The Mountains/downtown

Material Information

The Mountains/downtown a design thesis program
Harvey, Marilyn E
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
72, [26] leaves : illustrations, charts, facsimiles, maps, plans ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Joint occupancy of buildings -- Colorado -- Boulder ( lcsh )
Real estate development -- Colorado -- Boulder ( lcsh )
Joint occupancy of buildings ( fast )
Real estate development ( fast )
Colorado -- Boulder ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (leaves 18-19 (second sequence)).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Marilyn E. Harvey.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09695774 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1983 .H37675 ( lcc )

Full Text
Marilyn E. Harvey
University of Colorado/Denver College of Design and Planning Denver, Colorado

Any architect worth his salt knows that a building is not designed by putting together a series of rooms. Any building that is good has an underlying design concept that binds all the parts together into a whole. Without this it is not architecture. Nor does a designed neighborhood consist of a series of "projects" that are strung together. There must be an underlying design plan that binds together the pieces and makes the neighborhood an entity.
Edmund N. Bacon

I would like to thank the following people for giving of their time, energy, expertise and patience in assisting me and guiding me through this initial stage of my thesis design process.
ART EVERETT, acting as my client and architectural advisor, for giving me the opportunity to work with him for the duration of my thesis. Conversations with Art have helped clarify and direct this information and process into a coherent analysis of a complex subject.
MARC APPLEBAUM, for agreeing to participate as an architectural advisor for this thesis preparation, as well as through design in the spring.
JAMES LEESE, of Downing Leach Architects/Planners for taking time to talk with me about their proposed mixed-use development (the first of its kind in Boulder) and sharing the research they had done in preparation for their own design studies.
The staff at the CITY OF BOULDER for providing me with materials and expertise from the various departments I contacted for information and advise, but especially Susan Stolz for her time and help in answering questions and 'pointing me in the right direction' to resolve other obstacles.
With very special thanks to LEE, my husband, for all his support and patience through this professional and educational pursuit.

Art Everett, CLIENT and ADVISOR (architectural)
Everett Ziegel Tumpes Hand Architects Boulder, Colorado
Marc Applebaum, ADVISOR (architectural)
Associate Architect
Seracuse Lawler & Partners, Inc.
Denver, Colorado
Robert Mitchell, ADVISOR (landscape architectural/planning) Associate Landscape Architect Fletemeyer Associates, Inc. Boulder, Colorado

Goals and Objectives SITE
City of Boulder Downtown Boulder The MOUNTAINS/DOWNTOWN
CLIMATE Regional Microclimate
Uniform Building Code Uniform Plumbing Code Energy Code/City of Boulder
PROGRAM/PRELIMINARY COST ANALYSIS Development Criteria Office Retail Residential
Discussion by Local Architects
West Pearl Neighborhood Group Discussion

Urban living what direction is it taking? -back to the inner city? The new/old idea of living close to where you work; where you play; where you shop, is proving to be the new approach to urban living and its design response. The mixed-use concept is very reminiscent of the 'block' built in the 1800's. The 'block' was literally a cube (block) structure consisting of commercial and residential uses.
Many residents would occupy a commercial space on street level with their living space directly above. Street level was always active with commerce, while the upper levels provided a more secluded area for the resident. Most importantly, the 'block' maintained activity in the city throughout the day; business by day, leisure by night.
The M0UNTAINS/D0WNT0WN is a proposed mixed use projected located west downtown Boulder, Colorado. The setting, as the name implies, is at the base of the Rocky Mountain foothills on the eastern slope. The city of Boulder has managed to
maintain its 'small town character', but with the sophistication of a larger city. The downtown area has been reactivated with the completion of the Boulder Pedestrian Mall in 1977. Several large projects have since been proposed for the downtown area including a convention center and two mixed-use developments (including the MOUNTAINS/ DOWNTOWN), compounding the activities downtown.
The M0UNTAINS/D0WNT0WN has an excellent opportunity to contribute to the vitality of the city and respond in kind with a compatible architecture.
The Challenges inherent in this project are many:
What is urban living in the 1980's?
How does this relate to the existing city?
If it's mixed-use, how do you mix the uses?
How do you separate the uses for security and privacy?
Do you separate the uses?
What does a mixed-use development give to the city?
What does the city give a mixed-use development? How does growth and high-density integrate with, in this case, relatively low density?
How does mixed use integrate with Boulder as a whole?
What is the context?
What is the response?
These questions have been asked, this research has been done, and conceptual design has begun, all in hopes of sensitively responding to the needs of the user, the client and the city.

Boulder, Colorado began as a small mining town with its first settler in 1858. It served more as a service center for the surrounding mining towns than a boom mining town itself. The City of Boulder was organized and platted in 1859 and was designated as the seat of the state university when the Colorado Territory was founded in 1861.
Boulder is located on the eastern slope of the Rocky mountains about 25 miles northwest of Denver. Boulder's proximity to Denver enables its residents to participate in the economic and cultural activities of a metropolitan region while retaining the advantages of a smaller community. Boulder is the County seat, the center of civic and court administration and the center of the legal, financial and banking profession for the County of Boulder.
Boulder residents have always displayed a concern for the quality of their environment in maintaining its surrounding natural beauty and scale of the city. A 'greenbelt' program was
approved by the voters to preserve 30 percent (30%) of the Boulder Valley as open space for future generations, and offer a wide variety of recreational activities. In the 98 square miles of Boulder Valley, there are 32 neighborhood parks (178 acres), four (4) community parks (94 acres), the Boulder Reservoir Park (1400 acres) and open space greenbelt area surrounding the city (9,200 acres) (see Exhibit C). Consequently, open space has become a major planning issue in the City and County of Boulder including all new developments in the area.
There is also a major bikeway system throughout the City of Boulder with several designated on and off-street bike routes (see Exhibit D).
The Regional Transportation District provides regular bus service to the Denver area and throughout Boulder. In 1971, with the support of the voters, the City of Boulder passed a zoning ordinance restricting the height for all new structures to 35 feet, with 55 feet as an absolute maximum by variance only. The 55 foot limit was based on the maximum height most mature trees reach when grown in the Boulder area. In 1976, a 'slow-growth' plan was adopted to control the number of multiresidential dwellings built to 450 units/year. It was supported by the residents in hopes to limit and direct

the growth of the city and to prevent a 'boom-town' effect or sudden influx of large numbers of people to the area which would drastically change the character of the city.
Boulder maintians a very strong, diversified economic base. Boulder County ranks fourth in the state in manufacturing and seventh in retail sales. It is currently in the center of a high growth area in energy and high technology, attracting major research and 'high-tech' manufacturing firms in electronics, computers and related products. The University of Colorado, a large state university, and several scientific research firms sponsored by the Federal government further stablize the economic base. The desirability of Boulder as a place to live both with respect to the Denver metropolitan area and also with the national as a whole, proves to be a major force in attracting new businesses. Also, the availability of suitable land and public improvements to support projected growth draws additional potential economic base.


Boulder, the county seat of Boulder County, lies at the foot of the striking Flatiron Mountains in northcentral Colorado. Boulder is famous for its educational, manufacturing and research and development efforts in many fields


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Downtown Boulder, west of Broadway, is currently in a transitional state. Recent low density commercial development has occurred just west of the Boulder Pedestrian Mall along Pearl Street further extending the commercial district beyond the mall's boundaries west to 8th Street. Beyond 8th Street (west) and more particularly 7th Street, the transition from commercial to high-density residential takes place. 9th Street is the last major arterial west of downtown, running north/south through the city along the base of the foothills. To the north, 9th Street connects with the two hospitals in the city, Boulder Community Hospital and Boulder Memorial Hospital, both within one (1) miles or less, of downtown Boulder. To the south, 9th Street connects with Baseline Road (the 40th Parallel) which to the west approaches Flagstaff Mountain and to the east approaches U.S. 36 (the Denver/Boulder Turnpike). Areas along Walnut Street and Canyon Boulevard appear to be the next major areas for redevelopment. The City and County of Boulder planning offices address this area in the Boulder Valley Comprehensive
This corridor remains in transition from its early role as an industrial area, to a major commercial, banking and high-density residential area. It is in this corridor, running from 6th Street on the west to 17th Street on the east, that the most dramatic redevelopment efforts will be encouraged to occur.
Efforts shall be made to concentrate major commercial uses between 9th and 15th Streets in order to maximize the pedestrian scale potential of the Downtown Area. The City shall promote multi-use rather than singlepurpose projects. Each project shall respect and relate to other downtown projects in terms of orientation, pedestrian and vehicular circulation and scale. No individual project shall become an enclave; pedestrian interfaces between projects and corridors are of paramount importance. The most appropirate uses in this area are office, retail, service, restaurant, entertainment, hotel and convention center, high-density residential, and transporataion (parking, mass transit) facilities. Off-street parking shall, where feasible, be provided in well-designed and centrally located structures.
Also, see Appendix for a recent discussion by local architects and planners on how they view the growth of their city.

The site is located in west downtown Boulder bounded by 8th Street to the west, Pearl Street to the north, 9th Street to the east and Walnut Street to the south (see Exhibits E, F, G). The site is 90,000 square feet (300* x 300'), sloping gently (2%) from the northwest corner to the southeast corner with a total elevation change of five feet (51). The site's solar orientation is 15 east of south. There are magnificent views to the southwest, west and northwest, encompassing the Flatirons amidst the front range foothills. The site does fall within the 100 year floodplain. See Article XII of the Zoning Regulations in the CODE chapter of this report for further discussion of the impact of the floodplain on this site.
Exhibit H illustrates the adjacent context to the site. This shows the site is surrounded by significant redevelopment currently occurring in Boulder. The M0UNTAINS/D0WNT0WN is a proposed high-density, mixed-use project, which along with the other proposed develop-
ments in the same area, can help contain the commerical boundaries of west downtown Boulder and tie the area together with complimentary uses, scale, materials and reinforcement of existing pedestrian patterns.
The site also falls within the West Pearl Neighborhood (see Exhibit I) where a neighborhood group has formed to express their concern about major redevelopment in the area and address major issues they feel are presented in light of this new development. See Appendix for further discussion from this community group.

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Dot's Diner, a very small, popular restaurant adjacent to a Sinclair filling station.
A variety of low-density commercial activities occur here. From the west Time-Out Hot Tubs (speaks for itself), Mountain Sports (a recreational retail outlet), a small older residence converted to office use, and The Frame Factory and Ridgeways Drafting Store.
Again, a variety of low-density commercial. From the north Harding Glass (a retail outlet for automobile and residential glazing needs), Standard Station (both a service and filling station), a small structure housing a travel agent and a printing shop (specializing in color reproduction).
This is currently a vacant lot owned by Burlington/Northern Railroad (approximately 90,000 SF). A large 250 room, 50,000 SF commerciai/convention center is proposed for this site and scheduled to begin design late this year, early next year.

There is a Conoco service station on the corner which will eventually become part of a large mixed-use project (75 residential units, 100,000 SF commercial) to be constructed on the former RTD property beyond. Canyon Centre is scheduled to begin construction in 1983.
Canyon Pointe is a high-density, low-income residential complex catering particularly to the elderly. It was completed in 1981 and was part of the Master Plan for Canyon Centre.
Again, a variety of low-density commercial. From Walnut north two small residences converted to office use. Two industrial-type structures, one housing an electrical supply retail shop and automobile clinic and the second structure is currently vacant.
The transition from commercial to high-density residential takes place in this area. These are only a few examples of the new housing currently being constructed in this area.

This is an example of the low-density commercial currently developing just west of the Boulder Mall on Pearl Street. This type of density occurs on both sides of Pearl Street from the Boulder Mall west to about 8th Street. This is a newer structure, while most retail outlets in the area are housed in older, existing structures.
This is a view of the west end of the Mall. This is currently the most active area of the Mall, particularly the block between Broadway and 11th Street.

It can be seen from this study of the adjacent area that the proposed project is compatible with the existing uses, although they are at a much lower density. However, the impact of the hotel/convention center and the Canyon Centre development at 9th and Walnut Streets will have a much greater impact on the MOUNTAINS/DOWNTOWN site as well as the entire area. These three developments together will certainly change the character of west downtown Boulder and have the opportunity to do so in a positive way. The downtown Boulder area currently has a strong orientation and response to the pedestrian; these new developments, with the addition of residential units as well as commercial and recreational uses, can add to this activity throughout the day. Furthermore, these developments can help contain the commercial activity in west downtown Boulder to help ease the transition to the residential neighborhood to the west.
Another important contextural issue is the physical characteristics of the City of Boulder as a whole. Boulder is tied together very strongly through materials and scale.
Materials tie together with color and texture. Earthtones have been used for the most part (save the turquoise roof of the International House of Pancakes), the color being intrinsic to the materials used (red tile roofs, stone, brick, wood, etc.). Stone, brick and wood, the most often utilized building materials, make reference to the forested, rocky mountain backdrop. The scale of the community has been maintained by a 'slow growth' policy (to contain population influx) and height limitation (to retain the low-rise character of the city). There also appears to be additional proportions consistent in the architecture of downtown Boulder. The following sketches attempt to exhibit this character.

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Exhibits J, K, L, & M illustrate a variety of types of access to the MOUNTAINS/DOWNTOWN site.
EXHIBIT J VEHICULAR PATTERNS shows that the site is located adjacent to relatively high traffic areas with good vehicular access and excellent visibility, particularly from 9th Street and Canyon Boulevard.
EXHIBIT K BUS ROUTES shows there is also mass transit access to the site, with stops just adjacent to the site on Route 7, and the main bus terminal only five (5) blocks east of the site on Walnut Street. There are nine (9) bus routes in Boulder, all of which termiante at the terminal downtown, with Routes 2, 3 and 7 having the greatest accessibility to the site.
EXHIBIT L BICYCLE ROUTES shows an existing on-street bicycle path directly passing the site. Exhibit D shows how these routes connect with other current and proposed routes throughout the city. It is relatively easy to navigate the city via the bicycle and a large number of people do so. Bicycling should be considered a major mode of transportation within the city.
EXHIBIT M PEDESTRIAN PATTERNS shows the site currently attracts a significant number of pedestrians. The Boulder Mall is only two (2) blocks to the east of the site on Pearl Street, providing a good opportunity to draw from an already existing, intense pedestrian population. There is a small commercial district extending west of the Mall to 7th Street which attracts visitors from the Mall. There are a number of restaurants along Walnut Street from Broadway to 7th Street (including a very popular restaurant currently located on the MOUNTAINS/ DOWNTOWN site) which further generate pedestrian activity in the area.
EXHIBIT N UTILITIES shows the location of all existing utilities. They are all available and easily accessible. The only utility that may become a major issue and must be addressed immediately is the electrical power lines. As can be seen, the lines run through the alley between Pearl and Walnut Streets. A visit to the site will verify that they are a significant barrier currently on the site. It is assumed the alley would be vacated and the overhead electrical lines removed.

An official from the Public Service Company of Colorado was contacted to discuss the possibility of vacating the alley and undergrounding or rerouting the existing power lines. Rerouting is a possibility, but is very expensive. Undergrounding is also possible, but would require an easement. The easement could run through/in an underground parking garage, but the nature and size of the structure will play an important role in any decision Public Service would make and the architect would be advised to work closely with them. At the very least, one to two transformer locations would be required with a 'clear blue sky' (infinite vertical) dimension for each transformer. Minimum plan dimensions are: 12' x 12' and must be located directly adjacent to power line loeation(s).




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The geological make-up of the low-lying areas at the base of the foothills is comprised of quart-enary deposits of loose or poorly cemented stream gravel and sand, slope wash, and terrace gravels overlaying Pierre shale. The area is not located over any known faults or areas subject to subsidence or expansive clay.
No soils test is available on the MOUNTAINS/ DOWNTOWN site, however from review of tests done in the area and discussion with local engineers, the soils appear to consist of predominately sandy clays, with some gravel present. The major obstacle presented in local soils studies is the ground water table; it varies from 8 feet to 12 feet (8'-121) below the surface, restricting any below grade construction beyond one level, except at great expense.

The climate of this region is considered semi-arid with many characteristics of a temperate region, only dryer, due to its location in the rain shadow' of the Rocky Mountains and Pacific Maritime air masses. The weather is controlled by several sources; the Contential Polar air from the north coupled with 'rain shadow' effect result in very dry, cold winters; the Contential Tropical air from the southwest produces dry, hot summers; and periodically the Maritime Tropical air masses (originating in the gulf) produce our wet srpings when we generally receive the greatest amount of snowfall and precipitation for the year. These various sources create a wide variety of weather conditions throughout the year with rapid changes in weather a common occurrence. The region's closeness to the mountain ranges produces adiabatic and 'rain shadow' effects (diurnal changes in air masses the air warms on the mountaintop during the day drawing cool air from the valley to the mountaintop (upslope wind), then as the mountaintop air cools in the evening, the cool air mass is drawn back down into the valley (down-
slope wind) adding to the variety of weather conditions in the area. The prevailing winds are from the southwest in the summer. The cold winter winds originate from the northwest. The warmest temperatures occur in July followed by a dry overheated period (July, August, September). The coolest temperatures occur in January followed by a dry, underheated period (December, January, February). The humidity in this region fluctuates more diuranlly than seasonally. During the summer months, the relative humidity is, on the average, 70% at sunrise and 35% at mid-day. During the winter months the relative humidity is 65% at sunrise and 44% at mid-day. This is closely related to the daily movement of air masses in this area.
Boulder's elevation, 5,420, is slightly higher than the Denver area and eastern plain, producing somewhat cooler temperatures. Its close proximity to the base of the foothills increases the amount of snowfall in the area where weather moving upslope produces greater amounts of precipitation. There is another peculiar phenomena

particular to Boulder and its proximity to the foothills and narrow canyons located along the front range the Chinook wind. Frequently from late fall to early spring, strong westerly winds make their way through the narrow canyon undergoing a 'funnelling effect' producing gusts from 70 to 130 miles per hour. A warming effect is also usually experienced after the Chinook winds have passed through the area.
The MOUNTAINS/DOWNTOWN site is located in the valley just at the base of particularly steep foothills (30% slope). Because of this location, the sun sets earlier in the evening causing the temperature to drop sooner than in the plains to the east. There is no significant vegetation on or near the site to modify the climate drastically.
The following data summarizes significant climatic factors and information specific to this area.

80 F 60 F 40 F 20 F
2 IN. 1 IN.
18.39 IN.
14 IN. 10 IN, 6 IN. 2 IN.
AM % PM %
I ... 9.2 9.9 10.3 95 9.0 8.5 8.2 8.1 8.1 8.5 8.8 |

992 826 809 482 236 88 6 0 139 367 690 905
0 0 0 8 29 154 282 234 109 26 0 0

attitude angles
DEC 21

Only sections of the Land Use Regulations specifically related to this project have been included in this section.
As shown in Exhibit 0, the site falls in the
TBE Zoning District to the south, and CBE
Zoning District to the north.
Section 37-201 Establishment of Zoning Districts
Areas which are primarily used for both residential and complimentary uses, including temporary lodging and office uses.
Sub-community centers serving a number of neighborhoods, where retail-type stores predominate.
It can be seen from these definitions that the proposed mixed-use project does not fall within this criteria, so Planned Unit guildelines will be followed, with references to TBE and CBE Zoning criteria to establish some limitations
(parking, open space, etc.). Following are the TBE and CBE Zoning requirements for reference:


Section 37-203 (b)
Minimum lot area
Minimum lot area per dwelling unit
Minimum number of off-street parking spaces per dwelling unit
Minimum number of off-street parking spaces per 300 square feet of floor area for non-residential uses and their accessory uses except restaurants and bars.
Minimum front yard setback from a street for all principal buildings and uses (must be landscaped).
for all accessory buildings and uses.
Minimum side yard setback from a street for all buildings and uses [except where adjacent lot requires front yard setback, use front yard setback (20')].
Minimum side yard setback from an interior lot line for all principal uses.
for all accessory uses.
Minimum rear yard setback for all principal buildings and uses.
for all accessory uses.
Maximum height for all principal uses.
(see Article X "Height Restriction" for
6,000 SF 1,600 SF
1 /I BDR 1.5/2 BDR
2 /3 BDR
3 /4 BDR
31 20'
6,000 SF 1,600 SF
1 /I BDR 1.5/2 BDR
2 /3 BDR
3 /4 BDR

Section 37-302 OPEN SPACE
a) Useable open space is landscaped area, including required yards abutting streets which is free of buildings, structures and other substantial improvements.
included: swimming pools
hard surface recreational areas unenclosed recreational areas accessory structures for recreation use
driveways serving less than 3 spaces
pedestrian ways and plazas within buildings which are directly oriented to the major pedestrian entrance of the building and are open to view and use by the public
not included: public or private rights-of-way to streets or highway roofs
open parking areas parking garage slopes in excess of 15" unless approved as part of P.U.
Section 37-304 OFF-STREET PARKING SPACES a) Off-street parking spaces are required as outlined is Section 37-203(b).
c) Additional requirements:
1. Parking areas, whether open or enclosed, must be provided on the same lot containing the use for which they are required, or if on separate lots, parking areas must be held in unified ownership or control and located within 300 feet /residential districts and 500 feet/ business districts.
2. An off-street parking space in a business or industrial district may be used jointly for more than one use provided its occupancy ordinarily would not be during the same hours and approved by the Zoning Administrator.
3. Minimum access width of 10'.
4. Must be paved asphalt, concrete or similar permanent surfacing.
5. Curbs or barriers shall be provided to protect public sidewalks and to prevent parking in areas where parking is not permitted.
6. Open or enclosed parking areas may not be located in any required yard abutting a street.
7. All open off-street parking areas with five (5) or more spaces shall be screened from any adjoining residentially zoned lot.
8. Driveways parallel to public sidewalks must be separated from such walks by
an eight foot landscaped area or a solid wall at least three feet (31) high.
9. No part of any vehicle shall extend beyond the boundary lines of the parking area, intrude on pedestrian areas, or come in contact with walls, fences, or plantings.

All off-street parking areas with five (5) or more spaces shall be screened to provide a buffer strip and appropriate screening that reduces the visual impact of the parking from any public street.
d) Deferral of parking requirements:
. not more than 20% of the required
off-street parking spaces be deferred .
Potential Circumstances for Parking Defferal
(i) where the expected need for off-street parking is lessened due to unusual characteristics of the use, and comparable data is available to establish that there is no present need for the parking.
(ii) immediate proximity to public transportation facilities serving a significant proportion of residents, employees, and/or customers.
(iii) operation of effective private or company car pool, van pool, bus or similar transportation programs.
(iv) evidence that a proportion of residents, employees and/or customers utilize, on a regular bases, bicycle transportation alternatives commensurate with reduced parking requirements.
e) Not Applicable
f) Optional Bicycle Parking
1. Not Applicable
2. Where ten (10) or more parking spaces are required, ten percent (10%) of the total number of parking spaces may be replaced by a rack of structure providing parking accommodations for bicycles at a rate of three (3) bicycle parking spaces for each one (1) parking space replaced.
Appendices "A" 1 through "A" 4 contain additional information on the City of Boulder's Parking Design Standards.
Appendix "A" 5 outlines compact car reductions as follows:
5-99 120 149 150+
40 50%

Section 37-305 OFF-STREET LOADING AREAS For all business and industrial, off-street loading spaces each containing 500 square feet with no one dimension less than 10 feet are required as follows:
1 space for new floor area between 10,000-25,000 square feet.
plus 1 space for each additional 25,000 square feet.
no such off-street loading space occupies any part of a public street, alley, driveway or sidewalk.
Section 37-306 FENCES, HEDGES AND WALLS A fence, hedge, wall, column, pier, post, or any such similar type of structure, or any combination of such structures may be permitted in required yards of the various districts subject to the following conditions and requirements. It is intended that these conditions and requirements shall provide privacy and protection, and screening and accenting of shrubs and landscaping, without unduly interferring with the view from neighboring properties or jeopardizing the safety of pedestrians and vehicles.
Following are some of the major requirements outlined in this section. For further infor-
mation refer to Section 37-306 of the SUPPLEMENTAL ZONING REGULATIONS.
c) no fence, hedge or wall may extend beyond or across a property line unless in joint agreement with the abutting property owner.
d) no fence, hedge or wall shall be placed nearer than 18" to any public sidewalk.
f) fences and walls shall not exceed seven feet (7') in height.
g) any public fence or wall placed within 15 feet of the intersection of a public sidewalk (or proposed location of such wall) and an alley or driveway, shall not restrict or obscure the visibility .
h) On corner lots, no fence, hedge, structure, wall or landscaping display shall interfere with the unobstructed view over 36" above the nearest street in a restricted triangular area: (see regulations for measurement criteria).
Section 37-317 TRASH STORAGE Trash storage for multi-unit dwellings and all business and industrial buildings or uses shall be accommodated within the structure, or adequate area shall be set aside for such trash storage on the building or site plan. All outdoor trash storage and containers shall be placed on a hard surface such as concrete and shall be aesthetically screened by a permanent fence, wall, landscaping or other appropriate material.

Section 37-501 PURPOSE
The purpose of the Planned Unit article is to encourage flexibility in the development of land in order to promote its most appropriate use; to improve design, character and quality of new development; to facilitate the adequate and economical provision of streets and utilities; and to preserve the natural scenic features of open areas.
Section 37-502 through Section 37-505 are requirements informally submitting a P.U. application. For general background, these sections may be referred to.
Section 37-506 STANDARDS
a) Uses Permitted only uses by right or by Special Review.
b) Must be consistent with the purposes and policies of the Comprehensive Plan.
c) P.U.'s relationship to its surrounding shall be considered in order to avoid adverse effects to the development caused by traffic circulation, building height, bulk, etc.
d) Minimum Useable Open Space and Lot Area Requirements:
Those requirements outlined in Section 37-203 shall apply.
Reductions are possible; briefly:
For Planned Units in established districts, the minimum lot area per dwelling unit shall not be reduced by more than one-fourth (i) and will be determined in the following manner: the minimum lot area per unit of the zone minus the per unit building coverage is divided by 4; that quotient is substracted from the minum lot area per unit for the zone to determine the minimum allowable lot area per dwelling unit.
f) Off-Street Parking The number of off-street parking spaces in each P.U. must not be less than the requirements stated in Articles II and III.
g) Site Planning some special requirements in this subsection need to be referred to.

II. All Zones other than RR, ER and LR.
a) Building height [as defined in Section
37-1102(h) Building Height The vertical distance measured from the lowest point of the natural grade on the lot within 25' of the tallest side of the building to the uppermost point of the roof of the building .
1) Up to, and including 35': permitted by right provided that for buildings 25' to 35' in height useable open space is at least 10% of the lot, or as required by the applicable bulk requirements in Section 37-203(b), whichever is greater.
2) In excess of 35' and up to, and including 55'; may be permitted through P.U. review procedures in accordance with Section 37-1003.
3) Above 55'; never permitted.
a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of
this Section, buildings proposed to exceed
35' in height shall meet the following requirements :
1) Useable open space as defined in Section 37-302 must be provided as at least 15% of the lot or as required by the applicable bulk requirements in Section 37-203 (b), whichever is greater.
2) The floor area ratio to site area ratio must not exceed a ratio of 3:1 if bounded as described:
a) bounded on the west by 6th Street, on the east by 16th Street, on the north by Pine Street from 16th to 11th Street, and by the alley between Pearl and Spruce Streets from 11th to 6th Streets, and on the south by the Boulder Creek and Boulder White Rock Ditch.
Section 37-1005 STANDARDS The review of any application for a building height exception shall include the following considerations, in addition to the standards and requirements of Planned Units in Article V of this Chapter:

As can be determined from the available criteria (1981) the site falls within the 100 year flood plain, which requires extensive flood design criteria (see Exhibits P and Q).
However, from a discussion with Alan Taylor of the Public Works department of the City of Boulder, it was pointed out that due to extensive flood control improvements by a recent adjacent development (Canyon Pointe and proposed Canyon Centre) the area is protected by a levee and no longer falls within the 100 year flood plain.
The area is now regulated under Zone B (500 year flood plain) by the City of Boulder.
The area is only subject to a "shallow sheet level" (1 foot or less) to accommodate projected flood waters. This simply means, the finished floor must be raised a minimum of one foot (1') above grade to accommodate these flood waters.
There are no other special requirements.


Based on the Uniform Building Code/1979
Classification of All Buildings by Use or Occupancy and General Requirements for all Occupancies
Occupancy Classified:
Sec. 501 Table No. 5-A and Chapters 6-12 define group occupancies.
This project falls under these categories:
B-l ... storage garages where no repair work is done ...
B-2 wholesale and retail stores, office buildings ...
R-3 dwellings and lodging houses.
Mixed Occupancy:
Sec. 503 a) General
- when a building is used for more than one occupancy, each must be separated from the other.
- each portion of the building shall conform to the requirements for the occupancy housed therein.
b) Forms of Occupancy Separations:
- horizontal and/or vertical will be allowed.
c) Types of Occupancy Separation:
- one hour fire resistive occupancy separation: construction: one hour fire
openings: one hour fire
protection rating.
d) Fire Ratings for Occupancy Separations:
From Table No. 5-B
None required between B-2 and R-3 1 Hr. between B-l and B-2 1 Hr. Between B-l and R-3
Location on Property:
Sec. 503 b) Fire Resistance of Walls From Table No. 5-A
Wal 1 s
1 Hr. less than 20'
Not Permitted less than 5'
Protected less than 10'
1 Hr. less Not Permitted
than 3' less than 3'
Projections beyond the exterior wall shall not extend more than one-third the distance to the property line.

Allowable Floor Areas:
Sec. 505 b) Areas of Buildings Over One Story The total area of all floors of multi-story buildings shall not exceed twice the area allowed for one-story buildings. No single floor area shall exceed the area permitted for one-story buildings.
c) Basements: A basement need not be included in the total allowable area, provided such basement does not qualify as a story (pg. 44-45) nor exceed the area permitted for one-story building.
d) Area Separation Walls: Can increase the Allowable Floor Area see pg. 50-51 for requirements.
Allowable Area Increases:
Sec. 506 a) General The floor areas specified in Section 505 may be increased by one of the following: - Separation on two sides - Separation on three sides - Separation on all sides where public space, streets, or yards more than 20' in width extend on all sides of a building and adjoin the entire perimeter, floor areas may be increased at a rate of 5% for each foot by which the minimum width exceeds 20'. Such increases shall not exceed 100%.
This site falls under Separation on All Sides with a 100% increase allowed.
Occupancy Construction Type Floor Area
B-l I F.R. Uniimi ted
B-2 I F.R. II F.R. Uniimited 79,600 SF
R-3 ANY Uniimited
c) Automatic Sprinkler Systems:
The area specified in Section 505 and Section 506 a) may be doubled in buildings of more than one story if the building is provided with an automatic sprinkler system throughout.
Maximum Height of Buildings and Increases:
Sec. 507 Shall not exceed limits set forth in Table No. 5-D.
Boulder's Zoning Ordinance overrides the requirements of this section with a maximum building height of 55 feet by variance only, and 35 feet by right.

Group B Occupancies Defined:
Sec. 701 Group B Occupancies
Division 1: ... storage garages
where no repair work is done.
Division 2: wholesale and retail stores, office buildings ...
Occupant Load: (from Chapter 33)
Parking Garage 87,830 SF 1:200 440
Offi ce 45,000 SF 1:100 450
Retail 15,000 SF 1:30 500
Construction, Height and Allowable Area:
Sec. 702 a) General
Refer to Tables No. 5-C and No. 5-D and Sections 505, 506, and 507.
a Group B, Division 1 Occupancy located in the basement or first story of a building housing a Group B, Division 2 Occupancy may be classed as a separate and distinct building for the purpose of area limitation, limitation of number of stories and type of construction, provided:
1. The Group B, Division 1 Occupancy is of Type I construction.
2. There is a three-hour occupancy separation between the Group B, Division 1
Occupancy and all portions of the Group B, Division 2 Occupancy.
3. The basement or first story is restricted to the storage of passenger vehicles (having a capacity of not more than nine persons per vehicle), but may contain laundry rooms and mechanical equipment rooms incidental to the operation of the building.
4. The maximum building height in feet shall not exceed the limits set forth in Table No. 5-D for the least type of construction involved.
b) Special Provisions:
Storage areas in excess of 1000 square feet in connection with wholesale or retail sales in Division 2 Occupancies shall be separated from the public areas by a one-hour fire-resistive occupancy separation as defined in Chapter 5. Such areas may be increased to 3000 square feet when sprinklers, not otherwise required, are installed in the storage area.
Location on Property:
Sec. 703 See Section 504.
Exit Facilities:
Sec. 704 See Chapter 33.
Light, Ventilation and Sanitation:
Sec. 705 Natural light, an area equal to one-tenth of the total floor area, and

natural ventilation an area not less than one-twentieth of the total floor area, or shall be provided with artificial light and a mechancially operated ventilating system as specified in Section 605.
(The mechanically operated ventilating system shall supply a minimum of 5 cubic feet per minute of outside air with a total circulated of not less than 15 cubic feet per minute per occupant in all portions of the building.)
In enclosed parking garages, ventilation shall be provided capable of exhausting a minimum of 1.5 cfm per square foot of gross floor area.
(see pg. 67 for more information).
See Section 1711 and 1979 Uniform Plumbing Code for complete plumbing requirements.
Open Parking Garages:
Sec. 709 a) Scope. Except where specified provisions are made in the following subsections, other requirements of this code shall apply.
b) Definitions. For the purpose of this section, an open parking garage is a structure of Type I or II construction which is open on two or more sides totalling not less than 40 percent of the building perimeter and which is used exclusively for parking or storage of private pleasure cars. For a side to be con-
sidered open, the total area of openings distributed along the side shall be not less than 50 percent of the exterior area of the side at each tier. The area of openings may be reduced below the minimum 50 percent for 40 percent of the perimeter, provided the percentage of the perimeter in which the openings are contained is increased proportionately.
c) Construction. Construction shall be of noncombustible materials. Open parking garages shall meet the design requirements of Chapter 23. Adequate curbs and railings shall be provided at every opening.
d) Area and Height. Area and height of open parking garages shall be limited as set forth in Table No. 7-A.
g) Stairs and Exits. See Chapter 33.
j: Enclosure of Vertical Openings.
Enclosure shall not be required for vertical openings except as specified in Subsection (g) stairs, exits and lifts.
k) Ventilation. Ventilation other
than the percentage of openings specified in Subsection (b), shall not be required.
O'-20' from Property Line 1 Hr.

Group R Occupancies Defined:
Sec. 1201 Group R Occupancies shall be:
Division 3: Dwellings and lodging houses.
Occupant Load: (from Chapter 33)
Residential 78,400 SF 1:300 260
Construction, Height and Allowable Area:
Sec. 1202 a) General
See Tables No. 5-C and No. 5-D and Sections 505, 506 and 507.
Location on Property:
Sec. 1203 See Section 504.
Exit Facilities:
Sec. 1204 See Chapter 33.
Every sleeping room below the fourth story shall have at least one operable window or exterior door approved for emergency egress or rescue. The units shall be operable from the inside to provide a full clear opening without the use of separate tools.
All egress or rescue windows from sleeping rooms shall have a minimum net clear opening of 5.7 square feet. The minimum net clear opening height dimension shall be 24 inches. The minimum net clear opening width dimension shall be 20 inches. Where windows are provided as a means of egress or rescue they shall have a finished sill height not more than 44 inches above the floor.
Light, Ventialtion and Sanitation:
Sec. 1205 a) Light and Ventilation. All
habitable rooms within a dwelling unit shall be provided with natural light with an area not less than one-tenth of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 10 square feet. All bathrooms, water closet compartments, laundry rooms and similar rooms shall be provided with natural ventialtion.
All habitable rooms within a dwelling unit shall be provided with natural ventialtion with an area of not less then one-twentieth of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 5 square feet.
In lieu of required exterior openings for natural ventilation, a mechancial ventilating system may be provided. Such system shall be capable of providing two air changes per hour in habitable rooms and in public corridors. One-fifth of the air supply shall be taken from the outside. In bathrooms water closet compartments, laundry rooms and similar rooms a mechanical ventilation system connected directly to the outside, capable of providing five air changes per hour, shall be provided.
For the purpose of determining light and ventilation require-

merits, any room may be considered as a portion of an adjoining room when one-half of the area of the common wall is open and unobstructed and provides an opening of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room or 25 square feet whichever is greater.
Required exterior openings for natural light and ventilation shall open directly onto a street or public alley or a yard or court located on the same lot as the building.
Room Dimensions:
Sec. 1207 a) Ceiling Heights. ... not less than 7'-6" except as otherwise permitted in this section. Kitchens, halls, bathrooms and toilet compartments may have a ceiling height of not less than 7 measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling.
Fire-warning and Sprinkler Systems:
Sec. 1210 a) Fire Warning Systems: Every
dwelling unit shall be provided with smoke detectors.
Sec. 1211 Every dwelling unit shall be provided with heating facilities capable of maintaining a room temperature of 70 F, at a point 3' above the floor in all habitable rooms.
Access to Buildings and Facilities:
Sec. 1213 Buildings containing more than 20 dwelling units shall be accessible
to the physically handicapped ...
The number of dwelling units accessible to the physically handicapped shall not be less than:
21-99 units one unit
Toilet facilities in accessible units shall comply with Section 1711.

Sec. 1701 The requirements of Part IV are for the various types of construction and represent varying degrees of public safety and resistance to fire.
Where specific materials, types of construction or fire-resistive protection are required, such requirements shall be the minimum requirements and any materials, types of construction or fire-resistive protection which will afford equal or greater public safety or resistance to fire, as specified in the code, may be used.
Structural Frame:
Sec. 1702 The structural frame shall be considered to be the columns and the girders, beams, trusses and spandrels having direct connections to the columns and all other members which are essential to the stability of the building as a whole. The members of floor or roof panels which have no connection to the columns shall be considered secondary members and not part of the structural frame.
Exceptions to Table No. 17-A:
Sec. 1705 a) General. The provisions of this section are intended as exceptions to construction requirements specified in Chapters 5 through 12 and 18 through 22.
b) Fixed Partitions. Regardless of the fire-resistive requirements for permanent partitions dividing portions of stores, offices, or similar places occupied by one tenant only, and which do not establish a corridor serving an occupant load of 30 or more, may be constructed of:
1. Noncombustible materials.
2. Fire-retardant treated wood.
3. One-Hr. Fire-resistive construction.
4. Wood panels or similar light construction up to 3/4 the height of the room in which placed; when more than 3/4 the height of the room, such partitions shall have not less than the upper 1/4 of the partition constructed of glass.
Shaft Enclosures:
Sec. 1706 a) General. Openings extending
vertically through floors shall be enclosed in a shaft of fire-resistive construction having the time period set forth in Table No. 17-A. Protection for stairways shall be as specified in Sections 3308 and 3309.

b) Protection of Openings. Every opening into a shaft enclosure shall be protected by a selfclosing fire assembly conforming to Section 4306 and having a fire-protection rating of 1 Hr. for openings through
1 Hr. walls and li Hr. for openings through 2 Hr. walls.
c) Termination of Rubbish Chutes. Openings into the chutes shall not be located in exit corridors or stairways.
d) Elevator Shafts. Shafts housing elevators and extending through more than two stories shall be vented to the outside. The area of vents shall be not less than 3i% of the area of the elevator shaft, with a minimum of 3 sq. ft. per elevator.
Members Carrying Masonry or Concrete:
Sec. 1708 All members carrying masonry or concrete walls in buildings over one story in height shall be fire protected with not less than 1 Hr. fire protection.
Sec. 1709 a) General. Parapets shall be provided on all exterior walls of buildings.
b) Construction. Parapets shall have the same degree of fire resistance required for the wall upon which they are
erected. The height of the parapet shall be not less than 30" above the point where the roof surface and the wall intersect. Where the roof slopes toward a parapet at slopes greater than 2:12 the parapet shall extend to the same height as any portion of the roof that is within the distance where protection of wall openings would be required, but in no case shall the height be less than 30".
Sec. 1710 (see pg. 96).
Water Closet Compartments and Showers:
Sec. 1711 a) Floor and Walls. In other than dwelling units, toilet room floors shall have a smooth, hard, nonabsorbent surface (also walls within water closet and urinal compartments).
b) Toilet Facilities. SEE DRAWINGS
c) Toilet Room Facilities. In other than Group R, Division 3, Group B, Division 2 storage occupancies, toilet room facilities shall be as follows:
Water Fountains:
Sec. 1712 Where water fountains are provided at least one shall have a spout within 33 inches of the floor and shall have up-front, hand operated controls.

Sec. 3301 d)
Exits Required: Sec. 3302 a)
Determination of Occupant Load. Table No. 33-A (SEE REQUIREMENTS FOR OCCUPANCIES FOR BREAKDOWN)
Mixed Occupancies. The capacity of a building containing mixed occupancies shall be determined by adding the number of occupants of the various portions as set forth in Table 33-A.
Changes in Elevation. Withi a building, changes in eleva tion of less than 12" along any exit serving a tributary occupant load of 10 or more shall be by ramps.
Number of Exits. Every building or usable portion thereof shall have at least one exit and shall have not less than two exits where required in Table No. 33-A.
Office 2 Exits
Retail 2 Exits
Garage 2 Exits
Residential 1 Exit
(except window in bedrooms)
In all occupancies, floors above the first story having an occupant load of more
than 10 shall have not less than two exits.
b) Width. The total width of exits in feet shall be not less than the total occupant load served divided by 50. Such width of exits shall be divided approximately equally among the separate exits. The total exit width required from any story of a building shall be determined by using the occupant load of that story plus the percentages of the occupant loads of floors which exit through the level under consideration, as follows:
1. 50% of the occupant load in the first adjacent story above (and the first adjacent story below, when a story below exits through the level under consideration).
2. 25% of the occupant load in the story immediately beyond the first adjacent story.
c) Arrangement of Exits. If only two exits are required they shall be placed a distance a-part equal to not less than i the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served measured in a straight line between exits.

d) Distance to Exits. The maximum distance of travel from any point to an exterior door, horizontal exit, exit passageway or an enclosed stairway in a building not equipped with an automatic sprinkler system throughout shall not exceed 150 feet or 200 feet in a building equipped with an automatic sprinkler system throughout.
In an open parking garage, as defined in Section 709, the exit travel distance may be increased to 250 feet.
3) Exits Through Adjoining or Accessory Areas. Exits from a room may open into an adjoining or intervening room or area, provided such adjoining room is accessory to the area served and provides a direct means of egress to an exit corridor, exit stairway, exterior exit, horizontal exit, exterior exit balcony or exit passageway.
f) Entrances to Buildings. Main exits from buildings requiring access by the physically handicapped, as listed in Table No. 33-A, shall be usable by individuals in wheelchairs and be on a level that would make the elevators accessible where provided.
General. This section shall apply to every exit door serving an area having an occupant load of more than 10, or structures used for human occupancy.
Swing. Exit doors shall swing in direction of exit travel when serving an occupant load of 50 or more.
Width and Height. Every required exit doorway shall be of a size as to permit the installation of a door not less than 3* in width and not less than 6'-8" in height. When installed in exit doorways, exit doors shall be capable of opening at least 90 and shall be so mounted that the clear width of the exitway is not less than 32".
Door Leaf Width. No leaf of an exit door shall exceed 4' in width.
Special Doors. Revolving, sliding and overhead doors shall not be used as required exits.
Change in Floor Level at Doors. Regardless of the occupant load, there shall be a floor or landing on each side of a door.

The floor or landing shall be not more than 1" lower than the threshold of the doorway. Where doors open over landings, the landing shall have a length of not less than 5'.
Corridors and Exterior Exit Balconies:
Sec. 3304 a) General.
b) Width. Every corridor serving
an occupant load of 10 or more shall be not less in width than 44". Regardless of occupant load, corridors in Group R, Division 3 Occupancies shall have a minimum width of 36"..
c) Height. Corridors and exterior balconies shall have a clear height of not less than 71 measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling.
d) Projections. The required width of corridors shall be unobstructed.
e) Access to Exits. When more than one exit is required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to go in either direction from any point in a corridor to a separate exit, except for dead ends not exceeding 20' in length.
Stairways: Sec. 3305 a)
Changes in Elevation. When a corridor or exterior exit balcony is accessible to an elevation of the floor shall be made by means of a ramp.
Construction. Walls of corridors serving an occupant load of 30 or more shall be of not less than 1 Hr. fire-resistive construction and the ceilings shall be not less than that required for a 1 Hr. fire-resistive floor or roof system.
Location on Property. Exterior exit balconies shall not be located in an area where openings are required to be protected due to location on the property.
Width. Stairways serving an occupant load of more than 50 shall be not less in width than 44". Stairways serving an occupant load of 50 or less may be 36" wide. Private stairways serving an occupant load of less than 10 may be 30" wide.
Rise and Run. The rise of every step in a stairway shall not be less than 4" nor greater than 7". ...the run shall be not less than 10".

d) Winding Stairways: Pg. 505
e) Circular Stairways: Pg. 505
f) Spiral Stairways: Pg. 505
g) Landings. Every landing shall have a dimension measured in the direction of travel equal to the width of the stairway. Such dimension need not exceed 4' when the stair has a straight run. A door swinging over a landing shall not reduce the width of the landing to less than i its required width at any position in its swing nor by more than 7" when fully open.
h) Basement Stairways. Where a basement stairway and a stairway to an upper story terminate in the same exit enclosure, an approved barrier shall be provided to prevent persons from continuing on into the basement.
i) Distance Between Landings.
There shall be not more than
12' vertically between landings.
j) Handrails. ... Handrails shall be placed not less than 30" nor more than 34" above the nosing of treads. They shall be continuous the full length of the stairs and except for private stairways at least one handrail shall extend not less
than 6" beyond the top and bottom risers.
o) Stairway to Roof. In every building four or more stories in height, one stairway shall extend to the roof surface, unless the roof has a slope greater than 4:12.
p) Headroom. Every required stairway shall have a head-room clearance of not less than 6'-6".
Sec. 3306 a) b)
Width. The width of ramps shall be as required for stairways.
Slope. Ramps required by Table No. 33-A shall not exceed a slope of 1:12. The slope of other ramps shall not exceed 1:8.
Landings. Ramps having slopes greater than 1:15 shall have landings at the top and bottom, and at least one intermediate landing shall be provided for each 5' of rise. Top landings and intermediate landings shall have a dimension measured in the direction of ramp run of not less than 5'. Landings at the bottom of ramps shall have a dimension in the direction of ramp run of not less than 6'.

Doors in any position shall not reduce the minimum dimension of the landing to less than 42" and shall not reduce the required width by more than 3i" when fully open.
e) Handrails. Ramps having slopes exceeding 1:15 horizontal shall have handrails as required for stairways.
Horizontal Exit:
Sec. 3307 a) Used as a Required Exit. If conforming to the provisions of this chapter, a horizontal exit may be considered as a required exit.
b) Openings. All openings in the 2 Hr. fire-resistive wall which provides a horizontal exit shall be protected...
Exit Enclosures
Sec. 3308 (Pg. 508)
Exit Courts
Sec. 3310 (Pg. 511)
Exit Passageways(Pg. 512)
Special Hazards:
Sec. 3320 a) Boiler, Furnace and Incinerator Rooms. Except in Group
R, Division 3 Occupancies, any room containing a boiler, furnace, incinerator or other fuel fired equipment must be provided with two means of egress when both of the following conditions exist:
The area of the room exceeds 500 sq. ft., and 2. The largest piece of fuel-fired equipment exceeds 400,000 Btu per hour input capacity.
If two means of egress must be provided, one may be a fixed ladder. The means of egress must be separated by a horizontal distance not less than half the greatest horizontal dimension of the room.

Penthouses and Roof Structures:
Sec. 3601 a) Height. No penthouse or other projection above the roof in structures of other than Type I construction shall exceed 28' in height above the roof when used as an enclosure for tanks or for elevators which run to the roof and in all other cases shall not extend more than 12' in height above the roof.
b) Area. The aggregate area of all penthouses and other roof structures shall not exceed 33-1/3% of the area of the supporting roof.
c) Prohibited Uses. No penthouses, bulkhead or any other similar projection above the roof shall be used for purposes other than shelter of mechanical equip ment or shelter of vertical shaft openings in the roof.
d) Construction. Roof structures shall be constructed with walls, floors and roof as required for the main portion of the building.

Based on the Uniform Plumbing Code
1 15 16 35 36 55 56 80 81 -110 111 -115
1 additional fixture for each additional 40 occupants.
1 drinking fountain for every 150 occupants (minimum 1 per floor).

Exterior Walls R19 Roofs and Ceilings R30 Basement Walls (to 4' below grade) RIO Slabs on Grade RIO Crawl Spaces (floors) R19 Crawl Spaces (foundation walls) RIO
Glazing Double Glazed
Solar Transmittance 0.6
(Unlimited glazing on the south; limited to 12% of total wall area of that side)
(Skylight area limited to 1% of total floor area)
Follow guidelines set by the Colorado State Energy Conservation Standards/November, 1977.

The village concept is being investigated to "tie the development together", architecturally and functionally. Architecturally, the village can come together with form and materials to help define, identify and connect all the parts into a whole, comprehensive development. Functionally, the main 'parts' of the village have been identified as: STREETS
The commercial and residential districts will share in cost and use the other 'public' spaces (streets, open space and parking).
- can function simultaneously as open space.
- this is the internal public connection to all parts of the village.
- streets have special significance to the commercial districts for exposure (visibility) to the residents of, and visitors to the development.
- this is the area provided to supply goods and services to the village and surrounding area.
- this area can provide a wide variety of activity to bring life to the community throughout the day.
- provides private space for people to occupy the village permanently, if desired.
- this district further adds activity to the village throughout the day.

provides a 'place to go1; to rest, play, observe.......
can range from public to private as you progress through the village.
necessary to provide adequate parking for the convenience of the tenants and visitors as well as reducing the impact of additional automobiles introduced to the neighborhood.

Net Leaseable Area Ci rculation/Toi1ets/Jani tor (12%) Mechanical (4%) 37,800 SF 5,400 SF 1,800 SF
RELATED SPACES Parking (1 space/300 SF) 15% (128 spaces x 350 SF/sp) 44,800 SF
Loading (50% of 1,380 SF) 690 SF
Public Open Space (20% of 10,000 SF) 2,000 SF
USE: Speculative
USER: Unknown
ZONE: Semi-Private
NEEDS: - flexibility to accommodate a vari
ety of tenants.
- maximum depth 40' to accommodate at least 50% natural daylighting and increase marketability.
- minimum 12.5' floor to floor height to maximize natural daylight while addressing height limitation.
- minimum 9' ceiling height to maximize natural daylight.
- provide close, convenient access to parking for tenants and visitors.
- provide access to service areas.
- provide secure separation from other uses during off-peak hours.
- address on and off-site views.

Gross SF - Office 45,000 SF 0 $55/SF $ 2,475,000
Gross SF - Parking 44,800 SF & $25/SF 1,120,000
Gross SF - Loading 690 SF @ $25/SF 17,250
Gross SF - Street 2,000 SF 0 $15/SF 30,000
plus 10% Contingency
$4,006,475 / 45,000 SF = $89/SF
Site Development (30% of $250,000) $ 75,000 Land Costs ($10/SF) 450,000 Water Tap 0 Architectural/Engineering Fees (8% Total Hard Costs) 320,518 Loan Fee (2% Loan) (Loan 75% of Total Hard Costs) 75,121 Interest (13% per annum) (1 Yr. Construction Period) 195,316 Developers Overhead (Hard Costs + A/E + Site Development)(5%) 220,100
TOTAL SOFT COSTS $ 1,336,055
$1,336,055 / 45,000 SF = $30/SF
TOTAL COSTS (Hard & Soft) $ 5,355,000

Net Leaseable Area minus Vacancy Rate (5%) minus Expenses
37,800 SF 0 $18/SF $ 680,400
( 34,020)
37,800 SF @ $ 6/SF ( 226,800)
$ 419,580

Net Leaseable Area Mechanical (3%) 14,550 SF 450 SF
RELATED SPACES Parking (1 space/300 SF) 15% (43 spaces x 350 SF/sp) 15,050 SF
Loading (50% of 1,380 SF) 690 SF
Public Open Space (80% of 10,000 SF) 8,000 SF
Small Specialty Shops
- flexibility to accommodate a variety of tenants (500 SF minimum).
- provide individual shop identity.
- entrances should be well-marked and easy to find.
- provide location for tenant identification which can be easily seen.
- relate to existing pedestrian generators.
- provide direct access/visibility to public spaces.
- provide close, convenient access to parking.
- provide close access to service area
- separate customer and service access
- provide some protection from inclement weather to window shoppers/ customers.
- provide a space consisting of approx imately 5,000 SF+ to function as a community gathering place. It must be flexible enough to accommodate
a variety of income-producing activities. It must be self-sufficient, it will not be subsidized by the development.

Gross SF - Retail 15,000 SF @ $40/SF $ 600,000
Gross SF - Parking 15,050 SF @ $25/SF 376,250
Gross SF - Loading 690 SF 0 $25/SF 17,250
Gross SF - Street 8,000 SF @ $15/SF 120,000
plus 10% Contingency
$ 1,113,500 111,350
$ 1,224,850
$1,224,850 / 15,000 SF = $82/SF
Site Development (10% of $250,000) $ 25,000 Land Costs ($10/SF) 150,000 Water Tap 0 Architectural Engineering Fees (8% Total Hard Costs) 97,988 Loan Fee (2% Loan) (Loan 75% of Total Hard Costs) 22,966 Interest (13% per annum) (1 Yr. Construction Period) 59,711 Developers Overhead (Hard Costs + A/E + Site Development)(5%) 67,392
$423,056 / 15,000 SF = $28/SF
TOTAL COSTS (Hard & Soft) $ 1,650,000

Net Leaseable Area minus Vacancy Rate (5%) minus Expenses
14,550 SF 0 $12/SF $ 174,600
( 8,730)
14,500 SF @ $ 4/SF ( 58,200)
$ 107,670

6 1 BDR @ 1100 SF/Unit 6,600 SF
46 2 BDR @ 1300 SF/Unit 59,800 SF
8 3 BDR @ 1500 SF/Unit 12,000 SF
Provide Large Private Exterior
Space/Unit Min. 200 SF/Unit 12,000 SF
TOTAL GROSS SF/Residential 90,400 SF
Commons: Semi-Private:
Space provided for residential acitivty and entertainment.
all-purpose room 1,000 SF
kitchen 100 SF
toilets 100 SF
spa 300 SF
1,500 SF
EXTERIOR: soft surface hard surface
15,000 SF
10,000 SF 5,000 SF
Circulation/Lobby: Semi-Private 10,000 SF 3% Mechanical 2,800 SF
8% Other 7,200 SF
26,600 SF
Parking: Private
(1.5 spaces/unit) 15% 76 spaces x 350 SF/sp
TOTAL GROSS SF/Other 53,100 SF
USE: Permanent Residence
USER: Owner
ZONE: Private
provide maximum security.
provide maximum privacy, particularly at semi-private areas (entry, decks).
provide good solar access.
provide bi-lateral exposure for maximum natural light and air.
address views, particularly to the southwest.
provide elevator access to all units.
provide individual identity to each unit.
provide separate parking area for residential spaces.

Gross SF Units
Gross SF Decks (200 SF/Unit)(60)
Gross SF Commons (interior)
Gross SF Circulation/Mechanical Gross SF Parking
Gross SF Commons (exterior) SOFT SURFACE
plus 10% Contingency
$6,246,680 / 78,400 SF = $80/SF
78,400 SF @ $52/SF $ 4,076,800
12,000 SF @ $20/SF 240,000
1,500 SF @ $48/SF 72,000
10,000 SF @ $48/SF 480,000
26,600 SF 0 $25/SF 665,000
10,000 SF @ $ 7/SF 70,000
5,000 SF @ $15/SF 75,000
$ 5,678,800 567,880
$ 6,246,680
Site Development (60% of $250,000) $ 150,000 Land Costs ($37,000/Unit)(60 Units) 2,220,000 Water Tap ($3,000/Unit) (60 Units) 180,000 Architectural/Engineering Fees (8% Total Hard Costs) 499,734 Loan Fee (2i% Loan) (Loan 75% of Total Hard Costs) 117,125 Interest (13% per annum) (1 Yr. Construction Period) 304,526 Developers Overhead (Hard Costs + A/E + Site Development)(5%) 344,821
TOTAL SOFT COSTS $ 3,816,206
$3,816,206 / 78,400 SF = $49/SF

SUB TOTAL plus 10% Profit
TOTAL COSTS (Hard Costs, Soft Costs, Profit)
$11,069,175 / 78,400 SF = $142/SF
Gross SF 1 BDR
plus Real Estate Sales Commission (6%) SELLING PRICE 1 BDR
Gross SF 2 BDR
plus Real Estate Sales Commission (6%) SELLING PRICE 2 BDR
Gross SF 3 BDR
plus Real Estate Sales Commission (6%) SELLING PRICE 3 BDR
$ 6,246,680 3,816,206
1100 SF 0 $142/SF $ 156,200 9,372
$ 165,572
1300 SF @ $142/SF $ 184,600 11,076
$ 195,676
1500 SF 0 $142/SF $ 213,000 12,780
$ 225,780

Offi ce 45,000 45,490
Retail 15,000 15,740
Residential 90,000 26,600
TOTAL SQUARE FEET 150,000 87,830
90,450 SF 30,740 SF 116,600 SF
2.000 SF
8.000 SF 15,000 SF
237,830 SF
25,000 SF Decks 12,000 SF

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A lot of 'talk' has taken place in the past few months about the past, present and future development of the City of Boulder. In this section of the Appendix is a series of articles which have been published discussing these changes and how the local architects and planners view this development.

October 31. 1983
Tim# out.
H't o favor you con do yourgelf coll time out ond toko o good look at where you live: Boulder, a city set mognificentfy ogoinit the Flatirons. Boulder, o Mix oi tight mesh and sprawl. BouMer, a collodion of architectural gams and junk.
From Interviews with planners, architects, developers and futurists, reporters Linda Cgstrone ond Vicki Groninger have written about the pieces that odd up to The Look of Boulder. An overview appears on the front page of today's Comoro, odditionol stories ore inside Accent on poges 2f ond 8F, ond next week's Accent sedion will carry the final installments, including an assessment of the best and the worst in Boulder architecture.
Like an adolescent stuck in the physical warp between psst and future. Boulder ia having an identity crisis It's not s city, but It's no longer a town It's not parochial, but it's not cosmopolitan either It's neither suburban nor urban It's tied to the past and aching for the future It's attractive to the many, but affordable to the few. It can't decide whether it wants light industry or not. It S both quaint and progressive, pedestrian and auto-oriented
Like one of Ha hang-glider pilots the city is poised on a foothill, weighted down by yesterdays politics snd freaked out by the open sky Architects and planners if not psychics and fortune tellers, may know beat where Boulder will be going in the next decade But even they debate the possibilities Even they wonder:
What will be happening in the streets, in the city Works with the vietas. with the sky. in the flood plain, in the foothills* Where will the future'* housing and industry sit and what form will its transportation network lake*
One visionary architect is Carl Worthington He has busied himaelf with the potttici and aesthetics of Boulder for over SO years, doing much of the groundwork for the Downtown Mali and writing the master plan for the >00 acres sround Crossroads
Worthington thinks the next critical target area for development to Boulder will be the vacant iota that krliagtoc Northern and United Bank of Bouktot own soeth and west of the mall (between Canyon and Pearl. Ninth and Breodway).
What he sees happening there Is s different Boulder from the ene the mall chats up Re sees that area aa big and beautiful and eves (dare we aay ttT> brassy with a betel and commercial buildings Boulder periodically bandies about Use idea *f a eeftural end ccnveattaa center, too
Worthington leaks forward la the sppnrtunMy there to do something new." Be says. "It's a good place for something new and sacking. Once M's a transitional space between the Jim Beater vernacular of the maalr*al buildings and the historical look of the mall.''
Jim Heater designed the enclave eaBud Little Russia, a quadrangle af faculty hosnae with shared ground near the University, and the concrete end flagstone city ball, the library and Dally Camara buildings in Boulders cere When the Burlington land is developed. If R la devoted to commertcal spsc*. R will further defhte the downtown as the business center of Boulder At the vanguard of what the eRy planners call Infill it the Canyon Center complex that Dowalng-Leeeh will Intlld on land across Ninth Street from the Burlington land Canyon Center will he comprised of 75 luxory condominiums. 10,000 square feet of retail mace and about 00.000 square feet of efftce apace
Brace Downing Bays bis firm plans to make Canyon Center ''synergistic with what's going on downtown already "
Tbis complex will be ooe of a very few true multi-use developments In town. Leo Palmer's Willow Springs Shopping Center is another, built with living units attached to commercial apace. )nnl Iflte In the old days
**tt was hell getting financing for this protect.''
The view from Boulder ts oerthy, Ml of texture end Yorker magazine co growing more sophisticated daily. As wttk the famous New of Ike country polos
By Soul Steinberg, the i compared to our city.
Palmer says No Boulder hank wanted to toot the Mil for the entire development ami Palmer got bis ma)or financing from a New York beak, Fir*
Multiuse structures are defluitelj fas the cards for Boulder a future, meet of the setf-etyied vtstoe arte* agreed. Architects Jim Vaodervoreu aad Body Wageoer (their firm la responsible for Williami Village those domineering CU dorms a( Sdtk aad Baseline the Jeatice Center at Sixth aad Canyon, aad Patrvlew High) explored the reasons why the concept of multiuse hasn't been in vogue for several decades
Wagoner noted. The wactflc cant apt was msUtoted to atop the building of a factory right next to a house Property values could then be very easily defined, when bousing waa separate from business The setting ordinances of the past decades tended to cookie cot things to make them easy to file.
Our whole society has grows op In that flling-caMnot syndrome Mixed nee to net so mathematically determinable "
Also." says Wagoner, the public Is getihig
tired of driving from their b noslog ghetto to their work ghetto, thee out again to their entertain went
Yet. as Vaadorvorste explained The honking community hat to rospoed to Stability, sapn-tally dnrtng economic hard times Uke we're experiencing now StabilMy Is created by public acceptance But there's a lag between where Boning needs to go and where peblic optahm Is And the banks In their lending practices are even lagging I to dicta it
what public
City planners look to the Cream Beds ares as a large experiment In multi eat Bight nee. M's Identified as a drive-up regional shopping center, hut the dream behind Boulder planning director Ed Gswf's eyes lx to make It accessible and attractive to pedestrians The BUR A land is tooed for high-dens tty residential as well as commercial property, asd Gawf, Uke other planners before him. envisions multi-story apartment and eeadom-i uni urn complexes around Crossroads (Ceathieed so Page IP)

rC Hi
U1100*1 >! IH<
The Look of Things to Come
A large and vocal segment of that population is likely. 1/ present statistics can be projected into the future to consist of single people who are professionals highly educated, intelligent and articulate A large proportion of them may be women (Right now women are neck and neck with men In the city's population It's 37.704 female and 3t,M0 male )
The majority of these people will be attracted to higb-density living That translates Into They don't ears about fulfilling the traditional American dream of owning single detached homes with front and back yards, lawnmowers and big cars. Or at least they don't think they care.
Up" for them may be the moat noticeable direction for Boulder's future gome of the most avid proponents of "growing up" In Boulder, like Tom Nison, the architect whose firm designed the South Boulder Recreation Center and the Senior Citiaens Center, contend the voters' choice for a low building profile in the '40s was based more on politics than on visual aesthetics With the growing sophistication of Boulder's population they think Boulder will go for Judiciously spaced tall buildings in a future turn-about vote
The shape of things to come Is based on another widely held notion In Boulder, and that Is the theory at the Golden Triangle Gawf and others talk about Boulder's three major nodes and the magical quality they hope their configuration will have once the links between them are clarified by the eily
The nodes are Downtown the University and Crossroads The likely corridor between Downtown and Crossroads. Gawf surmises. U Pearl Street, because the multiuse and high-density concepts are already working there
Though Gswf and many Boulder clUsens would like to think that the hardy Boulder residents of the future (who will hive given up smoking end eating sugar and have taken up moderate drinking sod Jogging) would walk to all nodes for everything they want to do, planners are making provisions for moderate exhaustion They're proposing some public transport whether It's trolley or bus. to move people around when their feet are sore
Boulder probably will continue to deal with other important elements of Its natural setting, only more aggressively One of these often taken for graoted. Is vista Boulder will continue to protect it* view of the mountains It already has ensured the wonderful view of Its giant water tap the Arapaho Glacier along Canyon Boulevard and probably will choose other avenues to "lay low'' before the grandeur of the setting
Speaking of which, water may have more to do with the man-made development in Boulder's future than It has in the past One of the original plans for the Downtown Mall the Gruen Plan, called for the diversion of Boulder Creek Into this business district And one of the Malls chief architects. Art Everett, has mounted Its rejection He thinks merchants and other businesspeople vetoed the idea because they were afraid they could not control the activity of people around water Their thinking, be supposes. wn "M> God. H moves People might jump In Then who d be responsible*
"Yet the play of water is a wonderful contribution to a city's vitality.' Everett Insist*
A Boulder landscape architect. Gag* Davis, agree* He aayt. "Boulder Creek Is the most underutilised of the city resource* He al*o envisions an expansion In Boulder of the role the alleyways play aa pedestrian throughways They are already In place, they're extensive and they ran put walkers In places that feel qulie different from the general ambience of Boulder
Another underutilised resource everywhere is the sun Boulder has Just established another first In the country by adopting a aolar-access ordinance CKy energy program coordinator Peggy Wreno described its scope "The city of Boulder is committed to solar as In 'solar system We are commuted to energy conservation and renewable energy sources: hydro wind geothermal, aolar power to those sources which are not finite but renewable "
As far aa flat-plate collectors on rooftops go. the city doesn't have a program to encourage them, but haa a strong energy conservation code and a growth management system that does
"And the purpose of the solsr-sccess ordinance." Wrenn says 'Is to ensure that the smount of aunlight currently available to buildings will continue to be available and not shaded by adjacent buildings or trees The ordinance Includes provisions giving blgh-danalty neighbor hoodi the leaat protection and low-density tones
WHERE'S THE WATER? Art Everett, princi psi architect with Everett Ze>gel Tumpes and Hand, one of the major firms responsible for the
creation ot the Downtown Mall, thinks water is the only missing ingredient downtown He thinks It's vital to a city's vitality
ALLEYS AND CREEKS Gaga Davis, land scaoe architect, thinks Boulder's alleyways and creeks are 'underutilised.'
(From Page IF)
One former city planner (1447-73) thinks this la pic tn the sky thinking He can't imagine Crossroads ever being touliy pedestrian "It's unrealistic says Bill La room, "to count on people walking to Crossroads from aven as dose away as FoLsom Street His thinking is. ooee a shopping center, always shopping center (and social historian William Whyte agree* with him)
Lamont tears that by coocaotrating on the pedestrian the city at Boulder's planners always rue the risk of ignoring the reality of the auto and losing options for the future (a real no-no in the planning world).
For inataoce." he notes, the congestion on 2*th and 30th streets will soon push planners Into making those streets one way Yat Lamont say* the city has sold off one critical parcel of land that could have been used as a north connecting link betweer these major thoroughfares (for Willow Springs Townbouaes; Another parcel, near the Broker Inn. Is critical If it la sold too. for private development, the opportunity will be lost forever for a veritable circling of the wagons around Crossroads.
Besides circulation around town the largest question staring everyone in tbs face in Boulder la where to put the people that will be circulating in a town restricted laterally by green belt and vertically by height ordinance High-density is a Boulder catchword for the future It's a concept that Lamont helped to formulate during what h* refers to as Boulders Camelot years Bob White, former city councilman. made It a household word Boulder has a uniform dansity" toning regulation that allow* developers to trade off duster buildings for open space on Individual acres It's capped by the Si-fool height limitation the voters adopted in the 'tOs To those who think Boulder has to grow up" to accommodate more people. La mooi tali* of a planning study don* during his tenure that showed that even with present toning regulation*, Boulder could handle population of
ZONING GAP Jim Vsndervorat*. architect and partner of Wagener vandervorste Archi tacts, says There's a lag between where zoning needs to go ana where public opinion is '
the most, however. Boulder solar-acces* ordinance may have a profound effect on the future look of Boulder
Other area* In town that may have a different feel from the Golden Triangle are aprouting up non along Valmont, the Diagonal and Arapahoe They are where the "light industry" that is quietly expanding In Boulder la locating Valleylab and NBI for Instance, offer a peek at the profile of Boulder s Industrial future The city, many forward-thinking cltisens beliave. will have to wake up to the reality that the son of people who want to aetllc here want to work here aa wall
One "futuriat" who moved to Boulder two yeara ago from Kanaaa City after participating in the Renataaance project there aeei Boulder as being ripe for change
"It'a inteilegent aod friendly, a strong community." Gall Taylor aayi "Yet if the city of Boulder were to be paychoanalyaed. it would b* diagnosed as being frightened of Its own success Psychologists have found that the two greatest periods of unhappiness for people are those tiroes when they're furthest away from the possibility of aucceas and those times just before they make it Boulder a in the latter situation "
Taylor thinks It's going to take guts for Boulder s leaders and citizens to surmount their paramount fear that change will alter the nature of the town they love
Her vision of the future physical plant for this city is of modular and taller architecture buddings that house different functions at different times, moving between public and private uses and buildings that show the grown-up tastes of the grown-up citizens
"Boulder has been leading the pack in taking ear* to keep Its options open for the future she says "Now tbe pack (the real of the country) has caught up
"It's time for Boulder to take another leap "
(From Page IF)
the road If buildings lack windows within tight from the sidewalk, potential customers have no reason to walk past them Retail on the ground floor attracts people to an area and gives the streets and sidewalks a reason U> exist Besides, retail gives people an excuse to loiter, and. as everyone knows window snooping is second only to people-wstchlng at the major pastime of city people while they go about their daily buatneis In town "
First National Bank and Public Service on Broadway also could have used that advice, he said The Randolph Center Is a good example of mixing floor-level retail with upper story offices In spile of Its flaws, however. Whyte was Impressed with Boulder The city's most striking feature he said finally. Is Its uniformity, with so many buildings colored brown, yellow, green and burnt red to match the mountains Add the foliage along the street* and tbe flowerbeds in bloom, and the affect was vary pleasant
Boulder Residents See Plenty of Red
' WETHING NEW Csrl Worthington, princi architect Carl Worthington Partnership, looks forward to the opportunity around the downtown mall to do something new.' some thing as a counterpoint to the historic
*y YICICI GRONMGiR Comer* StwH Wrtser Look around If you don't aae red. you're not mad enough or your eyesight is fading Red is the color of Boulder From the Flatirons to the Lyoos flagstone, rod is the primary color in the natural and the man-made in town. Many of the buildtnga In the older aectiona of Boulder tbe Whittier neighborhood. Goaa-Grov*. University and Mapiotoe hill ware built of brick Tbe University present* more red In H* brick and stooe and It* canopy of red-tiie roofs Tbe etty haa encouraged red In its historic restoration projects along the Downtown Mall aod tn tbe medians that are cropping up like Indian paintbrushes on major roadways.
According to Boulder architect-planner Carl Worthington, who haa contributed over two decades of his expertise to the city, both on and off the planning board, there's a visual rationale for the color scheme Boulder look* good In red The public buildtnga mimic the reddiah brown earth and tbe brown grasslands. Worthington says
"Often there are different type* of colors that work better tn different areas In the tropica, for instance, they use white II
reflect* tbe sunlight and keeps the place cool In Greece, the towns along the ocean are all wbKe stucco In Florence the whole city Is ochre In Santa Ft. It's adobe There's a theme, a oneness everyone works within "In Boulder w* have ao Intense sunlight because of our altitude It'a a tremendous light, almost like a spotlight When you use white here it baa such a high reflectivity you can aw* h for 100 mliai Whit* doesn't aeem to be right here. It leeki foreign gainst our earthy Lowe* it's not sympathetic with tbe ground ."
Charles Haertling la one architect In town who baa dared to design In while (Tbe Boulder Valley Eye Clinic oe Broadway and the Brenton "mushroom house" In Wonderland Hill). While Worthington acknowledges reaped for Haertitng i design and integrity ("He* the only architect I ever worked for for tree"), be thinks the introduction nf white in the Boulder environment is "bad manners Worthington likes to talk about a perception he once had while looking down on Boulder from Flagstaff Mountain I saw what looked like a large dump The homea in Table Mesa (and Martin Acres) had been built with all kind* of roofing materials They looked like fly-away paper In all
different colors, like milk tar-loos blown up into a moadow
Table Mesa brake tbs dress
Gage Da via, whs served so tbe
chy'a planning board from 1*73 to 1474 and now run* his own landacap* architecture firm, agroea that a city a identity is created by tb* us* of material*, texture* and colon appropriate to It* physical and cultural history
"Great cltlea." aaya Davis, "are grsat bocatase of ihstr bom-eganeity In styltag "
Other architects, most notably Tom Nixon, whose firm designed tbe South Boulder Roc Center. Senior CHltens Center. Baaemar Apartments and tb* new NB1 headquarteri along the Diagonal, find such uniformity monotonous
Nixon think* a city like Boulder can well afford a break from tbe sameness created when colors. materials aod textures are matched
While an architect shouldn't consciously compete with the natural setting. Nixon aayi. someone like a Haertling can come along and create a valued contrast Just si Nature surprises ua with a Devil's Thumb or a formation such at the Flatirons
POLITICAL INFLUENCE Tom Nixon, archi ted. partner, Nixon Brown Brokaw Bowen The low building profile adooted in the '60s was based more on politics than on visual aesthet

October 31, m2
RUSTIC CONDOS A* land grow mor# valuobfe ond building com row. condominium living wot introduced to Boulder. The Minot in South Sou I dor, designed by McStoin Entorpriwt. ploy on the town's history ot o mining community
Changing Styles In Boulder Homes
VICTORIAN Mirroring the stylo of th# timet Boulder t eorly-doy hornet incorporated the gingerbreod trim to populor m the lote 1800s The Arnett-Fullen houw on Seventh and Peorl wot built in 1877.
INKRGT SAVIR Luxury in a tmoll. energy efficient tpoce it offered by this postive tolar condominium in Wonderlond Hill Mott of Boulder t tolor housing. including thit unit
hot been designed by
in the late 1930s by Jomet Hunter, this home on Bowline Rood was patterned after the ciottical Georgian home In typicol Bouhowt ttyfe brick wot pointed white to create o sleek. cieon looking surface
SPACJ-AOI ROAM Ultra-modern loom houw wot built in the early 1970s on Wonderland Hill. Architect Choriei Haertling is known for buildings that combine beauty with function
SUBURBAN TRACT In the !9S0i housing for the mattes was introduced in the form of troct hornet Thit ranch wot one of about five stylet repealed throughout Martin Acres.
Noteworthy Designs In Public and Commercial Buildings
The bulk of the South Boulder Recreation Center, designed by Bill Bowen of Nixon, Brown, Brohow ond Bowen, is disguised by sloping It away from neighboring houwt Low profile olso resists gale force winds typicol for Table Mesa.
When Art Everett designed the Geologicol Society ol America heodquorters building he thought of moking he offices o home 'The building he says mokes a small footprint on the lond Its geometric forms ore bolonced by the site s rolling hills.
Comoro Staff Photos By Karen Schulenburg
INTRASTATE INSPIRATION I M Pei drew Center for Atmospheric Reseorch. Finished in on the cliff dwellings of southern Colorado for 1965 the building o local architect thinks, hrs inspiration for the design of the Notional 'ranks with the pyramids
Charles Hoertling's ingeniously designed eye clinic, on Broochwoy ond Maxwell, puts the oreos of highest uw neor the center of the building Eye charts ore mounted at the end of long protrusions away from the central core.
University o< Colorado s Engineering Sciences Center built In the 1960s by Williom Muchow, is o good example ot ultra-new design that rests easy with its ctassicot neighbors. It borrows the slanted red tile roof from older University buildings, then creates th# illusion of matching the high norrow towers while providing lorge flot laboratory spoces

November 7, 1962
What's New? The Old Style
Ever wondered why to many of Boulder's aew buildings look like ihey've been ravaged by the elements or built by half-drunk carpenters'
It may be because this Is the rough and tumble Wild West Then again. It may be because some lea> than creative people have borrowed techniques they don't understand The erase toward slanting old wood against new flberglas Insulation started when developers and builders decided to play on the heritage of muting communities speculated Henry Beer co-owner of Communication Arts They looked at buildings m mountain ghost towns, noticed they had diagonally
slanted aiding made of exposed wood, and decided to reproduce that look
They didn't stop to think the wood on mining shacks was exposed because it had been neglected for decades Nor did they understand the siding was slanted because the feeble buildings were listing to one aide
Thats )uat one example of gimmicks that turned Into architectural trends The fervor to preserve historical buildings may be creating another in Boulder
Bulii In the late 1100s as unique, modern buildings. Victorian structures were characterised by their curliquet wrought-iron decorations and facade-work called "gingerbread Many of Boulder's earliest buildings are Victorian in style
In their baaie to preserve the quality of historical neighborhoods, developers and preservationists have sometimes gone overboard with that motif (C tin nod m rage X)
The Edwards Center made both the architecture in Boulder. A story obout Best and the Worst lists of significant its architect is on page 2C.
them for the list of orchitecturol worsts.1
The List of Treasures and Junk
No spirited discussion of architecture is complete without examples Architects and planners Interviewed for The Look of Boulder were aaked to back up their statements with specifics Their list of treasures and junk should be taken for what It is opinion Several balldlngs even shoo up on both lists, reminding us that beauty la In the eye of the
Oeekegteal Society el America. he
#*' 2etge lumpet ond Hand h to wety on the me (lendteopad by the at watt) o nice bend e* geome"- and nolu'Ol lormt KOI. fc'.or grown S-oto- Sowar The Wo* n ell but.nett ye' the leal mg It peore'u' and >r harmony arifh rtt emn
Sdwardt Center, lomgu'h. Attoootot Ht matt ond me* mo11 (rad br*k) raeae- tfca V w tor n I owe hat o it rw-ahOort (Mendmg wlthaw< tac'.l.cmg
laWtllTi Sam It era. (varatt Z.g* lumpet and Hand Hi o beau'-M stand o naw ond old Tha brickwork t| naly da tailed to match the ornate
Hut Wat I anal Seek. Woloce Salma'
ond Altai > Tha bu.ldmg wot to twr'attlully ponded ond renovated tfco- loo*i l*fce o naw tiwctwa Saaldat Volley lye Clinic Cfcortat
ttoa> *.ng Whom' ti fcitt you m tfca lo>e it t' ond and wonderful
iatad Sark AUar- Hat#'
That# mutt, nor, Vnrvereity o* CoWvadc dermt ware built murk htyfce> then neret tO'v
The Colerede buhdtug Jim Hunter SouWat t lirtt high nea Oetgned with a haliceptai pod or rap Mend* he tan at tune
WCAS. it* Sa. end Attocietet A pawa'tul ttotement monument that deatn t l.gfc. tfca meunlomi yet tn cowarad b, them attfcai Trl-Oah SerarHy ad diktat. Karan Ze< pe tumpei ond Hand Tha now biandt wall with tfca ptd W.lfcou* copying O tingle ludo> datign alamant
Sautdar County Court Mauea A
Worki Srog'ett Adm>nittralion (Wf A) panod pore bu.f to raptote e lava', Virlonen bu.ldmg tfca burned to tfca ground
Swapping Cawlert Seg.emo cante' includmg Crott'oadt o*e tome o* the wont pfcxei to be one orrhtart ta>d Sy nature tfcay re iwt tterat tu' rounded by octet o* btackiar Juetlce Cantor. Wogane- vendervoitte Artfc.tectt H it pre'ob gene-n go' boge '.t'ng trom tfce otfcet o< tfce *11
tar. lonigurfc. Attoco'et Tfc.t budmg ho i been vonoutty deu.bed at berth vode- t mot* o wfcate Tarngurtv t revenge cm Kt tat it it 'op fceovy grecelett unm
Polly Camera Jim Hum#. With Hob*" Wagane add"ton form fc>(owl Imc-or wtir* meant light mdut'ry too* l kka light .nduit't H would ba Itna In an .ndut"te pO't but fcet ne place f a tcan.c downtown O'OO
Tfcit curat* tack an Soulde- o all "O' n it ken Srenciero Hi a Duneylone
Waw Vork begat Sekary Sutldlng Sob
White Tfce tttwotl or the t-de t'tttt O CO'nivO1 like Otmotphe'e wfctcfc mo* be who* tfce* te o'tet M no' good O'chitacture though Or S. Stanley Srentent home Cfcortat Heart I mg Ot O'C hilar Put tfctt wo* t n nc 'eo I ond o aggtfceU
Critics coll tha Son Froncisco Town-housas Disnayasqua ond nominotad

Nature Is the High Point
y VICKI GtONMGEt Came'o Writer
Contrary to it* reputation. Boulder keep* a low profile
It's down where the graaaes grow that the citys consciousness has been attuned since the early days
It all started when Frederick Law Olmsted Jr visited Boulder in 1910 and subsequently lent the authenticity of a Harvard professorship to "suggestions for the improvement of Boulder. Colorado
The guy made a lot of sense too His suggestions have been followed, almost to the letter to writ Mature should appear to be in full command, and One of the essentials is a certain amount of clear open space not obstructed by trees or buildings or anything rising much above the surface
The city of Boulder has made It its business to downplay its architecture and the encroachment of mankind on its physical setting In 1958 it adopted "the blue line," a city ordinance prohibiting the extension of water service above the 5.750-foot mark on the foothills This resolution prevented the further building of private residences along the mountain backdrop to Boulder ensuring that the lowlanders would see mountains not houses, when they looked to the west
The city also went to considerable expense and trouble to build a chastity belt around itself, preventing itself and other cities from violating the grasslands that linked its primary geologic features, the Flatirons and the mesas
To date, the greenbelt. or open space, program has cost the city
$25 million tor its purchases of 10.923 acres of land. It was fund ed by former city manager Ted Tedesco's plan to apply 40 percent of a 1-cent sales tax toward these acquisitions Boulder has also devoted 349 acres to public parks, which is 2 percent of the city's total acreage In addition, however it controls another 1,923 acres close in (including the reservoirs and the public golf course^ and 4.200 acres of mountain parkland The height ordinance adopted in 197] contributed also to keeping Boulder "low At the time, many Boulder architects wanted a 100-foot or 140-foot limitation, but the prevailing sentiment was that lower had more human scale and didn't so dramatically curtail one's neighbors' views Trees were another favorite subject of Olmsted s He thought
The Old Style
(From Page 1C)
"The first building (In an ares l sets the statement. commented architect Bruce Downing, "and the architects who follow try to establish some compatibility On Pearl Street, for example It's important for new buildings to "rest easy" with the old ones
Vet his associate. Nore Winter, notes that where the building; have been demolished as on Walnut Street, the historical nature can be downplayed or even ignored
"To think of extending the Vfetortun image to Walnut would be inappropriate." he commented "You're operating with a clean slate there Neighborhood groups Interested In preserving Boulder's historical core don't seem to agree Several are pressuring builders to construct pseudo-Victorian structures tn downtown neighborhoods
i Hoyt, part-owner of McStain Enterprises describes her early plans for an office and housing unit at Spruce and 13th streets
The neighborhood wanted a Victorian building she said "even though the buildings being torn down for this structure aren't Victorian 1 don't mind repeating some general forms, but 1 hate a little trouble copying old styles It seems a liiilr kitschy in that area only 20 percent of the buildings are Victorian "
In the end she added a few- more Victorian touches than she liked and won city approval I m not sure the planning staff was really won over by the Victorian thing, but they reflected what the neighborhood group was saying
I suspect, if this goes on Downtown Boulder will be more Victorian in 20 years than it was in the Victorian era'
A leading proponent of restoration projects in
the rit' core Art Everett doesn't get his feathers ruffled about the rule and the quaint I think they're absolutely necessary ingredients in all architecture They're nourishing he said Vet you would be hard pressed to find much cuteness in his architecture Even his restorations, like National State Bank are very "today" in look don't live in history, commented Wally Palmer architect of the First National Bank and the Randolph Center "we live today We need to reflect and go on with life as it is today As we get so concerned with facades and such, we make architecture a movie set a facade with a hollow hack People who deal wit* what happen* on facades deal with history as quaint memory They're dome something that is decoration not arrhiteriuie
W uhiiji considering all the things that make up
a community the growth, the vitality, the fabric you live in a museum "
Some might call It a museum To others it might seem more like Disneyland Many visitors to Boulder comment on the cuteness or quaiotness of the city They expect marionettes to appear In doorways of the San Francisco Townhouse; on west Pearl Street, they joke about the gingerbread tacked onto miners cabins in the Goss-Grove neighborhood, and they wonder how many bams it took to panel the "contemporary" homes on the north and south mesas of the city
A Boulder sculptor. In exasperation at the not new look the city Is growing begged "Give me a real building downtown, not more of this pseudo-
Victorian Midwest, cutesy refurbished horse--
Building to match historical neighbors doesn't necessarily mean building replicas The University of Colorado's Engineering Sciences Center, built by Denver architect Bill Muchow. is a case in point
Muchow was hired to design a modern structure to blend harmoniously with a campus filled with Italian Renaissance architecture The predominant features of that style are high narrow towers with pitched roofs high-interest windows, and sandstone walls topped with red tile roofs The narrow lowers were a function of the technology of the times Muchow explained Built with wooden trusses, roofs could span only so far without toppling Engineering students needed large labs however
Muchow compromised by connecting long, flat roofed lab buildings with narrow service and office towers topped with red tile He used sandstone for accent relying on concrete for the walls He added the texture of the stonework by leaving spaces in the concrete forms, allowing concrete to flow out at regular intervals
Rather than repeating the ornate Italian Renaissance arches and window sills. Muchow built hoods around the Engineering Center windows The updated treatment adds Interest to the win dow* while screening out strong midday sun His award-winning design is very modern, yet blends well with its campus ancestors The differ-encr between his approach and the building fads that send architects into frenzies is understanding It s the difference between blind copying and translating the original concepts into today's buildings explained Richard Foy Beer's partner in ( ommunication Arts
"Th* key to good design is understanding why ta sivle looked good then overlapping some of the logic into a contemporary look
November 7, W?___________THE SUNDAY CAMERA 3C
of Boulder's Low Profile
Boulder was overpopulated by silver maples and cottoowoods and that the city should lake special care in the placing and planting of trees along its streets
Boulder took this suggestion as a mandate It spends thousands of dollars each year in its street beautification projects and in sists that drvelopers separate sidewalks from curbs with landscaping all contributing to the
garden apartment" feel of Boulder today
Olmsted also suggested that Boulder retain its feel as a city of homes first and foremost a place where people save fo get. not sa ve to get out of
Boulder s 1970 ( umprehensive Plan stated that the city should concentrate on controlling employment rather than housing to discourage growth The 1976
Danish Plan went at controlling growth from the opposite angle and generated a lot of controversy
With the 1979 revision of the Comprehensive Plan and the founding of the Boulder Housing Authority in 1966 the city rededicated itself to the task of providing decent housing for everyone
Olmsted also enjoined the city to make sure of a limited num ber of main thoroughfares, and the city has made sure of a very limited number North-south the available through-routes are only four Ninth. Broadway. Folsom and 28th
Boulder has yet to deal effec lively w ith its auto traffic, though the city has taken giant strides for psdestrtans in the past fixe years
Olmsted also suggested that our feelings of pleasure or de
pression tin cities> are largely dependent upon the subconscious effect of the ever-present sky and that Boulder would do well to bury its utility wires underground and treat the other neies sary atreet fixtures in the follow ing ways c ombine them as much as possible so as to reduce the number of obstructions and of confusing obiects on the side walks
Today a sign code rigidly con trols the size and placement of signs and the city has only two billboards one on Canyon and one on Pearl
Other image-making regulations the city has adopted cal! fur set-back sidewalks underground utilities and screened parking lots
It's the little things that keep Boulder s profile low
Edwards Center: Loved, Hated
by IINDA CASTKON! Aniutni Acrot Editor
It's loved and it's hated One thing it s not. however is ignored
The Edwards Center. 1035 Pearl St stands out in a crowd because of Its size (five stories>. Ms age (completed just this year) and its design (strictly modern >
Critics have called it bulky domineering, insensitive to its neighbors and naive It has been nicknamed "The Red Brick Tank "The Fortress." "A Child s Garden of Basic Errors" and The Pregnant Whale "
"Whales arc my favorite mam mal." retorts local pathologist and part time real estate inves tor Dave Edwards He and several partners own and developed the Edwards Center property
"I'm glad people notice it." he said "It's a strong-looking building '
Until recent years the historic Arnett Hotel was on that site called Keller's and then Shan non s That structure collapsed under a heavy apnng snowatorm in 1978
Architect Ken Taniguchi s challenge was to replace it with a modern building that would blend with Boulder's historic core He believes he has achieved that mixture in the Edwards Center an opinion not shared by all local architects
"Vtr wanted something with some rontemporarv detailing that could still provide a tie-in with the mall. Taniguchi said
lie tried to minimize the height differenrrs bv sloping the top two floors of the building away from the street "If von re walk ing on the mall in front of the Edwards t enter you have the frelinc it matches the to
t h i r story buildings in that block he explained

fdwordt Ceme1 oetipnar
Original plans railed for ground l.-vel retail space upper-level office; and top-floor restaurant and paddle ball courts The restaurant and courts were re placed with housing unit; which were scrapped when it seemed bank financing might not be available
Partner Aron Katz then con traded for the space, which he converted into a combination of-fice/penthouse apartment for himself
Critics of the building say they object more to its unnecessary mass than to its rontemporarv design It is overpowering, hulkv far from subtle, they say
The Citizens Bank building far ther down the mall is pointed out as a good example of a modern structure with a facade delicate enough to blend with its Victorian neighbors
Critics cite the archer slits on the second floor of the Edwards Center as an architectural faux pa; "The building faces south, yet in the original design there were no windows planned on the second story commented Richard Foy. co-owner of Communication Arts one of the firms that designed the Mall.
"Finally the architect was talked into (cutting) alits on that level because the space would no' be leasable without windows Why weren't they planned from the outlet? What you're looking at here is the Band-Aid approach to building "
Foy alao finds the front entry disquieting Taniguchi designed an abbreviated archway, then put a large aolar panel above it The arch appears aquashed by the panel
People naturally want to walk through the center of archways yet Taniguchi placed a brick wall in the center To detour too far to the sidea would mean they risk hitting their heads on the ends of the arch, so Taniguchi installed barriers at its extreme ends
"The result is that you're steered away from the center of the arch and you're steeled away from the aides Where do you go" Foy queried
The rear of the building, open ing onto the alley is actually more inviting than the front, he continued These people didn't know the back of their building from the front
Although (he back is used for deliveries now cry official* pla-to open a pede*'rian walkwas through the alley lamgiirhi ex plained

Protecting His Ideals Foremost In This Architect's Life Design
by LINDA CASTIONE Auuto* Accn( UHti
Like hit spiritual mentor* Bruce Goff and Prank Lloyd Wright, Charle* Haertling doe* architecture hu way He i* a man of principle*, dedicated to hi* work and more interested in making building* than in making million* He ha* been called a genius and a fool, a futunat and a man left behind Pans and critic* alike, however.
agree his building* are beautiful Haertling operate* out of a small office on Broadway, competing with the kitehen noiaes and aromas from next-door neighbor Yocom Studio In practice since 1M7, he has resisted the pressure to add associates or partners
Keeping small Is the ultimate quality control," he explains I have to be completely submerged is things throughout the
entire process from first contact with a client through turning the key It's that kind of devotion you can't really share too much "
For 22 years he has practiced his art In Boulder, cresting more than SO homes, an eye clinic, several churches and a Vail coo-dominium complex
He considers hi* buildings "living sculpture." creatod from the
problems in aesthetically exciting ways He frequently uses curved walls and spaces, and often spreads the structures over their sites in Isyers or levels "You can't just plop things into an environment or they tend to Oy out." be confided "You have to integrate them Into the tile." He uses his foam bouse design In Wonderland Hill as an example, in which the pillars march around" an the slu to asea^ it
with its environment
Curved structures, although not very common in modern architecture, date back to primitive times. Hsertling said.
"It's s human kind of thing. There's more excitement and movement In curves thin in straight lines When you use them everyday existence gets to be exciting, it's an elevating experience I think It's good to put at much fun in life a* you can "
While more conservative designer* stick to safe forms. Haertling is willing to experiment He brings with him sn innate tense of what he can and cannot do. he aid. and a sound knowledge of structure.
"There is such s thing as intuiting what can be done You can tall what will work, and you know when you're doing foolish things. At the same time I'm very conservative I try to be sure my things arc safe Architect* carry' lot of responsibility, you know."
inside out to solve functional
MAVERICK Architect Charles Hawrtime often designs curve wells end punctuates Boulder red rocky setting with pure white *
SA THE SUNDAY CAMERA____ November 7, M2
Protecting His Ideals---------------
(From Page1A)
Turning his ideas into buildings requires a builder just as creative as he Haertling thinks he's been blessed to find them in Boulder The builder who executes most of his current designs refers to Hsertling as the artist and himself the brush Most of Haertling s work has been done in Bouider although he has designed a restaurant in New York, the Vail condominiums a few building! in Denver and a guest house in Costa Rica The bulk of his designs slso are more than 10 years old. with new commissions slow in coming With the housing market in a msjor slump architects nationwide are surviving on commissions from commercial and municipal buildings Haertling is oui of the running for mes- nonresidential buildings but is unwilling to compromise bis principles to get back into the running He disqualifies himself from City of Boulder projects because he served on City Council during the 60s and he thinks that would be a conflict of interest He refuses to enter competitions for large projects in other cities
Design competitions aren't good for me They take the personal part out of the design process They're a matte* of psychology and require you tc p!a> the kind of games 1 don't wan- to play
He also refuses to interview for commercial project* a basic step in the selection process for most major corporations Haertling finds those interviews slightly insulting
It might be illogical, but that's the way J feel he said "They a'wsys ask you to fill out long forms with lots of questions about how big your office is They're slanted against small firms After awhile you become cynical "I'm tot a country club kind of person, and 1 don't float around in the right circles 1 guess For big projects they dont think my office is big enough They don't realize I can pick up technical experts whenever I need them Basic design is the quant-it> in short supply That's what they should be looking for "1 just have to say they don't know wha' they're missing '
Haertling remains content to serve the clients who are attracted by his work many scientists, business men. artists, doctors and in the old days professors One of his homes is e-er. owned by local architect Jim Copeland
He is proud to say he likes all of his buildings and feels they ve stood the test of time
1 guess it was Frank Lloyd Wright who said it was always bis nex- building that was going to be his favorite and his best Choosing a favorite is like saying which of your kids you like most They all have their special aspects and I try to do my best on every one of them
1 don't have any throw-away or bread-and-butter jobs Theyre all entrees Some people w ould call them dessert but 1 call them entrees
Carl Worthington a prominent
I'm still young wnough to wont to livw up to thw chollwngw ond try to find ways to still do bwautiful ond oxciting things but H's gw ft in g morw ond morw difficult.'
Boulder architect, plays critic Chuck loves to be tbe counterpoint in the environment instead of fitting is." be said "To me that s bad manners even though it s interest ing
"Beethoven was accused of having bad manners, too.' Haertling countered "He broke the rules and found beauty in the broken rules Not that I'm comparing myself to Beethoven, but the principle is the same "
He likes to think bis buildings represent the spirit of Boulder a community that's young, vibrant, alive and exciting "They ain't mellow or laid back that for sure, he said with a laugh
Haertling also has been chastised for designing things in white, a color critics consider more suitable for tropical areas
"Who can say white isn't good in this environment''' Haertling retorted "Look ai the clouds the snow When you hsve structural forms you warn to do them in light colors to show the form
"I feel very good about the things I've done Theyve worn well, and 1 don't think they're tiresome They punctuate the beauty of tbe community the way it should be punctuated "They are an average of 10 years old People refer to them as futuristic, but in my book they're almost ancient history "
The economy an increase in building regulations and the changing nature of the architect s job have left Haertling with a trace of regret Many of his most beautiful homes could no longer be built in Boulder, primarily because of the height ordinance Although it wasn't intended to affect homes it has. be said "I'm hopelessly influenced by the city and the environment of Boulder It's all I've really known 1 made a commitment to keeping Boulder my home many years ago. and 1 decided 1 wanted to make a living here Maybe things have changed, maybe people's tastes have changed, but I will never leave Boulder Im going to make my living here no matter what
"I could hsve gotten away with murder on many of these buildings if my intent was my next weekend where I was going These were my weekends The care you put into them and standing up for ideals is important If you don't, nobody else will "
Charles koertlinc is a maverick among architects, he scup/rs rather than designs a building He has been ceiled a genius end a tool, a futurist one a mar left behind fens end critics ai'ke. however, egree his buildings art beautiful

Natural, Created Settings Join Unobtrusively
(From Pafr 1A>
town, later expanding into a aupply center for mountain miners Early in its history, however, civic leaders took control of Boulder's growth and laid much of the groundwork (or modern-day environmentalists
They realized Boulder was unique For instance in the 1920s they resisted the national trend of building university campuses in a style sometimes called Collegiate Gothic Rural Italian Renaissance. a better match for the mountain backdrop, was chosen for the University of Colorado An early master plan for city parks was commissioned from Frederick Law Olmsted, architect of New York's Central Park In the 60s. when city officials began to regulate future building they had a relatively unspoiled community to work with
The tranquil natural setting and the relaxing, low-key community have attracted people from throughout the country They move here for the atmosphere but bring with them cosmopolitan tastes
Visionaries see that immigration continuing, with professionals and intellectuals leading the pack Boulder of the future has been envisioned as both a Mile High Silicon Valley and a neighbor hood in Manhattan, but may incorporate elements of each in a unique version suited to its residents No matter what happens, we can be sure the changes will be influenced by the prehistoric natural setting
Boulder lies in a three-sided bowl, with the foothills to the west. Shanahan Ridge to the south and Davidson Mess to the east Within those nsiural barriers, the town is almost flat Aside from the overpowering mountains snd the University of Colorado, there are no real landmarks Looking down on the city from Flagstaff Mountain the eye stops not on architectural gems but on the turquoise roof of the International House of Pancakes the only vivid color in s sea of earth tones
Colorado's thin, dry air contributes to the muted coloring of the buildings Ever, the brightest red house paint soon weathers to ochre and. if not rep.aced falls off altogether to reveal bare wood Diagonal wood siding now the rage made its debut in turn-of-the-century mining towns, and modern buildings in Boulder still feature the Western sandstones and rough woods Historic buildings with high wooden false fronts line our "Main Street" Pesrl Street yet the street is st. narrow it s hard to imagine a gunfight taking piai ihert
"For a Western city Boulder is extraordinarily dosed in observed Joseph Juhasz dean of the University of Colorado College of Design and Planning "You don't gei too many wide-open vistas, the streets are so light you don't gel much of a view "
Although it seems odd to say about a town nestled against the scenic Rockies, the eye is not drawn upward
f rom the giound very few buildings rise above thi rest The rule of thumb in Boulder is short with most buildings an average of one 01 two stories The few "skyscrapers ("U's Engineer tng sciences ( enter Williams Village th> downtown t olorado Building climb only 10 stories "YOU expect the West to be Big Sky country." Juhas/ continued "hui here I lcjrn-d to my feet I react to the West with a tighter attsrhment to the earth and to the East with an attachment to the air and sky "
Perhaps to reward the person whose eye* sre kept slightly lowered, local buildinc* offer an intimate and complex texture up rinse
They're filled with scratehable surfaces Jo-has? said "Local architect* have used very t'tie concrete exposed metal and large sheet* nf gi. s whieh are cold, aloof surfaces They've used mn-r stone brick, mortar and wood "
Those materials are readily available in thi* are* with sandstone quarried in Lyons brink* manufactured locally from sand and rlay and
Visionories see thot immigrotion continuing with professionols ond inteilectuols leoding the pock. Boulder of the future ho* been envisioned os both o Mile High Silicon Volley ond o neighborhood in Monhatton. but moy incorporate elements of eoch in a unique version suited to its residents.
lichen-covered stones gathered from the mountains
Jn recent times architects have chosen native materials not out of convenience but as a conscious effort to create buildings that match their surroundings With the orgamr school of architecture. to which Frank Lloyd Wright belonged came the theory of designing in harmony with the landscape
"You want to walk around the site, listen to the sounds and look at the views." architect Tom Nixon explained "Then you go back and try to deride how the building would look if the ground gave birth to it You want it to look like it's of the landscape, not on the landscape
Critics of architecture abound, perhaps because it s hard to ignore Architects create both art and political statements putting their products out on the street for people to spit at Most critics judge the books by the rovers so to speak since the exteriors are more accessible than interiors
Judging cities is more difficult, though Cities have no visible exteriors, so must be experienced one piece at a time from within
There are dozens of pieces to Boulder's puzzle, with new pieces added to reflect each new era The stately Victorian homes along Mapleton Hill came quite early starting in the mid 1800s to house early-day bankers and merchants Miners lined Canyon Boulevard (then Water Street i with their slope-roofed sheds
Their ornate Victorian (wins ahot up throughout the country until the turn of the century, when a Chicago fair revived interest in classical building styles Then came a flurry of copies Cape Cod cottages, fake-adobe Spanish cottages. Georgian mansions. Tudor estates Many of the grand homes on University Hill were built in these years for rf professors and administrators
Architects had greai libraries in those days with volumes detailing (he how-to's of each style explained DeVon Carlson retired dean of CU's College nf Design and Planning "They were really just cookbooks
It took the shock of World War If to make architecture start reflecting the people and tech nnloev of ihe times "
The Bauhaus school of design, begun in Germany in the 1830s was making its way across America then Its influence can be seen in a few Boulder buildings including a white brick home at 15th Street and Baseline, done by James Hunter It was based on the Georgian design but stripped of the details The exterior brick was painted white, a Bauhaus technique to simplify the exterior.
In the late 30s and early '40s Hunter, along with architects throughout the country, broke away from hiatorlcal styles and began to plow new ground One of the best examples from bis early period of Innovation is an eight-home development aouth of Baseline Road
Eight profeasors asked Hunter if he could aave money by building them homes all at once Hunter said yes and began to design them on a city block bounded by 15th and 16th streets. Bluebell and Mariposa avenues
It was the first of the planned-unit developments. converting the alleyway between the homes into a common park and clustering the eight garages at one end of it The homes all were made from white brick, but their Interior spaces were designed for the individual owners
Nicknamed "Little Russia" because of the radical politics of several of the professors, the development has been designated ao historical landmark
Hunter later strayed further from his stylized while brick structures to create the look of the SOs s clean, spare wood and stone approach featuring skeletal stairways and vertically slatted window walls Best known Boulder examples are the Municipal Building, the Public Library and the Colorado Building (former home of Josltn's department store)
The first of the tract homes appeared on the Hill
Then, in the '50s three homes the ranch, the bi-level and the tri-level were alternated on hundreds of lots in Martin Acres, south of Baseline and east of Broadway Others appeared in projects on Dartmouth Avenue east of 30th Street, north of Balsam in Table Mesa, in Gunbarrel and ui a dozen other pockets of the city. The suburban subdivision had risen to meet the challenge of a booming population
With the influx of new residents came new architects Until the mid-50s. Hunter's firm had been the only one in Boulder Many young professionals graduated from CU. trained with him. then went off on their own Charles Haerliing Hobart Wagener. Titian Papachrtitou and Vic Langhart were just a few Wagener continued In Hunter's footsteps, building (leek, modern structures Papachristou joined a firm in New York and Langhart moved to Denver HaerUing developed a style of his own that has been called genius, egotistical, maverick and bizarre.
Many of his homes are cluttered along Flagataff Road Bellvlew and the streets below them In his early years neighborhood groups tried to preveol him from building several of them The streamlined creations of the 50s and 'tOa were followed by structures with more complexity multilevel buildings with irregularly spaced rooms As building coaU climbed, custom homes became almost too expensive to commission, and most architects specialized in either cluster developments or commercial structures Understated, dignified corporate bcadquanen appeared on the scene accompanied by ultramodern pre fab banks, office buildings and a jail Much of the newer residential building included exposed wood paneling mining shed sloped roofs and diagonally placed wood siding Juhasz called them "Singaporean slums." although more generous critics have compared them with ski lodges, mining structures and alpine chalets
More tasteful modern buildings are designed to blend with their environments
Cj Tj
When Boulder's architects were starting out. they met weekly for beer and philosophy They talked about the state of the art and the stale of the community Several joined town planning or policymaking bodies HaerUing. in his zes! to help mold an exciting, forward-looking, cultured community, joined the City Council "During the '60s it was the real visual urban revolution in the city." he remembered "when wt went with the Greenbeli election, the sign code, landscaping requirements
"When doing little buildings you get the frustration that the whole network can fail and these little buildings can't save It 1 decided to become part of the legislative process and get these things legal tied 1 happen to think we have too much regulation now. but then I thought we had it just right."
Hu fear is shared by a number of local architects, including Wally Palmer Boulder in and of itself ts not a pretty town.' he admitted "The thing that disturbs me most u the same nets "
Palmer placed the blame on the city government and Ita tangle of regulations "My philosophy is that to excel greatly you have to allow for the possibility that you also might fail greatly "
Allowing for variety Is more important than achieving unity. Nuon agreed "The nicest areas of town are the ones with the greatest variety, like Mapleton Hill It's the landscaping thats melded it into a beautiful commuaity "
The Downtown Mall la another good example "If you look the facades along one side of the street and looked at them without the planting you d find every style of architecture in the world yet we cherish it aa some level of conformity The plantings unify the environment "
Several architects, including Gage Davis, think most buildings should be subservient to the com munity and its surroundings Nixon would rathei allow every building to be what It will be. using Mother Nature as hu backup "The moat unusual things in nature are the ones we give names to. because they are the freaks ol nature: they are different than the natural circum stance Look at Devil's Thumb. Haystack Muun tain. The Flatirons Who are we to say they shouldn't exist If you couldn't have something as innovative as Chuck Haertling s homes in Boulder, the community ought to be shui down "
Rather than freaks of nature, Haertling consid ers his buildings living sculpture both beautiful and functional He answered his critics by saying. "Do we have to be so secure do we have to design things like the original in order to get some kind of acceptance? Certainly in Boulder people are more malleable than that "

1 Xiil^S^uncm
November 2, 1982
West Pearl Residents Explore Area's Future
Residents of west Pearl Street will sit down with city planners Thursday to outline a development plan for their neighborhood.
The neighborhood meeting is scheduled for 7 p m. in the gymnasium of Mapleton Elementary School, 840 Mapleton Ave.
The city Planning Department and the West Pearl Steering Committee have begun work on a neighborhood plan for the area bounded by Ninth Street on the east, Canyon Boulevard on the south, the intersection of Canyon and Pearl on the west and the alley between Spruce and Pearl streets on the north.
Much of the area is ripe for development and is owned by local development companies that see it as a logical commercial and residential spinoff of the Downtown Mall.
Residents in the past have expressed concern over traffic, parking and crime in established residential areas as the malls influence spreads.
The neighborhood planning process will look at those problems along with the impact and compatibility of new development, access to open space and improvements to streets and sidewalks.

November 8, 1982
Dear West Pearl Community Member,
Thank you for your attendance at the neighborhood meeting last Thursday evening. The turn-out was good, the issues were clearly defined, and a
representative steering committee was formed.
On the attached pages are the lists of issues generated by each group. The asterisks indicate the most important issues as defined by a vote of each group. By consolidating these most important issues onto one list, and using some editorial license, the following were the primary issues:
1. Generally the alleys in the neighborhood need to be paved and upgraded. Morrison Alley, in particular, is functioning like a street and needs to be improved.
2. Parking in the neighborhood is currently a problem. There is a concern that additional new development, particularly Canyon Center, will make the existing problem much worse (see below for additional information).
3. Speed and traffic flow is a problem. Some intersections are perceived as dangerous for pedestrians -- Spruce at 4th and 5th, 9th at Walnut -- and speeding on Pearl is also of concern. One proposed partial solution is the closing of Pearl Street at Canyon Boulevard. This idea was the highest vote-getter in one group.
4. Some streets are unpaved and lacking curbs, gutters and sidewalks and should be improved. Safe pedestrian access to open space needs to be provided.
Planning and Miscellaneous
1. The neighborhood needs a long-range and comprehensive vision to guide future development.
2. The height of new buildings is a concern.
P.O.BOX 791 BOULDER, COLORADO 80306 TE LEPHONE (303) 441-3270

L-West Pearl Community 11/9/82
Page 2
3. The maintenance of yards, particularly condominium yards, and the need for improved landscaping in new projects and in the public right-of-way are issues. The short-term maintenance of the vacant lot between the old bus station and Canyon Pointe is also of concern.
'4. An upgrading of business areas in the neighborhood is needed. This might include a right-of-way improvement program, more landscaping and some limits on the hours of commercial operations.
5. Crime in Settler's Park was a concern.
I promised to bring you up-to-date on the Canyon Center Project, especially in regard to parking. The Canyon Center Project is proposed as a mixed-unit development of residential, office and retail space which will be built on approximately three acres at the northwest corner of Ninth Street and Canyon Boulevard. A Planned Unit Development (PUD) was originally approved in May, 1978 and included the senior citizen housing at Sixth and Canyon. A revision to the PUD was approved in March, 1980. At that time the developer requested and was granted a parking reduction of approximately 15% or 42 spaces. A total of 285 parking spaces were required by the PUD. It was staff's position that the parking reduction was justified because of the nature of the project -- mixed-use, allowing some shared parking, and the developer's committment to neighborhood-oriented retail uses. The developer also submitted documentation of application to the parking district which would further reduce the need for on-site parking.
As a result of changing market conditions, we are anticipating additional revisions to the approved PUD and I will keep you informed when there are new developments.
Again, thank you for your attendance at the neighborhood meeting. The steering committee and I will be contacting you when some alternative plans have been developed.

West Pearl Neighborhood Meeting 11/4/82
Page 1
A. Upgrading business areas: sidewalks poor, trees, hours late (area zoned County Conmercial 3rd & Pearl
B. No exceptions to 35 foot height limit
C. Preventing noise -- neighbors??
D. Improved parking at Canyon Point 7th -- 8th & Walnut (visitors, etc.)
E. Traffic flow at 7th 8th
F. Improved pedestrian access to greenbelt; also fast pace of traffic there Settler Park area
G. Improved sidewalk maintenance in winter on Pearl -- plus longer light for pedestrians at 9th & Pearl
H. What are plans for Canyon Center? Parking there?
I. Impact of Canyon Center on West Pearl area? Can Canyon Center be avoided?
J. Can West Pearl be closed? With park area near Foster Lumber?
K. Animal control improvement
L. Historical buildings such as grocery on 8th & Pearl -- to remain?
M. Development of Morrison Alley -- Can "alley" be changed to "lane"?
N. Accepting the increased density and working with developer.
O. Lack of comprehensive vision.

West Pearl Neighborhood Meeting 11/4/82
Page 2
* A. Parking between 8th & Walnut in regard to Canyon Point II and total neighborhood parking problems.
* B. Traffic flow and speed Pearl & Spruce & 4th Street pedestrians
' C. Pave and curb 7th and 8th off Walnut Street (sidewalks)
* D. Maintenance of vacant lots between bus station and Canyon Point
E. 201 Pearl Transitional zoning (meaning what?)
F. What's wrong with the neighborhood?
G. What happens to "Dot's" and gas station?
H. Traffic at 4th & Spruce
* I. Alley between Pearl and Walnut is dirt what happens?
J. Density in neighborhood beyond present zoning.
K. Neighborhood impact of Canyon Point II
* L. More open space
M. 7th & 8th Street off Walnut, will they become one way?
* N. Night time crime in Settler's Park
0. Neighborhood shopping
P. Business uses of alley vs. other resident uses of alleys
Q. Sidewalks and curbs and common design/for total neighborhood
R. Neighborhood pride in landscaping
S. Think about a traffic signal at 9th & Walnut
T. Present residential zoning converted to business uses.
U. Safe access to open space
V. Junk cars!
W. Sign codes for neighborhood

West Pearl Neighborhood Meeting 11/4/82
Page 3
* A. Lack of landscaping in new projects
B. Paving, curb & gutter on 7th Street
. c. Parking reductions at Canyon Center
D. Inadequate parking at Canyon Point
E. Constructon problems at Canyon Center
* F. Morrison Alley should be treated as official street
* G. Height concerns
* H. Speed problems at 5th & Spruce
I. "Gentrification" of neighborhood
J. Lack of maintenance of condo yards
K. Trimming of trees at 7th & Pearl on parkway
L. Poor maintenance of Walnut Street
M. Derelict autos in neighborhood
N. Sidewalk repair and maintenance
0. Appearance of west entry on Pearl
P. Alley improvements between 6th and 7th and Walnut and Pearl
Q. Cars driving thru Canyon Point Park
R. Alley improvments all around
* S. Unkempt properties on 4th & Pearl and up on 4th Street
T. Better access to mountain parks and Boulder Creek link.
U. Inadequate lighting at Canyon Point

Cutler, Laurence Stephan and Cutler, Sherrie Stephens. RECYCLING CITIES FOR PEOPLE The Urban Design Process. Cahners Books International, Inc. Boston. Mass. 1976.
Debaigts, Jacques. SHOP FRONTS. Photos by Michel Nahamias. Architectural Book Publishing Company. New York. 1974.
deChiara, Joseph and Callender, John. TIME SAVER STANDARDS FOR BUILDING TYPES. 2nd Edition. McGraw Hill Book Company. 1980.
Mazaria, Edward. THE PASSIVE SOLAR ENERGY BOOK. Rodak Press. Emmaus, Penn. 1979.
Mun, David. SHOPS A Manual of Planning and Design. The Architectural Press. London. 1981.
National Academy of Sciences. National
Research Council. Publication No. 1235. CLASSIFICATION OF BUILDING AREAS. Washington, D.C. 1964.
01 gay, Victor. DESIGN WITH CLIMATE Bio-climatic Approach to Architectural Regional ism. Princeton University Press. Princeton, New Jersey. 1963.
Pena, William, w/ William Caudill, John
Focke. PROBLEM SEEKING An Architectural Programming Primer. Cahners Books International. 1977.
Ramsey and Sleeper. ARCHITECTURAL GRAPHIC STANDARDS. 6th Edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1970.
Smith, Phillis. A LOOK AT BOULDER: From Settlement to City. Pruett'Pub!ishing Co., Inc.' Boulder, Colorado. 1981.
Specter, David Kenneth. URBAN SPACES. New York Graphic Society, Ltd. Greenwich, Connecticut. 1974.
Allen, Gerald. FISSION AND FUSION AND FREESTYLE ARCHITECTURE. Architectural Record. December, 1979. Pgs. 92-95.
Canty, Donald. MARKET STREET, ITS VARIOUS IMAGES. AIA Journal. August, 1980. Pgs. 32-47.
June, 1981. Pgs. 43-49.
Hatch, Richard. SOCIAL ARCHITECTURE. GIVING FORM TO LIFE. Architectural Record.
December, 1979. Pgs. 96-107.
Hoyt, Charles. NEW PERCEPTIONS OF OPPORTUNITIES FOR CITIES. Visual Variety. Combining Old and New. Architectural Record. December, 1979. Pgs. 114-119.
Seelig, Michael Y. AREA CONSERVATION AS AN ASSET TO PLANNING NOT A "NECESSARY EVIL". Architectural Record. December, 1981.
Pgs. 106-109.
Thompson, Elizabeth. PRESERVING CONTEXT AT THE NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE. Architectural Record. December, 1981. Pgs. 88-97.

Boulder City Council Boulder County Planning Commission Boulder City Planning Board Boulder Board of County Commissioners
CITY OF BOULDER LAND USE REGULATIONS Amended through April, 1981 City of Boulder
Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 79-83650 International Conference of Building Official Whittier, California.




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