Citation
A Neighborhood center and office complex in the Villa Italia Activity Center, Lakewood, Colorado

Material Information

Title:
A Neighborhood center and office complex in the Villa Italia Activity Center, Lakewood, Colorado
Creator:
Greenwald, Chris
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
94, [23] leaves : illustrations, maps, plans ; 22 x 30 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Community centers -- Colorado -- Lakewood ( lcsh )
City planning -- Colorado -- Lakewood ( lcsh )
City planning -- Colorado ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Chris Greenwald.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09311271 ( OCLC )
ocm09311271
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1980 .G75 ( lcc )

Full Text
6 E N W AUi
A NEIGHBORHOOD CENTER AWO OFFICE OOIVIPLEX srvi THE VILLA ITALIA ACTIVITY CENTER
LAKEWOOD, COLORADO
CHRIS GREENWALEj UIMIVERS5TV OF COLORADO
AT DENVER APRIL. SB, 1SBO
1;
/(S*
ARCH STUDENT PAPER


£n.
L$
,) TO MOM For Helping me thru school


CONTENTS
Abstract
Introduction to Project.....................................................
Regional Placement
City Area/Population/f'.levatlon
Climate
History
Development Process of City
District V..................................................,...............10
Population Occupation Type Traffic
Storm Drainage/Flooding Soils
Concept Lakewood? Villa Italia Activity Center....,.....................2l\-
General Design Goals
Site Information............................................................28
Building Constraints.............. ........................................30
Concept Lakewood} Villa Italia Activity Center
Zonir.g-Lakewood
Uniform Building Code 1976
Misc. Engineering Guidelines
Client Profile..............................................................70
Case Studies................................................................71
PROGRAM
Statement of Architectural Character/Goals..................................85
User Types/Spaces...........................................................86
Major Tenants in Retail Development Convenience Shops Public Plaza
Mid-Rise Office Development Low-Rise Office Development Parking Service
Adjacency Matrix/Time Matrix.............................................9^
DESIGN....................................................................95
Diary
Bibliography


Lakewood lies on the eastern slopes of Colorado's Kooky Mountains, immediately west of the city of Denver. (See regional map. Fig. 1) The area of Lakewood is 35 square miles with an approximate population of 160,000. Lakewood is a rapidly growing community with a growth projection of 5,000 to 8,000 people a year. (See Fig. 2) Lakewood has attracted young families,
(See Fig. 3) The city is also an affluent suburb, (See Fig. Almost 50% of the
families in the city have an income over
$15,000.
Lakewood is basically a residential-commercial city, with few large manufacturing firms. The largest in Jefferson County, Adolph Coors Company, is located in the metropolitan area within easy driving distance of Lakewood. The major employer in Lakewood is the Denver Federal Center, with more than 7*000 employees. Retail and service businessess of all kinds also offer a variety of employment opportunities.
Denver's latitude is 39 North with a low humidity. The annual mean temperature is 51*6 degrees with a


L 01=1


1960
1970
1975
1980
1990
2000
Lakewood Population Projection
In Thousands
50 100 150 200 250 300
Source: 1960 S 1970 U S. Census,
Dept. Of Community Development Estimate
january75
FIG 2
Lakewood Age Composition
In Thousands
CO I960
fo'C *0 170 U C
FIG 3
FIG a


winter design temperature of 3 degrees. The average annua), precipitation is 15.1^ inches and even with sunny conditions 70/6 of the year, the summer design temperature is only 89. Figure 5 gives solar angles for various times and seasons of the year.
The average wind speed is 9-1 miles per hour with the prevailing winds from the southwest. Winter winds come from the northwest with high infrequent winds from the west. The average snowfall per season is 58*3 inches. There are 5505 degree days heating and 7^2 degree days cooling in the Denver city area. The elevation of Lakewood is inbetween 5^0 and 6600 feet above sea level. My site elevation is 5500 feet.
The city was incorporated in June of 1969. the largest city ever incorporated in the United States, Included in incorporatLon were a number of unincorporated communities in west suburban areas whose combined i960 population was h8,000 people. The city has a mayor-council form of government, with 10 council members elected from 5 wards.


40
DATE SOLAR TIME SOLAR POSITION I)TUN/SO. FT. TOTAL INSOLATION ON SURFACES
AH AH ALT A/H SOUTH FAC 1 NO SURF ACL A HOLE WITH A)RI 7 .
NORMAL MORI 2 30 90 r.P 60 90
JAN ?1 8 9 8.1 55.3 19? 78 65 79 81 85 89
9 5 Ib.B 99.0 7'9 81 155 171 187 187 171
10 7 73.8 Ml.9 779 17/ 718 737 799 759 773
li ... 1 28.9 16.0 789 158 757 777 790 79! 753
l? 30.0 oo 799 168 770 79) Ml! 1% 263
SURF ACE DAILY TOTALS 2187 998 1660 1I0 iw 1999 1726
Ml 71 ; s 9.8 77.7 b9 10 19 71 71 29 7?
8 8 19.8 67.7 779 73 118 177 176 177 17
9 5 79.0 50.7 779 157 195 70S 709 708 16/
10 7 37.8 35.9 7.95 178 756 767 271 757 ?|o
11 1 38.1 18.9 505 706 291 306 310 109 756
17 90.0 0.0 108 716 MW 519 575 317 785
SURFAlt DAILY TOTALS 2690 1819 701.0 716? 7202 2176 17 50
HAR ?1 7 s 11.9 80.2 l/l 9b 55 55 59 51 15
8 9 77.9 69.6 750 118 190 191 158 13| 89
9 5 57.8 57.5 782 1/3 715 717 71! 70? 158
10 7 81.6 81.9 297 718 273 776 771 758 176
11 1 87.7 77.6 505 797 510 313 507 791 700
I 50.0 0.0 107 257 572 326 370 105 208
SURFACE DAIL TOTALS 2916 185? 2308 2330 7788 2179 1986
AAA ?1 6 6 7.8 98.9 89 70 11 8 7 7 9
; 9 18.9 89.5 206 87 77 70 bl 50 i?
8 9 30.3 79.3 757 15? 153 185 131 117 53
9 5 81.3 67.7 278 707 721 713 10? 179 01
10 7 91.7 51.8 786 750 775 767 757 779 l?f
11 1 98.7 79.7 79? 777 108 301 ?s Tin 197
17 61,6 0.0 791 787 370 31! >% 7/1 158
SURF Alt DA|L 1£>1AL$ 3092 2279 2917 7320 im.. 1956 1072
MY 71 5 7 1.9 118.7 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
f 6 17.7 105.6 1*9 "9 75 15 19 13 9
7 s 79.0 %.6 716 218 89 76 (7) 99 13
8 9 55.8 87.7 790 175 158 199 175 109 ?s
9 3 9b. 8 78.0 767 7/7 771 706 181, 160 60
in 7 57.9 60.9 277 26/ 270 755 753 205 9
li 1 66.7 57.1 783 793 501 787 769 739 108
12 70,0 0.0 289 30J 312 29/ V" _.M J19
' SURFACE DAIlY TOTOLS 3160 7557 288? 7768 7080 1760 779
Mm 71 5 7 8.7 117.3 72 9 5 3 2 7 )
b b 19.8 MW. 9 155 sis 30 18 1/ 16 10
/ 9 76.0 19./ 716 173 9? 77 59 81 19
9 9 17. 9 90.7 7% 187 159 18? 171 97 16
9 3 98.8 80.7 763 755 719 7 10 7 59.8 65.8 777 272 766 798 ??9 199 79
11 1 69.7 81.9 7/7 7% 796 778 753 771 o?
17 73,5 0.0 2>9 109 306 289 765 730 98
SURFACE DAILY TOTALS 5180 7098 7838 7779 1978 1670 MO
Hil 71 s 7 7.1 115.7 7 0 0 0 0 0 0
b b 13.1 106.1 158 50 76 17 IS 19 9
7 9 28.3 97.7 ?0R 119 89 75 GO 99 19
8 9 35.8 87.8 781 179 157 19? 178 102 79
9 3 87.2 76.7 759 775 718 705 182 157 58
10 7 57.9 61.7 269 765 766 751 279 200 86
11 1 66.7 37.9 279 70 296 781 758 778 109
1? 70.6 0.0 776 7*18 307 79? 7b9 258 111
SURFACE DAILY TOTALS 506? 7539 7809 2730 711.16 1778 707
jets North latitude
DATE sol An T IME SOLAR POSITION BTUH/SO. FT. TOTAL INSOLATION ON SURFACES
AM PM ALT AZM SOUTH F AC 1 NO SURF ACE ANGLE WITH MOR12.
NORMAL MORIZ 30 90 5fl w 90
AUG 71 6 6 7.9 99.5 81 21 1? 9 8 7 5
7 5 19.3 90.0 191 87 76 69 60 99 17
8 9 50.7 79.9 737 150 150 191 179 113 50
9 3 91.8 67.9 760 705 716 707 193 173 89
in 7 51.7 57.1 777 796 767 759 799 771 170
11 i 59.3 79.7 778 773 100 797 776 757 190
l? 67.3 0.0 780 78? 111 101 78/ 76? 197
sup FACE DAILY TOTALS 2916 7298 7559 7758 2109 1899 978
SEP 71 7 5 11.8 80.7 189 93 51 51 99 97 37
8 9 77. S 69.6 730 109 135 159 131 179 89
9 5 57.8 57.5 763 167 706 708 703 193 157
in 7 91.6 91.9 780 711 76? 765 760 787 168
li 1 97,7 77.6 787 7!9 798 301 795 781 19?
1? 50.0 0,0 790 799 110 315 307 797 ?f)*l
5 UR FACT DAILY TOTALS 7708 1788 771ft 7778 7182 7079 >916
OCT 71 7 5 9.5 77.3 9 8 ; 19 15 17 17 |6
8 9 15.0 61.9 708 68 106 113 117 118 100
Q 5 79.5 99.8 757 176 185 195 700 191. IM
in 7 57.9 15.6 280 170 795 257 761 75 7 703
u i 37.6 18.7 791 199 783 795 799 799 279
12 39.5 0.0 799 708 795 108 317 306, 7 58
SUPFACl DAILY TOTALS 295*1 i 368 1%? 7060 7008 2078 1659
NOV 71 8 9 8.7 55.9 136 78 63 77 78 82 81
9 1 17.0 99.1 71? 87 15? 167 178 183 167
in 7 79.0 31.0 ?(W 176 715 733 795 799 719
li 1 78.6 16.1 783 155 759 773 785 788 798
17 30.7 0.0 28d 163 267 787 798 301 258
SURFACE DAILY TOTALS 7178 9*i? 1636 1778 1870 1908 if,St
nic | 8 9 5.5 53.0 89 19 39 95 50 59 56
9 1 19.0 91.9 71/ 65 135 15? 168 171 163
in 7 70.7 79.9 76) 107 700 771 735 797 771
u 1 75.0 15.7 780 159 739 76? 276 781 757
12 26.6 0.0 785 183 753 775 790 7% 763
SURFACE DAILY TOTALS 1978 78? 1 *80 1639 1790 17*16 1 (M
FIG 5


The Community Activity Center Concept envisions a blend of activites as opposed to a collection.
A collection connotates a number of activites occurring in proximity to one another but with no real interaction among them. Thus, there generally exists commercial and office activites in an area; but they are separated by zoning restrictions, design criteria, parking lots or simply leftover spaces which act as psychological barriers. The two activites do not relate to one another and consequently, do not function as the focal point for community identity.
A community activity center, on the other hand, would be planned to accommodate many diverse activites, would use design to reinforce a sense of wholeness, and would blend uses so that each activity is a complement and a contribution to every other activity.
In this manner, the community activity center functions as the focus of community identity because it offers the potential to involve the entire community.
The city of Lakewood has become known nationwide for its innovative approach fo government and in 1970 was a runner-up for the All-American City Award.
The city hall is located at AA Union Blvd., Lakewood 80228. Police protection is provided by the Department of Public Safety. Fire Protection is provided by the Bancroft Fire Dept, and the Lakewood Fire Dept.
Lakewood has grown in a "leapfrog" development pattern, leaving large parcels of vacant land. This type of development was brought about by "hands off" development philosophies and a lack of control over municipal services by the county.
The city came up with an alternative urban form, entitled the community activity center concept. This requires services to be clustered into groupings for ease of access. This is opposed to strip development. The activity center would mix uses to encourage a broad form of social activity. Included in this concept would be a separation of transportation types.




District V covers the east-central portion of the City of Lakewood. The boundaries of the District (see Fig. 6) are the West 6th Avenue freeway on the north, Kipling Street and the Kipling Parkway right-of-way on the west, Jewell Avenue on the south, Sheridan Boulevard on the east. This eastern boundary, plus Jewell Avenue between Sheridan Boulevard and Depew Street, it is also the boundary between Lakewood and the City and County of Denver.
The Villa Italia Community Activity Center is potentially the single most important development area of District V and the City of Lakewood, The Community Activity Center concept calls for easy access (with a focus upon pedestrians and mass transit rather than autos for internal mobility), a mixture of activities (rather than only traditional business and commercial), a pedestrian scale of design, a feeling of identity and compatibility with the surrounding community.
The Villa Italia Community Activity Center document establishes regulations for land within established boundaries. These regulations are designed to promote private market processes which win make the Community Activity Center Concept a reality.
The Villa Italia document envisions commercial, office, entertainment, residential, recreational, transportation, and open space land uses (including but not limited to greenbelts) within the Activity Center boundaries. This is subject to change as development proposals are considered. Wadsworth is proposed to be depressed between approximately Bayaud Avenue through Ohio Avenue, with Alameda Avenue, Dakota Avenue, and the "Urban Crossover Plaza" passing over Wadsworth. The "Urban Crossover Plaza" would be a focus of pedestrian activity and would integrate both sides of Wadsworth Boulevard. Pedestrian paths and bike paths would connect this Plaza, other pedestrian spaces in the Activity Center, and Belmar Park and the surrounding neighborhoods.


SOURCE. LONG RANGE PIANN.'NG. 1970
fig; b
11


TABLE 2 (CONT)
DISTRICT V CITY OF LAKEWOOD DENVER METRO
Craftsmen & Foremen 15% 13% 12%
Operatives 10% 8% 12%
Laborers & Farm Workers y% 3% k%
Service & Private Household 9% Q% 13%
SOURCE? Department of Community Development, Planning Report No. 18, 197^.
U.S. Dept, of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1970 Census of Population and Housings
Traffic j
The automobile is the dominant mode of transportation in District V. As density increases, public transit will become somewhat stronger. Other forms of transportation are still considered recreational.
The increasing traffic on District V streets, particularly the arterial system, is a very visible situation. The problems of increased congestion, noise, and pollution on and around these streets are of the greatest concern to residents. Traffic can be expected to continue to increase in the foreseeabl future, due to continued population growth.
Figure 7 is a map of the major streets of District V. Indicated are average daily traffic (ADT) volumes for 1977. the sometimes astounding percentage increases of these figures from 1971, and estimates by the Transportation Division of the ratios of these volumes to the effective capacities of the streets.


Contained in Concept Lakewood are proposals to widen overloaded streets and to add control intersections where needed. This program will make access to my project easier and safer.
Goals were set up through the city for their transportation needs. Their importance has been repeatedly stressed so one important design consideration must be the recognition of and action of these goals. These goals are
1. To provide for the safety of vehicle operators and passengers, as well as for that of pedestrians and bicyclists, through the design of transportation routes, vehicular traffic patterns, and education.
2. To provide for smooth vehicular flow which minimizes travel time, inconvenience and pollution from stopping/starting movements.
3. To facilitate pedestrian and bicycle travel and KTD service to allow a choice of these over private, low occupancy auto usage.
k. To protect existion cohesive areas (residential and other) from the negative impacts of transportation.


>
m u
>
cr 1 f-..: :J
0 1 4 1 ? 1
It? =1 Mile
DISTRICT
FIGURE
amimums-
..""- MAIN
km mb m n. BASIN
FIG B
V
CHANNELS
BOUNDARIES
SOURCE: DRAINAGE NEEDS STUDY,


Soils *
Tract C; The soil conditions in Tract C consisted of 1 foot of sandy clay topsoil and 0 to 9 feet of stiff to very stiff, sandy clay with occasional gravel overlying 0 to 2 feet of weathered claystone bedrock. Medium to very hard claystone-sandstone bedrock was encountered at depths of 1 to 12 feet to the maximum depth drilled, 20 feet. Free water was encountered in Test Hole 16 at a depth of 16 feet six. days after drilling.
Figure 9 shows a copy of the site in question, with Hole 16 on my site. Figure 1 o gives the graph of the test hole reults with figure 11 explaining the chart.
Conclusions and Building Alternatives.
(1) The site is suitable for the proposed development from an engineering geology and subsoil point of view. No geologic hazards occur at the sitej hov/ever, certain conditions associated with the site geology and soil should be considered during planning.
(2) It will be possible to found both the proposed residential and commercial structures on straight-shaft piers drilled into the bedrock. A feasible foundation alternative in some areas will be footings placed on tie upper soils.
A final foundation investigation is warranted to establish specific design criteria.
(3) The proposed development should not interfere with the extraction of possible commercial mineral deposits which may underlie the site.
Possible Foundation Types
Considering the swell potential of the rpper natural clays and sandstone-clay stone bedrock, we believe that drills-! r: ier foundations will be the most


WEIR GULCH


Hole 13 EI .-51*56
]51/I2 MWC-20.0 DD-IO^.9
I 20/I 2 vc-30.9
DD-92,U LL-59 PI-38 UC-5,330
16/12
185/6
Hole 1 6
El.-5513
i
%
r.
20/12
;'i0/I2 WCl't. 3 Di)=l 17.9
'tO/6
'* -r 4 I
r-V?-. {* %
Hole 15
11.-551^ '
Hole 16 FJ .-5505
.) ,v:+
. 7. !
1 !. !

v *
'135/12 MWC-16.2 DD-IO't.7
/]20/l2 !
'40/6
wc-23.9
DD-91.ll
Hole 17
El.-5521+ y. : ...
! < A , 1
'I V;
v * : -
Hole 18 El,*55014
143/12
iyp w?-^2.9
DD-98.I
56/9
'V
g] A5/'2
70/5
75/9 WC-26. I DD-96.O
I
A
NOTE: Legend nnd Notes shown on Fig. It.
. , C. FIG no
.law-- ; H '/(ih ^ V
a'

s>. .
/
] '7/12 VC-I 2.6 DD-85.2
60/12 WC-3.8 l)D-l 16.2 -200-8
65/6

f *
10
15
20
25
30
tr
, V ( . . .
1
2C
nOiTw cccr


d

Topsoil, Clay (CL), sandy, brown.
Clay (CL-CH), sandy to very sandy with occasional gravel, calcareous, stiff to very stiff, moist, brown.
Fill, Clay (CL), sandy, calcareous, some organics, very stiff, moist, brown.
Sand (SP-SM), slightly silty, Weathered C1 aystone-Sands tone
gravelly, dense, moist, brown. Bedrock, very stiff, moist, brown.
Sandstone Bedrock, hard to very hard, moist, brown.
C1aystone-Sandstone Bedrock with some slltstone, medium to very hard, moist, brown, gray and blue.
Undisturbed drive sample. The symbol 2A/I2 indicates that 2U blows of a 1^0-pound hammer falling 30 Inches were required to drive the sa pier 12 inches.
>
Indicates depth to free water and number of days after drilling measurement was taken.
NOTES:
(1) Test holes were drilled on November 10 and 15, 1978 with a *+-inch diameter continuous flight po .r auger.
(2) Elevations are approximate and refer to contours on site plan furnished.
(3) WC = Water Content (%) ;
DO Dry Density (pcf);
LL Liquid Limit (%);
PI Plasticity Index {%) ;
-200 Percent Passing No. 200 Sieve;
UC Unconflned Compressive Strength (psf). FIG II


desirable foundation type, straight-shaft piers should penetrate into bedrock and be designed for end bearing pressures varying from 20,000 to 50.000 psf with skin friction from 2,000 to 5,000 psf for that portion of the pier in bedrock. It is possible that smaller structures in some areas may be placed on low pressure spread footings founded on the natural sandy clays. Spread footings placed on 1116 upper sandy clays can probably be designed for allowable bearing pressures varying from 1,500 to 3.000 psf. Spread footings on the bedrock is also a possibility where bedrock is shallow and does not possess significant swell potential. We know of several buildings in the area that are supported on this type founaation. Bearing pressures on the order of 5,000 to 10,000 psf would be feasible. Both straight-shaft pier and spread footing foundations should be designed with minimum dead load pressures.
Floor Blabs
The upper natural soils are capable of supporting lightly loaded floor slabs; however, some of these soils possess a swell potential and will heave and crack floor slabs should the underlying soils become wetted. Therefore, special precautions such as the use of slip joints for interior partition walls may be required for slab-on-grade construction. For important floor areas that cannot tolerate movement, structural floors or overexcavation of the expansive material may be necessary. Because of the high bedrock condition in most areas, below ground levels will need to be protected by an underdrain system. Site Grading
Excavation within the upper natural soils should be possible with conventional earthmoving equipment. Fore difficult conditions will be encountered for excavations extending into the underlying bedrock and may require ripping and occasional light blasting. The more difficult conditions will occur in confined excavations such as utility trenches. Generally, the on-site soils


possess a swell potential and are not suitable for use as fill beneath building areas. All fill inside the building areas should consist of a granular, non-expansive material. Specifications for overlot and back fill grading should consider the proposed foundation type and fill material. Extensive cuts or fills should not be necessary because of the relatively gentle topography. Unless studied on an individual basis, we do not recommend that permanent cuts or fill exceed 10 feet in depth. Gut or fill slopes should not present stability problems at these depths if slopes of 2tl (horizontal to vertical) are not exceeded. All graded areas should have good surface drainage and be protected from erosion by revegetation or other means.
Pavements
The upper soils at he site generally consist of sandy clay and clay-stone bedrock. These soils are classified as A~6, A-7-5 and A-7-6 in accordance with AAbHTO classification. Group indices vary from 5 to 17. These are poor subgrade soils. For local commercial streets, pavement sections on the order of 3 inches of asphalt overlying 8 to 12 inches of base course can be expected. For local residential streets, pavement sections on the order of 2 inches of asphalt overlying 6 to 1.1 inches of base course can be expected. Full depth asphalt can also be used, substituting 1 inch of asphalt for 2 inches of base course. Additional subsurface exploration and laboratory testing will be necessary to establish final pavement design criteria. This investigation can best be done once the proposed roadways are near final grade.^


CONCEPT LAKEWOOD:


Villa Italia Community Activity Center
My thesis project is directly related to tie Villa Italia Community Activity Center. It is located on unused ground just to the south of the exsisting Villa Italia shopping center.
I'll first outline the Activity center, and then relate that project to mine. The center is to act as a focal point a multi-use intensive activity area. (See Figure 12). Included in he plan to make it work is the lowering of Y/adsworth to make an Urban crossover which would become a people place.
The area would include a plaza and a pedestrian mall. A second regional mall could be constructed east of Wadsworth. RTF is considering locating a regional and community transportation facility on this site. A variety of offices and a hotel is indicated for the center.
Major design concepts include buffering, creating mixed uses, open space and separation of traffic modes.
The following are the design goals for the Villa Italia Community Activity Center. All proposed development in the activity center shall be tested for compliance with these design goals.
1. To maintain the Villa Italia Community Activity Center as a focus for community and regional activites.
2. To continue and reinforce the already established basic environmental elements of the Villa Italia area.
3. To provide a high quality area that will provide a sense of community identity.
4. To provide a community design alternative to the continued sprawl of existing development patterns by encouraging efficient development.
5- To accomplish superior site utilization with the incorporation of the natural features, physical and functional


relationships into the surrounding areas.
To encourage and protect new and existing development in and immediately adjoining the area and tc tr;courage the concentrate l expansion and mixing of existing and new neighborhoods, regional commercial and offu functions v/ithin th<
area.
7. To further the stability and value of the property in and around the area.
8. To relieve vehicular and pedestrian traffic congestion and improve access to and circulation v/ithin the area by lowering of Wadsworth Boulevard and by creating an Urban Crossover Plaza.
9. To provide alternative transportation modes by incorporating a major regional RTD center (pulse point transfer center) in the vicinity of the Urban Crossover Plaza.
10. To reduce the effects of vehicles on the aea by providing internal multi-modal transportation traffic separations, centralized, elevated and depressed structured parking facilities, as well as site, noise and view buffering.
11. To develop open spaces, plazas, greenery and other amenities in and adjacent to the area, including pedestrian and bicycle circulation continuity across public rights-of-way.
12. To achieve energy conservation in new and existing development in the center.
13. To provide incentives for development of the area to achieve a compact balanced commercial, employment, recreational/entertainment and lesidential area.
The site and project I'm working on is area 12 on the map. (See Figure JZ) This location is proposed for a neighborhood shopping center which would provide for daily shopping needs and as a convenience center for office space allowed in


this area.
An interesting note is the fact that Kravco of Villa Italia, has determined the same use for my site, even though they disagree on other development ideas. Kegulatory guidelines will be brought out in the chapter comprising building constraints.



*
)


Site Information.
The specific site is located just to the south of the exsisting Villa Italia shopping center. The possible design area is about 21.8 acres, as shown on figure Topography is shown on figure 13 with an average slope
of 1.5 percent running to the east, lay site is covered with native grass and no trees of significant size. There is no wildlife on the site and no exsisting structures.
A more detailed Environmental Impact statement is being developed within the Lakewood City Government. At present, it is not available but will be added later- with any other material of importance in a supplement issue.




BUILDING CONSTRAINTS


Building Constraints.
Concept Lakewoodi Villa Italia Activity Center
Special restrictions have been set on the site to insure proper development. The land use of my site, as defined within this document, is noted as follows. "Immediately to the west of Area "V is a proposed location for a neighborhood shopping center which would provide for the daily shopping needs for the elderly residents within convenient walking distance* Office uses should be allowed within this area."
The following guidelines should be applied to new development in order vO attain the design goals.
Planned development zoning is encouraged for rezonings within the Villa Italia Community Activity Center so that the following regulatory guidelines can be accomplished.
The regulatory guidelines have been devised for the undeveloped land in the Activity Center. In considering rezonings for developed or partially developed land, some allowances may need to be taken.
The requlatory guidelines for signs have been written in the Cvntext of establishing a common basis for Comprehensive Sign Plans for the Villa Italia Community Activity Center. Areas over twenty acres in 5;ize will have to have a comprehensive sign plan. Such plans are provided for in the City's Sign Code, page 3-3-20 of the Zoning Ordinance.
A chart for land use regulations compiles all possible development types to be used for the complete project. It also lists additional and mixed uses that are allowed in each of these uses. Specifications by type of use are shown for density, height, ground coverage, parking, ratios and setbacks.
I am interested in number 8 and IT. (See Chart 1).


CHART OF LAND USE REGULATIONS
VILLA ITALIA COMMUNITY ACTIVITY CENTER
DWELLING HEIGHT
UN ITS/ACRE Min. t Min. SE (BACKS AL IERNATL USES
allowed uses OR FLOOR & GROUND PARKING ARTER-
AREA RATIO Max." COVERAGE RATIO IALS COLL. 1RT. REAR ADDITIONAL USES' MIKED USES1
1 tow Rise LR 7.5 - 15 Oil 0-35 70 1. 5/IIU 50 30 10 10 17, 18 7
<- 2 Low Rise Elderly 1 E 10 -30 DU 0-35' 60 .75/0U 50 30 10 10 1. 17, 18 7, 14
X 3 Medium Rise HR 15 -30 DU 30-66' 60 1.5/011 50 30 10 10 1, 2, 17, 18 7. U
LcJ a 4 Medium Pise Elderly ME 30 -50 DU 30-65' 50 . 76/IIU 60 30 10 10 1 2. 3, 17, 18 7, II, 14
uo 5 Miqh Rise HR 30* DU 40-110' 50 1.5/0U 60 30 10 10 3, 4, 6, 17, 10 1. 2, 7, 11, IT
UJ ac 6 lliyh Pise Elderly HE 60* DU 40-110' 40 .75/DU 50 30 10 10 3, 4, 5, 17. 18 1, 2, 7. 11, 14
7 Low Rise Off ice; L0
tr. Medical Office ME .5: 1 FAR 0-45' 90 4/1000 GOA 50 20 0 10 3, 4, 17 1, 2, 11
X 8 Medium Rise Office M0 1 : 1 EAR 40-116' 80 4/1000 GOA 50 20 0 10 5, 6. 7, 17 1, 2. 3. 4, 11, 12. IS
C/O 9 High Rise Office HO 2: 1 FAR 70-175' 70 4/1000 GOA 50 20 0 10 5, 6. 8 1. 2. 3, 4, 7, 11. 12, >3, 1
CO 10 High Rise Hotel MH 2: 1 FAR 110-175' 80 1 / ROOM 50 20 0 10 5. 6, 8, 9, 19 12, 17
11 Recreational Commercial Rli 1 .00: 1 EAR 45 90 3/1000 G8A 50 0 0 10 17 1, 2, 12
12 Special Commercial SC .50: 1 EAR 45' 60 5.5/1000 GOA 60 0 0 10 8, 9. 11 17 3 4 7
-J 13 Entertainment Commercial EC .50: 1 FAR 45' 60 1/3 SEATS 50 0 0 10 11 3, 4. 11, 17
* - 14 Neighborhood Cnrunercial NC .50: 1 FAR 60' 46 5.6/1000 G|lA 60 0 0 10 7, 8. 11 1 2, 3, 4, 17
oc 15 Community Commercial CC . .33: 1 TAR 60' 75 5.6/1000 GOA 50 0 0 10 8 3. 4, 7, 11, 13
16 Regiona1 Commerc ia 1 RC .50: 1 FAR 30-80' 75 5/ i OOO GIIA 60 0 0 10 19. 20 5. 6,8,9,11, 12. 13
17 Recreation Open Space US N/A N/A N/A N/A 0 0 0 10 10
18 Schools. Commuri i t y, Etc.1 P N/A N/A N/A 1/3 SEATS 60 50 0 10 1/
19 Transportat ion Center 1,1 HT N/A H/A N/A N/A 0 0 0 10 U/A-See Hotel A
_J cr> Regional Comm.
ID Q. 20 Park!ng for respect i ve PA N/A 40' 80 N/A 50 15 15 15 M/A-Use by right to
uses serve uses al lowed
oit the parcel.
el Alternative Uses are allowed as long as the overall result will he a mixed use development.
I,) Additional Uses may tie substituted for the Allowed Use* or may be mixed in any proportion with the Allowed and Additional Uses.
I Mixed Uses may be substituted for Allowed Uses as follows: Mousing uses in the Mixed Uses column may be substituted up to a maxi............ of ,
Other uses in the Mixed Use column may be substituted up to a maximum of IM, or housing and other mixed uses may be combined up to a maximum of lot housing uses and lb? other uses. A bonus of .3* of permitted density or floor area is allowed in any area for each percent of Mixed Use that is substituted for an Allowed Use.
d) loading requirements are existing Lakewood /oiling Ratios (see Section 3-2(11) of the lakewood Zoning Ordinance).
) Parking requirements for Low, Medium and High Density I iderly uses will be reduced to 0.5 spaces per dwelling unit if the housing is limited Ho occupancy by low and/or moderate income elderly residents.
fl Parking requirements for the Medical Office Use will be five spaces per 1,000 square feet of Gross building Area.
g) buildings with a minimum of two floors will be required in areas designated for Regional Commercial Use.
h| bus stops shall be allowed in any area so long as they are appiopriately designed and constructed, and conveniently located
lor tin bus riders.
I) The miqimum height requirement will not apply to development outside of the Activity Center core" area for the "tow level" of development (see I'iqtire I, page 5, and f iqure /t n.,qe 2.3)
)) Coiiiiiunity and Public Land Uses ma/ hr applicable on any parcel(s) deemed appropriate for such use:,.
CHART I


Defined below are some definitions to explain the chart.
FAR FAR is the total amount of all floor area in square feet compared to the total square footage of the site.
GBA Total floor area of building including non-leasable areas.
Alternate Uses Secondary uses which are allowed in certain primary uses areas.
Secondary Uses Uses which are compatible and complimentary to the primary use designated for a particular site. These secondary uses are always of a less dense or less intense nature compared to the primary use.
Mixed Use Uses which could be allowed as a portion of the use on a particular site. Mixed uses are allowed only up to a determined percent of the total density or area of the site (Footnote c. of Chart).
Uses allowed within my site, for a neighborhood commercial development, are listed below.
Supermarket
Bakery
Drug
Stationery
Restaurant
Barber
Beauty
Laundry & Dry Cleaner
Hardware
Deli
Ladies Specialty Hobby
Package Liquor Store
Design guidelines were set up to specific criteria for a positive direction. These are in order to provide a means to achieving good planning, fine design and good construction. Below are these guidelines.


b. site Setback and Open bpace. Site conditions (also see existing drainage regulations, City of Lakewood).
1. Property lines adjacent to public parks, parkways (Wadsworth and Alameda are excluded;, greenways, and bikeways, etc. (rights-of-way are not included unless they also include greenways, bikeways, etc.) shall be subject to the followings
a) For all buildings, the setback is to be ten feet minimum from the property line.
b) From an average height level of ten feet above grade at the property line, a plane at k< shall extend into the property through which no enclosed building is to penetrate for more than forty percent of the length of the respective property line adjacent to the park, parkway, greenway, bikeway, etc. This is to keep the areas adjacent to the designated pedestrian walkways in scale with the pedestrian, and to allow adequate light and air currents to enter the walkways.
2. Landscaping
a; For all property parcels, an area equal to five percent of the surface of the respective site will be developed as "landscaped area open to sky or if enclosed, open to sky lights. These areas to be accessible to the public at all times. Let backs and pedestrian easements are not included in the five percent, b; properties adjacent to public parks, parkways, and greenways,
bideways, etc. are to provide landscaped buffering with one foot average height earth or change in grade in the required setback
area.


c ranking
1. When a single use or building located in the "core" area requires over two hundred parking spaces, fifty percent of the total proposed parking shall be in structured parking. (Not applicable to "LOW LEVEL" development.)
2. Exposed parking areas and decks that are next to front or rear property lines or adjacent to side property lines facing public rights-of-way are to be buffered by a minimum two foot average height landscaped earth berm, wall or permanent screen, but not to be accomplished by fencing.
3. A minimum two and one-half inch (2 l/2") caliper deciduous tree or an eight to ten foot (8-10') evergreen tree is to be provided for every ten parking spaces constructed.
4. In general, parking facilities and garages are to be physically connected and designed as integral parts of the bullding(s) served.
5. Loading docks, outdoor storage and trash collection areas are to be screened by fences or walls (with no metal slats) with one-half or greater solid facing and/or buildings on three sides to a height of
at least five feet. Landscape screening of these areas is also highly desired .
6. No on-street parking will be allowed within the community activity center area.
?. To help encourage arid promote joint use of parking areas by different owners and/or land uses (excluding residential uses), the basic parking requirement for each site can be reduced by ten percent if parking spaces (non-assigned public spaces only) equal to the number of spaces represented by the ten percent quantity are available in other off-street parking facilities within five hundred (500) feet of walk-line of the main entrances to the building on each of the sites involved.
This is to promote more effective placement, layout, design and use of parking facilities by different land owners and/or uses.


8. Parking facilities, service areas and access on grade will have poured concrete edges.
9. property owners submitting a planned development which encompasses -more than five acres shall submit a parking plan.
d Circulation
1. Separation of pedestrians, bikers, vehicles, services and utilities is required, to the extent possible.
2. All parcels larger than two acres will be required to prepare a plan showing how that parcel will connect or comply with the "Pedestrian Plan". Bicycle racks are to be provided. (Figure 14/ Public open spaces and landscaped areas shall be designed so they connect to and compliment the overall pedestrian and open space networks.
3. All utility lines are to be underground.
Public Shuttle Service within and between the activity center(s) is encouraged. e. Build irigs
1. Floor Requirements
a) Floor Area Premium Purpose In addition to the floor areas permitted directly as floor area ratios, premiums of additional floor area
may be granted upon approval by the City of Lakewood for development plans that provide pedestrian walkways, plazas, arcades and open spaces which separate, depress and/or elevate pedestrian accommodations from vehicularly-oriented facilities.
b) Floor area premiums may be allowed as follows, with a maximum premium of twenty-five percent (25?) of the basic floor area allowed. This is calculated before the mixed use bonuses are applied.


)£
-i c=y==
1 01=1


additional floor area for each square foot of
Five square feet of plaza which}
* Is open and readily available to the public at all times from at
least two separate access points.
* Is unobstructed from its lowest level to the sky.
* Is attractively designed for maximum pedestrian utilization and maintained by the property owner on a continuing basis.
Three and onn-half square feet of additional floor area for each
square foor of unenclosed arcade which}
* Is open to the public at all times on at least twenty-five percent of its perimeter.
* Has a minimum dimension of twelve feet in width and height.
Two square feet of additional floor area for each square foot of enclosed arcade which}
* Provides access to a plaza and is open to the public at all times.
* Has less than twenty-five percent of its perimeter open to a plaza but at least two separate access points with minimum dimensions of twenty feet in width and twelve feet in height.
) Floor materials for pedestrian open plazas, arcades, walkways and
public sidewalks.
For durability and appearance, outside permanent walking finishing surfaces of brick pavers, exterior tile, stained concrete, native stone, and large patterned (one foot squares or larger) materials are required.
* Regular concrete in combination with a minimum of fifteen percent of the materials above is permitted. (Exposed aggregate concrete is not permitted because of local weather conditions.)
Colors of materials used should be dominantly native natural earth or vegetation tones. Bright hues and light values should be used


'i

only as accents.
Light to medium finish textures are encouraged. (Broom and float finishes).
Wall Bequirements
a) Areas, Bulks, Volumes.
Separation between individual building units and bulk requirementsj
* One through forty-five (1-4-5) feet in height no required space.
* Forty-five through one hundred (4-5-100) feet in height, twenty (20) feet minimum between any building elements including stairs, balconies, elevator columns, fireplaces, etc.
Over one hundred and ten feet (110) in height forty (40) feet minimum between building elements.
b) Solar easements are applicable to all property lines on the northeast to north to northv/est directional sides; from an average height-level of thirty-five feet above grade at the applicable property
line a plane of 33*3 to the horizontal shall extend into the property through which no building or building element may penetrate for more than forty percent of the respective property line length. (Not applicable to "LOW LEVEL" development).
c) Wail surface materials.
* Large surface areas may be any of those materials already used in the existing Villa Italia Shopping Center complex with the addition of exposed aggregate concrete, and the deletion of exposed concrete block unfinished.
* Other accessory structural members, trims, and finishes such as wood, metal (not reflective) are limited to fifteen percent of
the total wall areas except in residential construction.


* Plastics may be used in windows, skylights, and signs ( imitation materials are not permitted in general).
* Colors and texture finishes as described in floor materials should
be applied to wall areas as well.
4. Roofs
a) Of the total roof area (excluding plazas, arcades/walkways) a minimum amount of fifteen percent of roof surface projected onto a horizontal place is to have a slope of from 1:3 to 3*1
b) Roofed porches, galleries, collonades, arcades, walkways, waiting areas, and entrances are highly desired.
c) In low and medium density residential, twenty-five percent of the roofed edges of each sutructure shall have an overhang of two feet.
d) The screening of mechanical equipment from all views, both at-grade and from view from adjacent buildings shall be required.
Signage
1. Signage shall be in concert with the City of Lakewoods ordinance
regulations for signs, and will be applied to each use as appropriate to the particular standard zone category in which each use appears at the time of application for site plan approval. In lieu of the preceding, the developer has the opportunity to present a Comprehensive Sign Plan for a minimum area of twenty acres over which he maintains control at the point of plan submittal. Signs shall be limited in location to the premises on which the use is located and must be clearly associated with, incidental and customary to the operation of the permitted use. Subject matter on signs shall be limited to identification of the name, owner, operator, manager, leassor, leassee of the premises or establishment and the general type of products and/or services offered. Signs


may be illuminated only from a concealed source, and red or green illuminated signs shall not be permitted within fifty (50) feet of a street or intersection. Signs with flashing, animated or intermittent illumination shall be prohibited.
2. A height of seventy (70) feet shall be the highest level for the placement of a sign on a building.
g. Street, Plaza, Furnitune, Fixtures and Ligh ting
1. Throughout the public areas, a consistent style of benches, drinking fountains, bollards, planters, telephones, bicycle racks, bus shelters, posting kiosks, trash receptacles, banners, pennants, lighting fixtures, shall be approved by the City to give identity and continuity throughout the center.
2. All of the publi.c street fixtures must be suitable for use by the physically handicapped.
h. Design Principles
1. To assure liveliness as well as quality, particular care must be given to basic creative concerns of massing, proportion, scale, texture and pattern, facade alignments and contrasts so as to relate in scale to
the pedestrian experience.
2. Basic amenities that enhance the users sensitivities of sound, sight, smell, touch and taste, through fountains, sculpture, plants and music should be included in the centers.
The city has adopted tv/o avenues of development. With an urban interchange and the Urban Crossover Plaza, the high level of development is allowed. The other contends that with minor improvements to the Wadsworth/Alarneda intersection, only the low level development will be permitted. Figure 15 shows the land


use map for both options.
Chart Z shows square feet of commercial, office, and dwelling units at existing high and low level development. It should be noted that my site changes only in the level of office development.


LAND USE
9 &a
W. Jt£MTUOtY
Villa Italia1 Activity Center
LZ- U7W E£.SiCE>ZT'JJ_
,*(i MtOWW aSStCtA-T;^ HZ.-- g£S.OsAjr:>u
u? ul-w crpic.<£
*\0 MS.3ICM ^riCc H HH HlOH NOTeL.
LE LOW 0*4I.ViC Y£ £i_ce-2LY M5 ULOL OBESITY Hcu9i^C faS eLsuWL.Y & CEOZ^ATs w** CT 'A.^ c
50 *2 C- Al- C C MM o LC
EC iLs*'rS.^T-3*t^r*AEj*+'T WC Vl£!C*e*^J^C*=>0 OOWA =
CO COMM P-C 2SO -CM AL CC*K^s>LC-iSl^
OS PAJLiUA^O
P pus-uo o^wM^virrr arc,
ftT* TKJLWSFOp^ArwM C&siTEJi.


CHART
DEVELOPMENT LEVELS
VILLA ITALIA COMMUNITY ACTIVITY CENTER*
Area Use Ex isti ng High Low
1 South West Commercial, Sq Ft 0 430,000 200,000
Office, Sq Ft 80,000 570,000 460,000
Residential, OU 0 425 *"* 628
2 Waterside Commercial, Sq Ft 0 13,000 13,000
Office, Sq Ft 0 300,000 230,000
Residential, OU 1 ,000 2,150 2,200
3 Villa Commercial, Sq Ft 925,000 1 ,345,000 1,100,000
Office, Sq Ft 100,000 600,000 380,000
Residential, OU 0 700 800
A Yarrow West Commercial, Sq Ft 0 0 0
Office, Sq Ft 0 127,000 50,000
Residential, OU 0 82 200
5 North-West Commercial, Sq Ft 17,000 42,000 42,000
Office, Sq Ft 50,000 75,000 75,000
- Residential, DU 0 0 0
6 North-East Commercial, Sq Ft 20,000 49,000 49,000
Office, Sq Ft 50,000 50,000 50,000
Residential, DU 0 0 0
7 Teller East Commercial, Sq Ft 74,000 74,000 74,000
Office, Sq Ft 0 0 0
Residential, DU 0 0 0
TOTAL Commercial, Sq Ft 1 ,036,000 2,172,000 1 ,478,000
Office, Sq Ft 280,000 1 .797.000 1 ,245,000
Residential, DU 1 ,000 3,357 ** 3.823
For those paresis as found on Page ?S, Figure 7. tnat snow more tnan one primary use
(i.e.. HC/HH), square footage and/or dwelling unit f iqures may be tr?.nserT'?o e'eeween
uses allowed; such as Coionercia 1. Office or Resident fa! as long as tne to Zc' "Or r*e
parcel remains the same.
1) Sq Ft Square feet of total building coverage £ i.e., Gross 3uiIcinc Area', noc
Gross Leasable Area
2) DU = Dwelli ng Units
The parcel detail that was used to generate the t a cals on the race was f:aoe a ourt or ::ie
record at the March IS. 197H Planning Count;ssion Public Hearing.
- vJ Actual final OU count 'subject to the platted acreage times the density limits from ,-icure f. '*7e 1 7.
t


Utilities
Electricity
Service comes north on Wadsworth to the south edge of the developed villa Italia, by overhead wire. It then is placed underground and run east under the south edge of Developed Villa Italia.
Gas
Service is from Wadsworth, with .its line 14 feet from the west property line. There are two possible tap points. The first running on the south edge of Villa Itaila, with the street size of 16"MW (high pressure) and 10"BIK (low pressure). It is reduced 1345 feet south of Alameda to 6"MW, the 4"MW half way through the site going east, and last, to 2"MW.
The other possible connection is from the south edge of the site, having a size of 4"MW. I assume the first connection will probably be used since the owners of Villa Italia Shopping Center and my site are the same.
Water
Service is all around the Villa Italia Center, with assumed service from Wadsworth. The line is buried in Wadsworth. It is 49.5 feet from the east property line, and is a 6SJ line.
Telephone
Service comes from Teller Street, off of Alameda. It comes onto the Villa Italia Site and then goes underground.
Sewer
Service is off S. Pierce Street with the line going on the Villa Italia site 1500 feet south of Alameda. It runs west and is a 10 inch line.
(See Figure l6 for orientation.)




Zoning
My site would come under the following ammendments to allow the new allowable units. The title of the possible use types are;
Sec. 2-12j R-Cl RESTRICTED COMMERCIAL ONE DISTRICT A. USE REGULATIONt
No building or land shall be used and no building shall be hereafter erected, converted or structurally altered, unless otherwise provided herein, except for one or more of the following uses*
1. Business and professional offices, medical and dental clinics and veterinary hospitals (small animal, enclosed).
2. Post offices and banks.
A. Service establishments employing not more than three (3) people, such as barber shops, beauty parlors, watch and jewelry repairing, pharmacies, and pick-up stations for laundry or dry cleaning.
12. Parking of automobiles of clients,
patients, patrons or customers of the
occupants of adjacent commercial districts.
13. Wall signs having an area of not in excess of five (5) square feet, advertising a business located on the premises, may be displayed without a permi t. Not more than one ground sign advertising one or more businesses located on the premises may be erected. Such sign shall not have more than thirty-two (32) square feet of area on one side, and shall not exceed ten (10) feet in height above the ground level. A permit for such sign must be secured from, the Building Department.
Sec. 2-13* FUG RESTRICTED COMMERCIAL DISTRICT
A. USE REGULATION*
No building or land shall be used and no building shall be hereafter erected, converted or strucutrally altered, unless otherwise provided herein, except for one or more of the following uses*
1. Any use permitted in the Restricted Comm erica! One {R-Ul } District.
46


1
Stores for retail trade, including packag'. 1 :i qucr r:t pi d .store*?
solliig packaged three point two percent (32'/) fermented malt beverage, except that there shall not be permittedj
a. Liquor and three point two percent (3.2^} fermented malt beverage outlets where drinks are consumed on the premises. Advertising signs (illuminated or otherwise) used in connection with other uses permitted by this section (on the same premises only), subject to provisions of Section 3~3 of this Ordinance.
A. Service establishments such as cleaning and pressing establishments, tailor shops, dressmaking shops, barber shops, beauty parlors, pharmacies and watch and jewelry repair shops.
Sec. 2-Vh C-l COMMERCIAL OWE DISTRICT A. USE REGULATION
No building or land shall be used and no building shall be hereafter erected, converted or structurally altered, unless otherwise provided herein except for one or more of the following uses*
1. Any use permitted in the Restricted-Commercial (R-C) District, except child care facilities or camps as excluded by Section 3-6 herein.
2. Store for retail trade.
9. Commercial billboards, electric display and advertising signs* subject to provisions of Section 3-3.
11, Package liquor stores, three point two percent (32$) fermented malt beverage stores or outlets, taverns, lounges, night clubs, private clubs and bars.
12. Restaurants, drive-in restaurants and cafes.
Height, area, and additional regulations shall conform to Concept Lakewood May 1973.
In essance, the area is deemed a Section 2-20} PD Planned Development district. Details concerning the process of obtaining a PD rating can be found in Section 2-20j PD of the Lakewood Zoning Code .
In addition to the specific regulation there are general regulations that detail guidelines set by Concept Lakewood.


Included will be details not covered in Concept Lakewood and uses applicable to my site uses. More details can be
obtained from the Lakewood Zoning Code.
Section >1* FENCES. WAILS AND OBSTRUCTION TO VIEW
A. VISION Ei. 'ARANCE AT CORNER AND RAILROAD (-X.OS SINGS
No fence, vail, hedge or other structure or other obstruction above a height of forty- o {*12) inches shall be erected, placed or maintained within fifty-five (55) feel of the intersection of the right-of-.ay lines of two (2) streets or railroads, or of a street intersection v,ith a railroad right-of-way. Notwithstanding any regulations set forth in Section >*1 of this Ordinance, nor any permit or variance pranted by the Board of Adjustment; no type of tree, planting sign, fence, or portion thereof, or any type of obstacle shall be planted, placed or retained in such a manner which would obstruct the vision clearance at corners, curb cuts, railroad crossings or cause a traffic hazard.
E. COMMERCIAL DISTRICTS 1, Fences and/or walls within the R-C R-Cl, C-l and C-2 Districts shall conform to the following requirements.
a. Section 3-1* Subsection A, except front yard class 2 or 3 fences may be erected in the front yard up to a maximum height of seventy (70) inches.
b. Side and rear yard, class 1, 2,
3, T, 5 or 6 fences and/or walls may be erected up to a maximum height of seventy-two (72) inches, except that Section 3-1 to Subsection A shall prevail at all intersections ,
H. MEASUREMENT OF ALL FENCE AND/OR WAIL HEIGHT AND/OR LOCATIONS
I. All fences and/or wall height shall be measured from the lot line.
2. All locations for distance measurement shall be measured from the lot line. Section 3-2 PARKING REQUIRMENTS G. COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL REQUIREMENTS 1. There shall be provided at least
three (3) square feet of gross parking area for each one (1) square foot of


gross floor area in any business or commercial use and three (3) square feet of gross parking area for each one (1) square foot of basement floor area in retail use. For such establishments as drive-in markets and dLmilar other business catering to drive-in patronage, the required ratio shall be one (1) parking stall per each fifty (50) square feet of ground floor area.
2. For tv use uses classified as office buildings or for professional services, not involved in retail trade, there shall be provided two (2) square
feet of gross floor area.
3. There shall be provided one (1) parkirg stall for each three (3) persoi, including proprietors, for maximum employment in a single shift in any industrial district.
If the industrial district is to be used for commercial purpose, the above requirement for commercial zones shall apply. For those industrial uses allowed in commercial districts, the industrial requirements
shall apply.
H. OFF-STKhhT LOADING SPACfc HbQUiHLDj For each manufacturing or industrial use, there shall be provided off-street truck loading on the lot. Such space is to be not less than thirty-five (35) feet in length, twelve (12) feet in width and fifteen (15) feet in height.
For structures containing less than twenty-five thousand (25900) square feet of gross floor area, there shall be provided one (]) loading space.
For structures containing twenty-five thousand (25000) square feet or more of gross floor area, the number of loading spaces specified in the following table shall apply


SQ. FT. OF GROSS FLOOR AH LA
MIN, REQUIRED HO. OF SPACES
25.000 up to and including 40,000 sq. ft. 2
bO,001 up to and including 100,000 sq. ft. 3
100.001 up to and including 160,000 sq. ft. 4
160.001 up to and including 240,000 sq. ft. 5
240.001 up to and including 320,000 sq. ft. 6
320.001 up to and including 4-00,000 sq. ft. 7
For each additional 90,000 sq. ft. over
400.000 sq. ft. 1
additional
space
Section 3-3 SIGN CODE 5. Comprehensive Sign Plans The Planning Commission may permit the utilization of comprehensive sign plans for multiple building complexes which are located on one tract or parcel of real estate held in unified control, whether by partnership, corporate, condominium or association ownership, comprisir.g twenty (20) acres or more; provided, however, that billboards shall not be allowed unless the property is zoned in accordance with Section 2-20 of this ordinance.
7. High-: ise Building Identification Wall signs.
a. For multi-storied buildings, additional wall sign area shall be permitted for building identification purposes in
conformance with the schedule set forth below. Sign area shall be based upon the amount of square footage (factor) multiplied by the horizontal linear footage of the building facade at the elevation of the facade where the sign is placed.
For buildings in excess of fifty (50) feet, but less than one hundred and one (101) feet in height, the factor shall be three (3) square feet.
For buildings in excess of one hundred and one (101) feet, but less than one hundred and fifty-one (151) feet in height, the factor shall be five (5) square feet.
NOTE: Details of sign construction and oth.'r details can be obtained from the Lakewood Zoning Code.


TABLE NO. 5-AContinued TYPES II ONE-HOUR, ll-N AND V ONLY
V
>
GROUP DESCRIPTION OF OCCUPANCY FIRE ZONE FIRE RESISTANCE OF EXTERIOR WALLS OPENINGS IN EXTERIOR WALLS
H See also Section 1002 1Storage and handling of hazardous and highly inflammable or explosive materials other than flammable liquids Not permitted in Fire Zones Nos. 1 and 2
3 4 hour less than 5 feet 2 hour less than 10 feet 1 hour less than 20 feet Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 20 feet
2 Storage and handling of Class I, II and III flammable liquids as specified in U.B.C. Standard No. 10-1, dry cleaning plants us-ing flammable liquids, paint stores with bulk handling, paint shops and spray painting rooms and shops 3 Woodworking establishments, planing mills, box factories, buffing rooms for tire rebuilding plants and picking rooms; shops, factories or warehouses where loose combustible fibers or dust are manufactured, processed, generated or stored and pin refin- 1 4 hour less than 20 feet 1 hour elsewhere
4 hour less than 5 feet 2 hour less than 10 feet 1 hour elsewhere
3 4 hour less than 5 feet 2 hour less than 10 feet 1 hour less than 20 feet
4Repair garages
3Aircraft repair hangars Not permitted in Fire Zones Nos. 1 and 2 except as set forth in Sections 1602 (c) and 1603 (c).
3 1 hour less than 60 feet Protected less than 60 feet
B See also Section 1102 1 Gasoline and service stations, storage garages where no repair work is don'e except exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no open flame, welding, or the use of highly flammable liquids 2 Wholesale and retail stores, office buildings, drinking and din-ing establishments having an occupant load of less than 100, printing plants, municipal police and fire stations, factories and workshops using material not highly flammable or combustible, storage and sales rooms for combustible goods, paint stores with- out bulk handling Buildings or portions of buildings having rooms used for educational purposes, beyond the 12th grade with less than 50 occupants in any room 1 2 hour less than 20 feet 1 hour elsewhere Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 20 feet
2 1 hour Not permitted less than S feet Protected less than 10 feet
3 1 hour less than 10 feet
For Notes see page 54.
TABLE NO. 5-AContinued
3Aircraft hangars where no repair work is done except exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no open flame, welding, or the use of highly flammable liquids Open parking garages. (For requirements, see Section 1109.) i 2 hour less than 20 feet 1 hour elsewhere Not permitted less than 3 feet Protected less than 20 feet
9 1 hour
3 1 hour less than 20 feet
B-4 Ice plants, power plants, pumping plants, cold storage, and creameries, factories and workshops using noncombustible and nonexplosive materials. Storage and sales rooms of noncombustible and nonexplosive materials 1 2 hour less than 20 feet 1 hour elsewhere Not permitted less than 3 feet Protected less than 20 feet
1 1 hour Not permitted less than 3 feet Protected less than 10 feet
3 1 hour less than 3 feet Not permitted less than 3 feet
R See also Section 1302 1Hotels and apartment houses Convents and monasteries (each accommodating more than 10 persons) 1 2 hour less than 20 feet 1 hour elsewhere Not permitted less than 3 feet Protected less than 20 feet
2 1 hour Not permitted less than 3 feet Protected less than 10
feet
3 1 hour less than 5 feet Not permitted less than 3 feet Protected less than 5 feet
(Continued)
-n
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1976 EDITION


TABLE NO. 5-8REQUIRED SEPARATIONS IN BUILDINGS OF MIXED OCCUPANCY
(In Hours)
GROUP A E 1 H-1 H-2 H-3 H-4-5 B-1 B-2 B-3 B-4 R*1 R-3 M
A-l N N 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 1 i 1
A-2 N N 3 4 4 4 4 3 1 1 1 1 i 1
A-2.1 N N 3 4 4 4 4 3 1 1 1 1 i 1
A-3 N N 3 4 4 4 4 3 N 1 N 1 i 1
A-4 N N 3 4 4 4 4-' 3 1 1 1 1 i 1
E N 1 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 i 1
1 N 4 4 4 4 4 2 - 4 4 1 i 1
H-l N 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 4 1
H-2 N 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 1
H-3 N 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 1
H-4-5 N 1 1 1 1 3 3 1
B-l N 1 1 1 3* 1 1
B-2 N 1 1 1 N 1
B-3 N 1 1 N 1
B-4 N 1 N N
R-l N N 1
R-3 N 1
M N2
Note: For detailed requirements and exceptions see Section 503.
The three-hour separation may be reduced to two hours where the Croup B, Division 1 Occupancy is limited to the storage of passenger motor vehicles having a capacity of not more than nine persons. This shall not apply where provisions of Section 1102 (a) are applicable..
2For agricultural buildings also see Appendix, Chapter 15.
V
CD
1976 EDITION


TABLE NO. 5-CBASIC ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA FOR BUILOINGS ONE STORY IN HEIGHT IN FIRE ZONES NO. 1 AND NO. 2. FOR BUILDINGS LOCATED IN FIRE ZONE NO. 3 THE BASIC AREA MAY BE
INCREASED 33Vi PERCENT.
(In Square Feet)
OCCUPANCY TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
i II III 1
F.R. F.R. 1-Hour [ N t-Hour | N HT .1 1-Hour | M
A-l Unlimited 22,500 Not Permitted
A) 2-2.1 Unlimited 22,500 10,100 Not Permitted 10,100 Not Permitted 10,100 7,900 Not Permitted
A) 3-4 Unlimited 22,500 10,100 6,800 10,100 6,800 10,100 7,900 4500
E Unlimited 34,000 15,200 10,100 15,200 10,100 15,200 11,800 6800
I) 1-2 Unlimited 11,300 5,100 Not Permitted 5,100 Not Permitted 5,100 3,900 Not Permitted
I) 3 Unlimited 11,300 Not Permittee 1
H) 1-22 11,250 9,300 4,200 2,800 4,200 2,800 4,200 3,300 1900
H) 1-4-& Unlimited 18,600 8,400 5,600 8,400 5,600 8,400 6,600 3800
B) 1-2-33 Unlimited 30,000 13,500 9,000 13,500 9,000 13,500 10,500 6000
B-4 Unlimited 45,000 20,300 13,500 20,300 13,500 20,300 15,S00 9000
R-l Unlimited 22,500 10,100 6,800* 10,100 6,800-* 10,100 7,900 45004
R-3 Unlimited
M5 See Chapter 15
^ee Section 902 (b).
2For additional limitations in Fire Zones No. 1 and No. 2 see Sections 1602 and 1603.
3For open parking garages see Section 1109. N No requirement for fire resistance
For limitation and exceptions see Section 1302 ( b). F.R. Fire Resistive
5For agricultural buildings also see Appendix, Chapter 15. H.T. Heavy Timber
i
o
Ln
iO
TABLE NO. 5-DMAXIMUM HEIGHT OF BUILDINGS
OCCUPANCY TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
i II III IV V
M. F.R. | 1-Hour N 1-Hour H H.T. 1-Hour 1 N
MAXIMUM HEIGHT IN FEET
Unlimited 160 65 55 65 55 65 50 40
MAXIMUM HEIGHT IN STORIES
A-l Unlimited 4 Not Permitted
A) 2, 2.1 Unlimited 4 2 Not Permitted 2 Not Permit led 2 2 Not Permitted
A) 3-4 Unlimited 12 2 i 2 i 2 2 i
E* Unlimited 4 2 i 2 i 2 2 i
1) 1 Unlimited 3 i Not Permitted 1 Not Permitted i i Not Permitted
1)2 Unlimited 3 2 Not Permitted 2 Not Permitted n 2 Not Permitted
I) 3 Unlimited 2 Not Permitted-
H) 1 Unlimited ' 2 i 1 I i 1 1 1 1
H) 2-3-4-5 Unlimited 5 2 1 2 1 2 2 1
B) 1-2-33 Unlimited 12 i 2 4 2 4 3 2
B) 4 Unlimited 12 4 2 4 2 4 3 2
H) 1 Unlimited 12 4 24 4 24 4 3 2*
R) 3 Unlimited 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
M* See Chapter 15
Set Section 302 (c). For N. F.R. and H.T. see Table No. 5-C.
*Sne Section 902 (b). Footnotes 3, 4 and 5 are same as in Table No. 5-C.
us
6
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1976 EDITION


Chapter 11
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUP B,
DIVISIONS 1, 2 AND 3 OCCUPANCIES
Group B, Divisions 1,2 and 3 Occupancies Defined
Sec 1101. Group B, Divisions 1, 2 and 3 Occupancies shall be
Division 1. Gasoline service stations, storage garages where no repair work is done except exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no open flame, welding or the use of highly flammable liquids.
Division 2. Wholesale and retail stores, office buildings, drinking and dining establishments having an occupant load of less than 100, printing plants, municipal police and fire stations,factories and workshops using materials not highly flammable or combustible, storage and sales rooms for combustible goods, paint stores without bulk handling, (See section 402 for definition of Assembly Buildings.)
Buildings or portions of buildings having rooms used for educational purposes beyond the 12th grade with less than 50 occupants in any room.
Division 3. Aircraft hangars where
no repair work is done except exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no open flame, welding, or the use of highly flammable liquids.
Open parking garages.
Heliports.
For occupancy separations see Table No. 5-B,
For occupant load see Section 3301. Construction, Height, and Allowable
Area,
Sec. 1102. (a) General. Buildings or parts of buildings classed in Group B, Division 1, 2 or 3 Occupancy because of the use or character of the occupancy shall be limited to the types of construction set forth in Tables No.
5-C and No. 5-D.
Storage areas in excess of 1000 square feet in connection with wholesale or retail sales, shall be separated from the public areas by a One-hour Fire-resistive Occupancy Separation. Such areas may be increased to 3000 square feet when sprinklers, not otherwise required, are installed in the storage area.


Light, Ventilation and Sanitation
Sec. 1105. All portions of Group B, Divisions 1, 2 and 3 Occupancies, shall be provided with natural light by means i exterior glazed openings with an area equal to one-tenth of the total floor area, and natural ventilation by means of exterior openings with an area not less than one-twentieth of the total floor area or shall be provided with artificial light and a mechanically operated ventilating system.
In all enclosed parking garages, used for storing of handling of automobiles operating under their own power and on all loading platforms in bus terminals, ventilation shall be provided capable of exhausting a minimum of 1.5 cfm per square foot of gross floor area.
Every building or portion thereof where persons are employed shall be provided with at least one water closet. Separate facilities shall be provided for each sex when the number of employees exceeds four and both sexes are employed. Such toilet facilities shall be located either in such building or conveniently in a building adjacent thereto on the
same property.
All water closet rooms shall be provided with an exterior window at least 3 square feet in area, fully openable; or a vertical duct not less than 100 square inches in area for the first toilet facility; or a mechanically operated exhaust system, which is connected to the light switch, capable of providing a complete change of air every 15 minutes. Such systems shall be vented to the outside air and at the point of discharge shall be at least 5 feet from any openable window.
Open Parking Garages
(b) Definition. For the purpose of this Section, an open parking garage is a structure of Type t or II construction, which is open on two or more sides totaling not less than 40 percent of the building perimeter and which is used exclusively for parking or storage of private pleasure cars. For a side to be considered open, the total area of openings distributed along the side shall be not less than 50 percent of the exterior area of the side at each tier.
54


combustible materials.
(c) Construction. Construction shall be of ncn-.' u.lusl il:le materials. Open parking garages shall meet the design requirements of Chapter 23. Adequate curbs and railings shall be provided at every opening.
(d) Area and Height. Az-ea and height of open parking garages in Fire &or>es No. 1, No. Z and No. 3 shall be limited as set forth in Table No. 11-A.
The clear height of a parking tier shall be not less than 7 feet, except that a i eraser clear height may be permitted in mechanical-access open parking garages when approved by the Building Official.
(g) Stairs and Exits. Where persons other than parking attendants are permitted, stairs and exits shall meet the requirements of Chapter 33* based on an occupant load of 200 square feet per occupant. Where no persons other than parking attendants are permitted there shall be not less than two stairs 3 feet wide. Lifts may he installed for use of employees only, provided they are completely enclosed by non-


TABLE NO. 11 AOPEN PARKING GARAGES AREA AND HEIGHT
TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION AREA PER TIER (Square Feet) HEIGHT
RAMP ACCESS MECHANICAL ACCESS
Automatic Fire-Extinguishing System
NO YES
i Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
II-F.R. 125,000 12 Tiers 12 Tiers 18 Tiers
II 1-hour 50,000 10 Tiers 10 Tiers 15 Tiers
II-N 30,000 8 Tiers 8 Tiers 12 Tiers
TABLE NO. 11 BOPEN PARKING GARAGES EXTERIOR WALLS
OISTANCE FROM PROPERTY LINE FIRE ZONE FIRE ZONE FIRE ZONE
TO BUILDINfi NO. 1 NO. 2 NO. 3
O'-10' 2-hour 2-hour 1-hour
10'-20' 1-hour 1-hour None


REQUIREMENTS BASED ON TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
Chapter 17
CLASSIFICATION OF ALL BUILDINGS BY TYPES CONSTRUCTION AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
See, 1701. The requirements of Part V are for the various Types of Construction and represent varying degrees of public safety and resistance to fire. Every building shall be classified by the Building Offical into one of the Types of Construction set forth in Table No.
17-A. Any building which dees not entirely conform to a Type of Consturction set forth in Table No. 17-A shall be class-ifed by '.'.ho Building Official into a type having an equal or lesser degree of fire resistance.
Chapter 18
TYPE I FIRE-RESISTIVE BUILDINGS Definition
Sec. 1801. The structural elements in Type I Fire-resistive Buildings shall be of steel, iron, concrete or masonry.
Walls and permanent partitions shall be of noncombusiible fire-resistive
construction except that permanent nonbearing partitions of one-hour or two-hour fire-resistive construction, which are not part of a shaft enclosure may have fire-retardant treated wood within the assembly.
Materials of construction and fire-resistive requirements shall be as specified in Chapter 17.
Structural Framework
Sec. 1302. Structural framework shall be structural steel or iron, reinforced concrete, or reinforced masonry.
Exterior Walls and Openings
Sec. I803. (a) Exterior Walls. Exterior walls and all structural members shall comply with the requirements specified in Section 50E and the fire-resistive provisions set forth in Table 17-. A.
(b) Openings in Walls. All openings in exterior walls shall conform to the requirements of Section 50^ (b) and shall be protected by a fire assebly having a three-fourths-hour fire-protection rating when they are less than 20 feet from an adjacent property line or the center line of a street or public


line.
Stair Construction
Sec. 1305. Stairs and stair platforms shall be constructed of reinforced concrete, iron, or steel with treads and risers of concrete, iron or steel. Brick, marble, tile, or other hard noncombustible materials may be used for the finish of such treads and risers.
Stairs shall be designed and constructed, as speciiied in Chapter 3.3*
Hoofs
Sec. 1806. Hoofs and their members other than the structural frame more than 25 feet above any floor, balcony or gallery may be of unprotected noncombustible materials.
Special Provisions for Group B, Division 2 Office Buildings and Group R, Division 1 Occupancies
Sec. 1807 (a) Scope. Such buildings having floors used for human occupancy located more than 75 feet above the lowest level of Fire Department vehicle access shall conform to the requirements of this Section in add ition to other applicable requirements of this Code.
(b) Compartmentation. Compartmentation shall be provided in every building to provide areas of refuge for the building occupants. This may be provided by either of the following*
1. Horizontal exits dividing a story into two or more areas of approximately the same size not exceeding 30,000 square feet; or
2. Subdividing the building into five-story compartments by interrupting the stairshaft with smoke barriers every fifth floor or through the use of smokeproof enclosures for all stairways or any other method which will protect against the movement of smoke from one compartment to another.
(g)Central Control Station. A central control station for Fire Department operations shall be provided in a location approved by the Fire Department. It shall contain the voice communication systems panel; fire detection and alarm system panels; status indicators and controls for elevators and air handling systems; controls for unlocking stairway doors; a public telephone; sprinkler valve and water flow detectors; and standby power controls.


TABLE NO. 17 ATYPES OF CONSTRUCTIONFIRE-RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS
(In Hours)
For Details see Chapters under Occupancy and Types ol Construction and lor Exceptions see Section 1705.
BUILDING ELEMENT TYPE 1 TYPE II TYPE III TYPE IV TYPE V
NONCOMBUSTIBLE COMBUSTIBLE
FIRE RESISTIVE Fire Resistive 1 Hr. N 1-Hr. N H.T. 1 Hr. N
Exterior Bearing Walls 1803%) 4 1903(a) i N 4 2103 (a) 4 2103(a) 4 2103 (a) i N
Interior Beuring Walls 3 2 i N 1 N 1 i N
Exterior Nonhearing Walls 4 Sec. 1803 (a) 4 1903(a) i N 4 2103 (a) 4 2103(a) 4 2103 (a) i N
Structural Frame1 3 2 i N 1 N 1 or H.T. i N
Partitions Permanent 12 l2 i2 N 1 N 1 or H.T. i N
Shaft Enclosures 2 2 i 1 1 1 1 1706 17*06
Floors 2 2 i N 1 N H.T. 1 N
Roofs 2 See. 1806 1 1906 i 2006 N 1 N H.T. 1 N
Exterior Doors and Windows Sec. 1803 (b) 1903 (b) 2003 2003 2103 (b) 2103 (b) 2103 (b) 2203 2203
Note: For changes to types of construction designations, see page 21.
N No general requirements for fire resistance. H.T.Heavy Timber.
'Structural frame elements in the exterior wall shall be protected against external fire exposure as required for exterior bearing walls or the structural frame, whichever is greater.
'hire-retardant treated wood (sec Section 407) may be used in the assembly provided fire-resistance requirements arc maintained. See Sections 1B0 1, 1901 and 2001, respectively.
17-A UNIFORM BUILDING CODE


1976 EDITION
23-A
TABLE NO. 23-AUNIFORM AND CONCENTRATED LOADS
USE OR OCCUPANCY UNIFORM LOAD' CONCEN- TRATED LOAD
CATEGORY DESCRIPTION
1. Armories 150 0
2. Assembly areas* and auditoriums and balconies therewith Fixed seating areas 50 0
Moveable seating and other areas 100 0
Stage areas and enclosed platforms 125 0
3. Cornices, marquees and residential balconies 60 0
4. Exit facilities, public 100 0
5. Garages General storage and/or repair 100 1
Private pleasure car storage 50 l
6. Hospitals Wards and rooms 40 1000'
7. Libraries Reading rooms 60 1000'
Slack rooms 125 1500'
Manufacturing Light 75 2000'
Heavy 125 3000'
8. Offices 50 2000'
9. Printing plants Press rooms 150 2500'
Composing and linotype rooms 100 2000'
10. Residential* 40 0
11. Rest rooms'
12. Reviewing stands, grand stands and bleachers 100 0
13. Schools Classrooms 40 1000'
14. Sidewalks and driveways Public access 250 I
15. Storage Light 125
Heavy 250
16. Stores Retail 75 2000'
Wholesale 100 3000'
'See Section 2306 for live load reductions.
See Section 2304 (c), first paragraph, for area of load application.
Sec Section 2304 (c), second paragraph, for concentrated loads.
4Assembly aicas include such occupancies as dance halls, drill rooms, gymnasiums, playgrounds, plazas, terraces and similar occupancies which arc generally accessible to the public.
Exit facilities include such uses as corridors and exterior exit balconies, stairways, fire escapes and similar uses.
'Residential occupancies include private dwellings, apartments, and hotel guest rooms.
Rest room loads shall be not less than the load for the occupancy with which they are associated but need not exceed SO pounds per square foot.
1976 EDITION
23*1
I * 5 5 r
FIGURE NO. 1 SEISMIC ZONE MAP OF THE UNITED STATES For areas outside ol the United States see Appendix Chapter 23


Chapter 33
STAIRS, EXITS AND OCCUPANT LOADS General
Sec. 3301. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this Chapter is to determine occupant loads and to provide minimum standards of egress facilities for occupants of buildings, reviewing stands, bleachers and grandstands.
(d) Determination of Occupant Load.
The occupant load permitted in any building or portion thereof shall be determined by dividing the floor area assigned to that use by the square feet per occupant as set forth in Table No. 33-A.
Lxits Required
Sec. 3302. (a) Number of Exits. Every building or usable portion thereof shall at least one exit, and shall have not less than two exits where required by Table No. 33-A.
In all occupancies, floors above the first story having tin occupant load of more than 10 shall have not less than two exits.
Each mezzanine used for other than
storage purposes, if greater in area than 2000 square feet or if more than 60 feet in any dimension shall have not less than two stairways to an adjacent floor.
Every story or portion therof, having an occupant load of 500 to 999 shall have not less than three exits.
Every story or portion therof, having an occupant load of 1000 or more shall have not less than four exits.
(b) Width. The total width of exits in feet shall be not less than the total occupant load served divided by 50.
(c) Arrangement of Lxits. If only two exits are required they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served measured in a Straight line between exits.
(d) Distance to Exits. The maximum distance of travel from any point to an exterior exit door, horizontal exit, exit passageway, or an enclosed stairway in a building not equipped with an


automatic fire-extinguishing system throughout, shall not exceed 150 feet or 200 feet in a building equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system throughout
(b) Owing. Exit doors shall swing in The direction of exit travel when serving any hazardous area or when serving an occupant load of 50 or more.
Double acting doors shall not be used as exits serving a tributary occupant load of more than 100; nor shall they be used as a part of a fire assembly, nor equipped with panic hardware. A double acting door shall be provided with a view panel of not less than 200 square inches.
Corridors and Exterior Exit Balconies
Dec. 330^1. (a) General. This section shall apply to every corridor serving as a required exit for an occupant load of 10 or more persons. For the purposes of this Section the term "corridor shall include "exterior exit balcony" and any covered or* enclosed exit passageway including walkways, tunnels and malls.
Foyers, lobbies and reception rooms
meeting the construction requirements of corridors as specified in this Section may be classed as corridors.
(b) Width. Every corridor shall be not less in width than EE inches.
(c) Height. Corridors and exterior exit balconies shall have a clear height of not less than 7 feet measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling,
(e) Access to Exits. When more than one exit is required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to go in either direction from any point in a corridor to a s epar'ate exit, except for dead ends not exceeding 20 feet in length. Stairways
Sec. 335- (a) General. Every stairway serving any building or portion thereof shall conform to the requirements of this Section.
(b) Width. Stairways serving an occupant load of more than 50 shall be not less in width than EE inches. Stairways serving an occupant load of 50 or less may be 36 inches wide. Private stairways serving an occupant load of less than 10 may be 30 inches wide.


(c) Rise and Run. The rise of every step in a stairway shall not exceed 7 1/2 inches and the run shall be not less than 10 inches. The largest tread width or riser height within any flight of stair shall not exceed the smallest by more than 1/4 inch.
(g) Landings. Every landing shall have a dimension measured in the direction of travel equal to the width of the stairv/ay. Such dimension need not exceed 4 feet when the dtair has a straight run. Landing when provided, shall not be reduced in width by more than 3 l/2 inches by a door when fully open.
(i) Distance Between Landings. There shall be not more than 12 feet vertically between landings.
Ramps
Sec. 3306. (a) General. Ramps used as exits shall conform to the provisions of this Section.
(b) Width. The width of ramps shall be as required for stairways.
(c) Slope. Ramps required by Table IMo. 33-A shall not exceed a slope of one vertical to 10 horizontal. The slope
of other ramps shall not exceed one vertical to 8 horizontal.


1976 EDITION
33-A
TABLE NO. 33-AAVAILABLE SQUARE FEET PER OCCUPANT AND EGRESS FACILITIES
USE1 MINIMUM OF TWO EXITS OTHER THAN ELEVATORS ARE REQUIRED WHERE NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS IS OVER SQUARE FEET PER OCCUPANT EGRESS BY MEANS OF A RAMP OR AN ELEVATOR MUST BE PR0VIDE0 FOR THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPE0 AS INDICATED2
1. Aircraft Hangars 10 500 Yes
(No Repair) 2. Auction Rooms 30 7 Yes
3. Assembly Areas, Concentrated Use (without fixed seats) 50 7 Yes34
Auditoriums Bowling Alleys (Assembly areas) Churches and Chapels Dance Floors Lodge Rooms Reviewing Stands Stadiums 4. Assembly Areas, Less-concentrated Use 50 15 Yes3
Conference Rooms Dining Rooms Drinking Establishments Exhibit Rooms Gymnasiums Lounges Skating Rinks Stages 5. Childrens Homes and Homes for the Aged 5 80 Yes5
6. Classrooms 50 20 Yes
7. Dormitories 10 50 Yes5
8. Dwellings 10 300 No
9. Garage, Parking 30 200 Yes
10. Hospitals and Sanitariums-Nursing Homes 5 80 Yes
11. Hotels and Apartments 10 200 Yes when
12. Kitchen Commercial 30 200 more than 3 stories No
13. Library Reading Room 50 50 Yes3
14. Locker Rooms 30 50 Yes
15. Mechanical Equipment Room 30 300 No
16. Nurseries for Children (Day-care) 6 50 Yes
USE* MINIMUM OF TWO EXITS OTHER THAN ELEVATORS ARE REQUIRED WHERE NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS IS OVEN SQUARE FEET PER OCCUPANT EGRESS BY MEANS Of A RAMP OR AN ELEVATOR MUST BE PROVIDED FOR THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED AS INDICATED2
17. Offices 30 100 Yes5
18. School Shops and Vocational Rooms 50 50 Yes
19. Stores Retail Sales Rooms Basement 7 20 Yes
Ground Floor 50 30 Yes
Upper Floors 10 50 Yes
20. Warehouses 30 300 Yes5
21. All Others 50 100
Refer to Sections 3318 and 3319 for other specific requirements. ^Elevators shall not be construed as providing a required exit.
3Aceess to secondary areas on balconies or mezzanines may be by stairs only.
Reviewing stands, grandstands and bleachers need not comply.
5Access to floors other than that closest to grade may be by stairs only. Access to floors other than that closest to grade and to garages used in connection with apartment houses may be by stairs only.
7See Section 3302 for basement exit requirements.


SLOTION 509. Toilet Facilities
(a) General. Lvery building shall be provided with toilet room facilities for use by the public and employees as specified in Table No. 5-T.and in this Section. Separate toilet room facilities shall be provided for males and females unless otherwise excepted in this Section. Toilet room facilities shall be completely enclosed or screened to insure privacy; shall be identified for each sex, and shall be available for use during normal hours
of occupancy of the building.
(b) Ratio. In buildings occupied by both sexes, the ratio of male to female facilities shall be established on the basis of 59 percent male and 50 percent female occupants, except when the building oz' portions thereof, are designed and intended for an unbalanced division of the sexes. In this case, the number of fixtures for each sex shall be installed on the basis of the actual or intended ratio of male and female occupants of the build ing or portion thereof. (see table 5-f)


TABLE NO 5-E
MINIMUM PLUMBING FACILITIES
Type of Building or Occupancy Water Closets Urinals Lavatories Bathtubs or Showers Drinking Fountains Service Sinks or Floor Sinks
Male Female Fixtures/Persona Fixturea/Persons Fixtu res/Persons Fixtures/Persons Fixlurcs/Floor
A & Bc 2 1 200 2 1-100 2 1200 1 I 200
3201 400 3 101200 3201-400 2201 400 1 per 100
4401 000 4 201 400 4401 GOO 3 -401-750 One additional fix-
lure for each 200 1
Over 400, add 1 fixture for Over 600, add 1 fix Over 750, add 1 fix- persons.
each additional 500 males & lure for each addi- lure for each addi-
1 for each 300 females. tional 300 males. tional 500 persons.
0 130 125 125 140 150 1
1) 1 per 10 1 per H 1 per 25 1 per 12 1 per H 1 per 100
For female, add
Additional oeeupanls: Over 150. Over 12, one hathtuh per 30 One additional 1
1 per 25 1 per 20 1 per 50 1 per 1 ft females Over 150, fixture for each 200
1 per 20 males 1 per 20
E Fixtures Persons
1 1 0 Up to 100.
2 10 24 1 pel 10
3 2ft 41) Over 100,
4 50 74 1 per 15
r, 75 100
1 add! lor each 30
FI c Fixtures Persons
2 1 50 1 2 1 per 100
3 ft 1 100 1 3 one additional lor
4 101 200 2 4 each 200 persons
ft 201-500 3 4
r 2 Fixtures Persons 1 115 1 pei lOO*'
1 l IS 2 Hi to
j lit 3.5 :t .to no OHO -l.t.lll I.MI.ll 1.1
3 3d ftft 1 nl iM each 2tM pei on..
4 ftd 80 5-01 12ft
ft 81 1 10
0 1 1 1 150 1 udd'l for nu ll 15
1 addl for each 40 . .
Use Requirements lor Type K Occupancy
II& lb 1 for each dwelling or apart- 1 for each dwelling or 1 lor each dwelling
ment unit. apartment unit. or apartment unit.
the figures shown auk based upon one fixture being the minimum required ior the number of persons indicated or any fraction THEREOF.
** For restaurants, use requirements Car F-l ectaipaney.
I' Fur dormitories, use requirements tor I) occupancy.
Where alcoholic or malt hcv. .ages are servi .1. the requirements lor toilets ami lavatories shall he lonhled.


Figures 17 ib indicate the dimensions of local and collector streets, which would be directly adjacent to my site.


FIG 17
CLASSIFICATION LOCAL COLLECTOR
WIDTH 26/28 32 36 . *- 36 lo
TYPE A B C
MINIMUM DESIGN
CRITERIA
DENSITY (MAX.) Rl* RIA.RIB C.l ALL ALL
SIGHT DISTANCE(MIN.) 200 150 150 200 200
GRADE (MAX.) % 6 8 8 8 8
t RADIUS(MIN.) 200 150 100 300 300
ACCESS D/W D/W D/W NONE D/W
*RIA, RIB CUL-DE-SACS WILL ALLOW A 28 FOOT SECTION.
REVIEWED BY CITY OF LAKEWOOD, COLORADO DATE
DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY SERVICES
TRANSR ADMIN. , DIVISION OF ENGINEERING
APPROVED MINIMUM DESIGN .CRITERIA DESIGN NO. 7 ..
CITY ENGINEER


R/w
>
7'

BASE COURSE
36
50' R.O.W. MIN.
R/w
1 -6" 5'-6" 2' 32' s: 5'-6" r-e"
ROADWAY SURFACE V ASPHALTIC COMCRETE's^
7
5' i 7-6
' 2'
MIN.
SIDEWALK
i i
w
DJ
15'
36'
ROADWAY SURFACE
ASPHALTIC COrN'CRETE


BASE COURSE
40
70' R.O.W,
2-6"
2' 7'-6"
MIN.
5'
SIDEWALK
3
R
151


CLIENT PROFILE


Client Profile
There are three users of the retail development. These are the quick stop uses, the brouser from anywhere within the activity center, and possibly heavy users from adjacent office developments.
The heaviest user will be the person that needs groceries, a tool, or papers copied, and will then leave the market center. Included in basic retail design is to shift the quick stop users into brousers by exposure and eye-catching appeal to draw them into their store. The basic purpose of the activity center is to make users stop once for all their daily needs. By buffering transportation zones access between functions should be made easier. Plus the store owner tries to present a pleasant, fun place to spend time and money, and create repeat users.
Circulation for a neighborhood shopping center user is basic. The shopper wants basic items, and will use this center twice a week for this function. Convenient parking, visibility, and access are prime concerns. Due to my two major user transportation types, careful consideration for circulation is critical
The last user is fi*om the occupants of the adjacent offices. Due to their positioning, there is a captive audience waiting to be used. Providing quick, clean service will enhance the chance of return business.
There are two possibilites for clients of office space. One is the more general speculative office user, indicating a need for a flexible space for a diverse background. The other user would be brought in on the idea of a second downtown situation. Much like Denver Techs draw of business executive. Villa Itplia could become another major hub of development. Typically big companies are interested in separate facilities but related field firms would want to locate near major development for ease of transactions.
For my project, my market will come from an unknown user, so flexibility is called for in the design.




The typical neighborhood shopping center design is a single magnet dogleg layout. (See Fig.19)
With this plan all merchants have excellent visibility once on the site and parking is close to their door and important consideration in this type center.
Service is from the rear alley.
Problemsi
Although the primary user comes from the car in this case, pedestrians near the site must walk around to one side of the site for access. Furthermore, pedestrians have long distances to walk to brouse or shop for a particular item. This concept is designed for auto shopping.
The service element is conveniently placed behind the shops, but my site should have no rear service. With Villa Italia on one side and substantial residential development on the other, neither side should be allowed a back door frontage.
Assuming free pedestrian flow through my site (See Fig. ]A), the mall or court concept would accomodate my situation.


TAFT HILL ROAD
SITE PLAN
SCALE : l"= loo'-o" PARKING SPACE : 470 CARS
CEDARWCJOD PLAZA SHOPPING CENTER


Willows Station is a developed strip plan (See Fig.20 ). It allows parking in front of most stores, services from the rear and makes an attempt at an inner court. Access for pedestrians is physically possible from all sides although some are through garbage collection sites.
Problems* ------
The small attempt at an inner court yard creates more problems than it solves. Units in block B and G have some service problems, and unit A as visibility problems. Area given for pedestrians is taken and also serves as security problems for units B and C with two entry locations. This plan would have been better served by a straight or dogleg run.
I H
W t
ti
tJ
2
41
*
t
*4
Loup-iyiillor Companies 5895 East Evens Avenue Denver, Colorado BOEBE 303/757-7883
Willows Station Greeley, Colorado
Project 781/
FIG SO
73


So. Irving St.
W. Bel lev lew Avenue
FIG 2*1
The completion of Turf Club Centre, will provide a series of' inner courts for complete separation of pedestrian and vehicular circulation. (See Fig.21) Service is accomplished either through rear entries or by small alleys into each building pod. This basic concept seems most applicable to my development as there is no real rear service and easy pass through of pedestrians from one side of the development to the other would be convenient. The major magnet on exsisting development assures a guaranteed patronage.
Problems j
The only problem noticable is the courts are small, which does allow cross-brousing, but limits sun light and even provides complete shading at times. The designer must have seen this problem, as the court have been angled toward the south to lessen possible ice buildup.


Marina Square is probably the ultimate in an inner court open air mall. This development is one short of an enclosed mall. The advantage to this is no common heating and cooling. Vehicular circulation is almost completely separated from pedestrian. The composite of services provide the magnet as this is more a specialty center than neighborhood center. (See. Fig. 22)
Problems;
There are a variety of problems associated with this development. One is visibility, with the inner shops not being able to catch the eye of the car shopper. For this reason, inner shops are having trouble being leased.
Another problem is security. The inner shops are particularly vulnerable to this as police must parade the grounds and extra money must be put into floodlights and security apparatus.
Service is taken care of the same way as large malls do, with garbage dumpsters on the periphery of the parking. Maintenance is a must for these units as they are commonly susceptible to
vandalism. They are the first things people often see, creating a negative effect even before one shops.
Another situation is the non-rentible land within the square. It may have a positive effect, allowing community groups to use it, or even allow set up of particular displays, but it still doesn*t provide revenue.
This concept seems less likely to be applicable for my site, given the above reasons.


@

y-
§Sr
l=IC3 32



A more famous example is the successful Faneuil Hall Marketplace in Boston. This project involved revitalizing a dying market by eliminating vehicular circulation and replacing it with a double mall for pedestrians. Its success draws from its convenient location near downtown, excellent design, and money. This project integrated retail below, with commercial and offic above, creating a captive market. The design accomodated people in a special and exciting way through the introduction of cafes, wheelcarts. Other features included were human 3cale elements like plants, trees, and pavers, and providing easy circulation to shops


The First National Bank of Bear Valley building is a five story structure similar to downtown's Dravo building. (Bee Fig.24) The building has a gross area of 86,000 square feet with about 12,300 rentable square feet on each floor. Its basic core and structural design allows maximum flexibility and economy in developing tenant spaces. The mechanical system lets circulation of filtered fresh air throughout the entire building. The system is equipped with an economizer cycle which permits a substantial portion of circulating air to be drawn from high above street level. This filtered fresh air is then regulated throughout the building by a sophisticated automatic control center. The air conditioning system will include variable volume air distribution terminals with self-contained thermostats having the capability of providing automatic individual room temperature controls.
Problems t
The design is very straight forward and allows a great deal of flexibility.
One small detail could create as additional cost is the placement of the mechanical shaft. This placement makes duct runs be longer than if it were split to service two sides. The stairs are both entered from the same hall, making it hard to exit in case of fire. Otherwise, the design is solid.



Typical Tenant Floor Plan
o
5 10 15 20 25
For leasing intormation please contact:
Grubb & Ellis Commercial Brokerage Company
1350 Larimer Street Denver, Colorado 80204 (303) 572-7700
FIG


Writer Square is the first mixed-use development in downtown. Denver's rapidly growing urban community. It includes 50*000 square feet of retail space, a 12 story, 100,000 square foot office building, and U-2 exclusive living units.
The tower (See Fig.25) is the closest to what area I'm involved with in my project. Its efficient layout services its tenants very well.
Problemsi
The core is developed very well, except for its mechanical servicability. Assuming forced air distribution, ducting is on one side, forcing long runways for air. Other than that, the layout is efficient and circulation is easy.


25
WRfTER SQUARE
TYPICAL FLOOR PLATE


Tremont Center (See Fig.26) is a remodeled building, constructed in 1958 as a corporate identity building. The typical floor area for floors, two through five is 6890 square feet. This relatively small floor area has a number of advantages. The distance from elevator core to window is much smaller than in buildings with a large floor. Moreover, a moderate size firm can enjoy the convenience and prestige of being a full floor tenant.
Problems
The most difficult part for this deqign was to revamp an old design into a marketable new one. The plate shows various small nooks which lower overall floor efficiency.


Stair placement is fine, but access is complicated. Bathroom layout is less efficient due to separation of plumbing lines. The overall redesign concepts are successful and I'm sure rent is lower than new spec, offices near due to its features.


The Galleria is a mixed use retail and commercial development. It includes twin eleven story office towers containing 315*000 square feet of office space rbbove a two and three level level retail mall. The typical office tower floor is 75 210 feet or 15,750 square feet. (SEE Fig.27)
Individually controlled thermostats are used to adjust office temperature. Office air conditioning is provided by multi-zoned controls with variable volume air handling equipment. Perimeter overhead slot diffuser electric heating is provided at the window walls.
Problems 1
In trying to obtain maximum square footage in such a narrow building, some tenants must walk 150 feet to the elevator. One of the prime concerns must have been window frontage, but its narrow profile is a big cost to take. In some sections of the tower, flexibility is lost by narrow access to offices. Severe heat build-up is reduced by a reflective glass curtain wall and provides a distinctive architectural feature, but proper circulation is almost lost due to its narrowness.
iower 2
F 2T


PROGRAM




Statement of Architectural Character/Goals
My project is to integrate the major design concepts of Concept Lakewood, which again are buffering uses, mixing uses and creating open public space for pedestrian circulation.
The whole concept of placing a neighborhood shopping center adjacent to a regional activity center is to use the mall as the magnet into the area, and then let people do all their shopping needs in one area. The design of the neighborhood center is to serve basic needs and not distract the major tenant. So, one of my basic concepts is to downplay the scale of the center, to obtain a low profile in comparision to the activity center. Another positive idea is to separate vehicular and pedestrian traffic, but not eliminate the interaction between the two. All shopping aspects should be convenient by car but allow pedestrians a pleasant and unhurried atmosphere. This can be obtained through courtyards or plazas.
The primary goals have been brought out earlier in background research.
Due to the special constraints imposed from the development plan, the establishing of a special people place with surrounding retail and office would create a feasible design challenge.
ftS




Kiajor tenants for retail deveIcpment.
The major tenants are to act as magnets to the site, hue to this fact, they want a presitigious position in relation to traffic, aesthetic, and other considerations. One tenant is the King hoopers store to be relocated from another position within the activity center. King hoopers has a prototype design for all their future designs. Their total package is ^5,000 square feet and a general layout of the store is given in Figure 28 As brought out withan interview with King hoopers architect, (notes in bibliography) their design is currently introverted, a plain package outside with a machine-line development within.
Another magnet possibility is a hardware store, variety store or another convenience type facility. Anticipated location would be opposite King hoopers and would serve to create traffic between these stores. Both stores would want public access directly from the parking lot and private service facilities.
Convenience hhops.
Tiie convenience stores will comprise the remainder of the retail development These shops will thrive through ease of access, visibility, knowledge of merchandise from the public, and repeat patronage. Having office space so near, as well as housing blocks away creates a good chance of success.
Generally, the frontage areas are 20, 25 or 30 feet, with 30 feet being the most flexible. Depth ranges between l\Q and 120 feet, with 60 feet being the most common and currently rentable.
Without any bonuses for parking with open space, the allowable total retail development on the site, using 75-^ of my total site, is about 175*000 square feet


TO? <5>p &OOr~
'dPOP- ^j'UPV'e. -XV f2£^£
Jl^fcL. X^cXCUtt. Y. Mfer 14 M^? WXX- / I=an] 1
bcx- M. ooajc#-
^JrnKiif
\POCJt- Y. HE AT C*AUZA}

H^IM |fZFS|. L
dA. XUJUXXKty d7T n-
24^ o./*, x^m^xYaca!
--------------------------------------------,-
KIINJG SQQPERS PROTOTYPE PLAIVI FIG SB


Given this and other set dimensions, this leaves 110,000 for small shops, or at most, 45 shops. Typically, neighborhood complexes have maybe twenty stores but expansion for more development must be a consideration.
A typical floor to floor of 12 feet will allow mechanical and an extended ceiling height for a feeling of spaciousness.
Public plaza/area.
The key to the whole development is a usible, accessible public area. Pedestrian activity has more scope and complexity of movement than any other form of transportation* High quality spaces give the greatest range of options for activities. People like to have options or variety, in comparison to regimented static linear flow. Overdesign of public space could be a problem due to inflexibility. The design should respond to the users, to enhance their desire to use the space. Special consideration should be brought to children, people with children, the elderly, the handicapped, and alternate forms of transport. Pedestrians should be given the chance to pursue leisurely activities, to get used to the space, be given the chance to socialize, relax, and watch other people go by. With the idea of two major stores and a double loaded corridor for the satellite shops, this public way must be carefully considered. Typically, the wlaths between stores lias been set at 30 to kO feet but careful consideration must be brought into play of a cavern effect. Above 15 feet, the public space may become too stilted. Solar insolation must be brought out also.
Office space.
Figuring the office development to contain 25 percent of my site, about 120,000 square feet can becarried. With a maximum height allowed of 85 feet, about 6 stories can be constructed in a single structure. If office space is spread throughout the envelopment, parking can be accomodated through on-site parking.


The office development must relate directly to the proposed urban crossover, so, my major office development is devoted to the west of my site. Core development in relation to efficient office layout is of prime concern. Central cores have a number of advantages. It allows all window space to be utilized, offering natural light and views, the building is more evenly divided, offering flexibility of office layout, utilities can be accomodated within the center core to allow equidistant duct runs.
There is the possibility of limited office space above commercial where access and mechanical development create no problems. One advantage is visibility with the possibility of unique spaces. Typical single offices range from a minimum of 1000 square feet to possibly 20,000 square feet. The open office plan allows versatility of layout, while keeping efficient in total area. But, options should be thought of when tenant space shrinks, demanding smaller offices with good access. For this reason, offices shouldn't be more than about 40 feet from their main exit corridor unless other options are played.
Parking decks/lots.
Their basic functional requirements are brought out within the design requirements. Their basic size is brought out in Figure 29. Figure 30 notes ramping sizes and requirements.
Service area.
Loading dock sizes are noted in Figure 31 The service function is characteristically delegated to the rear" of a building. The two major tenants have a bulk of service access needs due to volume but all development needs some access for supplies and the removal of trash. This should be done with a minimum of circulation through public areas. King Soopers has the required


stalls for deliveries, and the rest of the shops will need about 4 more docks to serve the retail stores. Service for the office should be separate and closely related to the core development of the building.


.3 -
AVERAGE CAR
Assumed average size. Larger cars may protrude into aisle, will have less space for door swing.
NOTE :
No allowance has been made for columns on this page. Allow 1'0"
ONE Rqw
STALL and
AISLE
DIAGRAM
RECOMMENDED STALL AND AISLE DIMENSIONS
UNIT
ANGLE DEPTH
X B C D E F G H i n
8.5 16.9 110 26 4 17 0 12 7 29 2 44.8 37 5
30 9 0 17 3 110 26 8 18 0 13.5 30 0 45.6 37 8
8 5 19 4 13 5 32.9 12.0 6 0 19.4 52.3 46 3
45 9.0 19 8 13.0 33 3 12.7 6.3 19.7 52.6 46 2
8 5 20 7 18 5 37 3 9.8 2.4 119 59.9 56.8
60 9.0 21 0 18 0 37 5 10 4 2 6 12 1 60 0 55 5
8.5 20.8 19 5 3S.7 9 0 1 0 7.5 61.1 58.2
70 9.0 21 0 19.0 38 9 9 6 1 1 7 6 61 0 57 9
8 5 20 2 24 0 39 0 8 6 0.2 3.5 64 4 62 9
80 9 0 20 3 24 0 39 0 9.1 0.2 3 5 64 6 63 0
8 5 19 0 27 0 38 0 3 5 0.0 00 65 0 65 0
90 90 19 0 25 0 380 9 0 0 0 0.0 63 0 63 0
note Even number of spaces, "N" in iengrh of curb.
"L" = N = ----- C Stall length = 19 -0' F
FIG
29
i ro i u> l oo i in


ONE WAV DOWN RAMP
(/)
U
6ECTION A-A MOTE .
I I
COLUMN
I-o*;

2-0,J
13-O"

2*-0" 2-0" i3'-0"
/ ,S'-" /2-0'
2'- 6" x2'-0 RADIUS b2'-0" MIN 63 -0" PREF.
IS-O" T
i" O'.
SECTION B-B
RAMP GRADE:
15-17% maximum on shori ramps-staggered floor garage.
10-13% straight or helical ramps-used purely
for travel-7 8% preferred
35% ramps in sloping floor garages, 3%
preferred
RAMP
FLOOR
NOTE : Change in grade should be equal to 1/2 ramp grade.
RAMP GRADE
mote:
11*0" width for straight approach 16*0" width for sharp turn approach
STRAIGHT RAMP
1-4 MAX S MAX.
ANGLE OF ANGLE OF
APPROACH DEPARTURE
BREAKOVER ANGLE
FIG
30


3 -cr
A B C
55- O"' 55'- 0" 60 O'
30' O' 30'- 0" 35 j
25 O' 25 0" 30 O
elevation of outside
SINGLE DOORS
STiH AT iNSCi DOCK
SECTION THROUGH CLOSED MOTOR CARRIER DOCK
A o
55 0" 110' O'
30-0" 60 O'
25 0 " 50' O
FIG 31


0 MAJOR RETAIL TEMAMTS
n IVIIMOR RETAIL TEMAMTS
@ PUBLIC PLAZA
# IV1IG -RISE OFFICE
Ifn LOW-RISE. OFFICE
Q PARKIMG
@ Q SERVICE AREA
MECHANICAL
0 ACCESS OFF SITE
TliVIE MATRIX
AY
MIGHT
WEEKENDS
ADJACENCY MATRIX
PRIMARY IMPORTANCE SECONDARY
MG RELATIONSHIP
3S
FIG