Elevators shall not be construed as providing a required exit.
'Access to secondary areas on balconies or mezzanines may be by stairs only, except when such secondary areas contain the only available toilet facilities.
Reviewing stands, grandstands and bleachers need not comply.
Access to floors other than that closest to grade may be by stairs only, except when the only available toilet facilities are on other levels.
Access to floors other than that closest to grade and to garages used in connection with apartment houses may be by stairs only.
See Section 3302 for basement exit requirements.
*See Section 1213 for access to buildings and facilities in hotels and apartments.
This table shall not be used to determine working space requirements peT person.
According to Mr. Sandy Pei (project architect for the Arts & Media Technology Building) the cost estimates for the completed facility shall not exceed $125.- per finished square foot. This dollar amount has been accepted by the Trustees of M.I.T. and shall be considered as the final amount acceptable for construction.
After a thorough physical analysis of the contextural and site criteria has been completed, integration of conceptual planning of the M.I.T master plan with the existing physical context surrounding the proposed Arts and Media Technology Building needs to be determined.
Seven fundamental goals have been established in order to meet the needs of this integration of context and the master plan:
1. Interconnected Building System
Provide maximum interaction between departmental and functional units and Institute facilities, through a network of primary and secondary corridors and vertical connections.
2. Flexible Growth System
Accommodate change and department regrouping via a modular building system with the necessary flexibility that will also respond to phasing and land acquisition.
3. Pedestrian Circulation Links
a. Extend M.I.T. system and Main Campus corridors, with links to subway/Kenda11 Square, Sloan School and Eastgate.
b. Create a "sense of place."
c. Give clarity, directions, and provide perceptible zones of tans-
d. Create a clear definition of the outer boundaries of M.I.T. campus, while at the same time provide clear access from the outside.
4. Systems of Open Spaces
a. Relate to existing sequence and character of M.I.T. open spaces.
b. Provide comfort, relaxation, change of pace.
c. Provide views (sense of vista: dome, clock, tower, river...) orientation (to define primary access points), perspective, light (allow penetration of sunlight) and shadow.
d. Use landscaping to screen, shade, create wind barriers, shield service lanes, and facilitate maintenance.
e. Promote happenings, allow a variety of activities (identify areas of special opportunity for Art).
5. Adjacent Plans and Land Uses
a. Locate the Health Sciences/Health Services Complex in such a
way that 1. When completed they are representative of the intent of
the entire master plan.
2. Create continuity with existing campus
b. Locate the subway headhouses so that they consolidate the main north-south access from Main Street to the central corridor.
c. Set up a traffic system to reduce the activity on the roads surrounding the East Campus (Ames, Amherst, Wadsworth) and to facilitate service and maintenance.
d. Create physical corrections to Sloan and across (or under) Ames.
6. Infra Structure/Trafic/Services
a. Phasing of utility network.
b. Permit easy and economical distribution system to fit M.I.T.
c. Provide for diversion of regional traffic.
d. Fit into existing permanent utilities structures.
7. Grade Level Relationship
It was determined that it would be beneficial to develop the main building level one half story above grade for the following reasons:
a. To allow natural light into the half basement (sometimes referred to as the "english basement").
b. To keep basements and foundations above the high water table, reducing construction costs.
c. To connect to exiting East Campus structures with raised main
Development Potential Analysis:
The concept of this potential development of the East Campus is marked by a full east-west corridor. The most public-oriented functions, Public Events and Arts, form a pair along an east arcade that frames an Arts courtyard. This is completed to the west. Once again, Health Sciences and Health Services act as a pair to form the edge of a Life Sciences campus, which also
includes psychology and a central animal facility. This coverd or partially covered link further connects to the Main Campus to the west and crosses Ames Street with the Arts and Media Technology Building acting as the gateway to the East Campus. Existing street grids set the framework for the building sectors, and continue to separate the sectors; Life Sciences as distinct from Arts and Public Events and the Sloan Campus.
As this concept is characterized by a covered or partially covered pedestrian way that guides the East-West Campus pedestrian movement to Kendall Square, it acts as a direct, strong, clear extension of the central pedestrian spine going all the way to Massachusetts Avenue.
M.I.T. community wide services, lecture halls and public event activities would occur along the galleria and adjacent to the Arts & Media Technology Building and the Health Services facilty.
Site Development and Evaluation:
Characteristically, the oncept of the east-west corridor link exhibits a completed system of interconnections between existing and new programs.
This basic circulation, provides a flexible growth pattern within the overall plan context, and pedestrian circulation linkages are very good to MBTA and to Main Street. The planning of the Arts and Media Technology Building must emphasize this linkage. There is a clear, axial continuum to the M.I.T. Main Corridor and a strong sense of orientation for anyone walking the spine. This proposal suggest a strong solution for the integration of the Arts and Media Building into the East Campus as the gateway.
Circulation patterns are designed to meet M.I.T. requirements; grade level circulation throughout East Campus will perform public functions as in the Main Campus, containg offices, classrooms, reading rooms, certain labs and specialized spaces. Likewise, the "Galleria"spine proposed in this scheme is more than a circulation path, but a spatial and generator of open spaces as wel1.
Volumes of Movement
Site Area and Site Contour:
The boundries defining the Arts & Media Technology Building are quite flexible (See section on zoning). Building setbacks from Ames street, the Mudd Building to the north and the Psychology Building to the south are to be respected as part of the Eas Campus Master Plan and as an appropriate
response to the design concept for the Arts & Media Facility. The total
area designated for Arts & Media is 68,600 square feet with its boundaries illustrated on the following page.
The topography of the site is as follows: where Ames Street joins the main pedestrian corridor into the main campus the elevation is +20feet. The
site is totally flat. The main entrance into the Health Science Building is
at +26 feet owing to the the english basement which has been incorporated into its' design. As the connection between the Arts & Media Building and the Health Science Building is crucial to maintain the integrity of the master plan, careful consideration should be given to the implementation of the english basement in the Arts & Media Building and thereby adhering to +26 feet as the ground floor elevation for both facilities.
The physical neighborhoods surrounding the East Campus site are organized on tow distinct street grid systmes. The M.I.T. Main Campus is organized and constructed on a grid systme which is offset approximately 30 degrees from the established street grid of the sourrounding city. Because the East Campus site is the link between the Main Campus and the City of Cambridge to the east, its relationship to the two grids is a major issue in the planning of the Arts and Media Technology Building.
Alignment with the M.I.T. grid extends the existing Campus fabric into the East Campus, establishing continuity with Sloan, Eastgate and Amherst Street. As an expansion of an extablished planning system, this approach makes a clear statement of unity, continuity and clarity of academic purpose. Identification of the new development, including the Arts and Media Building with the other buildings is emphasized. Characteristic of this approach is an excellent opportunity for a strong movement axis through East Campus, origination in the Main Campus and terminating at Kendall Square with a major campus entry on Main Street.
Alignment with the City grid recognizes the influence and continuing
impact of Ames, CArleton and Wadsworth Streets on the East campus site. The proposed Kendall Square Redevelopment will reinforce the City grid and accentuate the surrounding relationships. Identification of the new M.I.T. development with the City grid is an opportunity to establish a distinct identity for the East Campus and, symbolically, open up the Campus to the neighborhood and to Main Street. Within the order of this approach, a sequence of major open spaces from Main Campus through East CAmpus would be possible. This approach would encourage a strong connection of new buildings to the Sloan School.
Orientation of the East Campus is not limited to either the M.I.T. grid or the City grid. The opportunity exists to encompass some aspects of each approach, making the East Campus a true link between the existing plan and the surrounding community. This combined approach, as well as the two direct approaches, are further analyzed in the design alternatives for the Arts and Media Building.
The Institute is constantly adapting to the needs of an evolving academic environment and an evolving society. The plan for the A ts and Media Technology Building should be designed so that its circulation, service/utility systems, and open space will be responsive to change. There must be the ability to adapt and modify to changing users and program requiements over time.
The Main Campus buildings utilize a modular building system that accomodates a variety of space arrangements.The functions of various university activities serve as the basis for various architectural conclusions:
1. The building depth, given the insistence on natural light, is relatively shallow (ranges of 58' to 72' were considered acceptable.)
2. The buildings are linear rather than centrifugal or centripetal. /)i Where naturl light might have been accommodated via an introverted unity, the / focus was instead on connectivity, lateral growith, pedestrian destination,
street-scape and orientation.
3. The fenestration maigh be construed as expressive of the orderly inside character, straightforward where genveralized internal space was concerned, responsive where appropriate for a specialized event.
4. The orintation, given the concern for sun protection, energy conservation, wind buffering, river views, sense of campus and geographic orientation inside the massing was to be clearcut along a north-south city river orientation.
5. Office space implication of various depths, as well as laboratory space implications were detailed again via this overlay method. Internal circulation route, characteristic of various configurations, were laid out and an overall spatial unit dimensioned (24'x20', 24'x28' and 26'x30l, etc.)
6. Entrances from outdoors are specialized events and to be treated as major places of assembly.
7. The difficulties in grade level connections with M.I.T. were to be eased via smooth, comprehensible movement between old and new.
Various schemes of existing modules in the Main Campus are illustrated and can be regarded as potential proto-types for the Arts and Media Technology Building.
1 MINUTE WALKING DISTANCE EMERGENCY EXIT DISTANCE STAIRVEIL/VERTICLE CIRCULATION INTERVAL FUNCTIONAL UNIT CASES
4. Regularity/Flexibility of Section
Two characteristics of the Institute are long life and change. Although the immediate known requirements for arts and media have been analyzed and scheduled in this program, it is not possible to forecast the needs beyond a decade. Therefore, although the facility must satisfy currently recognized needs, it should be flexible in character and sufficiently adaptable to allow for future changes and modifications as the need for this arises.
Internal space should be planned on an optimum module for offices, studios and laboratories, within the constraints of the building geometry, that will allow convenient space changes over time. Ducts, shafts and conduits for electrical, telephone, video and computer should be so arranged as to provide for easy conversion of space usage to that requiring more or different service.s Mechanical equipment planning should also take into account new service systems that might be added to existing ones if found necessary in the future. The architects are expected to investigate a layout of facilities which include in thier system, services and architectural elements that will provide specialized arts and media facilities with future flexibility, within the context of the requirements discussed in this section.
The design should allow for architectural and mechanical modifications to be made without undue cost and with a minimum of disruption to the user and the user's activities. Spatial usage and internal arrangements will need to adapt to many changes and a wide range of arts and media needs over the years.
A variety of new and unpredictable needs in the future will certainly require altered spatial dimensions and different use patterns.
Flexibility and adjustment require careful planning in this new facility to allow for:
* A variety of furniture and equipment layouts
* Adaptation of service systems to change in need
* The design of the spaces that adapt to multi-purpose uses, including internal partitioning
*Provision for fast and simple interconnect of areas in order to en-
* Provision as well for contract of areas and quick replacement of partitioning
Public and Semi-Public Spaces:
The public and semi-public spaces in the program for the Arts and Media Technology Building include the main exhibition galleries, reading room and active archives. It is important that these facilities are not only accessible, but encourage people to enter, experience, use and learn from the materials displayed in these areas.
General Exhibition Gallery:
The new gallery will fulfill the present fuction of M.I.T.'s Hayden Gallery with a series of seven annual exhibitions focusing on innovative work by new and extablished artists and architects of local and international significance. The emphasis will be on contemporary art exhibitions open to the M.I.T. community and geneeral public, thereby continuing to contribute to the contemporary cultural awareness in the New England area. Approximately 20,000 people, including school groups and art organizations, visit the gallery annually. During openings, between 200 and 400 people are to be accommodated without obstructing or damaging the exhibited art objects themselves.
Certainly, the display of the art objects is the most important and demanding requirement for this space. The vast array of sizes, shapes, materials and configurations of contemporary art, architecture and sculpture require a flexible space which can be arranged, lighted and shaped to complement and display each particular show.
Regional Consortium Teaching and Reference Gallery:
This gallery will house at. least two exhibitions per academic semester. These exhibitions will be on art and/or architecture and will be geared to
the teaching needs of the Institute's art theory courses and possible to those of a consortium of other local institutions. The displays will be used to establish a historical perspective for contemporary work. However, this could encompass as in the General Exhibition Gallery the great variety of sizes, shapes, materials and configurations of contemporary art, architecture and sculpture as well as the needs of historic art, architecture and sculpture. Consequently, the design requirements for this space are similar to the requirements outlined for the General Exhibition Gallery and should be adjacent to it.
Reading Room/Video Library:
This faciltiy should be a quiet, comfortable and attractive place for reading periodicals, and journals in photography, film, television, computers, graphics, art history and related subjects, for viewing video/film based images and listening to recordings. Another activity could be the sale and circulation of a small number of specialized books and catalogs.
This diversity of written, visual and audio materials requires viewing alcoves, headset stations and comfortable reading charis and study tables. Spatial arrangements in relation to light are of paramount importance due to this diversity. For example, light reflections on screens and disturbing flashing from screens should be avoided; natural light should be diminished in the viewing alcoves but is appropriate in the reading areas.
This storage area will be open by appointment to students and scholars from M.I.T. and other insitiutions. It will house paintings, paper and sculpture from the Institute's permanent collection, works from the student load programs, files, catalogs and works in need of restoring. The art works will be both stored and viewed by the students and scholars in this area. Therefore, sufficient space for these two functions should be provided.
Works -in Process Gallery:
This gallery will be used to display the working process and end pro-
ducts of the creative artist. It will be visited by the general public and students. These visits might be integrated with seminars, lectures and discussion groups held elsewhere in the building. Through this unique opportunity to visit the artist at work, one has the chance to examine and understand the complex technical and psychological process, the logical and illogical progression, the rational and intuitive choices of the creative process.
There will be one full time artist every four months aided by a part-time assistant and student apprentices. The emphasis is on productive work and public viewing of that work in process. It is not the intent that the flexible interior walls be used to isolate the work area from a display/ public area. These two functions should be integrated spatially.
The media gallery will be used for the present Creative Photography Laboratory exhibition program and for display of experimental graphic works. Also, experimental twoa dn three dimensional media work employing front and rear projection video, film, slides, laser, holography, computer, cable sound, etc. may be displayed within this gallery.
The variety of potential displays require not only flexibility but a sophisticated lighting and electrical system encompassing ceiling, walls and floor systems to accommodate the experimental media presentations.
The wall, ceiling, and floor systems need to be adaptive to the various angles and shapes which might be required for projected images on the walls, ceiling or floor. This does not necessarily imply totally moveable main walls, but it does demand, at the very least, that the exhibitors shoud be able to attach various screens, structures, equipment and other devices to all surfaces and to have several unique displays simultaneously.
Although this space is a media gallery emphasizing the creative use and control of technology from the camera'a finely ground lens to the computer's miniature circuit, natural, as well as artificial light is to be incorporated into this space. This natural light should be part of the flexible exhibition
systems using and controling the potential diversity of this natural power source.
The listening gallery provides the unique opportunity of displaying musical workds where people can come in and spend as much or as little time with each work as they wish in much the same way as people visit an art gallery displaying paintings. The aim is to create, or recreate large concert hall conditions on a schedule geared to private audition. The gallery would focus on, but not limit itself to, electronic and computer music, with exhibits being organized around workds of a particular composer or school of composers works using particular instruments, one-person shows, etc. The listening mode for this gallery is definitely not a series of earphones, which restrict and isolate the lesteners physically and sptially. A different piece of music will be playing in each room, enhanced and explained by various visual desplays such as descriptions of electronic sound structures and topography, video tapes of live performance, abstract colors and lights, etc. Certain presentations will be interactive, inducing audience contribution of various sound and gestural inputs as optional new materials in a computer processed experimental performance.
Experimental and Research Facilities:
This group includes the experimental and research facilities for computers, television, color, laser, holography, graphics, photography, electronic music, film, strobes, acoustics, optics and other fields which are now or will be in the future relevant to the development of contemporary art. In this program, the facilities have been designated for particualr activities, but it is imporatant that the architect keeps in mind and reflects in the facilities' designs the probability and necessity for change inherent to experimental art.
Multi-faceted space is needed where holograms of all kinds (Transmission, white light/transmission, reflection, pulsed laser holograms) can be generated with new imagery and searching to find new ways of defining and recording images holographically. Investigation of possibilities for large-scale white light/transmission (daylight) holograms, holographic movies and new color processing techniques will enable us to expand the medium beyond the confines of gallery and museum so that it will become vital vocabulary of environmental art: kinetic art; theatre stage-sets; and communications.
The conservation laboratory and darkrrom will be used primarily for the conservation of art works from the M.I.T. permanent collection, as well as research. Storage for paintings, chemicals and supplies, work counters and large work tables will be necessary.
Audio and Video Processing Laboratory:
This laboratory will be used for controlling, editing and blending audio and video images for storage and/or transmission. A digital process will be used reflecting the present trends in broadcasting and reproduction.
Developments in audio and video equipment allow a wide range of sound and visual variety. This will include special sound effects, time delay images, superimposed images, film and video mixing, high fidelity and multi-channelled sound, etc.
Experimental Television Studio:
The studio will be used for video recording of staged events and for experiments combining electronic media with live performances. Specifications for a conventional broadcasting studion do not adequately characterize this space where the cameras, recording and control equipment are fully portable
for experimental work in the studio and adaptable at moment's notice to remote recording setups. In addition to providing a stage for the video processing laboratory, the space should accommodate a small audience. This facility may also be used at times to design and assembel electronic and physical set components for the experimental theatre.
The media rooms are to be used for audio and visual studies, experiments and demonstrations. They should be sound isolated and without natural light. Generally, there will be one person per room, except for the larger spaces where several people might work together. Images will be projected on the walls, ceiling and/or screens along with a octaphonic system.
Digital Image Processing Laboratory:
This laboratory will be used for blending, tansforming and editing computer images which digitally stored. Such work in computer graphics could include: 2-D and 3-D computer animation, encoding transforms and color compaction for storage or tansmission, automatic rotoscoping and superimposition, human or automatic intervention to change, annotate or remove scratches from film material.
The purpose of this space is to provide a laboratory for reseach and experimentation in the theory and application of color creation, separation, sythesis, modification, storage, reproduction transmission, resolution and fidelity. Research into reflected and transmitted color-subtractive and additive would combine testing, input devices, storage and manipulation, output methods and control system. Gaculty, research assistants, graduate students and professionals in media whre color is an issue will be working in this laboratory. The technical work including photographs, graphics video, laser,
computer, etc. will require wet and dry work benches, video/projection stations and reproduction equipment.
Experimental Hard and Soft Copy:
The purpose of this space is to reseach, design and in some cases build hard and software for generating, inputting, storing, and outputting workds and images in variable size, quantity and in tow and three dimensions static and dynamic.
Some examples of research are x-y-z plotter to engrave large scale environmental sufaces using programmed information about light and climate; large scale Xerographic images and their relation to offset printing; relationship of digitized typography to digitized typesetter and their output; bypassing chemistry through direct plate making with the plotter inkjet technology and its relation to the development of new printing technologies; electronic blackboard, boods without pages, typetexts, talking pages.
Approximately 12 people will be working in this space, requiring four workstations and a large workshop area for producing prototypes using computer terminals, photgraphs, video images, large flat panels, paints, inks and all the other various equipment assocaited with the graphic arts.
Man/Media Experimental Test Facility:
Thsi laboratory area is for the exploration of the perceptual and cognitive aspects of man/media interaction under controlled experimental conditions.
The testing area, similar to a media room should be able to accommodate the subject, plus the experimentaer in varying degrees of unobtrusiveness from the subject. Ordinarily, only one subject would be accommodated at a time, but circumstances are conceivable where a small number of subjects are accommodated simultaneously; maybe up to 3-4 maximum. This test area should be isol able from the workrooms, so as to be sound-proof, and non-visible to subjects.
Experimental Set-up Workrooms:
These workrooms are used to prepare the electronic equipment used in the man/media testing and to familiarize the subject with the video, film and sound stimulit to be used in testing.
Consumer Electronics Laboratory:
Researchers in this laboratory will explore the development, usage, and exploitation of micro-electronics for leisure systems, computers in the home, toys, tools, pocket size are, personal media, etc. The laboratory would provide four to six work bench stations for individual work on these projects.
These booths permit artists and researchers in music, general audio, and vidual studies to carry out private and subjective work in uncompromised sound/light space. These booths are without natural light, and are sufficiently sound-isolated that a researcher investigating low-intensity aural perception in one booth can be quiet unaware that a colleague is demonstrating the realism of octophonic digitally-reverberated thunder in the next. Each media booth will replicate a protion of the image-handling power of the larger media rooms; each will also have full access to the central audio processing computers that are used by the digital audio labs and recording studios. Working mostly one to a booth, reseachers will find most of what they need in thes spaces, moving to the larger media or editing rooms only when larger projection or acoustic space becomes necessary.
Digital Audio Processing Lab:
This lab will undertake research on the application of advanced digital signal processing techniques to problems in musical audio. Methods of homomorphic filtering, linear predictive analysis, compression and transmission, together with other techniques originating in speech, radar and seismic anal-
ysis, will here be vigorously applied and tested for suitablity in the field of high fidelity audio processing. The lab will also carry out research on digital reverberation, including the simulation of specific reverberant spaces.
This room will accommodate a small group of graduate students doing advanced research. Acoustic isolation should be quite high jsut one step below that of the media booths so as to provide for periodic audio mono-toring and demonstration in less isolated conditions. Techniques developed here will eventually find theri way into the hardware and software music production systems used elsewhre in the complex.
Experimental Performance System Lab:
This is the primary conmon space in the music area, hosting a rich variety of activities but focusing on the development of interactive performance systems. The space will likely become quite cluttered with synthesizer-building projects, experimental deyboards and input devices, microprocessor control systems, monitor speakers and test equipment. This is the first-stage assemble area for musical ideas and procedures that will eventually find a forum in public concers and recordings.
Resident population, visitng traffic, and internal noise level in this lab are all expected to be quite high. The major acoustic requirement is that the nose be contained without restricting the people flow. The atmosphere of this room although busy, should be both pleasant and conducive to steady work and to the free exchange of ideas.
This laboratory will be used to (a) perfor psychophyzical experiments, using human subjects as listeners, on questions concerning pitch, tibre and loudness, particularly experiments involving complex signals in a dynamic context; (b) to study physical acoustic behavior of musical instruments for the purpose of analysis, modeling and digital sythesis; (c) to address acousti and psycho-acoustic problems that may be generated in the digital recording
and sound sythesis areas. The laboratory will accommodate one staff member and two or three students. Tound generation and signal analysis will use the central computer facility. Equipment in the room will include a small soundproofed and sound-deadened box for experiments on musical instruments, some computer interfacing and some random electronic hardware. Adjacency to a soundproofed media booth for the control of psychophysical experiments is essential.
Experimental Photography will research new methodes for film production as well as development techniques in the black and white and color still image. There is a primary relationship between this space and the academic darkrooms, as the wet and dry print finishing spaces are to be shared by both Experimental Photography and the darkrooms.
This research and production facility will be equipped with enlargers, digital timers, rapid printers, film processors, dryers and exposure monitors.
The purpose of the optics laboratory is to futher explore possibilites to influence the emission, transport or reception of light beams through refined optical systmes with the help of mechanical or electronic means. Emphasis will be on refraction for pectral effects; scanning devices by mirror or prismatic systems; lens focusing devices and fiber optics. Proximity ot programming computers is necessary for the purpose of developing complex scanned-projection programs.
These activities will require an oblong laboratory for bema observations and long-range projections;projection sufraces; work benches for optical, glass and mechanical tools; computer equipment; and both natural and artificial light.
This space will be an electronic laboratory for some of Dr. Edgerton's
current activities at the Institute. The existing facilities include a laboratory, darkrooms, staging areas, and office space. The programmed 900 NASF is not sufficient to house all of these facilities and, therefore, adjacencies and/or accessiblity to other spaces in the Arts and Media Technology Building are mandatory. The Strobe Laboratory must be adjacent to the controlled light studio. It must be very near, if not adjacent to, the experimental lecture theatre and darkrooms.
Production and Teaching Facilities:
This group includes the production and teaching faciliteis for phot-graphy, video, film, audio, graphics, computer, and art theory. Content and method for production and teaching will change over time and, therefore, this should be reflected in the flexibiltiy within and among the facilites.
The clssrooms should be designed as general use classrooms with video monitors, and, if possible, with tele-blackboards for satellite or telephone connections with other installations.
The classrooms must accommodate domostrations from a central location and traditionallecturing, as well as provide for active interchange both betwen the instructor and the students and among the students themselves. Whenever possible, the distance between students and instructor should be kept at a minumum to provide for maximum visual contact. The shape of the room should be designed so that no matter how it is used, the viewing distance from any one point to another is not excessive.
Sufficient chalkboard space must be provided. A minumum standard of 20 linear feet, at least four feet high should be used. Location of the chalkboard on one wall is preferable to split locations. All board space should be located behind the students. A tackboard of approximately four linear feet should be included for display purposes.
Coat hooks should be provided in the classroom to temporarily store the coats of each and every occupant.
The study archive should be a quiet library area for students and scholars to engage in research and first hand examination of art works from the permanent collection. Small temporary exhibitions documenting an artist's development or working process will be mounted. Consequently, areas for reading tables and chairs, rack-rounted containers for selected works of art, wall cases for hanging work and small sculpture and shelves for reference materials will be needed.
The video editing rooms provide acoustically isolated, temperature and humidity controlled spaces to see and hear material in detail on several monitors while editing. Most of the rooms will be used by one person, but communal editing arrangements are particularly valuabel for people just learning.
Although the editing process requires a darkened room and is solitary work, it would be desirable to have windows or access to outdoor views for the occupants spending long periods of time there. Aslo, exhanging criticisma dn consultation with other editors is helpful and, therefore, the arrangement of the rooms should encourage this.
The film editing rooms have requirements similar to those of the video editing rooms, In fact, these rooms should be designed to be fully adaptable to either film or video work.
Audio Editing, Mixing and Transfer:
In conjunction with the Seminar/Screening Room this studio provides
full sound reproduction, processing and editing facilities for tape and magnetic film for film, video, and electronic music, synchronous sound transfer for film; equalization filtering; multi-channel and mult-track mixes. With excellent acoustical properties and a first-rate P.A.system, this space amplifies the range of human hearing.
This space will accomodate regularly scheduled classes and special programs, as well as informal meetings and frequent unscheduled screenings of work in progress. It should work as a big-screen small theatre for 16mm, super 8 and video front screen projection; classroom and exhibition space; and a film post-production workshop.
To fulfill these various functions, the facility should be an unobstructed space with a large screen and moveable chairs. Adjacent to this space should be a projection and one of the recording/listening booths. Although total darkness is mandatory for film projection, it would be desirable to have this room adjacent to space with exterior views for those people who spend long hours screening films and who would move to this adjacent space for discussions.
The graphic workshop provides teaching and production facilities for multi-media print communication, graphics, graphic arts and graphic communication including variable color and size editions from monoprinting to editions of 3,000. The experimental hard and soft copy workshop functions in relation to this workshop.
The space is equipment and process intensive and should be understood as a large interrelated and interactive hands-on environment which is both electronic and traditional. It will accommodate graphic technologies for which there is no substitute or which are being modified by electronic and computer components, such as gravure or offset printing.
Graphic Arts Processing:
The graphic arts processing functions in conjunction with the graphics workshop. This facility includes photographic based imaging including camera, silver-bases and non-silver, instant imaging systems, electrographics, xwerography, diazo and plate making.
Although many offices within this building will have their own terminals, there will still be a need to have a central pool for those people who do not have offices, who use terminals sporadically and for those terminals which are too expensive or specialized to be exclusively for any one individual.
Up to 30 users should be able to log onto one maching or another, with varying degrees of terminal sophistication. The room should include accommodation for visitors to look over shoulders, for students to demonstrate their work informally, for people to find the most variegated example of on-line work in the facility. All users would be transient.
Laboratory and darkroom space are shared facilities primarily for the teaching and production of black and white and color photography. The facilities include space for film processing and printing and all aspects of finishing.
One large group darkroom is to be used as a teaching, experimentation and production facility for foundation courses. The space should accommodate sixteen sparate enlarging stations built around communal wet/sink area.
There is also a smaller darkroom which will be used for developing black and white film. In addition to these facilities, there will be both wet and dry finishing rooms for washing and touching up prints. These facilities will be used jointly with the darkrooms called for in Experimental Photography.
This space is an evolution from traditional controlled studio-lit photography environments for posed subjects. It should be extremely flexible and make four kinds of lighting areas possilbe in adjacencies: strobe activites, artificial with color options, similar to theatre lighting; a mix of indoor natural and artificial; and indoor and outdoor natural. The indoor natural should be controllable by reflector and baffle system. Rear projection systems should be available for mixing images with slide, film and video mixes. There should be a mix of stagings for light and cameras, catwalks, and small boom. The options should not be unlike a small TV studio/ theatre for mobility and flexibility.
Visual Design Studio:
The studio is to accommodate teaching and practice of drawing small sculpture, painting, sketching, environmental and stage model building.
The work will be predominantly figure and face studies by hand-art techniques.
The space should have daylight and artificual lighting, a skylight and access to an outdoor roof area.
Music Editing and Production:
This is first and foremost a very highly shoundproofed room, permitting the uncompromised audition of computer-processed sound ranging from the barest whisper to the loudest symphonic tutti. The major functions are to provide relief from the claustrophobic nature of media booths by allowing quad- or octophonic compositions nearing completion to be auditioned in and adapted to the realities of a larger space, and to provide complete digital editiong facilities for final mixdown of processed audio
Digital Recording Studio:
This studio has the highest soundproofing standard of the musci and
audio spaces. It is multipurpose, and provides complete quiet so that sound materials needed in tone analysis and in electronic compositions employing processed live sound can be recorded directly into the computer free from analog tape artifacts.
This studio will house a piano and occasional percussion. It will periodically house one or more digital performance systems, and will be linked to WGBH Radio for live broadcasting. Acoustically it is very dry, allowing acoustic control either with reflecting shells or by electronic means. An adjacent media booth should be available when separation is required.
These facilities wil be for the maintenance and fabrication of the equipment used for research, production and teaching in the Arts and Media Technology Building.
Video Maintenance and Repair:
This central facility will be used to maintain and repair all of the video equipment used for Arts and Media Technology. Functioning as a workshop, it will need storage cabinets and shelving, work benches and various equipment such as lathe, drill press, spot welder, etc.
This is the movie and still earner equivalent to Video Maintenance and Repair. In addition, it will serve as the repository of spare parts, motors, and specific needs associated with equipment in the general inventory of the facility. Again, this space should be viewed as a maintenance resource and not a space for setting up specific research or experimentation. The space should be designed as a workshop with many work benches for small tools, guages, clipers, etc., many lockable cabinets and durable shelving.
Electronic Design and Fabrication:
This will be a resource for students and staff to use for both teaching and research. The facility should be viewed as a well-equipped workshop for special projects as well as a line of outlets, test and measurement equipment, and a supply room. There should be an abundance of work bench space which can be assigned to specific projects for one or two weeks or left free for individual work.
Storage and Supplies:
These facilities provide areas for storage and preparation of the numerous pieces of equipment and art work essential to the research, teaching and exhibitions of the Arts and Media Technology Building.
Film, Tape, Photography, Print Archive:
This space or group of spaces should be seen as serving three purposes: proper environmental control.fireproof storage and security. Each media has its own storage and stacking system which should be provided within this space along with a workcounter for sorting, labeling and assembling material.
Preparation Space for Public Gallery:
This is the operational heart of the public galleries where exhibition will be prepared for display in the general exhibits gallery and Regional Consortium teaching and reference gallery.
The preparation space is divided into three distinct separate areas: storage of installation equipment; paint and carpentry fabrication area; hinging, matting, packing, registrarial checking, fabrication area. The gallery manager and staff offices should be adjeacent to these areas.
Archives Dead Storage:
This area will be used by the gallery, active archives and study archives
for infrequently used equipment and displays requiring climate control.
This equipment storage and check-out facility will be used by students and staff obtaining items on a sign-out basis. The facility, operated by one attendant will be open 24 hours per day, seven days per week. It is to serve the Arts and Media Technology Building's teaching and research, not the Institute at large.
The equipment in this space is very expensive and variable in size, shape and weight. Therefore, it should be secure with shelving and floor area appropriate to the varied sizes. It should also be noted that much of the equipment will be heavy units on carts which must be rolled in and out.
These facilities will accommodate the storage and distribution of supplies for the Arts and Media Technology groups. It is planned that the purchasing will be centralized, but that does not necessarily mean that the supply and distribution will be centralized. Therefore, several small rooms or areas might be necessary. There will be one attendant handling all of the supply rooms which will be open nearly 24 hours per day. The major categories of items to be stored are chemicals and liquids, office and paper supplies, electronic and mechanical units.
The general resources will service all of the various groups in the building for computers, communications, duplicating, kitchen, and receiving and shipping.
Shipping and Receiving:
The receiving and shipping area must be capable of handling large and heavy machines and art work. It would be helpful if this facility could include
limited strapping and metal tape facilities, Federal Express puches and overnight storage of incoming and outgoing packages.
The Institute would like the Arts and Media Technology building to use the loading dock area, with access from Main Street, being developed along with the Health Sciences and Health Services Buildings. The architect should fully investigate this possibility and access underground from the loading dock to the Arts and Media Building. Although constant truck access on Ames or Amherst Streets is not acceptable, it will be necessary to study and propose how truck deliveries directly to the galleries of major exhibition materials can be accomplished by means of an enclosed and controlled loading bay with internal lift for movement of large art objects to and from the gallery level. This should be architecturally and functionally integral with the building along the street.
Many members of the group are gourmet and/or enthusiastic cooks. In addition, many of the sponsor "site visits" are accompanied by in-house meals.
As such, this should not be seen as a pantry, but as a full fledged kitchen.
This is not a student lounge resource, but a scheduled "Professional" facility.
Thsi space has been listed without an associated eating place. It should be near to offices and one of the larger conference rooms. In addition, it would be important to have access to this facility during art openings. There is somewhat of a contradiction" between its public and private use, but perhaps a dumb waiter could exist between this kitchen and the gallery spaces, such that the kitchen could remain"upstairs" and more normally used in private and conference sessions.
Communications and Telecommunications:
This space is for internal video switching and synchronizing, any satellite reception units, and facilities for any future fiber optics communications. In principle it is a basement, closet-like activity, unless it is featured visually.
Most equipment can be expected to be rack mounted on 19" racks, for which
the room would have to provide two rows: aisle, rack aisle, rack, aisle.
Both aisle and rack should be considered as three feet wide, defining this space to be 15' x 20'. The quantity of equipment will vary very much depending upon the interest of communications and telecommunications industries in the building itself. Some companies might provide an advanced digital switching system, some picture-phone-like communications, and the most itelligent call system. Other equipment will include video switching, incoming wire services, and some fiber optics "head end."
This is very much a "graphic arts" type function, conceivably run under their aegis. The size of the space affords room for only one large copying machine. The goal is to have a central facility that can copy and collate at high speeds; whereas to distribute the smaller, one-page-at-a-time units throughout the building. One application will be to copy the phototypeset material generated in the experimental hard copy and soft copy facility and in the graphics workshop.
Paper storage, counter space, and open floor space for equipment are required. A trend in the copying industry is to combine computer output units with copying machines; namely, one machine does both. This would mean that the accommodations would need to include wide-band and telephone links to the rest of the building and maybe-one local disc drive to scrool and buffer incoming data.
This space is for large scale computers shared by member groups of the facility. These computers will be linked to the terminals in the offices and in the Computer Terminals Facility. Consequently, there will be a vast number of telephone and high band width lines into and out of the place, a raised floor and the normal computer room requirements. An important design consideration will be whether to feature the machines visually or not.
The offices will vary in size, shape and requirements and must be located near the various research and teaching facilities of that particular group. Space has been programmed for the various groups' offices and as multi-purpose offices for flexibility to accommodate future personnel and changing needs. The specific requirements are included on the facility sheets.
There are two ways in which the facilities for the Arts and Media Technology Building have been tabulated: the first tally has each space listed under a grouping which best characterizes it function (i.e. experimental, public, office, etc.); the second tally tabulates the area required for each function as well as describing which department (i.e. architectural machine group, film/video, etc.) will require that type of space.
Public and Semi-Public
Experimental & Research Facilities
NO. AREA TOTAL total
OF PER FACILITY GROUP
FACILITY # FACILITY SPACF.S SPACE AREA AREA
1.01 Gallery/General Exhibits 1 2800 2800
1.02 Regional Consortium Gallery- 1 2000 2000
1.03 Reading Room/Video Library 1 800 800
1.04 Active Archives 1 1500 1500
1.05 Works-in Process Gallery 1 1500 1500
1.06 Media Gallery 1 2000 2000
1.07 Listening Gallery 4 varies 700
2.01 CAVS Holography 2 (1)900 (1)800 1700
2.02 Conservation Laboratory & Darkroom 2 (1)370 (1) 65 435
2.03 Audio and Video Processing O (1)300 (1)600 900
2.04 Experimental Television Studio 1 900 900
2.05 Media Rooms 2 (1)350 (1)250 COO
2.06 Digital Image Processing Lab 1 900 900
2.07 Color Laboratory 1 900 900
2.08 Experimental Hard & Soft Copy 1 1150 1150
2.09 Man/Media Experimantal Test Facility 340 340
2.10 Experimental Set-up Workrooms 2 130 260
2.11 Consumer Electronics Laboratory 1 600 600
2.12 Media Booths 1 900 900
2.13 Digital Audio Processing Lab 1 300 300
2.14 Experimental Performance Systen Lab 1 600 600
2.15 Acoustics Laboratory 1 300 300
2.16 Experimental Photography 7 varies 800
2.17 Optics Laboratory 1 600 600
2.18 Strobe Laboratory 1 900 900
GROUP FACULITY # FACILITY NO. OF SPACES AREA PER SPACE TOTAL FACILITY AREA TOTAL GROUP AREA
Production 3.01 Classroom Phase I 1 500 500
& Teaching 3.02 Study Archive 1 1100 1100
3.03 Video Editing 6 (2)150 (4)120 800
3.04 Film Editing 1 800 800
3.05 Audio Editing, Mixing, Transfer 1 COO 600
3.05 Seminar and Screening Room 1 1350 1350
3.07 Projection Room 1 250 250
3.03 Classroom Phase II 1 400 400
3.09 Graphics Workshop 1 1200 1200
3.10 Graphic Arts Processing 3 varies 500
3.11 Computer Terminals 1 1100 1100
3.12 Darkrooms 4 (1)700 (3)300 1600
3.13 Controlled Lighting Studio 1 800 800
3.14 Visual Design Studio 1 800 800
3.15 Music Editing & Production 1 250 250
3.16 Digital Recording Studio 1 450 450 12,400
Workshops 4.01 Video Maintenance & Repair 1 900 900
4.02 Mechanical Repair 1 500 500
4.03 Electrical Design & Fabrication 1 800 800 2,200
Storage 5.01 Film & Tape Storage 1 900 900
u Supplies 5.02 Preparation for Public Gallery 1 1400 1400
5.03 Archives, Dead Storage 1 500 500
5.04 Equipment Check-out 1 800 800
5.05 Supply Room 1 500 500 4,100
NO. AREA TOTAL TOTAL
OF PER FACILITY GROUP
GROUP FACILITY it FACILITY SPACES SPACE AREA AREA
General 6.01 Gallery Exhibition Receiving 1 900 900
Resource 6.02 Kitchen 1 300 300
6.03 Communications & Telecommunications 1 300 300
6.04 Central Duplicating 1 300 300
6.05 Computer Room 1 1500 1500 2,800
Offices 7.01 CVA Offices & Reception 1 1180 1180
7.02 Conference Room 1 400 400
7.03 Gallery Manager 1 200 200
7.04 Seminar Spaces 3 (2)300 (1)400 1000
7.05 Film/Video Offices 1 1000 1000
7.OS Multi-purpose Office Space I 1 1000 1000
7.07 Computers & Graphics Offices * varies 3000
7.08 RA & TA Office Spaces II * varies 1800
7.09 Multi-purpose Office Space II 1 1800 1800
7.10 Music, Photography Offices * varies 1300
7.11 RA & TA Office Space III varies 700
7.12 Multi-purpose Office Space III and Visual Studies * varies 700 14,080
*To be determined later TOTAL NASF 60,065
TOTAL GSF 99,708
(NASF x 1.66)
Q- 1/5 S
& MEDIA, CHARACTERIZATION OF SPACE Public and Semi-public Spaces PROGRAM NASF NASF TOTAL 10,700 Exhibition Architecture Machine Film/Video Photography Visual Language Workshoi Center Adv. Vis. Studie Hi story/Theory/Cri tici si Electronic Music
1.1 Gallery, General Exhibits 2500
1.2 Media Gallery 2400 k k *
1.3 Listening Gallery 500
1.4 Experimental Lecture Theatre 2500 k
1.5 Regional Consortium Teaching
& Reference Gallery 1000 *
1.6 Works in Progress Gallery 1000 k
1.7 Readinq Room/Video 800 * * * k * k
2.0 Experimental and Research Facilities___________13.800
2.1 Video & Audio Processing Lab 900
2.2 experimental lelevision Studio 900 * *
2.3 Media Rooms (two, 300 & 500 sf
5 @ 100) 1300 k
2.4 Digital Imaqe Processing 900
2.5 Color Laboratory 900 * k
2.6 Laser Laboratory 900 k *
2.7 Holography Laboratory 900 * *
2.8 Experimental Hardcopy & Soft 1500 * k
2.9 Experimental Photography 900 *
2.A Electronic Sound & Music 600
2.B Optics Laboratory 600 k k
2.C Sensory Measurement/Test Fac. 600 *
2.D Inflatables Wordshop 900 *
2. E Acoustics Laboratory 600 k
2.F Strobe Laboratory 900
2.G Gas Laboratory 500
3.0 Production and Teaching Resources 10,500
3.1 Darkrooms 1700
3.2 Video Editing 900 *
3.3 Film Editing 900
3.4 Graphics Workshop (s) 1700
3.5 Computer Terminals 1300 k
3.6 Controlled Lighting Studio 900 *
3.7 Visual Design Studio 900 * k
3.8 Seminar/Screenino Rooms 1300 * * k
2JL. Classrnnm(s) -9QQ * * k
4.0 Study Archives________________________________4,000
4.1 Archives 1500
4.2 Studv 1100
4.3 Gallery Storage and Prep. I4Q9
ARTS & MEDIA, CHARACTERIZATION OF SPACE NASF 5.0 Maintenance and Workshop Facilities PROGRAM NASF TOTAL 3,000 Exhibition Architecture Machine Film/Video Photography Visual Language Workshop Center Adv. Vis. Studies Hi story/Theory/Cri tici sm Electronic Music
5*1. Metal and Plastics Shop 600 * * * *
5.2 Electronic Desiqn Laboratory 800
5.3 Video Maintenance and Repair 600
5.4 Mechanical Repair 500 k *
5.5 Conservation 500 k
6.0 Storage, Supplies, and Support________________1,900
6.1 Film Tape and Photography &
Print Archive 500 * ik k k
6.2 Supply Room(s) 600 * * k
6.3 Equipment Check-out(otherwise
known as caqe) 800 * * k k
7.0 General Resources_____________________________2,900
7.1 Computer Room 1600 jr.JL.Z.'OX. k k
7.2 Communications & Telecommun. 300 k * k
7.3 Central Duplicatinq 300 k k *
7.4 Receivinq and Shippinq 400 * * * * k k
7.5 Kitchen 300 * k * k *
8.1 Offices based on existinq FTE
(48.5) 5820 k * k k *
872 Graduate Student Space based
on envisaged grad, student
populating (40) 3000 k k k *
8.3 Mini Seminar Spaces 1080 * k * k *
8.4 New Faculty & Staff (25FTE) 3000- k k k
9.0 Outdoor Spaces k k
Because it is an extremely complicated facility, the organization of spaces for the Arts and Media Technology Building is crucial to the success of its design.
External factors contributing to the internal organization for the Arts and Media Building range from its1 consistency with the master plan for the East Campus, the importance of its location as gateway to the East Campus, its relationship to surrounding buildings, open spaces and activities, to the manner which service vehicles will be able to access onto the site.
The distinction between public, semi-public, semi-private, and private spaces cannot be emphasized too much as the building must provide the atmosphere and celebration for art openings as well as providing the researcher will absolute quiet and seclusion.
Circulation, both in a vertical and horizontal mode will in itself do a great deal in defining and organizing the multitude of spaces in this building.
The circulation areas can have several important functions: to serve the most general public; to provide access to and visibility of the arts and media activites and exhibition; to provide access for specialized groups to particular zones; to provide a focus for special events and, more broadly, for the entire arts and media enterprise; to provide for intervisibility among the residents of the building. They can also extned the working areas of some groups by providing opportunities for changing display of works and for variable degrees of visual and physical access for the public to the less public parts of the complex. The majority of circulation areas might permit such displays. The circulation areas must be designed to permit some areas to be closed off from the general public while allowing others to be open, and yet to permit the working areas to have continuous access. Service circulation should permit the moving of large objects of machinery and art into, out of and within the facility.
The circulation areas should have exhibit cases and sutable protection for flat displays, they should have lounge chairs, tables and other props to permit informal meeting, lunching and other socializing activities. And there should possibly be a major focus of the circulation areas which could permit the in-
formal gathering of many people to witness events. In general, all circulation areas should be accessible by means of ramps.
The location of service cores, as providing the means for vertical circulation through the building, is extremely important in determining the extent of the flexibility inherent in this facility.
Flexibility and changeability of the Arts and Media Technology Building in the future will rely heavily upon the location of the service and circulation cores and in the success with which they have been married to the structural grid and scheme for the general circulation.
Matrices & Bubble Diagrams:
Matrices and bubble diagrams have been worked out in order to aid in the task of organizing the tremendous variety of spaces called for in the program. The first matrix matches each department with the amount of space needed for each particular function. The second matrix matches each department with the amount of space requested for natural light, long ceiling span, extra ceiling height, storage, shared and public space. Foiling this matrix, a space by space breakdown has been prepared by the chairperson of each department which gives further definition to the desired quality of each space for each activity.
The third matrix attempts to draw conclusions as to the proximity and location of general functional groupings to each other, to major circulation, and in describing their requirements for quiet.
Finally, two bubble diagrams have been prepared in order to organize the spacial relationships for support, supply and storage, and then to analyize the spacial proximity for public and semi-public areas.
OFFICE, RECEPTION SECY, SEMINAR STORAGE, MAINTEN'CE XEROX REPAIR STUDENT LOUNGE, LOCKER ROOM CLASSROOMS ARCHIVES DARKROOMS SPECIALIZED NASF
VISUAL ARTS 1200 4320 - - - - -
FILM/VIDEO 1200 550 280 1500 125 - -
ARCHITECTURE MACHINE GROUP 6805 1725 2450 1800 - - 5105
VISUAL LANGUAGE WORKSHOP 2500 1400 - 3000 - 3769 3850
PHOTOGRAPHY 1000 900 200 - _ 3550 _
CENTER FOR ADVANCED VISUAL STUDIES (CAVS) - - - - - - -
ELECTRONIC MUSIC 4900 900 - 2850 - - -
TOTALS 15105 8545 2900 6150 125 7319 8955 49099
SHARED - 150 250 - - - -
TOTALS 15105 8695 3150 6150 125 7319 8955 49499