Citation
Lawrence at Larimer

Material Information

Title:
Lawrence at Larimer an urban hotel and retail center, Denver, Colorado
Alternate title:
City center hotel
Creator:
Hanson, Douglas D
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
43, [10] leaves : illustrations, charts, maps, color photographs, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Hotels, motels, etc -- Designs and plans -- Denver (Colo.) ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 41-43).
General Note:
At head of thesis statement: A city center hotel.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
[Douglas D. Hanson].

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
11302048 ( OCLC )
ocm11302048
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1984 .H363 ( lcc )

Full Text

r

ARCHIVES LD 1190 AT 2 98U H363
AURARIA LIBRARY


at
an urban hotel and retail center
denver, Colorado
LAWRENCE
LARIMER
This publication is the documentation of my Masters Thesis and represents one year of study at the University of Colorado. This thesis is the final project concluding two years of graduate study leading to a Masters degree in Architecture.


A CITY CENTER HOTEL
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Planning, University of Colorado at Denver, in partial ful the requirements for The Degree of Master of Architecture
Design and fillment of
DOUGLAS D.
HANSON
Spring 1984


The Thesis of DOUGLAS D
HANSON is approved.
Jeff Sheppard
Advisor R.L. Davis Jr.
University of Colorado at Denver
May 1984


table of contents
PART ONE
INTRODUCTION............................ 1
PART TWO
HISTORY................................. 5
THE SITE................................ 10
PART THREE
THE PROGRAM............................. 12
PART FOUR
CODES AND ZONING........................ 32
CLIMATIC INFORMATION.................... 38
PART FIVE
SUMMARY................................. 40
PART SIX
BIBLIOGRAPHY............................ 41
TECHNICAL DATA.......................... 4 4
PART SEVEN
DESIGN SOLUTION
CONCLUSION


I
£f arcmtecture wanes to get back to being an experience, if it wanes co enrieft and noc devastate ene environmenc, then it nusc Eree itself from ene straignt-jacket of functionalism and reraemoer its possibilities cor conceptual and artistic expression.
0. N. Ungers


INTRODUCTION
In partial fulfillment of my Master of Architecture, I propose an urban hotel and retail space in the city center of Denver, Colorado, as a design project. It is my intention that the design problem express my personal philosophy of design as well as be my method of study.
In gaining an understanding of the man-environment relationship, I intend to develop, through the design process, spatial relationships which people find comfortable and which accommodate the desired behavior.
The traditional focus of architectural theory has often expressed the thoughts and testaments of the individual designer and not the relationship between the built environment and its occupants. Attention shall be directed to understanding how the environment is perceived and the meaning it has for various people in either functional or symbolic terms.
In design, architects infrequently consider how the formal relationships which appear on the drawing will be perceived as we move through the environment. It is through the understanding of visual perception in the man-environment relationship that we might better deal with designing spaces. Without this understanding, designers often engineer a physical structure or space that supports the function but does not allow for individual reaction. While the potential environment is consistent with everyone, the effective environment may be different. The effective environment depends on the constraints of one's perceptual systems. However, opportunities must exist to achieve desired goals. The organization of architectural forms, rhythms, proportions, and the use of light and illumination
1


are expressive factors that must be referenced to the user through an understanding of the man environment relationship.
Understanding that people like to watch people and external activity is important to some spaces but not important to others, is necessary in designing public spaces of the hotel, such as the lobby and private spaces, like the guestroom. A luxury hotel must be perceived as having large spaces and special places that would not be available in other hotels.
The Bauhaus education of architects encouraged the lack of behavioral significance in our environments. It tought to remove much of the decoration that gives distinguishing features to the spaces we design. Instead, they were encouraged to make anonymous settings that virtually ignore the prevailing habits of life, personal aesthetics or cultural traditions.
It seems that much of the contemporary building which is "faceless" has resulted from a lack of understanding visual perception in reference to the user and the expressions and ideals of the "modern movement."
It is through movement that we perceive architecture and the built environment. When a person moves through the environment, the sequences of experiences and levels of visual perception become important. However this is often neglected in design.
Knowledge of the information based perception theory is relevant to architects in its emphasis on movement in the comprehension of the environment. Architects have known for a long time that movements yield changes in the optic
2


array; still, they too often design a static environment simply because our graphic techniques represent such an environment. Since much of our interest and enjoyment in the world stems from the way in which changes take place and sequences develop as we move through it, design efforts must accommodate this. As designers, we must also realize that our movement through the environment is purposive. What we see depends on our motivations. I beleive our motivations and perception levels change as our relationships to a building or space change. Therefore, the person driving by the site should be dealt with at one level; the pedestrian at one level; and the guest or user at another level. Amos Rapport suggests that we design ambiguous environments. They have different types of informations and different meanings dependent on the perception level of the user.
The hotel must be structured so that the sequence of movement is divided into two noninteracting patterns. There are established relationships that dictate circulation in both the front of the house and the back of the house. The two patterns of movement must be kept separate and yet so interrelated that both function smoothly and efficiently. The scope of this project deals with the sequence of experiences for the guest or the front of the house activities .
The environment must support the required activity and must be perceived as being capable of supporting the required behavior. Thus, the guest must be able to easily find his room and the lounge but the movement between these spaces can be dealt with as an experience. The environment (in this case a hotel) must be designed as more than a space for human activity. It also presents opportunities for perception, for activities and for emotional responses.
3


Gestalt psychologists, such as Rudolf Arnheim, propose that "expressive qualities" are attached in some way to particular variables in our experience. Architects cannot avoid using expressive qualities and should design such deliberately and avoid the communication of unintended visual qualities. In contrast, I beleive design should be approached as Robert Venturi does: One level of meaning is intended for the passerby, one level for the user and another for the "conoscenti." In support of this, I believe that a person will select information that is appropriate to his needs and will remain unaware of irrelevant features of the environment. The user then organizes the available information to achieve desired goals.
4


Ornamentalism is characterized by a fascination with the surface of things as opposed to cneir essence: elaboration as opposed to simplicity; borrowinq as opposed to originating; sensory stimulation as opposed to intellectual discipline.
t- 1
liiscpi nr
i1
1 L
Robert Jensen Patricia Conway


HISTORY
November, 1858, the St. Charles town site changed hands and became known as Denver, in honor of the Govenor of Kansas. Denver has always been a boom and bust town and the first boom began with the discovery of gold in the mountains. Denver became a base supply as well as a place to come and spend money.
By 1865 there were 25 hotels in Denver and the quality of the western hotel was rapidly improving. The influence of western hotel proprieters was considerable, for the success or failure of many new towns depended upon their hotels. The townspeople knew that most prosperous communities had good to excellent hotels. The population growth, the westerner's love of bigness, and the spirit of competition prompted the building of larger hotels, in a dynamic time when some believed that anything worth doing should be done on a grand scale. In 1888, at the "far" end of 17th Street in a cow pasture, Denver's grandest hotel broke ground. Four years and $2 million later the Brown Palace Hotel opened it's doors. This was a significant step in the development of luxury hotels for the West: it still stands today.
Western hotels often imitated Eastern models, to no exception was the Windsor. A Chicago Architect planned the hotel to resemble Windsor Castle and the Windsor Hotel of ?lontreal. Denver's version opened in 1880 with five floors, three hundred rooms, and a "bona-fide smoking room."




Victorian elegance was often measured by the height of the ceilings and the Windsers were 19' on the first floor and 11 1/2' on the remaining floors.
Nothing mirrored the ideas, ways and tastes of an area, or lack of them, as did hotels of the West: they were "a genuine production of the soil,... in perfect harmony with American wants and idea's." Hotels have been compared to Roman Baths, for all that was needed to enjoy life could be found there. Other times the hotel provided the necessities of life to hungry, thirsty, and tired cowboys, miners and travelers. The innovated proprieter also brought what few comforts there were to the developing West. The hotel brought together persons which the land had drawn far apart; for the hotel was often the only place to sleep, eat, and drink. In its performance of these functions, the hotel became the most important social institution in the West. The hotel was Americans great meeting place, and often as many nonguests as guests were clustered about the lobby's and halls.
The trend toward urban living was highly evident and no institution better represented the pace and freedom of urban life than a hotel.
Hotels were almost as important in the west as the railroads, and they frequently appeared together. Hotels like railroads helped to develop the population. To enthusiastic Westerners, hotels stood for permanency and prosperity as only a multi-storied, many roomed ,structure could.
A frenchman, traveling through America in the 1880's, maintained that in Europe hotels were a means to an end, but in the U.S. they were the end. Hotels, he said, were to Americans what churches, monuments, and natural beauties
6


were to Europeans.
In understanding the history of a building type and site, a designer has one more factor to aid in the design process. Without this understanding, buildings are often built with no referance to the past. Thus we are losing a very immediate and available means of carrying on the past. Historical recall through identifiable forms, is desirable in developing a design that enriches the experience of the user.
The hnest store west ol the hit Muddy (Denver Public Library Hr item Colleaion) The Granite Hotel will now become the corner part oi the Larimer Square protect (Ltinfdaum Alarm, Architect).
7


HISTORY OF THE SITE
Lawrence Street was named after one of the originators of the Denver Town Company, Charles A. Lawrence. Lawrence Street was part of what became the center of commerce, culture and government in the Rocky Mountain Region.
Early houses and businesses appeared between Cherry Creek and what is now 15th Street. Govenor Evans built his house across the street and on June 18, 1865 he declared martial law in Denver from his front steps. For the sake of Denver's future the Governors residence was replaced by the Evans Block. That block also contained the loop for the Denver Trolley Company. Denver's major flood of 1863, and a major fire in 1864, took their toll on the street. Throughout its history, the Street never had the charisma of either Larimer or Market Street.
In 1873, John Hughes and Amos Bissell built a building on the corner of 15th and Lawrence, which was earlier occupied by the barns and sheds of the Overland Express Company. The upper floors were rented by the County for the District Court and County offices. In effect, the Hughes and Bissell Building was the County Court house for a time. At the same time, the lower corner was occupied by the Post Office.
By 1887, the Board of Trade occupied the south part of the block. The early Denver Chamber of Commerce held their meetings at that location. By 1959, the Commerce Apartment Hotel was renting out rooms in building. Other hotels and "houses of joy" occupied various sites along Lawrence Street. The Lawrence Street Hotel at 1413 Lawrence was located on the southern end of the block.
8


In conclusion, the site never contained any buildings of great historical activity. When researching the site, many of the blocks that were adjacent were written about and recorded in much more detail. The site was usually occupied by many small buildings, by 1958 3/4 of the block had been leveled to a parking lot. When DURA acquired the site there were very few buildings left to destroy.
9


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1413 lawrence street


evans block^ may 1913^


n
Places are revealed to as as we move through them. As our position within space cnanges, the appearance of the place varies and the relative positions and sizes of things within it appear to shift dramatically. We are able to organize the shifting patterns into a coherent, integrated and staDle image.
Kevin Lynch


THE SITE
The site, 1400 block of Lawrence Street, is located in the central business district of Denver. The land was acquired by the Denver Urban Renewal Authority in the late 1960's. Half of the site is currently a public parking lot; an office building completed in 1982 occupies the the other half. For the purpose of this thesis project, the site is assumed to be free of any valuable structures.
The site is bounded on three sides by one way streets and an alley on the remaining side. The long side is bounded by Lawrence Street which handles incoming traffic. The north side of the site, 15th Street, is a major arterial for outgoing traffic. 14th Street acts as a collector street and is generally of lessor traffic volume.
The alley at the rear of the site is the link to the Historic Larimer Square District. The Buildings in Larimer Square have opened up their backs and created a gesture to the alley. Many of the buildings step back from the alley to create pedestrian spaces. This should be recognized and respected in the design of the hotel/retail center. The opportunities to make the existing alley an interior pedestrian place and vital link between the hotel/retail and Larimer Square as well as a service court should be fully explored and considered desirable.
In a larger sense, the site's correlation to the 16th Street Mall and the developing Tabor Center is a positive relationship, for they increase the number of users in the area. The proximity to Cherry Creek, which has unexplored potential for recreation and public amenitys, must be considered in developing a comprehensive program. A major traffic arterial: Speer Boulevard is only one block away.
10


The surrounding land at the immediate edges, excluding Lawrence Street, consists of restored buildings and new lowrise buildings. The parking and banking facilities across Lawrence Street are underdeveloped land uses. The potential for maximizing the site in F.A.R. is expected and likely when the economical conditions warrant such development. This is also true for the University buildings to the southwest.
There exists no unusual volumes of vehicular traffic in comparison to other parts of Downtown Denver near the site. Larimer Square is an activity center and promotional activities warrant increased foot traffic.
11




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Architecture is the process of enclosing and sheltering recovery and ac the same time fulfillment and deepening of the individual.
0. .1. Lingers


SPACE REQUIREMENTS
HOTEL
FRONT OF THE HOUSE
250 Rooms Lobby
Front desk Lounge
Hotel rental/retail Main dining room Coffee shop Private dining rooms
Entertainment quarters Recreation facilities SUBTOTAL
BACK OF THE HOUSE Main kitchen Employee's dining room Steward's storeroom Beverage storeroom Receiving room Trash room Laundry Linen room Men's locker room Women's locker room Maintenance shops Furniture storage Mechanical
SUBTOTAL TOTAL HOTEL SPACE
105.000 3000 300 1700 7500 4000 1800 200
300
450
300
11.000
138,250 sq. ft.
2000
450
1000
500
400
190
1250
1000
1000
1000
1000
625
1750
12,165 SQ. ft. 150,415 sq.


RETAIL
Leasable retail space
22,000
13
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PUBLIC SPACES
Public spaces are those areas that are open to the public as necessary auxiliaries but are not direct profit takers. The hotel lobby is generally the first public space of the hotel entered and therefore sets the character. This space, more than any other space, creates lasting first impressions.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
1. The registration desk and the elevators should and must be readily apparent.
2. There should be only one main entrance.
3. The front desk should have direct access to the entry and the offices with back up information and services.
4. Points of entry must be clearly defined, convenient and free from hazards.
5. Provisions must be made for guests arriving by private car, taxi, public vehicles and by foot.
6. Circulation routes used by
guests, nonresident customers, and staff tend to follow distinct patterns and establish
14


t
t
relationships between the various activities of the hotel.
7. Toilet room fixtures as follows; water closets: 1/100-male, 1/50- female, urinals: 1/25,
lavatory's: 1/1-15, 2/16-35, 3/36-65, 4/65-200, 5/100 and above.
OBJECTIVES
To provide a clearly defined sequence of activities and set the desired aesthetics of a luxury hotel.
PARTICIPANTS hotel guests doorman bellman
registration clerks SPACES REQUIRED
v information desk
coatfooms
porter and bellman station
guest registration
toilet rooms
elevator lobbies
hotel lobby
valet parking station
RECREATION FACILITIES
See appendix for design
requirements
15


CONCESSION
Concessions are usually small, income generating convenience facility's. Intended for the hotel guest and adjacent to the hotel lobby. Concession space may be run by the management or sublet.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
1. Visibility from the hotel lobby.
2. Not to be of overwhelming significance.
OBJECTIVES
To provide conveniences to the hotel guest.
PARTICIPANTS hotel guests shopkeepers general public
SPACES REQUIRED newstand cigar shop valet shop

16


1
SUBRENTAL SPACES
Subrental space is for sales or services not normally provided under the hotel operation.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
1. Direct access from the hotel lobby and the street.
2. Storage space is required but may happen in the basement or some other removed location.
OBJECTIVES
To create income producing leasable space that is compatible and reinforcing for the hotel.
PARTICIPANTS shopkeepers hotel guests hotel employees general public
f
SPACES REQUIRED convienience store unfinished retail space travel agency office space
17


FOOD AND BEVERAGE
This division includes all the areas that deal with the service of food and beverages for the guest.
People staying at hotels have a tendency to seek highly touted specialty restaurants within an area rather than eating their meals in the hotel. Therefore, the hotel should provide a specialty restaurant whose specialty is not only food but decor as well.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FRONT OF THE HOUSE
Cocktail lounge
1. A cocktail lounge should be placed adjacent to the hotel lobby to take advantage of impulse buying.
2. The environmental control should be of high quality.
3. Local sound system and
acoustic control. Stage,
bandstand, and dancing area.
4. Personalized seating areas
separated by lighting and/or screens, partitions, and
balconies.
5. An informal social
18


environment is needed to
encourage strangers to mix.
*
Restaurants
1. Coffee shop, main dining room and specialty restaurant should all be conspicuous and conveniently located.
2. All eating spaces are to be of high quality.
3. The coffee shop will contain counter dining along with table seating.
4. 16 sq. ft./seat for both coffee shop counter and table seating.
5. Deluxe restaurants require 20 sq. ft./person.
6. Tables should be spaced at least 4'-5' apart.
7. Service stations should be provided at one small one for every twenty seats and a large central one for every 60 seats.
Private dining rooms
1. Flexibility for rearangement is neccessary.
2. Storage for excess furnishings must be furnished.
OBJECTIVES
To create desirable places for hotel guests and nonguests to eat and drink.
6.
19


PARTICIPANTS
hotel guests
general public
waiters and waitresses
bartenders
cocktail waitresses
hostess
SPACES REQUIRED restaurant
private dining rooms
lounges
bar
coffee shop main dining room


DESIGN REQUIREMENTS BACK OF THE HOUSE
1. Central location to dining rooms is important so that smaller auxiliary kitchens are
not needed.
2. Materials must be permanent
and easily cleaned.
3. The room service area should
be as close to the service
elevators as possible.
4. The chef's office must have visual contact with all the activities in the kitchen.
OBJECTIVES
To provide efficient service to the hotel guest in a high quality environment with minimal
undesirable interaction between guests and service employees.
PARTICIPANTS
kitchen personal bar backs receiving clerk
SPACES REQUIRED main kitchen chef's office room service receiving
steward's storeroom beverage storeroom
21


pantries
employee dining room garbage
room
22


GUESTROOM
/
The guestroom is the final product to be sold so everything discussed previously must be considered peripheral to the primary product.
Adequate space is expensive but does convey a feeling of luxury that is desired in this hotel.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
1. The length and width of the guest room is determined by how much furniture must be accommodated and the degree of luxury.
2. Some guest rooms must be designed for day time use as a space for small business meetings with night time occupation as guestroom. To be economical they must be easily convertible.
3. Suites of a permanent nature will also be provided.
4. Storage rooms on each floor for handling alternate types of furniture for suite layout.
5. GkUEST BATHROOM must have a
minimum of combination
tub-shower, a lavatory, and a water closet.
6. A ledge for toiletries should be provided instead of a medicine cabinet. Strategically placed
23


towel bars.
7. GUEST FLOOR CORRIDORS are usually an average width of 6'0".
8. There shall be an elevator foyer between the elevator and the corridor with amenities such as ashtray, small bench and a mirror.
9. There should be no guest room doors placed opposite the elevator
10. The corridors must be
designed for noise attenuation and accommodate the aesthetic desires of the guest as well as provide for efficient room service, housekeeping and
maintenance.
11. Structural column spacing to accommodate two room widths is often desirable. (23* 26*)
12. Sequence spaces from public to private.
13. Exterior spaces, such as balconies and courts are desirable.
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
1. Four sitting chairs are more desirable than three.
2. Folding beds or sleeper couches don't give the comfort required for a paying guest.
3. Type, size and location are considerations to be given with
4
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1. 4. 6.
24


the bed.
4. The longer the guest stay the larger the closet should be. There should be no hidden corners or doors that get in the way.
5. Studio room enables guest to work or entertain during the day and sleep at night. Use of dual sleep pieces may be appropriate.
6. Setting each guest room door back gives apparent width to the corridor and gives each room entry a sense of individuality and privacy.
7. A change in colors makes the corridor appear shorter.
8. Lighting door entrances with alcove lighting gives a sense of comfort.
9. A flush panel door vs. a relief pattern suggests the elegance of the house.
10. Lower parts of walls take
eccessive abuse.
OBJECTIVES
To provide the physical comfort and visual reinforcement
available in a luxury hotel.
PARTICIPANTS hotel guest maids
room service attendant maintenance personnel
25


SPACES REQUIRED guest room bathroom sitting room closet space balcony studio room suite corridor elevator lobby linen chute maids closet storage stairways
GENERAL SERVICES SPACE
Everything that the guest expects and should receive will be a result of what takes place in the general services space.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS BACK OF THE HOUSE
1. The entrance route for goods
deliveries, maintenance services and refuse removal must be
separated from that for vehicles used by guests.
2. A loading platform area of 220 sq. ft. is typical for a 250 room hotel.
3. The staff entrance is
separate than that used by guests
26


and some type of separation should occur between it and the deliveries area.
4. The staff entrance shall be under supervision and control. Facilities for time recording shall be present.
5. Considerations for goods deliveries and services: size of vehicles and turning radius, size of unloading bays for handling and transporting goods, and clearance heights.
6. The service lobby enables service areas to be separated from the guest circulation and provides service to linen and trolley service, maids rooms, cleaning facilities, laundry and trash chutes.
7. Entry from guestroom corridor to service area shall be through a service door.
8. Provide one service elevator for every three passenger elevators.
9. A cleaning maid can do 12-15 rooms per day and usually has the services of one porter.
10. The nightmaid prepares rooms for sleeping and can do approximately 25-35 rooms.
11. Servicing of rooms- access
for housekeeping, room service
and maintenance must be planned
to ensure efficiency without
27


disturbance.
12. The linen room shall contain shelving for linen, a counter over which maids receive their supplies. Employee uniforms are stored and distributed from this space.
13. Spaces that are required on each guest room floor are: linen storage, maids carts, porter's closets for cleaning supplies and vacuum cleaners.
14. Storeroom aisles shall be 36"-48'' wide. The average vertical reach of men is 84 1/2" and for women, 81".
15. The receiving room is provided for food, beverages, linen and other supplies which, upon arrival, are checked against delivery slips.

Installations Applications
Service elevators Standard provision for room service. To reduce unnecessary travelling one or more elevators may provide a continuous shuttle service during breakfast or other periods. Considerable savings arc possible if only standard (continental breakfast) meals are served
Dumbwaiters and food For food on travs and in containers elevators conveyed between kitchen and serveries superimposed on different floors
Horizontal conveyors and transporters For traying up meals and conveying food within preparation areas. To convey used tableware to dishwashing machine
Service lobby Must provide sufficient circulation and waiting space for carts and equipment. The construction must resist damage and be capable of easy renovation. Special protection should be given to exposed corners and edges. Walls are usually painted piaster or smooth concrete or blockwork surfaces. Floors: vinyl or asphalt composition tiles, epoxy resin based compounds. Sound baffling and absorption should be provided. Lighting should be screened from the guest corridor.
OBJECTIVES
To provide support facilities for
the hotel which are efficient and
separate from the activities of
the guests.
PARTICIPANTS
mechanics engineers ground crew
other employees as mentioned
28


SPACES REQUIRED receiving room trash room maintenance shop furniture storage staff entrance service lobby trash and laundry chutes employee locker rooms mechanics shop engineers office
quetf elevator ioiby
panfry
toiled linen
mobile
hamper*
linen room for up to SOroomj per floor
CIO*)
CI3*3B)
Central service rooms entered from a service elevator lobby
29


GENERAL SERVICES SPACE
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FRONT OF THE HOUSE
1. Porter and bellman station shall be near the reception desk with visual control over the entrance doors and lobby.
2. Storage space for luggage must be provided and be under supervision and capable of being isolated from public circulation on escape routes.
3. The Bell Captain must have a commanding view of the hotel entrance, registration desk, the cashier, and elevators.
4. The average front desk length is between 25'-35'.
5. Emerging communication systems must be carefully considered and included in the design.
OBJECTIVES
Convenience and continued
approbation of the guests.
PARTICIPANTS
managers
secretaries
registration personnel bellman and Bell Captain hotel guests
30


SPACES REQUIRED Administration managers office accounting credit manager paging and communication computer operations advanced reservation registration office marketing and sales office typing and clerical offices mail sorting
manager of food and beverage
31


Notftinq is experienced by itseiC bat always in relation to its surroundings, the sequences ot events leading up to it, the memory ot the past.
IT i "i
r&T-
avitiii a-J i_ *S3
1 1 1 L i rri H i- i j i
Kevin Lynch


CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER ZONING CODE SUMMARY B-5 ZONE
USES BY RIGHT art gallery bank
photo studio, picture processing
private club or lodge
public baths
sporting goods
stationery
swimming pool
tobacco store
variety store savings and loans dwelling units tatoo studio barber/beauty shop book store candy and nut store dance studio deli
drug store
MAXIMUM GROSS FLOOR AREA IN STRUCTURES
1. The basic maximum gross floor area is 10 times the area of the zone lot.
2. Floor area premiums as follows;
a. premium for unenclosed plaza
b. premium for enclosed plaza
c. premium for enclosed arcade
d. premium for low level light area
e. premium for atrium
f. premium for offstreet parking
g. premium for bicycle parking
h. premium for retail uses
SEE appendix for premium numbers and definitions
Type 1 construction: unlimited height and square footage.
32


UBC CODE SUMMARY
GROUP A OCCUPANCY, division 3
Any building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of less than 300 without a stage.
All buildings shall front directly upon or have access to a public street at least 20' in width. The access to the public street shall be a minimum of 20'. The main entrance to the building shall be located on the public street or access way.
GROUP B OCCUPANCY, division 2
Drinking and dining establishments having an occupant load of less than 50, wholesale and retail stores,...
Every building or portion thereof where people are employed shall be provided with at least one water closet. Separate facilities shall be provided for each sex when the number of employees exceeds four. Such facilities shall be located in the building or conveniently in an adjacent building.
Storage garages shall have unobstructed headroom clearance of not less than 6'-6".
GROUP R OCCUPANCY, division 1 Hotels and apartment houses.
Every sleeping room below the fourth floor shall have at least one operable window or exterior door.
33


All escape or rescue windows shall have a net clear opening of 5.7 sq. ft. The minimum net clear height opening shall be 24". The minimum net clear width opening shall be 20". Where windows are provided they shall have a finished sill height not more than 44" off the floor.
Habitable spaces shall have ceiling heights not less than 7'-6" except in kitchens, halls, and bathrooms where they may be 7'-0".
Habitable rooms other than kitchens shall not be less than 7'-0" in any direction.
Every guest room shall be provided with a smoke detector.
Buildings containing more than 20 guest rooms shall be accessible to the handicapped. The number of guest rooms accessible to the handicap shall be as follows;
21 through 99- one unit
100 and over- one, plus one for each additional hundred.
EXITS
Occupants on floors above the second story and in basements shall have at least two exits with the following exceptions: floors used exclusively for service; basements within an individual dwelling unit having an occupant load of less than 10; and storage rooms, laundry rooms and maintenance offices not exceeding 300 sq. ft.
The maximum distance of travel from any point to an exit door in a building not equipped with an automatic sprinkler system shall not exceed 150' or 200' in a sprinklered building
34


DOORS
Exit doors shall swing in the direction of exit travel when the occupant load is 50 or greater.
Every required exit door shall be at least 3'-0" by 5'-8". Revolving, sliding and overhead doors shall not be used as required exit doors.
CORRIDORS
Every corridor serving an occupant load of 10 or more shall be at least 44'" wide. Every corridor shall be at least 36" in width. The height shall not be less than 7'-0". Deadend corridors must be 20' or less.
STAIRWAYS
Stairways serving an occupant load of 50 or more shall be at least 44" in width. The rise of every step shall not be less than 4" nor greater than 7 1/2" and the run shall not be less than 10".
Every stairway shall have headroom clearance of not less than 6'-6".
There must not be any enclosed useable space under stairways in exit enclosures, nor shall the space be used for any purpose.
TOILET ROOMS
All doorways leading to toilet rooms shall have a clear and unobstructed opening not less than 32".
A clear space of not less than 44" on each side of doors providing access and not more than one door can encroah on
35


this space.
Except in guest rooms, a clear space within the toilet room of sufficient size to inscribe a circle with a diameter of 5'. Doors in any position may not encroach into this space more than 12".
A clear space not less than 42" wide and 48" long in front of at least one water closet. When the water closet is within a compartment, the entry must be at least 32" wide when it is in the front and 34" wide if the door is located at the side.
Grab bars on each side or one side and the back, shall be 33" to 36" above the floor
REQUIRED SEPARATIONS IN BUILDINGS OF MIXED OCCUPANCY A-2.1 : R-l 1 hour
A-2.1 : B-2 1 hour
B-2 : R-l 1 hour
TYPE 1 FIRE-RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION
The structural elements shall be of steel, iron, concrete or masonry.
Nonbearing walls fronting on streets or yards having a width of at least 50' may be of unprotected noncombustible construction.
Exterior bearing walls may be of two hour fire-resistive noncombustible construction where openings are permitted.
Not more than two mezzanine floors shall be in any room of a building. No mezzanine floor or floors shall cover more than 1/3 of any room.
36


Group R division 1 buildings must be compartmentalized or sprinklered.
EXIT REQUIREMENTS
A minimum of two exits other than elevators are required where the number of occupants is over; 50 - dining,
drinking, lounges; 10 hotels; 50 ground floor retail; 10 upper level retail.
OCCUPANCIES
USE Sq. ft./occupant
dining, drinking, lounges 15
hotels 200
retail ground 30
retail upper 50
37


CITY and COUNTY of DENVER Fire Zones 1 and 2
NOTE: Balance of mao not indicated herein shall indicate that all areas outside Fire Zones No. 1 and No. 2 shall be Fire'Zone No. 3.


To make people realize the possiDilities open to arcnitecture. Architecture snould not oe self-limiting. It should not be antiintellectual. It shouldn't close its eyes to wnat is possible. Anything is possible in our society.
Robert Stern


CLIMATE
Denver is located on the eastern slope of the central Rocky Mountains. The central business district is located near the confluence of the Platte River and Cherry Creek. The climate is characterized by mild average temperatures with wide daily and seasonal extremes, light to moderate winds, low relative humidity, light precipitation, and considerable sunshine. The average monthly temperature ranges from 73.3 degrees in July to 30.4 degrees in January. The occasional Chinook winds are often responsible for the mild winter temperatures. Precipitation averages 15.5 in. per year. Annual snowfall is about 62", but persistent snow cover is atypical. March is the snowiest month. More than 50% of the annual precipitation occurs between April and July. Thunderstorms are a frequent happening on early summer afternoons. By autumn, the summer thunderstorms are over, severe weather is infrequent and there is a greater possible percentage of sunshine.
In the city center of Denver, the combination of paved surfaces, buildings and air pollution combine to alter the local climate. In the summer, the city is usually hotter than the surrounding suburbs or countryside. The winter air pollution, often caused by temperature inversions, interfers with the receipt of solar radiation and the visual and physical health of the residents.
CLIMATIC ANALYSIS Denver, Colorado
Latitude Longitude Altitude
38
39.45 North 104.52 West 5280 feet


Average yearly temperature Average relative humidity Average yearly precipitation Degree days Heating Cooling
Percent of possible sunshine/year
50.2 F 40%
14.53 inches
6016
623
53%
39


SOLAR CHART


HEATING AND COOLING CHART
DENVER
70-
NORMAL COOLING DEGREE DAYS [ SUN ANGLE ------
0
SUN ANGLE


CLIMATIC DATA
AVERAGE TEMPERATURE i F I
j t m a m j j a s 0 n d
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 wxy: ligli y!v!v!v PP ;X;Xv!v WAV. :jxv...
xPx .v.v.v.v x¥x¥: w.v.v, £*i mi .v/.v.v! v.v.v.v :£*£ AVV.V.V Xv.v.v. PP a V. I'XVAV- v.w.v, SP* Ill yX-Xv. vv.v.v
m m Imm v.v.v.v. .V.V.V.*. v.v.v.v §§! m. mm x-x-x-x P3 x&x* yx-x-x v.'vX'm v.v.v.v >vv: ****** vX-X-X :: v.vv.v v.v.w vvXvX XvXvM XvvvXj YVV. ::"x":-Xv ft*:*# vvXvX
AVERAGE *50
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION (Inchesl
AVERAGE SNOWFALL {inchesl
j f m a m j j
% POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 1%)
j f m a m j j
a s


UAL FREQUENCES OF W1NOS OF VARIOUS VELOCITIES AT STAPLETON AIRPORT,OENVER COLORADO
legend
trongest Wind
rom northwest every Booth of year
wind speed
4 -12mph
13-24mph C_1
>24mph ca
>rth and northwest wind arctic air from Canada and Alaska
uth and southeast wind warm, moist air from Gulf of Mexico
uth and southwest wind warm, dry air from Mexico
C wind Pacific air modified by passage over Rocky Mountains.
The Fricary Wind
From the south every month of the year
The Secondary Wind
From north-northwest in winter
From north-east in spring and summer
ver is locaced in the belt of the prevailing westerlies.
From north in fall


SUMMARY
The thesis program developed in the previous pages is to serve as the basis for the design of an urban hotel and retail center. The information as presented will be a sourcebook for further thoughts and developments, and is not meant to be totally inclusive of available information. Advanced research is to be undertaken and is to be developed and tested in the design process.
The design process involved in developing a multi-use "place" in the urban core of a progressive city will provide me with the opportunity to test and develop my thesis as previously presented. The structure of the required spaces presents distinguishable responses. The desired qualities of the luxury hotel and an urban space must be understood and expressed with referance to the user.
40



The environment suggests distinctions and relations, and the oDserver with great adaptability and in the light of his own purposes selects, organizes and endows with meaning what he sees. The image so developed now limits and empnasizes what is seen, while the image itself is being tested against the filtered perceptual input in a constant interacting process. Thus the image of a given reality may vary significantly Detween different observers.
Kevin Lynch


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Altman, Irwin, Jaachin F. Wohlwill. Human Behavior and Environment; Advances in Theory and Research, Volume 2. Plenum press; New York
Clack, R. James, Robert K. Conyne. Environmental Assessment and Design; A new Tool for the Applied Behavioral Scientist. Praeger Publishers: 1981
Herriot, Peter. Essential Psychology; Psychology and the Environment. Methuen and Company Ltd.; London, 1976
Farbstein, Jay, Min Kantrowitz. People in Places;
Experiencing, Using and Changing the Built Environment.
Prentice Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1978
Mehrabian, Albert. Public Places and Private Spaces, The Psychology of Work, Play and Living Environments. Basic Books Inc., Publishers, New York, 1976
Burnette, Charles, Jon Lang, et. al. Designing For Human Behavior. Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc.: Stroudsberg, Pennsylvania, 1974
International Conference of Building Officials. Uniform Building Code. USA, 1982
Callender, Hancock, John, Joeseph De Chiara. Time Savers Standards For Building Types. McGraw Hill: USA, 1973
Zeisel, John. Inquiry by Design. Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.: Monterey, California 1981
41


Sanoff, Henry. Methods of Architectural Programming.
Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc.: Stroudsberg,
Pennslyvania, 1977
Broadbent, Geoffrey. Design in Architecture; Architecture and the Human Sciences. John Wiley and Sons, London, NY, 1973
Crosby, Theo. Architecture: City Sense; Reinhold
Publishing Corporation, NY, 1967
Brolin, Brent. Architecture in Context.
Rudofsky, Bernard. Streets For People; American Heritage Publishing Company, 1964
Goehner, Werner. Architecture as an Integral Part of The City. Cornell Journel of Architecture, Ithaca, NY 1981, pp 68-85
Lawson, Fred R. Hotels, Motels & Condominiums.
Architectural Press. 1976
Dallas, Sandra. No More Than Five in a Bed: University of Oklahoma Press: Norman, 1967
Smiley, Jerome C. History of Denver, With outlines of the Earlier History of the Rocky Mountain Country. Old American Publishing Co., Denver. A reproduction by Unigraphic, Inc. Evansville, Indiana
Jensen, Robert, Patricia Conway. Ornamentalism: the new decorativeness in architecture and design. Clarkson N. Potter, Inc. NY 1982
Lynch, Kevin. The Image of a City. The M. I. T. Press,
42


Cambridge, Massachusetts 1960
Ungers, 0. M. Architecture as Theme. Publications, Inc. New York City,
Rizzoli
1982
International
43


An architecture that devotes itself exclusively to the fulfillment of functional requirements is inevitably bound to grow poorer and to end up in the blind alley of everyday routine.
0. M. Unqers


















THE PRESENTATION WAS DESIGNED TO REINPORCE THE IDEAS PUT FORTH IN THE
DESIGN PROCESS. THE COLLAGE AS AN IDEA RECALLS THE LAYERING OP
MATERIALS AND SPACES WITHIN THE BUILDING. TO TAKE THAT PURTHER, THE
BOARDS ARE ORGANIZED SO REPRESENTS A USER LEVEL.
THAT EACH ONE GRAPHICALLY AND VISUALLY



BOARD 1
THE ORGANIZING ELEMENT OF THIS BOARD IS BASED ON A LEVEL 1 USER AND EXHIBITS THE BUILDING IN ITS CONTEXT BOTH IN PLAN AND ELEVATION. THE MOST ACCESSABLE SPACES TO THE PUBLIC, THE GROUND FLOOR IS GRAPHICALLY ILLUSTRATED.


BOARD 2
LEVEL 2 USERS START TO SEE ENTRANCES, BUILDING MATERIALS AND START TO FEEL THE PRESENCE OP THE STRUCTURE. THEREFORE BOARD 2 ILLUSTRATES ENLARGED ENTRANCE ELEVATIONS, ROOFTOP FORMS AND BUILDING SECTIONS.


inirnn


BOARD 3
THE USER WITHIN SPACES ON THE GUESTROOM, THE BAR/LOUNGE AND
THE SITE ARE REPRESENTED ON BOARD VIEWS OUT, FROM WITHIN THE SPACES
3;




7 wi * 1 Jmk l*f i *| rt eLaran urn
) 4*- 4 V J- .
ye 0C % Gt rTt
-i-h N - x *
1 '* -i 7 -r- -i


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CONCLUSION
The development of a design parti was based on an introductory study of visual perception and thoughts formulated from past analysis. I formulated a system of user and visual levels. Once those were in place, all the decisions during the design process were referenced back to the acknowledged system. The first level- Presite arrival; deals with the buildings image from a distance and its place in the urban fabric.
The second level- Visual Analysis; focuses on the person driving by in the auto, or someone within a 2 to 3 block vicinity. In this case it responds directly to the Tabor Center and the 16th Street Mall.
The third level of user- Advanced Interest; directs design to involve the the on-site user. As a users relationship to the building increases more elements are revealed to them. Elements that appear as simple forms on the rooftop, from the ground, actually become pedestrian plazas and activity spaces as viewed from above or within. The idea of architectural promenade reinforces movement through the space and the development of continuity and recall. The parti was applied to the site based on a contextual relationship, which then became the ordering principle. The most dominant form within the the structure was to be experienced at all levels to express the desired sense of continuity. To a level 1 user the dynamic form and color of the red diagonal, within the urban silhouette immediately draws the attention of the eye. To quote an unknown author; "Your eye tends to slide rapidly over plain surfaces and linger, or at least pause at places of visual interest. And where your eye goes- your feet are welcomed to follow or if your feet can not go your attention goes." By visually separating the corner, it suggests to users on the street, the 16th Street Mall, and the Tabor Center Galleria that activity occurs beyond the street front and invites further investigation. The hotel guest experiences the space from within as he or she moves up through the elevators and into the guestroom corridor. The expression of continuity was therefore accomplished, one element was designed to create physical and emotional experiences at three different scales.


The expression of primary forms throughout the building were used to create strong impressions. Le Corbusier beleived that juxtaposition of primary forms played a key role in the sensory experience of Architecture. In addition to the primary forms and there massing- overlapping grids of fenestration were used to create the illusion of depth and separation of panel, window, and structure- so that each has its own system. The desired duality of the building was also expressed with the skin. The public, urban, vehicular facades were detailed,with the machine aesthetic of metal panels and nearly flush glazing. The private pedestrian scaled elevations were articulated with cut stone panels and windows privately set back from the surface.
The Russian Rationalists movement in Soviet Advant Garde architecture was shadowed in the West by the intense interest in Constructivism. I found a study of Russian Rationalism very valuable in that they were very involved with visual perception. I be lei ve if I illustrate some of their idealology their influence will become apparent. Space and mass were developed as the basic elements of their language. The diagonal axis revealed a powerful device for creating dynamic spatial compositions. "The domain of abstract form functions not as a reflection of tangible reality, which is inherently impossible, but as a vehicle for intellectual content and sensory perception."
The presentation was diagramatic- it was done as a collage to encourage the critic to see the drawings as abstract representations, not literal discriptions. The collage is
consistant with the character of the architecture. The smaller models were done to express the building abstractly as well as emotionally and give the viewer the sensation of the building, not its unachievable reality.