The University Hills research center

Material Information

The University Hills research center
Greenfield, Laura Beth
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
approximately 100 leaves : illustrations (some color), charts, maps, color photograph, plans (some color) ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Research institutes -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Boulder ( lcsh )
Buildings ( fast )
Research institutes ( fast )
Colorado -- Boulder ( fast )
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )


Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Laura Beth Greenfield.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
12101885 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1983 .G745 ( lcc )

Full Text
An architectural thesis program presented to the College of Design and Planning, at the University of Colorado in Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Architecture.
Laura Beth Greenfield Summer, "1983
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I would like to thank the following people for their help in these initial stages of my Thesis project.
James Copeland, acting as client and advisor and providing me with much time and information.
Project Architect, Wallace Pallmer & Associates
Jenny McCarthy, President of the Hill "Merchant's Association", for opening up her files to me.
The City of Boulder's Departments of Mapping, Transportation, Energy and Planning.
Ed Hester and Bill Deno, Architects at the University of Colorado in Boulder.

1) Ski Muir Milburn, Professional Architect at Milburn/ Sparn Energy Architects Inc., Boulder, CO.
2) David Leavenworth, Project Administrator and Architect for the State of Colorado
3) Paul Sapporito, Professional Architect at Heinzman Associates, Boulder, CO.
4) Gary Long, Faculty Advisor, University of Colorado in Denver, College of Design and Planning

Site Analysis
Final Design

The following report provides the background for the design of a new research facility for the University of Colorado in Boulder. The new building is intended to expand the space available within the total "Building Research System" in order to accommodate external research agencies supportive of the total research efforts of the University.
Within this paper is a description of the space needs, site conditions, climatic considerations, cost constraints, and other supportive research defining parameters and form-givers for this facility.
Aesthetically, this building will need to reflect the importance and dignity of a significant component of a major university, while providing an interface between the campus proper and the "Hill" retail area, as well as pedestrian requirements.
This "organizing mechanism" which defines and analyses issues and constraints, will assure a proper and sensitive response to the needs of the users, the University, and the City of Boulder.

This Thesis project is a design for an office/research facility for the University of Colorado in Boulder. Currently on the site for the proposed building is the University's Communication Building, housed in a converted fraternity house. The new facility would be a much larger building, containing approximately 32,500 assignable, square feet versus the 8,000 gross square feet of the current building. The demolition cf the Communications Building has thus been justified; due to its poor repair, poor utilization of valuable space, energy inefficiency and inaccessibility to the handicapped.
The project is a continuation of "the University's objective to provide moderately priced rental space to agencies supportive and which supplement research on the Boulder campus."(1) Historically, the University has accomplished this within its Research Building System, located on the East Campus, which is currently comprised of eight buildings. The system now has requests for needed space which it cannot supply. The existing buildings contain over 500,000 square feet of rental space, functioning as both office and lab space for research activity. Most of this research is

connected with Federal grants throughout many colleges and departments of C.U. The new building would become a part of the Research System, however located in a more central area of town. The plans for this building were first initiated in the University of Colorado's "Facility Master Plan" (pages 9-2 through 9-9).
Present users of the Research Building System include the National Center for Atmospheric Research, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association, the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, and the World Data Center. Among these, NCAR, CIRES and World Data have expressed the need for more space. In addition, the Solar Energy Research Institute has requested a substantial amount of space, among many other smaller agencies. According to December of 1982 data, there is only a 3-4% vacancy rate in Boulder.
There is no question that the rental space is needed.
The location will be ideal for certain tenants due to its close proximity to campus.
The building will provide 32,500 square feet of rentable space. Assuming an 80% efficiency in space planning, there will therefore be approximately 40,000 gross square feet. The building will accommodate retail shops and a restaurant on the first floor. The

upper floor will be designed to provide as much flexibility as possible, since specific tenants and their respective needs are unknown. All the upper floors will be for office and research/lab space and heavy use of computers is anticipated.
Access must be from both the east and west sides.
Truck service will probably be through the alley on the southwest corner of the site, but may change as the design is developed.

Boulder, at the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains, was first settled in 1858 as a small mining community. The City of Boulder came into existence in 1859. Two years later, it was chosen for the site for the State University.(2) Located conveniently only 30 miles northwest of Denver, Boulder has the advantages of both a metropolitan region and a smaller community.
With the foresight of Boulder planners, natural scenic beauty and the scale of the City has been preserved, due to the initiation of a greenbelt program which insures open space for the indefinite future. This contributes to the attractiveness of lifestyle Boulder offers its residents.
Environmental concern of Boulderites has been expressed in many other ways: major bikeway systems and a mass transit system through the City, zoning ordinances restricting building heights to 35 feet (or 55 feet with a variance) and a "Slow Growth Plan" which limits the number of buildings built per year. All of these measures have constrained and directed growth, established and maintained a desirable character for Boulder, and prevented "boom town" problems. The desirability of Boulder is evidenced by its attracting new businesses,

specifically in the research and "hi-tech" areas. This has helped to build a healthy economic base for the City.
In 1872, the site for the University of Colorado was made available by the donation of 44.9 acres by six Boulder citizens. The site was known then as the "Meadows", and was pasture land for cows and horses.
The same area is what we now call the "Hill". Gradually, the area was developed; the first building on campus being "Old Main" in 1876.(3) The Hill area, appealing due to its high ground and "commanding view", as well as close proximity to campus, led to rapid development. As more and more residential building and University growth occured, retail naturally found its place on the Hill, which caters to pedestrians and thrives on its being in the path of pedestrian traffic. Although its origin was that of an affluent area to live, the Hill area now caters to students. It is predominantly rental units and Greek houses. There are restaurants, clothing stores, "head shops" and drug stores. It serves as a secondary business district for Boulder, second only to the downtown Pearl Street mall and the Crossroads Mall.

The Boulder Comprehensive Plan outlines certain goals and suggestions for growth on the Hill. Among the plans mentioned are 1) improved access, particularly pedestrian, bicycle and mass transit; 2) off-street parking deficiencies to be resolved; 3) integration of architectural elements... to provide a community image and at the same, a stronger market potential;
4) improvement of the "streetscape" through coordinated landscaping; 5) intensify density of commercial areas rather than letting them "bleed" into adjacent residential neighborhoods.
The site is located at 1165 Broadway, in Boulder, Colorado. It is bounded by 13th Street on the west, Pennsylvania on the north and Broadway on the east. "Art Hardware" is a currently existing retail shop to the south. The location is ideal because of its proximity to the campus.
The site slopes at approximately 4.5 from the southwest corner to the northeast corner. Being bounded on three sides by City streets and sidewalks, major utilities are easily available.

The obsolescent and inadequate Communications Department Building currently occupies this valuable property. The present building was originally built in 1920 as a fraternity house and is in poor repair. It is less than a quarter of the size of the new building proposed for the site and this does "not utilize the land efficiently" in its dense "urban" setting. Thus, the demolition of the building has been justified.
The site is on high ground and far from flood plain considerations.
The "Hill" bounds the western edge of this site, and demands a proper response to both pedestrian and retail functional needs. An opportunity to create an outdoor plaza or "rest spot" exists, which may fulfill a need not currently addressed on the Hill. The eastern boundary is the University. Being a part of the C.U. system, some recall of the "rural, Italian renaiscence" style of the campus may be appropriate. Although a literal translation is not necessary, the red tile roofs and stone facades need to be acknowledged. (4) The proper "image" must also be conveyed on the eastern facade, being the predominantly visual and most important face of the research facility. Boulder is tied together aesthetically through

materials and scale; earthtones, stone, indigenous material, brick, and wood are common. The following views from the site may help to establish context of the adjacent surroundings.

Boulder, the county seat of Boulder County, lies at the foot of the striking Flatiron Mountains in northcentral Colorado. Boulder is famous for its educational, manufacturing and research and development efforts in many fields

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University Hill Redevelopment
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A thorough soils report was prepared by Chen and Associates on July 27, 1983. This detailed report included many engineering specifics for structural considerations (maximum loading, construction details and criteria, options, etc.). For more depth, refer to this document.
Briefly, it was found that "Beneath 1 to 3 feet of sandy clay fill, the natural overburden soils consist of sandy clay underlain by clayey to silty sand encountered to depths ranging from 11.5 to 22.5 feet.
The overburden soils are underlain by claystone-silt-stone bedrock encountered to the maximum depth explored, 36 feet." (5) Groundwater was found at depths ranging from 7 to 9.5 feet.
The implications of this report are that straight-shaft piers drilled directly into the bedrock to support the proposed building would be most appropriate. Piers should be designed for an allowable end bearing pressure of 25,000 PSF, and a minimum dead load pressure of 10,000 p.s.f. Spread footings are an alternate construction, however there would be an increased risk of foundation movement. If the new floor slab elevation is not slightly higher than the existing one, construction dewatering will be necessary.

The following maps will establish access to the site in the form of pedestrian, bicycle, vehicular and mass transit and utilities.
Strong pedestrian patterns have been established on the University and Hill. This element should be studied to enhance the integrity of the proposed facility and to create a link between the two areas. There is a convenient bike path just across Broadway to the east of the site, as well as an RTD route. Parking is a problem on the Hill, as illustrated by the preceding parking density map, and it is appropriate to encourage alternative forms of access, rather than car, to the site. There will be some parking within the new complex.

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This serai-arid region, located in the "rain shadow" of the Rocky Mountains, is characterized by dry, cold winters, dry hot summers, and wet springs. The greatest amount of annual precipitation in the form of rain and snow accumulates during the spring season. Quick changes in the weather are common, resulting from such influences as the Northern Continental Polar air, southwestern continental tropical air, and maritime tropical air masses from the gulf areas.
The closeness of the region to the mountain ranges contributes to the volatility of weather conditions due to the diurnal changes in air masses and the rain shadow effect. The cold prevailing winds come from the northwest in the winter, shifting to the southwest in summertime. July has the warmest temperatures, while the December-February period has the coolest, dry climate. Fluctuation in humidity due to the daily movement of air masses is thus more diurnal than seasonal, ranging from 65 to 70% at sunrise to 35 to 40% at mid-day.
Boulder has an elevation of 5420 and is at 40 latitude. Since it is next to the base of the foothills, there is a tendency for a greater amount of snowfall as the

weather moving upslope generates larger amounts of precipitation. This closeness to the foothills, and the winding narrow canyons of rhe front range, produces the "chinook" winds, which are powerful westerly winds with gusts of 70 to 130 n.p.h. The gusts are due to a funnel effect as the winds sweep through the canyons. Afterwards, there is a warming effect.
The particular site for this project nas no significant vegetation which could alter the typical- climate.
Boulder is subject to 5540 heating degree days and 842 cooling degree days.

This building, being a part of the State University System, is thus under the "umbrella" of the state, and is not subject to local codes or ordinances.
Boulder's stringent height restrictions and setbacks could legally be ignored. The University has, typically, been cooperative with city planners however, and compromises are reached. (6)
The facility will abide by the Uniform Building Code.
On the following pages are excerpts from the UBC pertinent to this project. For more detail, refer back to the original document. In addition to these highlighted sections, the engineering standards will be used, and when type of construction is known Chapter 17 will be complied with. According to the use and character of occupancy, this building is defined as a Group B, Division 2.
In addition, the Colorado State Energy Conservation Standards (Sept. '78) will be followed as much as possible. In summary of this document; walls will be of U value = .28 or better, roofs' and ceilings' U value = .080 or better, and floor overs unheated spaces'
U value = .08 or better. The Building Energy Performance Standards suggest 55,000 BTU/square ft. as a minimum

efficiency for new construction. See those documents for more detail.
The University is especially concerned with availability for the handicapped, and is often more strict than those standards described by ANSI. On the following pages are graphical interpretations of handicapped needs applicable to this project as found in "Architectural Graphic Standards" (7th Edition).
Generally, the University strives to build structures of superior quality, and ones which "last at least 100 years", according to the University Architect Ed Hester. In this building, they wish to set a precedent for other remodels and construction on the Hill, both in style and quality of construction.

Wired 0.5
Heat-strengthened 2.0
Factors-fabricated Double Glazing-' 1.5
Rough Rolled Plate 1.0

To determine the maximum allowable area for glass types listed in Table No. 5-i B multiply the allowable area established in Tabic No 54 A by the appropriate adjustment factor Example For *-inch hea; strengthened gia^s determine the maximum allowable area for a 30-pound per square foot wind load requirement Solution procedure Use 1 able No 54 A to determine the established allowable area for a-inch plate or float glass Answer. 36 square fee 'her multiply ?t by 2 the heat-strengthened glass adjustment favtor. Answer: 72.
'Use thickness of the thinner cf the two lights, not thickness of the unit.
To be approved by the Building Official since adjustment factor varies with amount of depreciation and type of glass.
Fixed Windows and Opened!* Windows Other Thar Horizontal Sliding
. Miivmum Frame Lap . i " 4 r "
2. Minimum Class Edge Clearance / *: ' 4
3. Cominuous Glazing Rab-be: and Glas- Retainer1.. Required
4. Resilient Setting Material' Not Required Required
Sliding Doors and Horizontal Sliding Winoows
5. Minimum Glass Frame L.ap . 4 V *" V n
6 Minimum Glass Edge Clearance . 4
7. Continuous Glaring Rabbet and Glass Retainer1 . Re- quired above third store Required
K. Resilient Setting Material' Not Required Required
Footnotes on page 642.

LDO NO. 81 1228/1
First Regular Session Fifty-third General Assembly
14 11
Iranspcrtation & Energy
BV REPRESENTATIVES Herzoc, Mielke, Becker, Eberle, Faatz, Paulson, Reeves, Robb, and Underwood;
also SENATORS Hughes, Allsnouse, Beatty, Beno, and Bishop.
Bill Summary
(Note: This summary aoplies to tm's bi11 as introducec and does not nec.essar~ 1 y reflect any amendments which may be subsequent'y adoptee..)
Requires that energy conservation and renewable energy design practices be employed in design and construction of state-owned facilities.
3 Be it enacted By the General Assembly of the State of Colorado:
4 SECTION 1. Article E2 of title 24, Colorado Revised
5 Statute: 1973, as amended, is amended BY THE ADDITION OF A NEW
6 PART to read:
7 PART 6
9 24-82-601. Definitions. As useo in this part 6, unless the
10 context otherwise requires;
11 (1) 'Description' means a nontechnical explanation of all
12 passive solar design and energy conservation features.
Capita! letters irulu ate new materml la be mitU tl to e xisline statute. Das hi s I hr,/iifh the i\ard\ inJi, ale ilelelit/ns tr an exist,/it* statute.

1 (2) "Fifty-five thousand Btu/square foot/year energy
2 pe-formance goal" means the goal for the amount of energy to be
3 used on-site for the purposes of heating, cooling, lighting, and
4 ventilation, but the term does not include energy losses
5 associated with energy transmission, generation, or distribution.
6 (3) "Renewable energy systems" means passive and active
7 solar systems, wind energy systems, biomass energy source
8 systems, geothermal energy systems, hydroelectric energy systems,
9 cogeneration systems, waste heat recovery systems, and other
10 innovative energy recovery systems which neet the energy
11 performance goal as provided in this part 6.
12 24-32-602. Required energy performance coal. (i> All
13 state office buildings and improvements thereto constructed on or
14 after July 1, 1961, shall be designed:
15 (a) To meet a fifty-five thousand Btu/square foot/year
16 energy performance goal for heating, cooling, lighting, and
17 ventilation energy;
18 (b) To make maximum use of passive solar concepts such as
19 energy conservation, natu-al 1ighting, and orientation and
20 incorporation of thermal-mass;
21 (c) For ease of retrofit with renewable energy systems.
22 (2) A description of said system shall be posted or filed
23 at the construction site and copies thereof shall be made
24 available to any interested party upon request.
25 (3) State buildings which are not office buildings are
26 required to be designed for maximum: use of passive solar concepts

1 and ease of renewable energy system retro-'*, but may exceed the
2 fifty-five thousand Btu/square foot/year er:igy performance goal
3 if approved by the department of administration for each building 4' on a case-by-case basis. Said goal may also be adjusted by the
5 department of administration to accommodate different climate
6 zones in the state.
7 SECTION 2. Effective date applicability. This act shall
8 take effect July 1, 1981, and shall apply to new construction and
9' improvements to existing structures begun on or after said date.
10' SECTION 3. Safety clause. The general assembly hereby
11 finds, determines, and declares that this act is necessary for
12 the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, and
13 safety.


Vertical Movement
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1976 EDITION 501-503
Part III
Chapter 5
NOTE: For tabulation showing changes to the occupancy designations that were used in the 1973 Edition, see page 21
Occupancy Classified
Sec. 501. Every building, whether existing or hereafter erected, shall be classified by the Building Official according to its use or the character of its occupancy, as a building of Group A, E. I, H. B, R or M as defined in Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. 11, 12. 13, 14 and 15 (See Table No. 5-A.)
Any occupancy not mentioned specifically or about which there is any question shall be classified by the Building Official and included in the Group which its use most nearly resembles, based on the existing or proposed life and fire hazard.
Chance in Use
Sec. 502. No change shall be made in the character cf occupancies or use ol any building which would place the building in a different division of the same group of occupancy or in a different group of occupancies unless such building ;s made to comply with the requirements of this Code lor such division or group of occupancy.
EXCEPTION : The character of the occupancy of existing buildings may be changed subiect to the approval of the Building Official, and the building may be occupied for purposes in other Groups without conforming 10 all the requirement of this Code for those Groups, provided ihe new or proposed use iv less hazardous, based on life and fire risk, than the existing use.
No change in the character of occupancy of a building shall be made without a Certificate of Occupancy, as required in Section 306 of this Code. The Building Clfficial may issue a Certificate of Occupancy pursuant to the intent of the above Exception without certifying that the building complies w ith all provisions of this Code.
Mixed Occupancy
Sec. 503. (a) General. When a building is used for more ihan one occupancy purpose each part of the building comprising a distinct Occupancy. as described in Chapters 5 through 15, shall be separated from any other occupancy as specified in Section 503 (d).

503 504
4. A One-hour Fire-re5isti\e Occupancy Separation shall be of no! less than one-hour fire-resistive construction. All openings in such separation shall be protected by a fire assembly having a one-hour fire-protection rating.
(d) Fire Ratings for Occupancy Separations. Occupancy separations shall be provided between ie various Groups and Divisions of Occupancies as set forth in Table N 5-B.
EXCEPTIONS: l. Where an approved spray booth constructed in accordance with the Fue Code is installed, such booth need no: be separat'd from other Group H Occupancies or from Group B Occupancies.
3. In Groups a. Division I. E and I Occupancies a three-hour occupancy separation is permitted from a Group B. Division I Occupancy used only as a garage for the parking of passenger moior vehicles having a capacity of not more than nine persons per vehicle and provided no repair or fueling is done.
3. In Group R, Division l Occupancies, a one-hour occupancy separation is permitted from a Group B. Division I Occupancy used only as a garage tor the parking of passenger motor vehicles having a capacity of not more than nine persons per vehicle and provided no repair or fueling is done and the area does not exceed 3000 square feet in a building.
4. In the one-hout occupancy separation between a Group R. Division 3 and M Occupancy, the separation may be limited to the installation of materials approved for one-hour fire-resistive construction on the garage side and a self-closing, tight-fining solid wood door Is/, inches in thickness will be permitted in lieu of a one-hour fire assembly. Fire dampers shall not be required in ducts piercing this separation for ducts constructed of not less than No. 36 gauge galvanized steel.
5. The following occupancies need not be separated from the uses to which thev are accessory: assembly rooms having a floor area of not over '50 square feet: administrative and clerical offices and similar rooms which in the aggregate do not exceed 35 percent of the floor area of the major use when not related to Group H, Div ision l and Group FI, Division 3 Occupancies.
Location on Property
Sec. 504. (a) General. Buildings shall adjoin or have access to a public space, yard, or street on not less than one side. Required yards shall be permanently maintained.
Foi the purpose of this Section, the center line of an adjoining street or alley shall be considered an adjacent property line.
Eaves over required windows shall be not less than 30 inches from the side and rear property lines For eaves, see Section 1710.
(b) Fire Resistance of Walls. Exterior walls shall have fire resistance and opening protection as set forth in Table No. 5-A, Pan III, and in accordance with such additional provisions as are set forth in Part IV. Part V and Part VIM. Distance shall be measured at right angles from the property line. The above provisions shall not apply to walls at right angles to the property line.
Projections beyond the exterior wall shall not extend beyond:
1. A point one-third the distance to the property line from an exterior wail; or

2. A point one-third the distance from an assumed vertical plane located where fire-resistive protection of openings is first required due to location on property, whichever is the least restrictive.
When openings in exterior walls are required to be protected due to distance from property line, the sum of the area of such openings shall not exceed 50 percent of the total area of the wall in each story
(c) Buildings on Same Property and Buildings Containing Courts. For the purpose of determining the required wall and opening protection, buildings on the same property and court walls of buildings over one story in height shall be assumed to have a property line between them.
When a new building is to be erected on the same property with an existing building, the assumed property line from the existing building shall be the distance to the property line for each occupancy as set forth in Table j No. 5-A and Part V.
EXCEPTION: Two or more buildings on the same property may be considered portions of one building if the aggregate area of such buildings is within the limits specified in Section 505 for a single building.
When the buildings so considered house different occupancies or are of different types of construction, the area shall be that allowed for the most restricted occupancy or construction.
Allowable Floor Areas
Sec. 505. (a) One-story areas. The area of a one-storv building shall not exceed the limits set forth in Table No. 5-C except as provided in Section 506, nor the limits specified in Chapter 16.
For buildings located in Fire Zone No. 3, the basic area may be increased by 33 'A percent.
(b) Areas of Buildings Over One Story The total area of all floors of multistory buildings shall not exceed twice the area allowed for one-stoty buildings. No single floor area shall exceed that permitted for one-story buildings.
(c) Basements and Cellars. A basement or cellar need not be included in the total allowable area, provided such basement or cellar does not qualify as a story nor exceed the area permitted for a one-story building.
fd) Area Separation Wails. Each portion of a building separated by one or mote area separation walls may be considered a separate building provided the area separation walls meet the follow ing requirements:
1. Area separation walls shall be not less than four-hour fire-resistive construction in Types I, 11-F.R., Ill and IV buildings and two-hour fire-resistive construction in Types II, One-hour, 11-N or V buildings. The total width of all openings in such walls shall not exceed 25 percent of the length of the wall in each story. Ail openings shall be protected by a fire assembly having a three-hour fire-protection rating in four-hour fire-resistive walls and one and one-half-hour fire-protection rating in two-hour fire-resistive walls.
2. Area separation walls need not extend to the outer edges of horizontal 50

projecting elements such as balconies, roof overhangs, canopies, marquees or architectural projections provided the exterior wall at the termination of the area separation wall and the projecting elements above are not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction for a width equal to the depth of the projecting elements. Wall openings within such widths shall be protected by assemblies having a three-fourths-hour fire protection rating.
3. Area separation walls shall extend from the foundation to a point at least 30 inches above the roof.
EXCEPTIONS: I. Area separation walls may terminate at the roof soffit provided the roof is of at least two-hour fire-resistive construct,on.
2. Two-hour area separation walls may terminate at the underside of roof sheathing provided that the roof has at least one-hour fire-resistive time period for a width of not less than 5 feet on each side of the area separation wall termination.
3. Two-hour area separation walls may terminate at roofs of entirely non-combustible construction.
4. Where an area separation wall separates portions of a building having different heights, such wall may terminate at a point 30 inches above the lower roof level provided the exterior wail for a height of 10 feet above the lower roof is of one-hour fire-resistive construction with openings protected by assemblies having a three-fourths-hour fire-protection rating.
EXCEPTION: The area separation wall may terminate at the sheathing of the lower roof provided the roof is of at least one-hour fire-resistive construction for a width of 10 feet without openings measured ftom the wall.
See Chapters 6 to 16 inclusive for special occupancy provisions. Allowable Area Increases
Sec. 506. (a) General. The floor areas specified in Section 505 may be increased by one of the following-
1. Separation on two sides. Where public space, streets, or yards more than 20 feet in width extend along and adjoin two sides of the building, floor areas may be increased at a rate of one and one-fourth percent for each foot by which the minimum width exceeds 20 feet, but the increase shall not exceed 50 percent.
2 Separation on three sides. Where public space, streets, or yards more than 20 feet in width extend along and adjoin three sides of the building, floor areas may be increased at a rate of tw o and one-half percent for each toot by which the minimum width exceeds 20 feel, but the inctease shall not exceed 100percent.
3. Separation on all sides. Where public space, streets, or yards more than 20 feet in width extend on all sides of a building and adioin the entire perimeter, floor areas may be increased at a rate of five percent for each foot by which the minimum width exceeds 20 feet. Such increases shall not exceed 100 percent, except for buildings not exceeding two stories in height of Group B, Division 4 Occupancy and one-story buildings housing

aircraft storage hangars and as further limited in Section 1002 (b) for aircraft repair hangars.
(b) Inlimifed Area. The area of any one- or two-story building of Group B and Group H, Division 5 Occupancies shall not be limited, if the building is provided with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system throughout, as specified in Chapter 38. and entirely surrounded and adjoined by public space, streets or yards not less than 60 feet in width.
The area of a Group B, Division 4 Occupancy in a one-story Type II, Type 111, One-hour or Tvpe IV building shall not be limited if the building is entirely surrounded and adjoined by public space, streets or yards not less than 60 feet in width.
(c) Automatic Fire-extinguishing Systems. The area specified in Section 505 may be tripled :n one-story buildings and doubled in buildings of more than one story if the building is provided with an approved automatic tire-extinguishing system throughout. The area increases permitted in this subsection may be compounded with that specified in paragraph No. 1, 2 or 3 of subsection (a> of this Section. The increases permitted in this subsection shall not apply when automatic fire-extinguishing systems are installed under the following provisions:
1. Section 507 for an increase in allowable number of stories.
2. Section 3802 (b) 6 for Group H, Divisions 1 and 2 Occupancies.
3. Substitution for one-nour fi e-resistive construction pursuant to Section 508.
Maximum Height oi Buildings and increases
Set. 507. The maximum height and number of stories of every building shall be dependent upon the character of the occupancy and the type of construction and shall not exceed the limits set forth in Table No. 5-D, except as provided in this Section and as specified in Section 503 (a) for mixed occupancy buildings.
The limits set forth in Table No. 5-D may be increased by one story if the building is provided with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system throughout. The increase in height for automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall not apply when the automatic fire-extinguishing systems throughout are installed under the following provisions:
1 Section 3802 (b) 6 for Group H, Divisions 1 and 2 Occupancies.
2. Section 506, for an increase in allowable area.
3. Substitution for one-hour fire-resistive construction pursuant to Section 508.
EXCEPTIONS: 1. Towers, spires and steeples, erecied as a pari of a baiUing and not used for habitation or storage, are limited as to height onb by --tructural design if completely of noncombusubie materials, or may extend not to exceed 20 feet above the height limit in Table No. 5-D it of cotn-buMible materials.
2 The height of one story aircraft hangars shall not be limited if the building is provided with automatic fire-extinguishmg systems throughout as

specified in Chapter 38 and is entire!?, surrounded by public cpace. streets, or yards not levs in width than one and one half times the height of the building. Set Chapters 6 to 16 inclusive for special occupancy provisions. Fire-resistive Substitution
Sec. 508. Where one-hour fire-resistive construction throughout is required by this Code, an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system, as specified in Chapter 38, may be substituted, provided such system is not otherwise required.
EXCEPTION: Such substitution shall not waive nor reduce required fire-resistiveconstruction for:
1. Occupancy separations [Section 503 (e)].
2. Exterior wall protection due to proximitv of propertv lines [Section 504(b)],
3. Area separations [Section 505 (d)].
4. Shaft enclosures (Section 1706).
5. Corridors [Section 3304 (g)].
6 Stair enclosures (Section 3308).
7. Ext! passageways [Section 3311 (a)]
8. Type of construction separation (Section 1701).
Sec. 509. Arcades connecting buildings and used exclusively as passageways need not be considered as adjacent buildings for the provisions of this Chapter, provided that the walls of the building adjoining the arcades are finished with the same construction as required for the exterior walls of the building, with no communicating openings between the arcades and the building, except doors; and provided that the arcades are of not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction or of noncombustibie materials, fire-retardant treated wood or of heavy timbei construction with 2-inch nominal sheathing.
Sec. 510. A room in which a water closet is located shall be separated from food preparation or storage rooms by a tight-fitting door.
Compressed Gases
Sec. 511. The storage and handling of compressed gases shall comply with the Fire Code.

H S<*? .ijso Section 10012 1 Storage anti handling ol hazardous and highly inHammahle or explosive materials other than flammable liquids Not permitted in l'ire Zones Nos. 1 and 2
3 1 hour less than 5 feet 2 hour less than 10 feet 1 hour less than 20 feel Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 20 feet
2 Storage and handling <>t ('las. 1, li anti III flammable liquids is specified m U.B.C. Standard No. 10-1. dry cleaning plants using il.oinit.>hle liquids, paint store-. with hulk handling, paint shops and spray painting moms anti shops Woodworking establishments planing mills, hox lactniies, buffing rooms lor tire rebuilding plants anti picking rooms: shops, factories or warehouses where loose combustible filters tti tins! art- manufactured, processed, generated or stored and pm relin- ishing moms 1- Uepuir garages 1 -! hour less than 20 feet 1 hunt elsewhere
> 3 1 hour less than 5 feet 2 hour less than 10 feet 1 hour elsewhere -I horn less than 5 lect 2 horn less than 10 lei I l hum less tluto 20 feet
5Aircraft repair hangar; Not permitted in Fire Zones Nos. 1 and 2 except as set forth in Sections' 1002 (c) and 1003 (c).
a i hour less than 00 feet Protected less than 60 feet
B See also Section 1102 i Gasoline and service .stations, storage garages where no repair work is done except exchange ol parts and maintenance requiring no open Hume, welding, or the nse of highly flammable liquids 2Wholesale and retail stores, office buildings, drinking and dining establishments having tin occupant load of less than 1(H). printing plants, municipal |*licc and hie stations, factories and workshops using material not highly Hummable <>r combustible stmage and sales rooms for combustible goods, paint stoles with l 2 hour less than 20 feet 1 hour elsew here Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 20 feet
2 1 hour Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 10 feet
buddings or |Miiti>iii> of buildings basing rooms used lor eriura tioua) purposes, beyond the 12th grade with less than 50 ocu pants in any room 3 1 hour less than 10 feet
Foi Notes see pane 54

(In Square Feet)
r r. t.fl 1 Hour N 1 Hour M 1 Hour N
A 1 1 'idimited 22.300 Nol 1 Vt milled
\ ) 2-2.1 I 111111iit*d 22,300 10 100 Not Iei nutted 10,100 Nul 1 S-i i ml to) 10,100 7,000 Not Permitted
V) 1-4 1 nlmuted 22,500 10,100 0,800 10,100 H.800 10,100 7,900 i: l hilunited ! 1,000 15,200 10. 100 15,200 10,100 15,200 1 1,800 0800
! il-2 1 nlmuted 1 1,300 5.100 Not l\ limited 5,100 Not Permitted 5.100 3,900 Nut Pei mitted
11 ) 1 nlmuted 1 1. 500 Nnl Permuted1
in 12' 1 1 :> SI 1 0 lot) 1,200 2,son 1 200 2,800 1200 3,301) 1000
III ; 4-5 I iiliioited |S,h( 10 8,400 5,(.00 8,100 5,1.00 8,100 0,01.0 .1800
II i 1 -2 .1 l nhiuited 10.900 f 3 "OtK 9,9' Ml 1 500 < 3.000 13.500 Ml 500 OOMt
1) 4 t 'nlimited 15,000 20 MM) 1 1,500 20, >4KI 13,500 20, tOO 15,800 0000
It 1 1 i. limited 22,500 In 11to 0,800' 10,100 0,80 It 3 Unlimited
M* See Chapter 15
See Section 902 (l).
'For additional limitations in I'ire Zones No I and No. 2 see Sections 1002 and 1003
For open parking garages see Section I 100 N No requirement for lire lesistanee
For limitation and eseeptinns see Section 1302( h) ! It Fire Resistive
r,l or agiieultuial hnihlings also see Vppi ndis, f .h.ipU r 15. il l Ihavy 1 mihei

ncr.ui>Hcr 1 " J . J V
T R F R t Hour N 1 Hour N H, 1 Hour N
1 lili'i'ilril IBM 55 |j 05 ' L " 40
\-l Unlimitol 1 Nnl 1ormilb t!
U2.2.I rnliniilit! 1 o No! IVrmittrtl c> Not Per mil let! o 2 Not Pomiittofl
M V 1 1 'nlimilf il 12 o 1 2 i 2 cy i
I'nli,iiili'il ! 2 i o 1 2 2 1
1 ) 1 1 'nlimilnl 3 1 Not Il-rimMorl i Not IVrnottcil i 1 Not IVmiitti'il
1 ) 2 I'lilimili'il : 2 Not IN initttoil cy Not IVnnittitl 2 2 Not IVrmittfMl
it i 'nliiiiitrtl 2 Nnl lYrmittnfl-
ii11 1 'nliniitril O 1 L__ 1 _ 1 1 1 i
in 2- > i-i 1 'nliniilcil 5 9 i i 2 2 i
1' ) !_> I1 1 !nlii ihtl 12 1 2 1 ;i >
11 ) \ I nlimif nl 12 1 2 4 2 4 3 o
H > 1 l fnlimitrl 12 1 21 \ 24 t 3 2*
R 1 1 l 'nliioilnl 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
\P Sor f.lmplci 15
'Sre Section 802 < ). To! N. I R and H T. Table No. 5 1.
*Sce Section 902 (b). Footnotes 3. 4 and 5 ait same as in Table No. 5-C.

Chapter 11
NOTE: Tables in Chapter 11 appear at the end of the Chapter.
Group B, Divisions 1 2 and 3 Occupancies Defined
Sec. 1101. Group B, Divisions 1,2 and 3 Occupancies shall be:
Division 1. Gasoline service stations, storage garages where no repair work is done except exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no open flame, w elding or the use of highly flammable liquids.
Division 2. Wholesale and retail 'tores, office buildings, drinking and dining establishments hav ing an occupant load of less than 100, printing plants, municipal police and fire stations, factories and workshops using materials not highly flammable or combustible, storage and sales rooms for combustible goods, paint stores without bulk handling. (See Section 402 "or definition of Assembly Buildings.)
Build ngs or portions of buildings having rooms used for educational purposes beyond the 12th grade with less than 50occupants in any room.
Division 3. Aircraft hangars where no repair work is done except exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no open flame, welding, or the use of highly flammable liquids.
Open parking garages.
For occupancy separations see Table No. 5-B.
For occupant load see Section 3301.
Construction, Height, and Allowable Area
Set 1102. (a) General. Buildings or parts of buildings classed in Group B, Du tsions 1,2 or 3 Occupancy because of the use or character of the occupancy shall be limited to the types of construction set forth in Tables No. 5-C and No. 5-D and shall not exceed, in area or height, the limits specified in Sections 505, 506, and 507.
Other provisions of this Code notw ithstanding, a Group B, Division 1 Occupancy located in the basement or first story of a building housing a Group B, Division 2 or a Group R Division 1 Occupancy mav be classed as a separate and distinct building for the purpose of area limitation, limitation of number of stories and type of construction, when all of the following conditions are met:
1. TheGroupB, Division 1 Occupancy is of Type 1 Construction.
2. There is a Three-hom Occupancy Separation between the Group B, Division 1 Occupancy and all portions of the Group B, Division 2 or Group R, Division 1 Occupancy.
3. The basement or first story is restricted to the storage of passenger

vehicles (having a capacity of not more than nine persons per vehicle), but may contain laundry rooms and mechanical equipment rooms incidental to the operation of the building.
4. The maximum building height in feet shall not exceed the limits set forth in Table No. 5-D for the least type of construction involv ed.
(b) Special Provisions. Marine or motor vehicle service stations including canopies and supports over pumps shall be of noncombustible, fire-retardant treated wood or of one-hour fire-resistive construction
EXCEPTIONS: I. Roofs of one-story service stations may be of heavy-timber construction.
2. Canopies conforming to Section 5212 may be erected over pumps.
In areas where motor vehicles, boats or airplanes are stored, and in gasoline service stations, floor surfaces shall be of noncombustible, nonabsorbent materials. Floors shall drain to an approved oil separator or trap discharging to sew ers in accordance with the Plumbing Code.
EXCEPTION: Floors may be surfaced or waterproofed with asphaltic paving materials in areas where motor vehicles or airplane* are stored or operated.
Storage areas in excess of 1000 square feet in connection with wholesale or retail sales, shall be separated from the public areas by a One-hour Fire-resistive Occupancy Separation as defined in Chapter 5. Such areas may be increased to 3000 square feet when sprinklers, not otherwise required, are installed in the storage area.
EXCEPTION: A One-hour Fire-resistive Occupancy Separation is not required where an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system is installed throughout the building. Area increases also shall be permitted as specified in Section 506tc).
Storage garages in connection with Group R, Division 1 Occupancies shall have an unobstructed headroom clearance of not less than 6 feet 6 inches above the finish floor to any ceiling, beam, pipe, or similar construction except for walPmounted shelves, storage surfaces, racks or cabinets.
For attic space partitions and draft stops see Section 3205.
For smoke and heat venting see Section 3206.
Location on Property
Sec. 1103. For fire-resistive protection of exterior walls and openings, as determined Ly location on properly, see Section 504 and Part V.
Exit Facilities
Sec. 1104. Stairs exits, and smokeprocf enclosures shall be provided as specified in Chapter 33.
Light, Ventilation and Sanitation
Sec. 1105. All portions of Group B, Divisions 1, 2 and 3 Occupancies, shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area equal to one-tenth of the total floor area, and natural ventilation by means of exterior openings with an area not less than one

twentieth of the total floor area or shali be provided with artificial light and a mechanically operated ventilating system as specified in Section 605.
In all buildings or portions thereof where flammable liquids are used, exhaust ventilation shall be provided, sufficient to produce four air
changes per hour. Such exhaust ventilation shall be taken from a point at or near the floor level.
In all enclosed parking garages, used for storing cr handling cf au omobiles operating under their own power and on all loading platforms :r. bus terminals, ventilation shall be provided capable ol exhausting a minimum of 1.5 cfm per squate foot of gross floor area. The Building Official may approve an aiiernate ventilation system designed to exhaust a minimum of 14,000 cfm for each operating vehicle. Such system shall be based upon the anticipated instantaneous movement rate of vehicles but not less than 2.5 percent (or one vehicle) of the garage capacity. Automatic CO sensing device? may be employed to modulate the ventilation system to maintain a maximum average concentration of CO of 50 ppm during any eight hour period, with a maximum concentration not greater than 200 ppm for a period not exceeding one hour. Connecting offices, waiting rooms, ticket booths, etc., shall be supplied with conditioned air under positive pressure.
EXCEPTION: In gasoline service stations without lubrication pits, storage garages and aircraft hangars not exceeding an area of 5000 square feet, the Building Official may authorize the omission of such ventilating equipment where, in his opinion, the building is supplied with unobstructed openings to the outer air which are sufficient to provide the necessary ventilation.
Every building or portion thereof where persons are employed shall be provided with at least one water closet. Separate facilities shall be provided for each sex when the number of employees exceeds four and both sexes are employed. Such toilet facilities shall be located either in such building or conveniently in a building adjacent thereto on the same property.
Such water closet rooms in connection with food establishments where lood is prepared, stored, or served, shall have a nonabsorbent interior finish on Doors, walls, and ceilings and shall have hand washing facilities therein or adjacent thereto.
All water closet rooms shall be provided with an exterior window at least 3 square feet in area, fully openable; or a vertical duct not les? than 100 square inches in area for the first toilet facility with an additional 50 square inches for each additional toilet facility. or a mechanically operated exhaust system, which is connected to the light switch, capable of providing a complete change of air every 15 minutes. Such systems shall be vented to the outside atr and at the point of discharge shall be at least 5 feet from any openable w indow.
For other requirements on water closets, see Section 1711.
Shaft Enclosures
Sec. 1106. Exits shali be enclosed as specified in Chapter 33.

Elevator shafts, vent shafts and other vertical openings shall be enclosed, and the enclosure shall be as specified in Section 1706.
Fire extinguishing Systems
Sec. 1107. When required by other provisions of this Code, automatic fire-extinguishing systems and standpipes shall be installed as specified in Chapter 38.
Special Hazards
Sec. 1108. Chimneys and heating apparatus shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 37 of this Code and the Mechanical Code.
No storage of volatile flammable liquids shall be allowed in Croup B, Division 1, 2 or 3 Occupancies and the handling and use of gasoline, fuel oil and other flammable liquids shall not be permitted in any Group B. Division 1, 2 or 3 Occupancy unless such use and handling comply with L .B.C. Standard No. 10-1.
Devices generating a glow or flame capable of igniting gasoline vapor shall not be installed or used within 18 inches of the floor in any room in which volatile flammable liquids or gas are used or stored.
Every room containing a boiler or central heating plant shall be separated from the rest of the building by not less than a One-hour Fire-resistive Occupancy Separation.
EXCEPTIONS: 1. Boilers or central heating plants where the largest pie^e of tuei equipment does not exceed 400,000 Btu per hour input.
2. Buildings not more than one story in height of Croup B, Division 2 Occupancy with an occupant load of less than 30.
Buildings erected or converted to house high-piled combustible stock shall comply with the Fire Code.
Open Parking Garages
Nec. 1109. (a) Scope. Except where specific provisions are made in the follow ing subsections, other requirements of this Code shall apply.
(b) Definition. For the purpose of this Section, an open parking garage is a structure of Type 1 or II construction, which is open on two or more sides totaling not less than 40 percent of the building perimeter and w hich is used exclusively for parking or storage of private pleasure cars. For a side to be considered open, the total area of openings distributed along the side shall be not less than 50 percent of the exterior area of the side at each tier.
EXCEPTION: The grade level tier may contain an office, waiting and toilet rooms having a total area of not more than 1000 square feet and such area .iced not be separated trom the open parking garage.
Open parking garages are further classified as either ramp-access or mechanical-access. Ramp-access open parking garages are those employing a series of continuously rising floors or a series of interconnecting ramps between floors permitting the movement of vehicles under their own power from and to the street level. Mechanical-access parking garages

Part V
Chapter 17
NOTE: Table No. 17-A appears at the end ot the Chapter. For tabulation showing changes to the type of construction designations that were used in the 1973 Edition, see page 21.
Sec. 1701. The requirements of Par. V are for the various Types of
Construction and represent varying degrees of public safety and resistance to fire. Every building shall be classified by the Building Official into one of the Types of Construction set forth in Table No 17-A. Any building which does not entirely conform to a Type of Construction set forth in Table No. 17-A shall be classified by the Building Official into a type having an equal or iesser degree of fire resistance.
No building or portion thereof shall be required to conform to the details of a Type of Construction higher than that type which meets the minimum requirements based on Occupancy (Part 111) or Location in Fire Zone (Part IV) even though certain features of such building actually conform to a higher Type of Construction.
Where specific materials, types of construction or fire-resistive protection are required, such requirements shall be the minimum requirements and any materials, types of construction, or fire-resistive protection which will afford equal or greater public safety or resistance to fire, as specified in this Code, may be used.
Portions of buildings separated as specified in Section 505 (d) may be considered a separate building for classification of types of construction. When there is no such separation, the area of the entire building shall not^ exceed the least area permitted for the types of construction involved.
Structural Frame
Sec. 1702. The structural frame shall be considered to be the columns and the girders, beams, trusses, and spandrels hav ing direct connections to the columns and all other members which are essential to the stability of the building as a whole. The members of floor or roof panels which have no connection to the columns shall be considered secondary members and not a part of the structural frame.

Usable Space Under Floors
Sec. 1703. Usable space under the first story shall be enclosed except in Group- R, Division 3 and M Occupancies and such enclosure when constructed of metal or wood shall be protected on the side of the usable space as required for one-hour fire-resistive construction. Doors shall be self-closing, of noncombustibie construction or solid wood core, not less than 1V* inches in thickness.
Sec. 1704. Roof covering shall be fire-retardant except n Type V building', housing Groups R or M Occupancies, where it may be as specified in Section 3203 (f).
EXC EPTION: In Fire Zone No. 3, Class C roof coverings which comply with U.B.C. Standard No. 32-7 and roofs of No. I cedar or redwood shakes and No. 1 shingles constructed in accordance with requirements of I B.C. Standard No. 32-14 for Special Purpose Roofs may be used on buildings of Types 111 N and V-N construction housing Group A, Divisions 3 and 4, Group E, and Group B. Divisions I and 2 Occupancies, provided the horizontal clearance between cornice and property line, except street front, is not less than 10 feet.
Skylights shall be constructed as required in Chapter 34.
Penthouses shall be constructed as required in Chapter 36.
For use of plastics in roofs see Chapter 52.
For Attics: Access and Area, see Section 3205. For Roof Drainage, see Section 3207.
Exceptions to Table No. 17-A
See. 1705. (a) General. The provisions of this Section are intended as exceptions to construction requirements specified in Chapters 5 through 22
(b) Fixed Partitions. Regardless of the fire-resistive requirements for permanent partitions, partitions dividing portions of stores, offices, or similar places occupied by one tenant- only, and which do not establish a corridor serving an occupant load of 30 or more, may be constructed of:
1. Noncombustible materials
2. Fire-retardant treated w-ood.
3. One-hour fire-resistive construction.
4. Wood panels or similar light construction up to three-fourths the heigh! of the room ir. which placed; when more than three-fourths the height of the room, such partitions shad have not less than the upper one-fourth of the partition constructed of glass.
For use of plastics in partitions see Section 5208.
(c) Folding, Portable or Movable Partitions. Approved folding, portable or movable partitions need not have a fire-resistive rating prov ided:
1. They do not block required exits (without providing alternativ e conforming exits) and they do not establish an exit corridor.

2. Their location is restricted by means of permanent tracks, guides, or other approved methods.
3. Flammability shall be limited to materials hasing a flame-spread classification as set forth in Table No. 42-B for rooms or areas.
(d) W!u Fronting on Streets or Yards. Regardless of fire-res:snve re-
qur vnts tor exterior wails, certain elements of the waiis fronting on
so or yards having a width of 50 feet in Fire Zone No. 1 or 40 feet in
f e Zone No. 2 or No. 3 may be constructed as follows:
1. Bulkheads below show windows, show-window frames, aprons and showcases may be of combustible materials provided the height of such construction does not exceed 15 feet above grade.
2. Wood veneer of boards not less than 1 -inch nominal thickness or exterior type panels not less than %-inch nominal thickness may be applied to wall- provided the veneer does not exceed 15 feet above grade, and further provided such veneer shall be placed either directly against noncombustibie surfaces or furred out from such surfaces not to exceed l'/j inches with all concealed spaces fire-stopped as prov ided in Section 2517 (f).
(e) Trim. Trim, picture molds, chair rails, baseboards, handrails and show-window backing may be of wood. Foam plastic trim covering not more than 10 percent of the wall or ceiling area may be used provided such trim (1) has a density of no less than 20 pounds per cubic foot, (2) has a maximum thickness of A inch and a maximum width of 4 inches and (3) has a flame-spread rating no greater than 75. Unprotected wood doors and windows may be used except where openings are required to be fire protected.
Materials used for interior finish of walls and ceilings, including wainscoting, shall be as specified in Chapter 42.
(f) Loading Platforms. Exterior loading platforms may be of noncombustible construction or heavy timber construction with wood floors not less than 2 inches nominal thickness. Such wood construction shall not be carried through the exterior walls.
(g) Insulating Boards. Combustible insulating boards may be used under finished flooring.
Shaft Enclosures
Sec. 1706. (a) General. Openings extending vertically through floors shall be enclosed in a shaft of fire-resistive construction having the time period set forth in Table No. 17-A for Shaft Enclosures." Protection for
stairways shall be as specified in Sections 3308 and 3309.
EXCEPTION*: !. In other than Group I Occupancies an enclosure will noi be required for openings which serve only one adjacent floor and are not connected with openings serving other floors and which are not concealed within the building construction
2. In buildings housing Group B Occupancies equipped with automatic fire-extinguishing systems throughout, enclosures shall not be required for

escalators where the top of the escalator opening at each story i: provided with a draft curtain and automatic fire sprinklers are installed around the perimeter of the opening within 2 I tret of the draft curtain. The draft curtain shall enclose the ne'imeier of the unenclosed opening and extend from the ceding downward at least 12 inches on all s:des. The spacing between sprinklers shall not exceed 6 feet.
3. In Type V buildings, chutes and dumbwaiter shafts with a cross-sectional area of not more than 9 square feel may be unenclosed if lined on the inside with lath and plaster or gypsum wallboard. with such lining covered with not less than No. 26 galvanized sheet metal gauge with all joints in such sheet metal locklapped All openings into any such enclosure shall be protected by metal or metal-clad doors with either metal or metal-clad jambs, casings or frames.
4. Exit enclosures shall conform to the applicable provisions of Sections 330£ and 3309.
5. In one and two-story buildings of other than Group i Occupancies, shafts for gas vents and for ducts or piping which extend through not more than two floors need not comply with Table No. -J7-A.
6. Gas vents and noncombustible piping installed in walls of buildings passing through three floors or less (four if equipped with automatic fire-extinguishing system) need not comply with Table No. 17-A. Such shafts shall be effectively draft stopped at each floor or ceiling.
(b) Protection of Openings. Every opening into a shaft enclosure shall be protected by a self-closing fire assembly conforming to Section 4306 and having a fire-protection rating of one hour for openings through one-hour walls and one and one-half hours for openings through two-hour walls.
EXCEPTIONS: 1 Openings to the exterior may be unprotected when so permitted by Table No. 5-A.
2. Opening' produced by air ducts piercirg shaft enclosure walls mav be protected by fire dampers conforming to li.B C. Standard No. 43-7.
(c) Termination of Rubbish-linen Chutes. In other than Group R. Division 3 Occupancies, rubbish and linen chutes shall terminate in rooms separated from the remainder of the building by a One-hour Fire-resistive Occupancy Separation. Openings into the chutes shall not be located in exit corridors or stairways.
(d) Elevator Shafts. Shafts housing elevators and extending through more than two stories shall be vented to the outside. The area of vents shall be not less than 3'/: percent of the area of the elevator shaft, with a minimum of 3 square feet per elevator.
Weather Protection
Sec. 1707. (a) W eather Resistive Barriers. All w eather exposed surfaces shall have a weather resistive barriet to protect the interior wall covering. Suvh barrier shall be equal to that provided for in U.B.C. Standard No. 17-1 for Kraft waterproof building paper or U.B.C. Standard No. 32-1 for asphalt saturated rag felt. Building paper and feit shall be free from holes and breaks other than those created by fasteners and construction system

due to attaching of the building paper, and shall be applied over studs or sheathing of all exterior walls. Such felt or paper shall be applied weatherboard fashion, lapped not less than 2 inches at horizontal joints and not less than 6 inches at vertical joints.
Weather protective barrier may be omitted in the following cases:
1. When exterior covering is of approved weatherproof panels.
2. In back-plastered construction.
3. When there is no human occupancy.
4. Over water-repellent panel sheathing.
5. Under approved paperbacked metal or wire fabric lath.
6. Behind lath and portland cement plaster applied to the underside of roof and eave projections.
All parapets shall be provided with coping of approved materials. All flashing, counterflashing, and coping when of metal shall be of not less than No 26U.S. gauge corrosion-resistant metal.
(c) Waterproofing Weather Exposed Areas. Balconies, landings, exterior stairways and similar surfaces exposed to the weather and sealed underneath shall be waterproofed.
Members Carrying Masonry or Concrete
Sec. 1708. All members carrying masonry or concrete walls in buildings over one story in height shall be fireprotected with not less than one-hour fire protection.
EXCEPTION: Fire protection may be omitted from the bottom flange of lintels spanning not over 6 feet, shelf angles or plates that are not a part of the structural frame.
Sec. 1709. (a) Ceneral. Parapets shall be provided on all exterior walls of buildings.
EXCEPTIONS: 1. Walls which are not required to be of fire-resistive construction.
2. Wall' which terminate at roofs of not less than two-hour fire-resistive construction or roofs constructed entirely of noncombustible materials.
3. Wails where, due to location on property, unprotected openings are permitted.
4 Walls or. ail buildings having a floor area of not more than i000 square feet per floor
(b) Construction. Parapets shall have the same degree of fire resistance required for the wall upon which they are erected. The height of the parapet shall be not less than 30 inches above the point where the roof surface and the wall intersect. Where the roof slopes toward a parapet at slopes greater than 2:12 the parapet shall extend to the same height as any portion of the roof that is within the distance where protection of wall openings would be required.

Sec. 1710. Cornices, architectural appendages, eave overhangs, exterior private balconies, and similar projections extending beyond the floor area as defined in Section 407, shall conform to 'he requirements of this Section.
Projections from walls of Type 1 or II construction shall be of noncombustible materials.
Projections from walls of Type III, IV or V construction may be of noncombustible or combustible materials.
Combustible projections from walls located where protection of openings is required shall be one-hour fire-resistive or heavy timber conforming to Section 2106.
Projections shall not extend more than 12 inches into the areas where openings are prohibited.
For projections extending over public property, see Chapter 45.
For combustible ornamentation, see Section 1705 (d).
Water Closet Compartments and Showers
Sec. 1711. (a) Floors and Walls. In other than dwelling units, toilet room floors shall have a smooth, hard, nonabsorbent surface such as port-land cement, concrete, ceramic tile or other approved materia! which extends upward onto the walls at least 5 inches. Walls within water closet compartments and walls within 2 feet of the front and sides of urinals shall be similarly finished to a height of 4 feet and, except for structural elements, the materials used in such walls shall be of a type which is not adversely affected by moisture.
(b) Toilet Facilities. Each water closet stool shall be located in a clear space not less than 30 inches in w idth and have a clear space in front of the water closet stool of not less than 24 inches.
In other than Groups R, Division 3 and M Occupancies, when toilet facilities are provided which are accessible by a level entry, ramp or elevator, each toilet room shall have a clear and unobstructed access of not less than 44 inches. All doorways leading to such toilet rooms shall have a clear and unobstructed w idth of not less than 30 inches. Each such toilet room shall have the following:
1. A clear space of not less than 44 inches on each side of doors prov iding access to toilet rooms. This distance shall be measured at right angles to the face of the door when in the closed position. Not more than one door may encroach into the -14-inch space.
2. Except in dwelling units and guest rooms, a clear space within the toilet room of sufficient size to inscribe a circle with a diameter not less than 60 inches. Doors in any position may encroach into this space by not more than 12 inches.
3. A clear space not less than 42 inches wide and 48 inches long in front of at least one water closet stool for the use of the handicapped.

When such water closet stool is within a compartment, entry to the compartment shall have a clear width of 30 inches when located at the end and a clear width of 34 inches when located at the side. A door, if provided, shall not encroach into the required space in front of the water closet. Except for door swing, a clear unobstructed access not less than 44 inches in width shall be provided to toilet compartments designed for use by the handicapped.
4. Grab bars near each side or one side and the back of the toilet stool securely attached 32 inches to 34 inches above and parallel to the floor. Grab bars at the side snail be 42 inches long with the front end positioned 24 inches in front of the water closet stool. Grab bars at the back shall be not less than 30 inches long. Grab bars shall have an outside diameter of not less than l'/ inches nor more than 1'/: inches and shall provide a clearance of 1 Vi inches between the grab bar and adjacent surface. Grab bars need not be provided in Group R, Division 1 apartment houses.
5. When it can be established that the facilities are usable by a person in a wheelchair, dimensions other than those above shall be acceptable.
(c) Toilet Room Facilities. In other than Group R, Division 3, Group M, and Group R, Division 1 apartment house Occupancies, toilet room facilities shall be as follows:
1. Except for the projection of bowls and waste piping, a clear unobstructed space 26 inches in width, 2"? inches in height and 12 inches in depth shall be provided under at least one lavatory.
2. Where mirrors are provided, at least one shall be installed so that the bottom of the mirror is within 40 inches of the floor.
3. Where towel and disposal fixtures are provided, at least one shall be within 40 inches of the floor.
(d) Shower Areas. Showers shall be finished as specified in subsection (a) to a height of not less than 6 feet. Materials other than structural elements used in such walls shall be of a type which is not adversely affected by moisture.
(e) Doors and Panels. Doors and panels of shower and bathtub enclosures shall be substantially constructed from approved shatter- resistant mate'ials. Hinged shower doors shall open outward.
(0 Glazing for Shower and Bathtub Enclosures. Glazing used in doors and panels of shower and bathtub enclosures shall be fully tempered, laminated safety glass or approved plastic. When glass is used it shall have a minimum thickness of not less than /t inch when fully tempered, or V* inch when laminated and shall pass the test requirements of U.B.C. Standard No. 54-2.
(g) Plastics. Plastics used in doors and panels of shower and bathtub enclosures shall be of a shatter-resistant type.

Water Fountains
Sec. 1712. Where water fountains are provided, at leas; one shall have a spout w ithin 33 inches of the floor and shall have up-front, hand-operated controls. 'W hen fountains are located in an alcove, the alcove shall be not less than 32 inches in width.
Sec. 1713. Where public telephones are provided, at least one shall be installed so that the handset, dial, and coin teceiver are within 54 inches of the floor. Unobstructed access within 12 inches of the telephone shall be provided. Such access shall be not less than 30 inches in width.
Clearances lor Electric Ranges and Hot Plates
Sec. 1714. Gas and electric ranges or hot plates shall have clearances from combustible material, and ventilation in accordance with the Mechanical Code.
Sec. 1715. fa) General. Helistops may be erected on buildings or other locations if they are constructed in accordance w ith this Section.
(b) Size. The touchdown or landing area for helicopters of less than 3500 pounds shall be a minimum of 20 feet by 20 feel in size. The touchdown area shall be surrounded on all sides by a clear area having a minimum average width at roof level of 15 feet bu; with no width less than 5 feet.
(c) Design. Helicopter landing areas and the supports therefor on the roof of a building shall be of noncombustible construction. Landing areas shall be designed to confine any flammable liquid spillage to the landing area itself and provision shall be made to drain such spillage away from any exit or stairway serving the helicopter landing area or from a structure housing such exit or stairway.
(d) Exits and Stairways. Exits and stairways from helistops shall comply with the provisions of Chapter 33 of this Code, except that all landing areas located on buildings or structures shall have two or more exits. For landing platforms or roof areas less than 60 feet in length, or less than 2000 square feet in area, the second exit may be a fire escape or ladder leading to the floor below.
(e) Federal Aviation Approval. Before operating helicopters from helistops, approval must be obtained from the Federal Aviation Agency.
Sec. 1716. AH unenclosed floor and roof openings, open and glazed sides of landings and ramps, balconies or porches which are more than 30 inches above grade or floor below, and roofs used for other than service of the building, shall be protected by a guardrail. Guardrails shall be not less than 42 inches in height. Open guaidrail and stair railings shall have in-lermediate rails or an ornamental pattern suvh that a sphere 9 inches, m

diameter cannot pass through. The height of stair railings on open sides may be as specified in Section 3305 (j) in lieu of providing a guardrail. Ramps shall, in addition, have handrails when required by Section 3306.
EXCEPTIONS: I. Guardrails need not be provided on the loading side of loading docks.
2. Guardrails for Group R, Division 3 and Group M, Division 1 Occupancies may be 36 inches in height.
3. Interior guardrails within individual dwelling units or guest rooms of Group R, Division 1 Occupancies may be 36 inches in height.
4. The open space between the intermediate rails or ornamental pattern of guardrails in areas of commercial and industrial type occupancies which are not accessible to the public may be increased such that a 12-inch diameter sphere cannot pass through.
5. Guardrails on a balcony immediately in front of the first row of fixed sears and which are not at the end of an aisle may be 26 inches in height.
Foam Plastics
Sec. 1717. ta) General. Foam plastics shall comply with the toxicity requirements of Section 5202. Except where specifically exempted by Section 1717 (b), foam plastics shall have a flame-spread rating of not more than 75 and shall have a smoke developed rating of not more than 450 when tested in accordance with U.B.C. Standard No. 42-1 in the thickness intended for use.
(b) Specific Requirements. The following requirements shall apply to all uses of foam plastics in or on the walls, ceiling or both, or in attics, roof or floors, crawl spaces or similar areas unless otherwise specifically approved in Section 1717 (c) or by other sections of this Code. For trim see Section 1705 (e).
1. Foam plastics may be used in the following locations:
A. Within the cavity of a masonry or concrete wall regardless of the type of construction.
B. On the room side surface of conforming walls or ceiling or other surfaces referred to in the first sentence of Section 1717 (b), provided the foam plastic is fully protected from the interior of the building by a thermal barrier of '/2-inch gypsum wallboard having a finish rating of not less than 15 minutes or other approved material having an equivalent finish rating as determined by U.B.C. Standard No. 43-1. Thermal barriers shall be installed in a manner that they will remain in place for a minimum of 15 minutes under the same test conditions.
C. Within the wall cavity or as an element of combustible nonfire-resistive wall construction provided the protection is applied as described in Item B.
D. Within the cavity or as an element of walls classified as combustible fire-resistive construction provided fire tests are conducted in accordance with U.B.C. Standard No. 43-1 and the protection from

the interior of the building is at least the equivalent to that required in Item B.
2. Foam plastics insulation having a flame spread of 75 or less when tested in a thickness of 4 inches may be used in thicknesses up to 10 inches fo use in cold storage rc ms, food processing rooms, ice plants and s' ilar rooms when the room is protected with am matic fire-ex anguishing system and the insuU'ton is protected from the interior of the building by a thermal barrier o! por'iand cement piaster having a 15-minute finish rating, or other approve : having an equivalent finish rating as determined by U.B.C. St idard No. 43 1. Thermal bar-re shall be installed in a manner that will assure they remain in place for 15 notes.
Foam plastic insulation h ing a flame spread of 25 or less may be i ; in or on walls in a thickne of not more than 4 inches w-hen the foam r tic is covered by a thickness not less than 0.032-inch aluminum or No. 2t gauge galvanized sheet steel and the insulated area is protected with automatic sprinklers. Such walls shall not be used where noncombustible or fire-resistive construction is required.
4. Foam plastics may be used as a roof covering if the foam plastic is a part of a Class A, B or C roofing assembly. That plastic foam which is nearest the interior of the building shall be protected by an approved barrier which need not have a 15-minute finish rating.
Ordinary roof coverings, other than Class A, B. or C, may be applied over foam plastic when the foam is separated from the interior of the building by plywood sheathing not less than hi inch in thickness with exterior glue, with edges supported by blocking, tongue and groove joints, or other approved type of edge support, or an equivalent material.
5. Where doors are permitted without a fire-resistive rating, foam plastic having a flame-spread rating of 25 or less may be used at a core material when the door facing is of metal having a minimum thickness of
0.032-inch aluminum or No. 26 gauge sheet steel.
FXCEPTIOV Door< with foam plastic cores tested in accordance *tth U b.C Standard No. 43-2 need only comp!) with thr provisions of Section 1717(a).
6. Foam plastic having a flame-spread rating of 75 or less may be used as siding backer board or sheathing with a maximum of /.-inch thickness when it is of not more than 2000 Btu per square foot and is separated from the interior of the building by not less than 2 inches of mineral insulation or equivalent.
(c) Specific Approval. Plastic foam not meeting the specific requirements of subsection (b) abov e may be specifically apptoved based on approved diversified tests such as, but not limited to, tunnel tests conducted in accordance with l.B.C. Standard No. 42-1, fire tests related to actual end use such as a cornet test and an ignition temperature test. The specific approval may be ba.-ed on the end use, quantity, location and similar considerations where such tests would not be applicable or practical.

(In Hours)
For Details see Chapters under Occupancy and Types ol Construction and lor Exceptions see Section 1705.
FIRE RESISTIVE Fire Resistive 1 Mr. N 1 Hr. N H.T 1-Hr M
Exterior Bearing Walls i Sir. 180.1 (a) 4 1903 (a) i N 4 2103(a) 4 2103 (a) 4 210 ) (a) i N
Inteli Exterior Nonhearing Walls 1 Sec. 1801 (a) 4 1903 (a) i N 4 2103 (a) 4 2103(a) 4 2103(a) i N
Structural Frame* 3 2 i N 1 N 1 or H.T. i N
Partitions Permanent H 17 i2 N 1 N 1 or H.T. i N
Shaft Enclosures 2 2 i 1 1 1 1 1706 1706
Floors n 2 i N 1 N H.T. 1 N
Hoofs 2 Sec 1806 1906 i 2006 N 1 N H.T. 1 N
Exterior Doors and Windows Si-c 1803 (b) 1903 Note For changes 10 types of construction designations, see page 21.
N No general requirements for fire resistance HI. Heavy Timber.
'Strui tural frame elements in the exterior wall shall be protected against external fire exposure as required for exterior bearing walls or the structural frame, whichever is greater
'Fire-retardant treated wood (see Section 407) may be used in the assembly provided fire-resistante requirements are maintained. See Sections 1801, 1901 and 2001. respectively

1. Aircraft Hangars 10 500 Yes
(No Repair) 2. Auction Rooms 30 7 Yes
3. Assembly Areas, Concentrated Use (without fixed seats) 50 7 Yes3 4
Auditoriums Rowling Alleys (Assembly areas) Churches and Chapels Dance Floors Lodge Rooms Reviewing Stands Stadiums 4. Assembly Areas, LesS-eon-eentrated Use 50 15 Yes3
Conference Rooms Dining Rooms Drinking Establishments Exhibit Rooms Gymnasiums Lounges Skating Rinks Stages 5. Childrens Homes and Homes for the Aged 5 80 Yes5
6. Classrooms 50 20 Yes
7. Dormitories 10 50 Yes5
8. Dwellings 10 300 No
9. Garage, Parking 30 200 Yes6
10. Hospitals and Sanitariums-Nursing Homes 5 80 Yes
11. Hotels and Apartments 10 200 Yes when
12. Kitchen Commercial 30 200 more than 3 stories No
13. Library Reading Room 50 50 Yes3
14. Locker Rooms 30 50 Yes
15. Mechanical Equipment Room 30 300 No
16. Nurseries for Children ( Da> -care) 6 50 Yes
< Continued)

17. Offices.. _ m - lito h.
IS. School Shops and Vocational Rooms 50 50 Yes
19. Stores Retail Sales Rooms Basement 7 20 Yes
Ground Floor 50 30 Yes'
Upper Floors 10 50 Yes
20. Warehouses 30 300 Yes5
21. All Others 50 100
'Refer to Sections 3318 and 3319 for other specific requirements. Elevators shall not be construed as providing a required exit.
3Access to secondary areas On balconies or mezzanines may be by stairs only.
4Reviewing stands, grandstands and bleachers need not comply.
5Access to floors other than that closest to grade may be by stairs only. 6Access to floors other than that closest to grade and to garages used in connection with apartment houses may be by stairs only.
"See Section 3302 for basement exit requirements.

5401 -5404
Chapter 54
Sec. 5401. (a) Genera!. The provisions of this Chapter apply to:
1. Exterior glass and glazing in all occupancies except Groups R and M not over three stories in height; and
2. Interior and exterior glass and glazing in all occupancie: abject to human impact as specified in Section 5406.
(b) Standards. Standards for material shall be as specified in this Chapter and U.B.C. Standard No. 54-1.
Standards for glazing subject to human impact (hazardous location) as specified in Section 5406 shall be as specified in U.B.C. Standard No. 54-2,
(c) Other Provisions. See Part V of this Code for additional glass requirements where openings are required to be fire protected and Section 5204 for openings glazed with plastics.
Sec. 5402. Each light shall bear the manufacturers label designating the type and thickness of glass. When approved by the Building Official, labels may be omitted from other than safety glazing materials provided an affidavit is furnished by the glazing contractor certifying that each light is glazed in accordance with approved plans and specifications.
Each light of safety glazing materia! installed in hazardous locations as defined in Section 5406 of this Chapter shall be identified by a label which will specify the labeler, whether the manufacturer or installer, and state that safety glazing materia! has been utilized in such installation. The label shall be legible and visible from the inside of the building after installation and shall specify that the label shall not be removed.
EXCEPTION: Tempered glass shall have an etched manufacturer's label.
Area Limitations
Sec. 5403. Exterior glass and glazing shall be capable of safely withstanding the loads set forth in Table No. 23-F, acting inward or outward. The area of individual lights shall be not more than set forth in Table No. 54-A or as adjusted by Table No. 54-B.
Sec. 5404. Glass firmly supported on all four edges shall be glazed with minimum laps and edge clearances set forth in Table No. 54-C. For glass not firmly supported on all four edges, design shall be submitted to the

Building Official for approval. Glass supports shall be considered firm when deflection of the support a. design load does not exceed Y,i> of the span.
Louvered Windows
bee. 5405. Regular plate, shop or patterned glass in jalousies and louvered windows shall be no thinner than nominal inch and no longer than 46 inches. When other glass types are used, design shall be submitted to the Building Official for approval. Exposed glass edges shall be
W ired-glass with wire exposed or. longitudinal edges shall not be used in jalousies or louvered windows.
Human Impact
Sec. 5406. Glazing in locations subject to human impact suth 35 glass doors, glazing immediately adjacent io such doors, glazing adjacent to any surtace normally used as a walking surface, sliding glass door units, including fixed glass panels which aie pan of such units, shower doors, tub enclosures and storm doors shall comply w-th Section 5401 EXCEPTIONS: I Glass lights located more than 18 inches above any sur-lacc normally used as a walking -inface and where ihere is an or-wjue wall section between such surface and l-t s|ass
* *hen |le least dimension is no greater than J 8 inch*"
. G.ass hgbts protected by a gu.o Jraii, handrail or other approv'd barrier which will prevent human impact ft out being delivered lo the glass solace.
4. Glass directly attached to walls or wardrobe closet doors in an approved
5. Mirrored glass wardrobe doorv provided
A. The glass is at least Y, inch thick;
B Such mirrors arc gasket w:upped in vinvl or rubber set ir metal frame; and
C Such mirrors ate backed bv ,t minimum of Krgft paper with < ensile ; sir eng'h o) 60 pounds pet inch of width, both directions applied : with an approved adhesive wishout voidstn adhesive applies- on.

Hi !-; K* H i 1 Vi SS OS S. ' % H 8* y,
80 107 144 185 >7^ 151 465 525 050 956 41 50 95 109 128 186 211 211 in
60 71 96 121 18-T 234 1.0 150 418 617 27 18 61 71 80 124 142 162 207
45 51 72 02 117 176 212 262 128 (78 20 28 47 55 04 91 107 122 155
TO 41 58 74 110 I1U 186 210 262 182 16 21 18 44 51 74 S5 97 124
TO TO 48 62 92 "7 ! 5.5 175 219 119 II l) 12 .10 41 62 71 81 104
2( 11 11 51 79 100 131 150 188 271 12 16 27 11 37 53 61 69 89
22 27 .16 46 69 88 116 111 164 219 10 14 24 27 12 46 51 61 78
20 24 12 41 61 78 101 117 116 212 9 1) 21 24 29 41 47 54 69
!H 21 20 37 55 70 91 105 111 191 8 11 19 22 26 37 41 49 62
15 1H 24 11 16 59 77 88 109 159 7 9 16 18 21 11 16 41 52
1 1 15 21 26 19 50 00 75 94 117 6 8 II 10 18 27 10 15 44
11 13 18 23 VI 44 58 6(1 82 120 5 7 12 14 16 21 27 TO 39
10 12 16 21 31 19 52 58 71 106 . 4 5 6 11 12 14 21 24 27 35
9 11 14 18 27 .15 46 52 06 90 4 5.5 9 11 13 19 21 24 31
(angular lights of plate, float or sheet glass firmly supported on all four sides in a vertical position. Glass mounted at a /ontal to five verticals may be considered vertical. Maximum areas based on minimum thicknesses set forth in Table No. ode Standards, No. 54 I.

The estimated cost of construction is $2,800,000.
The building construction cost estimate is 52 $/square foot. Sufficient bonding is available. The University expects to be able to receive. 13-15 $/square foot in rent; this approximately $450,000 per year. Average operating rates are expected to be about $4 per square foot. Yearly custodial and maintenance services are approximately $1.50 per square foot. The preceding budget analysis was made available to me through James Copeland and is a thorough breakdown of the costs anticipated by the Univeristy of Colorado.

Project Analysis and Budget
The following cost analysis is based upon estimates from Means "Construction Cost Data 1982and review of local construction costs, escalated at 9% per year from January, 1982 to the October 1983 Bid Date (16.9%). For Office Construction, l.ow-risc: 1-4 floors, the average of Median Level and 3/4 LewL Costs is $44,05 per s.f. That figure multiplied by 1.165 equals 551.32 per s.f. for the base construction cost.
Professional Services Program Planning A/E Building 9%
A/E Other (Survcvs, Soils, etc.) and In-House Costs
Total Professional Services Interest During Construction Demolit ion of Present Building Construction Costs
Building 40,120 gsf (? $51.32/sf (shell only) Landscape & Sitework 1%
Utilities 2%
Contingencies 5% of 3 above
$ 5,000
$ 317,200
Total Construction Costs

As in most commercial buildings of similar use, this facility is anticipated to be internally load dominated. Thus, the most appropriate energy conservation strategy would be that of natural daylighting. Other passive techniques for energy efficiency to consider may be: airlock entries, insulation and the color of both the skin and roof of the building (due to absorbtive and reflective qualities of dark and light colors). The mechanical system should also be carefully considered, and the possible greater efficiency of evaporative cooling recognized (which can use up to 2/3 less energy than a conventional fridgerated mechanical unit).
The following climatic data gathered from NOAA represents daylight availability data for the Denver area.
In daylight design, the entire skydome is considered as a "source" in contrast to solar heating strategies where southern exposure is the specific key element. However, what is a key factor is the percent of possible sunshine and the amount of cloudy and partly cloudy days. Careful daylight analysis will be necessary, either in the form of modeling or quantitative methods to determine the actual performance of the design.

Similarly, heat loss and heat gain analysis will give tangible information about building energy use.
In daylight design, the surrounding buildings and nvironment and their reflective properties are very important. In this case, stark white (and thus highly reflecting) Art Hardware, to the south of the proposed facility, will be an important element to consider.

Normals, Weans, And Extremes
>*. l**l I >a?f SMi w tmm i 1----- 9 I - M I - r I i. >v |'
rC. 2.2 rca of Interest for daylight availability analysis.

70% Ytarty Averag#
a 117 Qaya/Year Cloudy
133 Caya^Ytar Partly Qoody
1115 Days/Year Ciaar
Yaarty A*raga 5.3

. modern.
\ buiU"<)


1/4* *

3rd & 4th Floors


r 1 ]" r~ 11 n

North Elevation
1/4- r

West Elevation


i n n n n

n n n n
[ ] [ I

11 11 T
m i r:Ti
East Elevation

Section A
1/4' r

(1) Artzberger, James, Program Plan for the 1165 Broadway Building, March 1983, p. 3.
(2) Sartin, Sarah, Business Development on the Hill, October 1981, pages 1-8.
(3) Sartin, Sarah, Business Development on the Hill, October, 1981, pages 9-16.
(4) Personal Conversation with Ed Hester, Architect
for the University of Colorado, Boulder, CO June 16, 1983.
(5) Chen & Associates, Soil & Foundation Investigation
for proposed 1165 Broadway Office Building, July 27, 1983, page 1-8.
(6) Personal conversation with Dave Potter, Architect
for the University of Colorado in Boulder, CO, July 20th, 1983.

1) Robbins, C.L., and Dwyer, L.D., The Daylighting of Commercial and Institutional Buildings. May, 1981, 107 pages.
2) Pena, William, Problem Seeking, An Architectural Primer. Cahner Books International, 1977.
3) Chiara, J. and Callender, J., Time Savers Standards for Building Types, 2nd Edition. McGraw Hill, 1980. pp. 780-793.
4) Colorado Office for Energy Conservation, Energy Conservation for Nonresidential Buildings, Senate Bill #432, 1977, Article 12.
5) The Uniform Building Code 1976 Edition.
6) Ramsey/Sleeper, Architectural Graphic Standards 7th Edition, John Witey and Sons, 1981. Pages 140, 613, 410, 424, 9, 500.
7) Sartin, Sarah, Business Development on the Hill, October 1981.
8) Mazria, Ed, The Passive Solar Energy Book,
Rodale Press, 1979.
9) Personal Conversation with Linda Campbell, Planner for Boulder County, June 25, 1981. Provided excerpts from the Boulder Comprehensive Plan.
10) Personal Conversations with James Copeland,
Project Architect at Wallace Palmer and Associates. June 13, June 20, July 6, July 24, 1983.