Three gateways, three squares

Material Information

Three gateways, three squares a transit station for the Denver Center for the Performing Arts, Auraria campus, and downtown
Hoffman, C. Fenno
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
235 leaves : illustrations, charts, maps, plans ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Terminals (Transportation) -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Terminals (Transportation) ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )


Includes bibliographical references (leaves 231-234).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Architecture and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
C. Fenno Hoffman.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
15515881 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1986 .H615 ( lcc )

Full Text
Date Due

A Transit Station for the Denver Center for the Performing Arts, Auraria Campus, and Downtown.
An Architectural Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of Architecture and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver, in partial fullfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Architecture.
C. Fenno Hoffman Fall, 19^6

The Thesis of C. Fenno Hoffman is approved.
Gene Benda, Faculty Advisor
Anthony Pellecchia, Principal Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver December 1986

I. PREAMBLE, what is a good thesis.
III. BACKGROUND, the physical and psychological development of urban regions.
IV. IMAGE AND SYMBOL, the importance of mass transit.
V. CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURAL ISSUES, urban life; three space conceptions, a new urban scale.
VI. THESIS STATEMENT, attempting an urban architecture for tomorrow
VII. HISTORY OF THE RAIL STATION, historical overview of famous stations,

I. PREAMBLE, what is a good thesis.
In any field, a thesis must propose or compose an original and valuable idea which should contribute to mans understanding. Understanding depends on a system of commonly held beliefs. For a thesis to contribute to this system it must relate to things already "known", it must involve an already understood language. To be simply "original" is not enough; reinventing the wheel does not serve mankind. Ideally a thesis should be a composition of understandings which together form new knowlege. This kind of thesis contributes to the system of knowlege, or field, from which it is derived.
Consider a patchwork quilt as an analogy for the collection of ideas that make a language or understanding between people. A thesis concerned with "originality" is like a single patch.
Alone, this patch lacks the expressive power of the whole quilt. Typical examples of "original" architectural theses are the home-built, vaguely polygonal, houses seen in rural parts of Colorado. These structures are unique, but because they stand apart from the vernacular house type, they lack the resonance of meaning that the language of the vernacular carries. They attempt to reinvent the "house". These "theses" are like patches without the quilt. Originality is not enough.
Another type of thesis is the patch in a quilt. "Contextual" urban architecture often relies on the patchwork of neighboring buildings and the urban "fabric" for its form. Although these projects exploit the language of architecture, they are passive; they are the object rather than the subject of action. Purely contextual architecture exploits the "quilt" of architectural language but does nothing to clarify our understanding of that quilt; it repeats what we already know. This is not enough.
The ideal thesis should be like a special patch, one that organizes and strengthens our understanding of the quilt. Martin Luthers Ninety-five Theses led the protestant reformation, reorganizing our beliefs about the bible. Newtons laws organized the patchwork of beliefs about the physical world. Einsteins theory of relativity organized the physics quilt again. Works of architecture that seek to activate and ennoble their surroundings, urban or rural, are such theses; they are both the object and subject of action and the object and subject of mans collective understanding.
Urban sprawl has complicated transportation and lowered the efficiency of land use. The growing and monotonous sameness of the regional texture has created an urban design of theme without variation. Urban-suburban sprawl continues in every direction, guided only by which land is the cheapest. Low density housing has changed the social fabric. A sense of community, once

provided by participation in a city of walking scale, is now almost non-existent. The "city" now occupies a region. We need regional transportation, the higher densities of efficient land use, and a regional sense of community.
A mass transit solution can provide express links between urban and suburban centers. Higher density development is encouraged near the stations. This permits land use efficiencies and "variations" in the urban fabric, like parks. Planned development, supported by the location and design of a transit system, can build communities.
The monorail is an ideal system for already sprawling cities. Like the railroads, its routes can order the city plan. Like subways, it can service expensive, desirable real estate. Unlike subways, a monorail provides an imageable connection between its stations. The rails and stations can symbolize the arteries of the region, connecting the scattered nuclei of a new regional organism, a regional city with a regional sense of community.
Particular stations integrate contextual features with a city-wide, system-wide, language. The new "fabric" of contemporary cities, described by the language of movement and the scale of the super-highway, can be activated and ennobled through the design of a monorail that ties together the parts of the city, to make a community out of sprawl.
Mass transit systems have long been considered potential solutions to these problems. Wrote Robert Lindsey of The New York Times:
...Depicted as the ultimate weapon against the ailments of America, mass transportation was to be an urban I.C.B.M. that, in a single shot, would knock out pollution, congestion, urban poverty, the exodus of city dwellers to the suburbs, inner city decay, and wasteful consumption of energy. (S.I.Fischler,Moving Millions, An Inside Look at Mass Transit, N.Y.,1979, Harper &
Row, p.228).
The only difficulty is the financing of mass transit in a free market economy. Though recently (as the $792 million bond issue for San Franciscos B.A.R.T bears testimony) "voters and politicians have been increasingly willing to approve transit proposals and to commit tax dollars to pay for them" (Black, Optimizing the Design of Urban Mass Transit Systems, p.13).
III. BACKGROUND, the physical and psychological development of urban regions.
Lewis Mumford discusses the historical urban division of labor and resultant specialization of places in the city, specialization which created the need to travel between places to

do commerce. (The City in History. pp.102-7). This specialization is the seed of the present pattern of growth in American cities. The exponential nature of growth in the twentieth century has produced problems of scale.
What began as a village, with housing and workplace in close relation, has evolved into the ultimate, and reductive, expression of its own commercial origins. The core of the city is filled with executive towers while the bulldozers of "urban renewal" push the factories and housing far away into the "country". The core is then ringed with parking lots. Travelling time is at an absolute maximum.
In the "country", the attempt to provide a better standard of living has had unforeseen consequences. The "American Dream", as currently advertised, includes a piece of turf, (or maybe astroturf), for each man to call his own. The basic need for privacy has been translated into a need for actual territory. Developers, operating in a laissez-faire economic environment, zealously buy up the nations territory, divide it into lots, build split-level ranch homes on them, and make themselves very rich by providing "the highest standard of living in the world". Every home is a castle and each man a king in his own domain. However, when hundreds of thousands of people want to buy a lot of terra firma it requires lots of terra firma. Sprawl is the obvious result. The low densities of single family housing greatly increase the distances between places, especially home and work. Travelling in these sparsely occupied territories requires cars and roads which add further to the sprawl.
The whole pattern of physical development is creating a scarcity of land and resources. Forward thinkers wisely promote the development of housing, at high densities, near or in the central business district (C.B.D.), but this is problematic due to the established exodus of residential amenities to the suburbs. With no help from zoning regulations, which continue to group types of uses, the city has evolved into a collection of specialized parts at a scale which makes the necessary connection between the parts difficult to accomplish, as our traffic jams suggest.
The character of the suburbs has also changed, contributing to the evolution of the region. The same places that were once quiet retreats from the city now battle to become pre-eminent shopping places and cultural centers. Shopping malls are built from scratch. Existing towns are frantically developed to serve the sprawl engulfing them. As travelling to the C.B.D. becomes more difficult, these suburban centers become business districts that compete with the urban core. Even corporate executives are building headquarters in the suburbs. Unfortunately, the erosion of downtown as the leading center for business and culture costs the entire region. The C.B.D. becomes a parasite, struggling for tax dollars to support its elaborate infrastructure. Although it is doubtful that the city symphony, museums, and other important culture will ever really lose out to the suburbs, it is already

apparent that the biggest department stores and there sidekick retailers (all the source of much street activity and life, as well as much needed sales tax dollars) are building far more in the suburbs than in center city. The development of these suburban shopping centers and "towns" is bleeding the life out of the core. The "city" was once the heart of the entire region. Now it is only one of many special places to go in ones search for culture, street life, and fun.
The quality of growth and "improvement" around cities has had consequences to peoples behavior. Modern labor saving devices have transformed housekeeping, once a full time occupation, into a collection of tasks requiring only a few hours a week. Women face social and economic pressure to hold jobs. The number of commuting couples has soared. Opportunities to socialize at the butcher or baker have been replaced by late night trips to the freezer case at 24 hour supermarkets. Television means evenings spent at home. The community of friends at work is divorced from the environment at home, which increasingly has no community. Presently, our "higher standard of living" seems to include long commutes in traffic jams through an occupied and polluted environment and between the two seperate communities of home and work. Perhaps this seperation helps account for the higher divorce rates and the disintegration of the family. Day-care centers at shopping malls are replacing the communities of parents for which the suburbs were originally planned. This lack of residential community is perhaps the most insidious consequence of our current specialized, sprawling, urban "plan".
IV. IMAGE AND SYMBOL, the importance of mass transit.
Architecture creates physical artifacts, places, and settings for behavior; it also gives identity and image. The image of the typical ranch house, for example, has become a symbol for independence and accomplishment. The pursuit of the American Dream has become, for many, the pursuit of this symbolic success. If the current physical and psychological status of American cities is to be changed, this "pursuit" of symbol must be employed in the solution. Architects can create projects that speak to the imagery of status and success, projects with meaning with which people can identify. Accomplishing meaning is the great task of the architect. Using this meaning to accomplish civic objectives is his great tool.
Denvers Mayor Pena suggests "imagine a great city". Those who try, often dream of "world class" cities which do not share Denvers physical characteristics. Typically older and european, these model cities have established housing amidst flourishing business. Their lack of physical specialization produces a richness of activity in their downtowns that guarantees greatness. Paris is not revered for its new business districts, nor for its corporate towers. It is the mixed neighborhoods, street life, and civic architecture from which these cities

gather their reputations, images and identities. Denver is not like these cities. Its downtown is utterly specialized. Residential amenities are located, with the people, away from the central business district. Downtown, streetlife tends to occur during business hours, much of the nightlife is in the suburbs. Firmly entrenched in sprawl, Denver bears little relation to the cities it hopes to emulate.
Many proposals often deny what exists, in favor of an idealistic but impossible dream. Denvers physical form is largely established. The life of the region is already distributed, sprawled. The city is dependent on its suburbs. Rather than forcing inappropriate models, we must exploit what now exists. We must create a "great city", with all of the image, identity, and community that we can imagine; and it must include the suburbs. American cities do have tremendous imageability. The corporate skyscrapers replace Gothic cathedrals as our most extravagant architectural expressions. Although people living in the suburbs try to participate in the imageability of the C.B.D., the suburbs continue to lack the identity of the city. Rather then nuclei of an organism, with the C.B.D. at its heart, the suburbs strive to be separate cities, separated from the C.B.D. and each other by overcrowded and deteriorating roadways and the ever increasing distances created by sprawl. The suburbs and the C.B.D. must operate together to make the mayors "great city" a reality.
As opposed to the actual features of the city, it is the perceived features which we remember. The character of the features helps us to make a "cognitive map" by which we then understand the city.(Saarinen, Environmental Planning p.124) A Monorail system is an especially good transit solution because it has very strong imageability. Its character helps us to make sense of the sprawling city. In The Image of the City. Kevin Lynch writes:
The paths...are the most potent means by which the whole can be ordered. The key lines should have some singular quality which marks them off from the surrounding channels... The very concentration of habitual travel along a path, as by a transit line, will reinforce this familiar, continuous image.
This leads to what might be called a visual hierarchy of the streets and ways, analogous to...a functional hierarchy: a sensuous singling out of the key channels, and their unification as continuous perceptual elements. This is the skeleton of the city image, (p.96)
It is precisely this "skeleton" that the directionless sprawl of our new urban regions demands. Having abandoned the geographic ordering that trains and rivers gave to the plan, new American cities now need something besides the superhighway to give hierarchy and image and thereby create a sense of identity and community. A monorail system could represent this "skeleton" of a region and the arteries of a regional community.

In addition to the critically important rails of the system, visibly connecting the various nuclei, it is the stations which will represent each locale. The architects responsibility is to give meaning and relevance to the individual stations, and thus to the system. These stations have civic objectives: they must activate and ennoble their contexts and encourage use of the system. Filled with meaning, with relevant image and symbol, each monorail station links locale with region and region with locale, connecting the parts to establish a regional "great city".
V. CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURAL ISSUES, urban life; three space conceptions; a new urban scale.
Exploring "relevant image and symbol" it is helpful to read Vincent Scully, Professor at Yale, as he describes the spirit of contemporary American urban life in the search for relevant architectural language:
Frontier hedonism has always teetered on the edge of murder. Yet it is the vaster scale of the throughway and connector that the most devestating achievements of modern industrial life now grandly and savagely unfold.(see Los Angeles, Atlanta, Pittsburgh, MinneapolisSt. Paul and Franz Klines Crosstown of 1955) The rush of movement itself, only partly under control and wild with danger, is the right and appropriate way to perceive the new urban scene, with its promise of smashed bodies, its mechanical roar, and its rubbery scream, just as the laggard footpace accompanied by the sound of human voices was the proper way to ascend the Spanish Stairs. That norm was peace; ours is apparently mechanized war. One now dives rattling past the towers of the city, lighted in rising tiers, and flashes through its heart, high above the little houses, released from confinement as through one reckless act of destruction and escape. It is the jailbreak of the urban masses, onehanded with a beery tattoo on the roof at seventy miles an hour in two tons of old iron. Baseballbatbasher, beerbelly, breaker of cities, comes into his own in ours"a savage servility/slides by on grease," wrote Lowell.
This urban scene is truly of Americas making. It is the really new thing. European observers can afford to romanticize it, but Americans are forced to take note of the violent and ungenerous social attitudes which seem to accompany it in those areas, like Los Angeles, where its automobilized aspect is most fully developed... In consequence we can hardly help but question its value...It is our most complete work of art, multiple and tremendous. Its uniqueness, its inconceivable brutality, even only its visual magnificence, can never be denied.
Cataclysmic, automotive, and suburban: these have been the pervasive characteristics of Urban Redevelopment in America... they are exactly in accord with the most persistent American myths and desires: the city is bad tear it down, get on the road, be a pioneer, live in Greenwich

like a white man. So redevelopment became a way to appear to plan but not really to plan. It encouraged all kinds of forces that existed: real estate men, automobiles, and so on, and it came to function as such forces suggested or required...
It seems obvious, therefore, that the packaged solutions of the last generation are no longer of much use...The brain hates to think things through afresh; sometimes it chooses death instead. It resists most of all the abandonment of childish dreams and illusions, wornout myths, and violent evasions. Life is calling the United States to face its realities now.
(Scully, Vincent, American Architecture and Urbanism, N.Y., Praeger, 1969, pp.241-255)
The "vaster scale", the "rush of movement... wild with danger", the "mechanical roar", the "ungenerous social attitudes", the "inconceivable brutality" and the "visual magnificence" of our "most complete work of art"; these are the "realities" in which we must find meaning and relevance, if not inspiration. The "packaged solution" of continual suburban expansion is now impossible. The "roar" is already here; the aesthetic of the modern city. Acknowleging this state while accomplishing these regional connections is the task of the solution.
Harvard Professor Sigfried Gideon discusses architectural history arriving at a theory of contemporary spatial conception having great relevance to the present and future urban condition:
There are three stages of architectural development. During the first stage-the first space conception-space was brought into being by the interplay between volumes. This stage encompassed the architecture of Egypt, Sumer, and Greece. Interior space was disregarded.
The second space conception began in the midst of the Roman period when interior space and with it the vaulting problem started to become the highest aim of architecture. The Roman Pantheon with its forerunners marks its beginning. During the second space conception, the formation of interior space became synonomous with hollowed-out interior space.
The third space conception set in at the beginning of this century with the optical revolution that abolished the single viewpoint of perspective. This had fundamental consequences for mans conception of architecture and the urban scene. The space-emanating qualities of free-standing buildings could again be appreciated. We recognize an affinity with the first space conception. Just as at its beginning, architecture is again approaching sculpture and sculpture is approaching architecture. At the same time the supreme preoccupation of the second space conception-the hollowing out of interior space-is continued, though there is a profoundly different approach to the vaulting problem. New elements have been introduced: a hitherto unknown interpenetration of inner and outer space and an

interpenetration of different levels (largely an effect of the automobile), which has forced the incorporation of movement as an inseparable element of architecture. All these have contributed to the space conception of the present day and underlie its evolving tradition.
(Giedion, Sigfried, Space, Time and Architecture, the growth of a new tradition. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard Univ. Press, 1982,
"Architecture is again approaching sculpture", with an "interpenetration of inner and outer space...of different levels" combined with "movement as an inseparable element". This is the spatial conception of today. With this new perception of space, via automobiles, and via our maturity as the users of centuries of architectural development, contemporary urban architecture can be made relevant.
Architect Kevin Roche talks about a new urban scale:
When one thinks of the scale of the city, one now has to think of it in terms of the scale that were dealing with in our everyday lives in the highways and approaches. Modes of transportation have produced structures of enormous scale. The whole highway system is just really gigantic-scale is, in a sense, the scale of tomorrow.
...The question of scale in the city of the future-as we get into larger and larger structures-will have to answer the problem of getting from the human scale to the megastructure. You just cant take the human scale or module and multiply it indefinitely; it becomes incomprehensible. ...Those buildings on a larger scale in a city ought to be able to relate to other larger scale structures, such as bridges, access highways, and other things. You have to begin to develop these scales even to conceive of the megastructures.
(J.W.Cook, H. Klotz, Conversations with Architects,1973,Praeger,
p. 80)
Creating and reacting to these scales is critical if one is to truly activate and ennoble ones surroundings. Attempts to recreate the "laggard footpace (and)...the sound of human voices"(Scully), in a city overrun by cars, avoids the challenge of making relevant contemporary architecture.

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Air Inversion Over Denver, February 1965
. 4

VI. THESIS STATEMENT, attempting an urban architecture for tomorrow.
Works of architecture that seek to activate and ennoble their surroundings, urban or rural, are both the object and subject of action and the object and subject of mans collective understanding.
Having abandoned the geographic ordering that trains and rivers gave to the plan, new American cities now need something besides the superhighway to give hierarchy and image and thereby create a sense of identity and community. My thesis is based on a theoretical public transit system using elevated guideways.
This monorail system, could visibly link the scattered major business centers and high density developments of the Denver metropolitan region. The shopping malls, Cherry Creek, the new airport, Boulder, and Castle Rock are some of the places in need of express transit service. Passing over expensive developed real estate, skirting the edges of beautiful city parks and ways, a monorail can serve busy, active, desireable parts of the city, while encouraging dense city planning along its routes.
My thesis project is the design of one station and a proposed guideway. The station would serve the Auraria campus, the Denver Center for Performing Arts (D.C.P.A.) and downtown via the proposed "Curtis Street Connection". The site of the station is on Curtis Street at Speer Boulevard. The west entrance to the D.C.P.A., Curtis Street entrance to the Auraria Campus, and Cherry Creek bike path are all close by. The design will attempt to tie together, symbolically and/or physically, the two sides of Speer Boulvevard and thus connect Auraria with the D.C.P.A. and downtown. The station has the potential to activate this region of Curtis and Speer and transform it into a meeting place for pedestrian, auto, monorail, and bicycle traffic in a park setting which now is dormant. I am intrigued by the architecture of the D.C.P.A. The west steps and lawn suggest a great urban space, perhaps a kind of forecourt and meeting place at this hub of activity. The site, varied and rich in section, is a good challenge for an elevated platform design.
The first section of guideway would travel above the bikeway, along Speer Boulevard, from the Cherry Creek shopping center to Union Station and the proposed Platte Valley project. Speer Boulevard, edging between residential neighborhoods and the "Golden Triangle" is the perfect location for this sample system. Successfully integrating the guideway into this classic Denver parkway, rather than relegating it to an industrial strip, permits the transportation system to enhance the heart of Denver. The monorail, on pneumatic rubber tires, will glide almost silently along our most beautiful parkway, allowing citizens to quietly enjoy Denvers good planning and beauty. This beautiful ride can bear testimony to a new attitude towards mass transit. Not the lowest common denominator, social welfare bailout for those who cant afford a car; here, mass transit carries no such stigma. In Denver, the monorail is the nicest way to go. It is a

trademark of the city. A trademark which activates our parks and parkways ennobling our city and helping to make Denver, like Disneyland, one of the "great cities" mayor Pena imagines.
The pursuit of the American Dream has become, for many, the pursuit of symbolic success. Architects can create projects that speak to the imagery of status and success and exploit our "pursuit" to accomplish civic objectives. Yet the architecture of a monorail station must also exploit the language of civic pride that once so grandly expressed the quality of train travel, and it must pay homage to the present. The "vaster scale", the "rush of movement... wild with danger", the "mechanical roar", the "inconceivable brutality" and the "visual magnificence" of our "most complete work of art"; these are the "realities" of our highway trodden cities in which we must find meaning and relevance, if not inspiration. Creating and reacting to these scales is critical if one is to truly activate and ennoble ones surroundings. Attempts to recreate the "laggard footpace (and)...the sound of human voices"(Scully), in a city overrun by cars, avoids the challenge of making relevant contemporary architecture. The "packaged solution" of continual suburban expansion is now impossible. The "roar" is already here, it is the aesthetic of the modern city. Acknowleging this state while accomplishing these regional connections and activating and ennobling the city is the task of the solution.

VII. HISTORY OF THE RAIL STATION, historical overview of famous stations.
The architecture of buildings attached to and serving fixed transportation guideways is entirely relevant to the design of monorail stations. These buildings form the vocabulary of mass transit with which we have grown familiar. Recently many of these civic icons have been destroyed. They are replaced with expressions of minimal civic pride. New Yorks Pennsylvania Station is a dramatic case in point.
The developers quest for short term profit makes investment in fine architecture too expensive; aesthetic value is less certain to show up on the profit line of the balance sheet. The city is overrun by automobiles and bland corporate towers.
In this kind of culture and building environment civic structures can express a cultural inheritance found nowhere else. Powerful, monumental buildings, like transit stations, can balance the self-serving nature of business with the public minded spirit of civic projects.
The trick is to suggest our "cultural inheritance" and "public minded spirit" in projects with budgets squeezed from reluctant and tight fisted taxpayers who would rather spend the money personally. The architecture of past transit buildings contains both beautiful aesthetics and important values. We should look at the aesthetics for what they can do to help us translate the values.
Grow, WAITING FOR THE 5:05, pp.33(meas.drwng),42,43 (St.Pancras,GCT NY,Reading Phila,St.Louis,),61(restaurant),113 (Penn St NY)
Holland, TRAVELLERS ARCHITECTURE,pp. 46-7, 48, 50, 66-7,
85, 92, 116, 118, 120, 122, 208.
Muller, ARCH. TRANSP. FED. REP. OF GERMANY, pp. 74, 89, 103, 115, 126
Pevsner, A HISTORY OF BUILDING TYPES,pp. 229, 231,233.
Ragon, LARCHITECTURE DES GARES,pp.26(fig 19-21,St.Lazare, Lyon,de LEst),42,43(fig.41-3,gare du Nord),48(fig.50,early elevated lines),55(fig.58,art),68-9(figs.72-4),78(fig.86,Gamier) 84(fig.93,moderne),92(fig.101-5,future)
Rifkind, AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE,pp.281(figs.398-400),

^12 s _______ pr____iio.. A a .._w ^~okb^.
concourse across the front of the station, linking up the arrival and departure platforms; new dining and refreshment rooms were also provided. In subsequent years, right up to the time of its entire reconstruction, several extensive amenities were provided as further examples of this awareness.
- PP W be pp__rria._ ht_. tc _Te briefly to Londons location map p. 42, of principal main-line termini in order to be able to relate each famous rail-head station to the system it has served, in most instances, for over a century.
The placing of Londons main-line termini was not pre-planned; it was the result of individual selection. The promoters
Various types of station buildings in relation to tracks:
1 2 3 4

1 Main-line terminal
2 Route station spanning tracks
3 Route lineside station
4 Route lineside station with branch
5 Route station on island platform
6 Combined route lineside branch terminal

Pennsylvania Station,
New York, New York, 1906-10.
Four years in creation,
McKim, Mead and Whites Penn Station also took four years to wreck.
A great marble palace, it boasted a train concqurse of indescribable structural beauty.
The aerial view and sketch date from 1910. Pennsylvania Railroad.


Concourse, Pennsylvania Station.
The soaring concourse of delicate glass and steel tracery, reaching up 150 feet, never failed to impress visitors from abroad or, for that matter, the many thousands of commuters who rushed to the platforms below.
Cervin Robinson HABS, 1962. i

important examples and note their success or failure. The south station at Boston was built over seventy-five years ago by Shepley,
terminals for lines which converge there; to a lesser degree this applies to St Louis
Pennsylvania Station, Nt I Entrance vestibule z Entrance arcade
3 General waiting room
4 (II7) Womens waiting room
York, 1906-10, Me Kim,
4 (Af) Mens waiting room
5 Ramped cab roads
6 Shops
6 (a) Bank
Mead & White, architects.
7 Grand concourse
8 Dining room
9 Lunch room 10 Foyer

St. Pancras Station, London, England, 1863-76.
Sir George Gilbert Scott was the architect of this building for the Midland Railway which so influenced the design of American stations, particularly their sheds. Engineers on the project were W. H. Barlow and R. M. Ordish and their work in the open arched shed was no less admirable than the effects of Sir George.
It had a clear span of 243 feet and matched the station in Gothic elegance. The exterior view shows the profile of the shed.
These views are from an 1869 edition of Building News.
Car House,
Grand Central Depot, New York, New York, 1869-71.
St. Pancras was the model for the first great American shed and station, both designed by Isaac C. Buck-hout and J. B. Snook (see page 36).
It was made of imported metal that was fabricated by the famed Architectural Iron Works of New York.
The shed spanned 200 feet, reached a height of 100 feet, and extended behind the 42nd Street station for 600 feet. Museum of History and Technology,
Smithsonian Institution.


The decision upon the high-level approach, provided the designer and engineer of the station, W. H. Barlow (1812-1902), with a fortuitious opportunity to design his vast arched roof, with a 240 ft span clear of intermediate supports at platform level. It has been described by Ian Nairn (Nairns London) as this is one huge all-embracing sweep. ... A vast throbbing hangar. ...
Constructionally, the St Pancras train terminal has some quite interesting aspects, arising from its unique traffic considerations; for, apart from the service in the carrying of passengers, its goods traffic was equally important from a revenue point of view. The latter was enhanced by the carriage and storage requirements of the brewers of Burton-on-Trent. Thus, William Barlow combined a station and storehouse in one of the most remarkable engineering feats of the last century.
In the basement beer-cellar, below platform level, vaults were formed with brick piers supporting tracks and platforms. From the top of these vaults the great cast-iron ribs, soaring aloft to their apex, were placed parallel like a series of tightly strung bows and strengthened by tie-beams which, in turn, supported the rail-tracks. This glass and iron roof had flexible links along the apex to allow for expansion and contraction, under varying weather conditions.
Externally the roof-end of the station is masked by Sir Gilbert Scotts incredibly clever Victorian Gothic hotel building, with its multiplicity of dormers, pinnacles,
St Pancras Hotel. This photograph shows the original detail jor the turret feature, designed by George Gilbert Scott, and completed in 1S72.

St Paticras Hotel. The Dining Room interior, as designed by George Gilbert Scott. Photograph of original drawing.
The great Gothic porch on Euston Road, leads up by stone steps of easy going to
tmr\ mr\cf nf fli a
central engineering and architectural staff; the building now bears the name of Mirflnnrf Chambers. Hancnncr over this

**; .



Reading Terminal, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1891-3.
77ie Philadelphia and Reading Railroad was embarked on a truly monumental edifice on the site of the center city farmers market (see page 106)
F. H. Kimball served as architect, and Wilson Brothers and Co. provided additional architectural and engineering expertise. The latter firm also served the Pennsylvania Railroad during its two Broad Street building projects. The Reading single-span shed, one of the last surviving in America today, measures 256 feet wide, short of Broad Streets, but is nonetheless an important engineering feat, HAER, 1976.
Broad Street Station, Pennsylvania Railroad, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1892-3. Frank Furness and Allan Evans were the architects employed to redo the 1881 station and to better that then being erected by the Reading. They succeeded admirably in the station itself (see page 73) arid in the 300-foot single-span, then the largest in the world. The photograph was taken in 1893 during construction. Pennsylvania Railroad.
Fkj. Ciou-utmn or Tt*i*-tHU>.
Union Station, St. Louis, Missouri, 1891-5.
Theodore C. Link and Edward B. Cameron won the design competition for one of Americas most imaginative urban stations (see also page 83.) Simply in terms of size, the train shed engulfed all others standing and most built since that time throughout the world. It measures 600 feet wide, double that of Broad Street, and reaches out 630 feet.
The span, however, is not a single one but is, rather, borne on four intermediate supports. Building and Sketches of American Railroads, 1904.

Jlil llUl
14.11 Paris, Gare de lEst, 1847-52, by Francois Duquesney
14.12 London, Kings Cross Station, 1851-52, by Lewis Cubitt
14.14 Paris, Gare du Nord, 1861-65, byj.-l. Hittorff
1413 Budapest, Eastern Station, 1881-84, by Rochlitz

14.18 Amsterdam, Amstel Station, 1881-89, by P. J. H. Cuijpers
14.19 Zurich, station, 1865-71, by J. F. Wanner
14.20 New York, first Grand Central Station, 1869-71, by I. C. Buckhout andj. B. Snook
14.21 Milan, Central Station, 1912 and 1925-31, by Ulisse Stacchino

25 Leipzig, Hauptbahnhof, 1906-1 j, by Lossow & Kiihne
14.26 Basel, Badischer Bahnhof, 1912-13, by Curjel & Moser
14.27 Helsinki, station, 1910-20, by Eliel Saarinen
14.28 Florence, station, 1934-36, by Giovanni Michelucci

Berlin: Friedrichstrasse Station. 1939
1 to 6 Rail Tracks. 8 Passenger Lifts. 9 Escalators. IO Stairways. 11 Platform from West (main line). 12 Platform from East (main line). 1 3 Platform for suburban lines. 14 Nord-Sud S. Bahn (underground).
ZONAL PLAN: Showing wain traffic arteries.

le entrance hall to the Frankfurt main station which measures 23 metres in height as it used to be formerly (above), and (below and right) after completion of the works for the metropolitan railway.
During the extension work to the Frankfurt main station from 1912 to 1924, two platform halls were added on each side.
The curved trusses of the platform hall span up to 56 metres.

dedifter une nouvelle gare ou Ion ma fait Ihonneur demployer en Iestropiant leprincipe que javals propose en 1849 au concours
universe! fait a Londres pour la premiere exposition universelle... i
Malgre ses nombreuses imperfections, cet Edifice donne une petite idee de ce que jai voulu edifier pour les di verses expositions de Londres et de Paris.
Bien sur, larchitecture de Hittorff est une architecture de com-promis, oil un decor passeiste se plaque sur une architecture tech-nologique qui semble plus le produit de Leonce Revnaud que de I
41. La fagade de la nouvelle gare du Nord en 1865.
42. La gare du Nord. vers 1935.
43. Le hall de la gare du Nord.
son prestigieux associd. Architecte favori de Napoldon III, Hittorff etait par contre deteste par Haussmann avec qui il entra en conflit a propos du financement des travaux du bois de Boulogne. Pour se venger, le baron Haussmann fit placer la gare du Nord en retrait des grandes arteres de Paris qui desservent toutes les gares, sauf celle-ci. II sensuit un meandre entre la gare du Nord et sa voisine la gare de lEst puisque la rue des deux gares est une sorte de gag, plus propice k derouter le voyageur qu 43

ron viaduct of the first elevated railway section built in Berlin from 1896 ) 1902.
n the mid-Twenties, one even went as far as breaking through buildings i the construction of the elevated railways.
At the turn of the century, the BiilowstraBe elevated railway viaduct was created in close co-operation between engineers and architects.
The Wittenbergplatz underground station was built in 1911-13 after a design by Alfred Grenander. This is a historic photograph of the station hall.
Bruno Mohring designed the elevated railway station built on the Biilow-straBe in 1900/01.

Coast Line, built during the years of the great Florida boom. Spanish Mission in design, the station is of concrete, stucco, cast stone, and plaster with a terra-cotta tile roof.
428 Iron Bridge, Delaware & Rio Grande Western Railroad. Provo vicinity, Utah. 1884-1919. An iron through-truss bridge, built originally for a narrow-gauge railroad, widened for standard-gauge equipment, then shortened and moved to its present site.

Gothic station, built as an addition to an 1860s station at the junction of the Baltimore &, Ohio main line and the Washington branch.
tr r

403 B&O Station, 24th and Chestnut Streets. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1886-1888; Frank Furness, architect. Built at a time which exalted the symbolic significance of the station as a gateway to the city. It is a two-level design which separates the flow of arriving and departing passengers, with pedestrians entering the station through the portal beneath the clock tower and then descending to the tracks below. (Demolished, 1963.)
404 Railroad Station. Williamstown, Massachusetts. 1898. Representative of a type built during the peak years of rail modernization, electrification, and consolidation. Characteristic are the double-pitched roof and its canopy extensions.
A i
405 Bridgeport Bridge. Wheeling, West Virginia. 1893-1894. One section of a three-span steel truss bridge supported on two stone abutments and two piers. Sold by catalogue, it was typical of hundreds of railroad and highway bridges.

low-roofea dispersal area, warm air curtains' also cover the main entrance doors and the openings at ticket barriers. A floor heating system and convector units near the main entrance keep the floor dry.
At the commencement of Section 2, we
The model of Wolverhampton station emphasises its hold} logical layout.
classical station at Euston in the days of steam-driven locomotives, which, while opening a new and exciting means of travel, had its own attendant discomforts of hissing steam, smoke, grime, and general untidiness in the stations.
Having described the New Euston we should, as a postscript, refer to the provincial terminus of the former London and Birmingham railway. Birmingham New Street station, like Euston has been completely reconstructed but unlike Euston, it embodies a large and complex commercial development project, covering approximately seven and a half acres.
Participants in the development comprise British Railways, the Birmingham City Corporation and a consortium of Industrial Building Estates, Capital and Property Development, with an Insurance Union.

This picture of the concourse at Naples Central station, shows the impressively strong triangular lines of its roof members, which provide a lively contrast to the supporting columns. The concourse was designed by architect/engineer Pier Luigi Nervi, who with his son Antonio has contributed to the success of many fine buildings in Italy and in other countries.
Naples Central station, Pia^a Garibaldi. A view from a point near the statue of the great patriot. Here we have a wide and open foreground as a setting for the outspread facade of the long low terminal, whose serried roofs recede towards the tracks beyond. Note how the canopy fascias are angled thus breaking what would otherwise be a long
monotonous line.

The unique bird-wing type of roof of Rotterdam station, forms the platform awnings. Designed in the modern idiom by S. Van Ravistign.
The high concourse, with its glazed sides, is visible for a great distance. In its details vve have evidence of fine appreciation which is indicated in several other examples in the long line of new Dutch stations. The plan displays a novel layout, based upon a
nlarean nnrlpr u/Vnrla rVip frame naee in a
at Sloterdijk designed by K. van c who in conjunction with Can des designed the modern Schiedam sta Rotterdam, one of the most recc muter stations. The design wa influenced by the unstable natut eiib-eml tn rhar rhe overall ----'

idflEini^fees ves ne tino; pai xlo&vi Gv.hi (1L-J) suscita nombre de polemiques en raison de sa coupole et de son
haut campanile. On lui reprochait de ressembler a une mosquee. Son decor sculpte allegorique vante la porcelaine.
A*. U o rrni n o oHifioo on 1007 cur nn nrnipt Hp SIptipq pt
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iust not impair
,, routing new this very early i ) practice, as iai planning of : t is awarded i i of eluding he architect on tance to the :er an urban
Iign concept.
system will II coherence of i orient him-e of any other, "ion requires ; ; why of late with periscope : :eption from ; are given to on, as they are
i sion railway n declared a nportance as a f 50000 pas-l be ruled out i unsuitable to larrow wind-had been in developed by iBtion of Wup-siat a very ear-'"M a stretch of :tres height, socketed stan-isengers run tre-long sec-
i unctions re-i a new over->8. the old scaf-pporting sys-;iiS. In another
Ing of an arch 11 span of 92
The Wuppertal overhead railway opened in 1901, which still carries a daily passenger volume of 50,000, has been classified as a technological monument
This modem arched girder structure of the overhead railway looks like a giant spider. It has a span of 92 metres.
New short-distance transport systems: Cabin railways
Only one fourth of all journeys made in short-distance traffic in the Federal Republic of Germany are covered by public transport w'hich, in most cases, have to share routes with automobile traffic. The construction of an own track bed for the tramway frequently meets with difficulties. In addition, this does not mean that there are no waiting periods at junctions for a clear road. Even the lanes reserved for scheduled buses can only reduce these difficulties, if they can be arranged at all, but cannot solve the actual problem.
A solution might be found in the cabin railway systems which have been developed in recent years w'ith subsidies from the Federal Mi-

"he track of the Transrapid magnetic railways consists of an elevated girder, 'he construction time is reduced by the use of prefabricated concrete or steel units.
During the international traffic fair 1979 in Hamburg, the Transrapid 05 magnetic railways was for the first time introduced to the broad public.
Detail picture of the test track in Munich-Allach.
i 1974, this 2400 metres long test section was built in Munich-Allach >r the Transrapid 04.

CARE DE V AWES, cAtd de carried.
STATION Dt rOINT-Dl'-JOlR, paiaerelle aur U grande route de Veru'Uc**
GARE DE UONTROUGE, tattle du tunnel.

This 137 meire-long tension band bridge was built in Freiburg/Breisgau in 1969/70.
Elegance is the word for the StraCchensweg pedestrian overpass designed by Gerd Lohmer. The three openings are about 40 metres in width each.
Right: The Werdersee bridge in Bremen has spindle-shaped stairs as well as a spiral ramp with foot and bicycle paths.
An extensive network of fully closed foot-bridges connects the exhibition halls with one another in Diisseldorf. The main bridge features conveyor bands.
Escalators lead to the footpath network on the second level. Two conveyor bands of225 metres length each run along the main bridge. At a speed of 40 metres/minute, these conveyor bands can transport 11000 people per hour in either direction. Since it is possible to reverse the direction, the conveyor band capacity increases to 22 000 fair visitors during peak hours. At the outer sides of the bridge, next to the conveyor bands, there remain pathways of 1.4 metres width for those who prefer to walk.
Pedestrian precincts reactivate urban life
The definition, conceived in the USA, that a pedestrian is a motorist who has found parking space highlights the consequences of motorization. Scarcely has the mobilized citizen left his vehicle, when he must run the gauntlet in crossing the road, squeeze through parked cars. The motor car has supplanted the original function of urban streets and squares which was that of a meeting place. Particularly the main traffic routes in the city centre do no longer form a link, but a division not unlike that of a river.
Only the crossings at the traffic lights make it possible to bridge this gap. This development contributed greatly to the city centres losing their attractiveness, and reduced the life quality of the population.
Cross-section of a pedestrian bridge with built-in conveyor bands.

etre remplies. Elies se sont d6j& adaptees, dans le passe, a des metamorphoses, guidees par les besoins du moment. Par exemple, pendant la guerre de 1870, lors du blocus de Paris par les Prussiens rendant inutilisables les lignes de chemin de fer, les halls de mar-chandises de la gare dOrleans-Austerlitz furent transformes en moulins et les locomotives utilisees comme machines Fixes pour faire tourner les meules. Dans le hall de la gare des voyageurs, un grand atelier avait ete dresse oil Ton taillait, coupait, cousait les ballons qui seuls unissaient Paris assiege et la province.
Aujourdhui, k Paris, la gare de la porte Dauphine a ete partiel-lement recyclee en restaurant et la gare dOrsay en musee du XlXe siecle.
Signe des temps, signe du declin des gares, la gare est devenue jouet et aussi modele reduit pour collectionneurs. Alors que pendant longtemps, les amateurs de chemin de fer en chambre se sont bornes a acheter du materiel roulant miniature, un choix precis de 92
101, 102, 103. Lhorlog hall et une vue exltrieut la gare de La Part-Dn Lyon.
batiments ferroviaires en module reduit peut desormais etre com-mande sur catalogue. Ces batiments miniature evoquent avec un maximum de Fidelity les sites ferroviaires reels par la verite de la reproduction de batiments spicifiques.
Signe des temps, signe du declin des gares, labsence presque totale de projets novateurs concernant le monde ferroviaire dans la prospective architecturale, si lon excepte ceux de Claude Parent pour la Part-Dieu a Lyon et pour Austerlitz a Paris. Projets, dail-leurs, Pun et lautre repousses. Claude Parent reprenait 1idee de la monumentalite et de larchitecture symbolique. Ses dessins de gares se proposaient de montrer la capacity du rail a susciter des activites et A franchir, k relier, ce que le chemin de fer du XIX' siecle avait separe. Dou lidee de gares-ponts. Les gares, declarait Claude Parent, peuvent etre le catalyseur, le germe de depart dune reconquete urbaine.
Utopie, alors que la preoccupation des architectes novateurs va

A Portfolio of Transit Systems
Stockholm High-order design integration
fbually, at lean, the meet successful transit tyslemi currently I, eferatlon are found outside the United Slates. Several In parties hr demonstrate a "new clarity of purpose at once functional ani leiutiful, useful and pleasurable," as one architect put it upo> returning from a trip abroad. While all eight of the foreigi rjtiemt shown here are not necessarily held up as models, the, k Indicate the scope of design and service facilities. Represents du US. are the expanding and revitalized system for metropolltai lotion and the first completely new system to be built here In 5! jeers for the San Francisco Bay area.
MAY 1966

37 Monorail emerjnnr
of the Contemporary and monorail station temporary Hotel. 3? Hotel site model unit* around swimmer which are now Polynesian Villa of weathering steel, fc bridge to monorail inside the Polynesiar

1981 Walt Dlftney Production*
Jhc Disney World Monorail (1) is a classic symbol of futuristic travel, and the McFarland Paratransit taxicab (2), by McFarland Design, Inc., of Santa Barbara, is a totally new design, using a standard chassis and motor with off-the-shelf components. With a standard capacity of six, its seats can be folded to accommodate two wheelchairs. Instead of lifts, the low-slung vehicle has a rear ramp and a 62-inch interior. It can also vary its curb height by three inches.
Labeled as the "first U.S. center city people mover, the Morgantown Personal Rapid Transit System (3) links the three campuses of West Virginia University.
The system was designed by PRC Harris of Stamford, Conn. Meanwhile, the city of Portland, Ore., has painted a menagerie (4) on the shuttle bus to the city's zoo.

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On these and the following pages are some notable, or at least photogenic, instances of design that touch upon the movement of people in one way or another.
Pedestrian walkways have been around for some time, and one of the newest is found in Detroit (1). The Joe Louis Pedestrian Bridge system, which would feel quite at home in a Jules Verne novel, links a 20,000-seat arena with a 3,000-car parking garage. Designed and engineered by Smith, Hinchmann & Grylls Associates of Detroit, the walkway looks especially futuristic when lighted at night (2). Spanning across a major freeway (3), it creates a gateway to the city's civic center area, establishing a point of entry for visitors. With future plans calling for apartments, condominiums, and a hotel, the walkway can be extended to tie together all of the existing and proposed facilities.

i wnocycle (4) is an interesting if umbersome example of a 19th cen-'locipedea device propelled by Peter McClearys footbridge ) at the University of Pennsyl-i, Philadelphia, offers a more inviting eful way to get around. He chose because it offered possibilities xe oridge and its boundaries to be-: places and not just sites and
i lose who prefer faster means, y-FA BRA P, A rchitects, Engi-;^Planners made an existing wall a flfie historicist portal to the Five mtation of A tlantas new rapid rail ic transportation system (7).
lit i/\tmv!ii /ATTnUCD lOB'J

A consistent system of graphics and directional information was developed by the architects in cooperation with Morton Coldsholl Design Associates. All letters are white Helvetica set against a variety ol color-coded backgrounds. The relative importance of the information being conveyed has been allowed to determine letter sizes. Turnstiles, transfer issuing machines, fare collection booths and escalator equipment are finished in stainless steel lor appearance, durability and easy, trouble-free operation and maintenance.
Aoant'e h/v>Af air.rrtnWL

Seattle: This city has one of l! most diverse assortments of tn sit in the country. Ferry bo) operate throughout Puget Soun and the bus system is b expanded outward encompa ing a wider range of subub Articulated buses have b bought and will go into operaii soon. In addition, hydrofoils, it veloped by Boeing Marine S*
Hydrofol by Boeing Marine Systems, { Seattle
terns, have been demonstrated! the Sound, even though at pro ent not selected for service.
As one of the newel advances in marine travel, tfte hydrofoils are a spin-off of Hi aerospace industry. This ves combines the best features of tfi airplane and ship to give passers ger comfort at high speeds. Ont design has fully submerged, cm puter-controlled steel foils tached to an all-aluminum hi powered by two waterjets, each driven by a gas turbine. The hydrofoil is capable of cruising* speeds from 42 to 45 knots andit claimed to have a high degree of maneuverability. This is the nej generation in waterborne transportation, and is now being used in Venezuela, Hong Kong and japan and on several Europe* routes.
Denver: An existing park-and ride bus system that attempts ti draw people out of their cars and onto mass transit is now berg, expanded, with corridors culminating at two yet-to-be-designed terminuses in the heart of down town Denver. The terminals *1 anchor a 12-block-long transi-way/mall, designed by I.M. Pei I Partners in the fashion of Eure pean pedestrian spaces, excep that here special buses will n* the length of the mall connect^ the terminals (this project i shown on pages 126-127).Si With renewed emphasis bus transportation, the Rapid
0 k st c, al ft
1 K S c v c F t t /
15 large metropolitan cities are singled out for their vigorous work in transit facilities
New York Ctty: The largest city in the country has one of the oldest operating mass transit systems, and despite the general state of disrepair throughout, it is the most efficient way of moving around town. Most transit-directed funds are now used to maintain the roadbeds and keep the trains operating. But the system would get a shot in the arm if a plan proposed in May by Governor Hugh Carey is approved. He proposed to spend $797 million to upgrade the city's subways and improve commuter and freight rail lines around the state. Under the plan, called the Railroad Energy Conservation Package, New York City would get $325.5 million for subway improvement. A total of $263 million would go for railroad improvements on Long Island and in the lower Hudson Valley, and $208.5 million would be spent upstate.
Atlanta: The most recent mass transit system in the United States to open is the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit System (MARTA). It was developed on a most frugal, cost-conscious basis, in which stations might even look a bit sparse, yet the designers tried to solve problems that the system's recent predecessors BART in San Francisco and METRO in Washington, D.C. had either failed to solve or had developed once in operation. The general concept was that stations would be individually designed by a team of architect and engineer, like BART. At the heart of the system (comparable to the Metro Center station in Washington, DC.) is the Five Points Station (see photos this page). The prime A-E firms of Finch, Alexander, Barnes, Rothschild and Paschal, Inc., and Heery & Heery, Inc., designed this station four stories deep, located on a 3.5-acre tract in the central business district. Unlike the other stations in the system, It is a combination of both side and
rentpr nlatfnrmc An nnpn rnrp
Moreland Avenue Station, Atlanta: Prindle, Patrick and Partner*
the only horizontal walkways. These permit views up, down and around the space, which is filled with moving people and trains.
Initially, 17 stations are being designed to serve 13.7 miles of rail system, at a total cost of an $800-million Federal commitment for this constructionthe first "full funding" commitment made by the Urban Mass Transit Administration (UMTA), a program that has since become a prototype for all major urban mass transportation investments. When completed, the system will encompass 24 stations covering 53 miles.
In 1977, MARTA and UMTA entered into a management experiment designed to streamline
working relationships between the two agencies. Under the "full funding" concept, a fixed dollar limit on Federal funds was set, thus providing MARTA latitude in management control of construction programs without continuous UMTA involvement or review. Joint quarterly reviews are held, reducing UMTA's administrative review and approval of individual grant actions.
MARTA also operates an interlinking bus system, which was named the safest bus system in North America by the American Public Transit Association in early 1979. Articulated buses were bought by Atlanta as part of a consortium of 11 U.S. cities (see explanatory story on page 119) and began service in April.
Five Point* Station, Atlanta,
Finch, Alexander, Bamei, Rothtchild and Paichall, Inc., and Heery & Heery, Inc.

places Where travel origins Hnations are highly clustered, fven "more important is the need to Connect places where people really 'want lo go, which in the metropolitan America of the late twentieth

-d!recognize those travel (is, and insist on designing D-oriented systems as if we all still lived in the 1920s.
One of the newest urban transit systems is Metrorail in Miami and surrounding Dade County, Florida.
Maior Activity Center Metrorail Freeway Main Highway
0 ) 2 3 4 6 6
1 --1---1----1____I____I_____I
CATQCWAEw> lAt CX^~ P Gl CX,**v> QXty 0*MI*WtSQTW
'A. M
a resounding failure in 1964. The north-this llne connects downtown Miami to a number of low-and moderate-income black and Hispanic neighborhoods, yet it carries only about the same number of passengers that used to ride on parallel bus lines. The reason is that the high-skill, service economy of Miami's CBD is about as mismatched as it could possibly be to the modest employment skills and training levels possessed by residents of that Metrorail corridor. To the south, the prospects seemed far brighter because of the possibility of connecting the system to Coral Cables and Dadeland, two leading suburban activity centers. However, both central Coral Gables and the nearby International Airport complex were bypassed in favor of a cheaply available, abandoned railroad corridor alongside U.S. 1. Station locations were poorly planned, particularly at the University of Miami and at Dadelandwhere terminal location necessitates a dangerous walk across a six-lane highway from the region's largest shopping mall. Not surprisingly, ridership levels have been shockingly below projections, averaging only about 21,000 trips per day in early 1986. While Dade County's worried officials will soon be called upon to decide the future of the system, the federal government is using the Miami experience as an excuse to withdraw from financially supporting all construction of new urban heavy-rail systems. Unfortunately, we will not be able to discover if a well-planned, high-speed rail system that is congruent with the travel demands of today's polycentric metropolis is capable of solving traffic congestion problems. Hopefully, transportation policymakers across the nation will heed the lessons of Miami's textbook example of how not to plan a hub-and-spoke public transportation network in an urban era dominated by the multi-centered city.

une gigantesque croix de Malte au centre meme de la gare de Perpignan vers laquelle tout Punivers converge... Pour lutter contre la deraison et les rigueurs du cartesianisme, comme le disait le pere Teilhard de Chardin, il fallait un lieu du coriver-gerait tout Punivers, et cet endroit ce ne peut etre que la gare
flp Po f* K\1 Cr yi n vi r* / />/// **** + 1 ~ --1---- 1

Examining urban transportation innovation, Daniel Brand, notes the following about the way we look at public transit in general:
"Present cost/benefit analysis techniques in highways are largely single dimensional measures of service to the vehicle users and fail to account for the broader social costs of noise, pollution, community disruption, diseconomies of land use change, reductions in the tax base, better alternative resource use, and impact on housing supply. We never seem to recognize that decisions on locating transportation corridors are most profoundly decisions about how a community develops and how people live than about how efficiently people move from Point A to Point B."(Brand,Daniel, URBAN TRANSPORTATION INNOVATION)
New transit stations and systems should be designed with the above in mind. Their siting, orientation, form and imagery are full of potential. Satisfying the functional requirements of getting people from point A to point B should be considered the bare minimum.
Specifically, my thesis is to develop a prototype that is relevant to its locale and that exploits the strengths of architecture to serve the people and the city.
Architectural Record, TWO BART STATIONS
Anderson,J.Edward, PERSONAL RAPID TRANSIT H,pp. 87, 262, 264, 268, 276.
Brand, Daniel, URBAN TRANS. INNOVATION, N.Y., N.Y., American Society of Civil Engineers, 1970, p.10) quoted
DRA/WMRT,A PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN, pp.8,ll(use this with RTD stuff),18,33,37-9(stations),50-52,61-3.
Heilman, TRNSPRTN WRLD FTRE,p.31,48(systmtech),51,110(PRT).
$ Rodrigues, Michael W., METRO RAIL STATION, "station outline drawings section"(30 pp).
Sobey & Cone, THE CASE FOR PERSONAL RAPID TRANSIT, pp.24,(criteria) 27,(fig.18-19) 35,(fig.27 passenger capac) 39, 42,46,(fig.33),49(fig.35).
6,7,(esp. qual.of svce,effic.use land) 10,(fig.1.4,1.5) 14,(fig. 1.7) 36-41,(esp. exclus.gdwys) 60-69,(drwngs) 72-77,78-9(7).

Three basic types of Concourse have been Identified. The type of Concourse plan to be used will depend on the patronage forecast for a specific station and the access direction from the site.
The drawing shows a normal concourse with an end-access along with a variation for a two-sided access. A normal concourse consists of at least one set of escalators.
The split concourse plan responding to a large patronage shows a split entrance to the concourse with one set of escalators on each side.
An extended concourse shows a linear arrangement of sets of escalators for stations with larger patronage requirements.
It 1s possible to extend this concourse longitudinally, should additional escalators be needed.
The prototypical platform with slight variation is common to all three concourses shown herein.



L E 6 E N D

Center platform stations are the recommended typical configuration since they avoid duplication of vertical circulation elements and complex flow patterns.
Following conf1guratlon types have been found feasible for center platform depending on the site situations and guideway location.
In an at-grade access the patrons enter the concourse directly from the site. Ancillary facilities are provided at the grade level. In case of barriers such as a highway, an underground access 1s shown. The underground passage with skylights is reached from outside by escalators, stairs and at lease one elevator.
Where presence of existing utilities beneath the ground surface prohibit construction of an underground passage, an aerial platform station with an aerial concourse is recommended. The Concourse is reached by a set of direct escalators, stairs, elevators and through covered bridges spanning over the guldeways. A visual connection 1s established between the concourse and the platform below to strengthen the open feeling.
In cases where the guideway runs at grade level, 1t 1s desirable that the concourse be aerial. The patrons reach the concourse by means of escalators, stairs, elevators and through the covered bridges spanning over the guldeways. Ancillary facilities are provided at the grade level.
VI I 1-4

IGUtt NO. VI11-7

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L E G E N 0

This view shows the column-free platform space with platform edges and openings for the escalators and stairs.

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PRT Guideway in Linear Park

it Right of Way Treatment Type 5, Linear Park

thus the desirability of locating in certain areas of the region. In addition, if RTD should add cargo service in any form to its system, this will bring additional private companies into the picture. Contact, coordination and cooperation will be developed by RTD with private interests as these possibilities become realities.
Community Activity Centers
Much of the success of future land use patterns will hinge on development of the community activity center concept. A community activity center is an area of one or several activitiesshopping, housing, employment, entertainmentof sufficient size that innovative transportation systems can stimulate better organized growth and development in an area, growth which is neither auto-dominated nor-auto-dependent.
While proposed centers have been tentatively identified in the RTD plan, and have been discussed with appropriate governmental authorities, they require further investigation and discussion. RTD must depend on local and regional authorities to identify community activity centers if they are to reinforce land use plans for which these authorities have responsibility.
Once a center is determined to have that potential, RTD can assist in the technical planning and design of the transportation system which can guide development of centers.
From RTD's standpoint, any potential center should reinforce the land use concept for the region and it must favorably influence regional transportation in terms of quality, travel time and location. Overall the plan for the center must show a net gain in economic and social benefits.
Certain components of transportation and center development are necessary to achieve the best relationship between the two:
connection with the other elements of the regional transportation systemeither transit or highway.
a transportation system internal to the center which could include small rapid transit, bus service, and parking facilities at the edge of the center.
pedestrian paths, overhead walkways, bikeways, and related landscaping, security and other aids to non-auto movement.
a broad range of commercial, industrial and/or residential activities.
A variety of steps will be necessary to trigger reinforcements of community activity centers including public policy declaration followed by necessary legislation, private involvement and finally commitment of public transportation.
Existing Community Activity Centers and potential new centers have been identified, including both public and private. RTD has determined that it can participate directly in the development of center transportation systems only in the public centers, but that the overall system should recognize and support, through service, the private centers as well.
Guidelines must be established for identification of community activity centers and for participation on the part of RTD. This important element of the land use concept will require commitment and attention on the part of the public and of governmental agencies if it is to be achieved.

General Electrics proposed Aerial Transport System
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up Liu i i-i in ___ ii uy \,uiigwicfu, areas.
Supporting columns can be set in the center parkway of a street, if available, or just back from the edge of the sidewalk. In the event of a narrow sidewalk, the trainway can be cantilevered out over the street as shown. In each of these

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gines show great promise.
The French have also been very active in TACV work. They have actually begun work on a line that will connect
Prototype of 80-passenger TACV in operation near Orleans, France; has reached speeds of 265 mph.

.nain irtral terminal for a fast intraurban transit link system.
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viue for an emergencylike the failure of one carwithout shutting down the entire system. The new systems study recommends that investigations of them be included in a Federal research and development program.
Pedestrian movement in central cities can be aided by moving belts (as on the right and left) or by network cab transit (as shown crossing the thoroughfare).

mWr\ 11

I Glen Park Station, San Francisco
Glen Park is not one of the important stops on BART (Bay Area Rapid Transit) in terms of use, hut in terms of design it is superb, important and distinguished not only among BART's own well-designed stations but among rapid transit stations anywhere. Struc ture and architecture are one in this monumental concept, bold, strong, vigorous and. in skillful and subtle ways, scaled to the human beings who use it In its own way, for this ver> different kind of transportation, this station does for rapid transit what the great train stations of the past did for railroading. In its necessarily restrained but highly judicious use of such fine materials as marble', it points out the basic means of achieving quality even in cost-conscious public buildings.
Gt EN PARK BART ST AT K ).\, San I ram isi o, ( alilomia (turns S.m / ram cm i / R.i\ Area R.ipid o.... r....;....... 11,7/;,,,. u Iiun \ll

Glen Park is a neighborhood <>i small houses and flats of nondesc ript c har acter The station, a matter of controversy when first presented to the residents, has become a place of civic pride in this modest area, providing it with a handsome building and a landscaped plaza of human scale in a quality it had not known before
Because patronage at this station was projected to be small, the station was not considered important enough to warrant an inside ticketing installation Consequently, this is one of the few stations in the system where tick eting takes place outside, making the plaza the "free" area and the entire mezzanine a "paid" area. The walls on both sides of the mezzanine are open for most of their length and, except in the coldest weather, make for a very pleasant climatic transition from outside to the tram platform.
The mezzanine, entered directs from the plaza through the turnstiles is a great and handsome place, bright and open, with daylight from both sides and from a large skylight above.
Its spacious proportions are enriched by the carefully selected materials which contribute color and texture to the room. For the most part, the walls, like the structure itself, are of concrete and at one end a recess over the esc a-lator is flooded with light, a rich accent which animates the whole wall.
At the other end, against a panel of dark green stone, Ernest Born has designed a fine mural of marble100 pieces, few of which are cut at right angles, in warm brown and red-brow n tones, make it upwhich gives elegance and richness to the room in a manner transit facilities ha\e not enjoyed since the great days of the railroads.
The dramatic volume of the stationone of the deepest on the s\ s-temunfolds at the escalator w'ells, where the full height (f>0 feet) of the structure is visible. During the day daylight from the skylights, one over the mezzanine, another over the end escalator, pours in to the lower pat-form, an extraordinary sight in a subway.
The walls along the tracks are not furred to provide drainage for inevitable seepage. Instead, thev are left as poured, and Montana panels of slate ^ | are hung on them to mask the seepage as it drips down behind.

Balboa Park Station, San Francisco
Balboa Park station on the San Francisco line of BART (Bay Area Rapid Transit) is entirely different from Glen Park station, but, since both were designed by the same architects, the quality is similar. Where conditions of site and solution are atypical, particularly in regard to entrance, mezzanine and platform, at Balboa Park they are typical for the station sectionhere the mezzanine is a true mezzanine. The character of the station and its platform is unusual and appropriate to its location in an almost suburban neighborhood. It is smaller and more intimateif such a word can describe a subway stationthan Glen Park, and in no way attempts the grandeur of that station. But it has drama, too, and great spatial variety, and here, too, the architecture is integral with the structure.
BALBOA PARK BART STATION, San Francisco. California. Owner: San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District. Architects: Corlett A Spackman and Finest Born Engineers: PBQAI)Theodore () Blasi like (project manager); William /. Armento (structural project engineer); Imants Kaupe. Rit hard E. Mitchell ----------- r :----..limic RaPT- Parrh(>tt Tudor

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Balboa Park is the next to last station on the San Francisco BART line. It is situated in a residential neighborhood not unlike that of Glen Park and the station is consequently low in profile. Its plazasthere are two, because there is an entrance across a busy thoroughfare from the principal entranceare smaller and, in general, the station is designed as a public place of appropriate scale for the neighborhood. At the same time it provides the area with a focal point.
The station design benefited from a decision, fairly late in the design process, not to provide bus parking for the city's buses on the station roof. As a result, the platform areas could be, and are, opened at both ends to light and air, making the station an unusual half-indoors, half-outdoors solution. The station itself, containing the mezzanine with its ticketing and information installations, is semi-enclosed: the east wall is open, as is the end where the escalator runs under a glazed screen the width of the station. In the mezzanine space, the concrete structure is clear, the verticals and horizontals of columns and beams and the plain and textured surfaces, with added variety from the play of light and shadow on them, giving a vitality quite unexpected in a station.
The platform level also uses concrete with surprising versatility, and to unusually handsome effect, with plain and textured surfaces and a track wall made up of panels of precast concrete of apparently infinite variety, which in actuality consist of five patterns repeated eight times. The design allows for placement of the commercial ads which BART elected to permit on these walls. So placed and controlled, the ads are pleasant breaks of color.
One of the important technological contributions of the design of both Glen Park and Balboa Park stations to the BART systems is the overhead conduit for power lines, for the trains, down-lighting for the edge of the platform, illumination for the advertisements, for the trainway, for the directional signs, and for the communication system with the trains. Some of these lines are usually carried under the platform, but by putting them overhead and carrying them all in one conduit a real problem in other stations was solved with great neatness.


Courtesy of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Typical foundation for Tokyo monorail column.
View of Alweg switch in closed position.
Courtesy of Alwac International, Inc.

Courtesy of Ragnar Knutsen
Wuppertals type I suspended monorail showing train and structure over Germanys Wupper River.
Courtesy of Alwac International, Inc.
Alweg t>'pe 111 monorail train makes a station stop on the Cologne test line. Note lightweight station construction, platform gates and safety nets.
Schwebebahn train approaches station stop. Note bogie with motors over wheels.
Courtesy of Ragnar Knutsen

Closeup of Alwegs type 111 pneumatic-tired monorail bogie showing brakes, suspension details and guide wheel system. Note also the improved lightweight hollow rail.
Courtesy of Alwac International, Inc.
i I

Courtesy of Alwac International, Inc. Abvegs type III monorail installation near Cologne showing the two car, two hundred passenger train as well as the notched beamway with its ,
contact rail and supports.
Artists rendering of Seattle lower cars center of gravity
type JJI proposal showing how passengers by sitting on either side of the beamway.
Courtesy of the Seattle Transit System

memuers, a^eea ur t*.^ mocui is virtually u niteu.
The linear motor (at least the type we are discussing here) is often called a linear induction motor, or LIM. The reason, again, has to do with how a typical electric motor works. That is, when current starts to flow through the windings
Linear Induction Motor (LIM).
Reaction rail

Linear electric motors, shown here with the rotor or shuttle in the vehicle arid stator or winding in the guideway, may have application to several new urban transportation concepts.
for use of electric motors in sm ment in the conventional ele will be on the engineering necc application of lightweight relia
Linear electric motors have least 20 years. Reduced to it is a rotary motor cut parall Instead of a rotor spinning in along a controlled guideway the guideway is the stator ai or in some cases, the rotor is be either in the guideway or on the guideway but applying guideways could be enormou quire tons of copper or som guideway. Most concepts, th< vehicle, though this requires power.
The new svstems studv in<
4 4
linear motor offers some adv several new urban transporta rect, relying on electromagnet guideway, no power is lost no ing, and the system need not weight can be reduced, since : guideway. Since the linear m or clearance between stator an
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two parallel tracks, eadx two-car tr&In. Each tSf commodate about 40 p wiH shuttle them bade a
By the early 1990s, travelers between Los Angeles and Vegas could be making the i in just over an hour down-own to downtownfaster than iirtines can manage today. In a > se, they will still be going by 3 two-thirds of an inch off the ground at all times, riding in ivheelless railroad cars that float 3 ig on an invisible cushion of r (netism.
Magnetic levitation, maglev for short, promises to revolu-t lize ground transportation r the next two decades. It is Iasi, silent, nonpolluting and cheap to ride; the projected price of an LA.-to-Vegas id-trip ticket is $50 to $100, about half current airfare.
ironically, the United States, usually a leader in high-tech engineering, finds itself i Uower in this case: It is importing the i glev technology from Germany.
'. jces like MIT were investigating maglev years ago, says Paul Sichert of the d Company, a railroad-equipment ufacturer in Troy, Michigan, that has UUIIV a study on the feasibility of the LA-Vegas link. But political decisions de-i *d government funding.
Friction-Free System
The fundamental advantage of maglev, n which all other advantages derive, is t the system is essentially friction-free. ...ere are no hxles spinning in their sleeves, no wheels rubbing and pounding Inst the tracknothing to wear out be replaced regularly and at consider-
____; cost Since it does not squander pow-
rin overcoming friction, maglev is ener-effident
h is also relatively inexpensive to
__in tain. Conventional high-speed trains
must be monitored constantly for tiny |Kk imperfections, which can cause de-Bments (the tracks of the Japanese bul-W trains" are realigned every night). Majf W, on the other hand, has only a single and roughness on the surface pre-its no problem, since it doesn't alter a gnetic field. '
£ The German maglev system works an *wsfs of magnetic attraction. Assem-on either side of the car curve around T-shaped
A magnetic-attraction train uses magnets *1) to pull can toward the metal track 2). In the Japanese repulsion system photo), magnets on train (4| and track 5) repel each other. Since It works only at high speed, wheels (3) are also needed.
the weight of the car is just great enough to keep them from touching. Ordinary bar magnets are far too weak to lift a train car, so electromagnets are used. These are simply tightly wound coils of metal wire; when electricity flows through them, a magnetic field results. Altering the current alters the strength of the field. Thus, the gap between the car and the rafi can easily be adjusted when it varies from the optimum distance. ,
Clearly, it works: The British have opened the first commercial maglev railway in the world. Constructed at a cost of
prototype system that uses a competing technologymagnetic repulsion. Electromagnets under the cars induce electric currents in passive coils that are buried in the track. These coils, in turn, become temporary electromagnets, but they are oriented in such a way that they repel those on the train; the car is pushed up and away from the track, which is U-, not T-, shaped.
The advantage of the Japanese system is that it is self-correcting; the closer the two sets of magnets get, the stronger the mutual repulsion pushing them apart Some disadvantages: Induced magnetism does not appear until the cars reach a certain speed, so wheels have to be used while the train is accelerating. Because the system works efficiently only when the magnetic fields are strong, supercooled, superconducting electromagnets must be used to keep electrical costs from getting out of hand. And building coils into the trade is expensive.
How does a maglev move? Again, by magnetism. The same forces that push train and rail apart will push the train forward or, for braking, backward; a set of specially oriented magnets performs both functions. There is a third set of electromagnets, independent of the others, whose purpose is to prevent side-to-side
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The United States is alone among developed countries in njbt supporting research in high-speed raO travel. The U.S. Federal Railroad Administration Once conducted a* maglev research effort According to CSfc ford Gannettoi the FRA, the program was abandoned in toe mid-1970s after Rwas decided Insteadto upgrade and modernize the countrys

People movers may be the wave of the future in center city transportationwith mini-trains on elevated tracks darting between high-rises
A Downtown People Mover (DPM) is an electrically-powered, automated, small vehicle transit system that would be elevated to transport people around a relatively small area in the center city at moderate speeds of about 30 miles per hour. It is intended to interact with bus systems, augment other elevated rail systems and discourage automobile traffic congestion. UMTA established the DPM Program in 1976 by funding the initial design and testing of the viability of Automated Guideway Transit in downtown settings, like the two shown here, for Los Angeles and St. Paul. -Since 1971, 17 people-mover, systems have been in operation but only in special purpose applications, like Disney World, and at airports such as Seattle-Tacoma. Los Angeles: Under the direction of the Community Redevelopment Agency of Los Angeles, architects Daniel, Mann, lohnson & Mendenhall with associated architects Jenkins-Fleming (and urban design by Archiplan and preliminary engineering by DM|M/Kaiser) have developed a proposal that could be in operation by mid-1983. Construction costs are estimated at $130 million (in escalated dollars and without cost of parking and bus facilities). Capital funds for construction would come from UMTA, the State of California and Los Angeles City and County. The project is expected to generate one million square feet of commercial office space, and new hotels and housing.
St. Paul: Now in the final stages of review, this system would cost approximately $90 million (in escalation dollars), and be funded by UMTA, the Metropolitan Transit Commission and the city of St. Paul. As in Los Angeles, city officials estimate that bv 1990 an
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Downtown People Mover sye terns can be exciting addition to the cityscapelike the on fh Los Angeles (above W left). A montage shows mi cars moving along an elevjtd guidetrack in the heart of th city, near the Portman-de signed Regency Hyatt Hold This route would run on a J> mile-long track between 0 stations, using 60 vehicles, li providing parking facilities to 3,750 cars and a three-ieto bus station. The St. Paul tern (below) would run li miles, between 12 stations tha l connect directly to offio buildings and hotels. A into level station (bottom rigft would be accessible from D street level.

rapid transit system
re possible with the sort of philosophy and practice of Eliot Noyes & Associates may be in a complex project such as this rapid tran-r Westinghouse. Here the firm has designed it system for cities, including the master plan *** structure and vehicles. The cars are auto-' they may be run sinjrlv or in trains, on ele-

The elements of this project include: 1.) a pedestrian bridge over Speer Boulevard, 2.) an elevated transit station,
3.) a communications-observation tower, and 4.) a hypothetical transit system based on existing research and built prototypes and involving magnetic-levitation, linear-induction motors, epoxy resin structure and elevated guideways to form a silent, quick, transport system for the future.
The basic orientation of the project is visionary. My attempt has been to introduce a new kind of technology and its architecture while relating to an existing context. The "context" includes that set of expectations which we bring to architecture that give meaning to its gestures.
The monorail tracks of this theoretical project are assumed to be a separate structural entity. Of course, the longest spans between supports and a minimum cross section are hoped for. Current technology (reinforced concrete, hollow core beams) span 100 feet in a 3 x 5 ft. section to support a conventional rubber tire trucked vehicle. Structural epoxy resins, and the lighter weight of magnetic levitation, linear induction vehicles could exceed these parameters.
Summary of area requirements:
1) station concourse, platform, ticket booths, elevator, etc. 8,2 16sq.f t.
2) station tower, elevator serving street level, concourse-bridge level, platform level and the observation deck.
16 x 1,248 sq. ft. = 19,968 sq. ft.
3) pedestrian bridge, unenclosed steel deck and suspension cables from the tower. Width is 12 ft. Length is 509 ft. in three sections.
6108 sq.ft.
4) Auraria campus entrance to the station and bridge.
2,880 sq.ft.
5) D.C.P.A. entrance structure. Concrete frame colonnade with balcony and railings.
3,217 sq.ft.
total square feet 40,389

Although this is a visionary project, the technology of elevated monorail transit is well established. I have consulted the program for the Miami rail system as well as research for Denvers proposed subway to find generic transit program information. That information follows.
$ ibid. SOUTHEAST CORRIDOR DEVELOPMENT,pp.1,12-14,22,55-6,63-4 $ Rodrigues, Michael, METRO STATION, GOVT CENTER,"station criteria"(46 pp)
U.S.Urb.Transp.Admin.,TOMORROWS TRANSPORTATION c 50,(lin.elc.mtrs) 53,(susp.gdwy compnts, elev. struct (end 3rd paragraph).


Regional Transportation Distric
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Station layouts are presented in this section for each CBD subway system alternative. These illustrate typical solutions and have allowed site specific cost estimates to be developed for both cut-and-cover and deep tunnel alterna-t ives.
11 ARCHITECTURAL ASSUMPTIONS In developing the station layouts the following assumptions have been made based on direction from RTD and typical practice.
il i. Platforms and vertical circulation should be sized to accommodate volumes predicted by the DRCOG patronage forecasting model (See Figure V-l).
9 2. Mezzanines should be provided at all stations to facilitate user orientation and to allow for a future controlled fare collection system. At this time a self-service fare collection system is assumed.
3. Regardless of station volume, escalators should be provided in both directions for all vertical circulation where the vertical distance is greater than 22 feet.
4. Elevators will be provided for all vertical circulation movements for use by the aged and handicapped.
5. Cut-and-cover stations should generally use side platforms to minimize excavation, decking, and track curvature .
fl 6. Tunneled stations should generally use center platforms to take advantage of separated tunnel bores and minimize vertical circulation requirements.
9. 7. Functional and moderately priced station finishes are assumed.
Based on peak period passenger volumes and vertical circulation element capacities, three categories of station size were determined as follows:
1. Low Volume up to 3,000 passengers/hour.
2. Medium Volume 3,000 to 8,000 passengers/hour.
3. High Volume 8,000 to 20,000 passengers/hour.
The Metro Center station has a predicted volume of more than 36,000 passengers/hour, including transfers, and thus requires special analysis in terms of transfers and direction of ingress and egress. Design capacities for station elements including vertical circulation elements are shown in Figure V-2. Specific vertical circulation requirements are also shown for different stations categories depending on volume and vertical distance of circulation.

NB 2060 9590
SB 1300 5400
EB 1340 3200
WB 1690 2800
Sub-Total 6390 20,990 27.380
Plus in station transfer TOTAL ' 8.940 36.320
EB 140 220
WB 20 540
TOTAL 160 760 920
EB 360 2200
WB 200 3920 - <
TOTAL S60 6120 6,680 /
EB 185 1140
WB 300 1020
TOTAL 465 2160 2,645
NB 120 1100
SB 50 1200 2.470 J
TOTAL 170 2300
NB 40 840
SB 35 650
TOTAL 75 1490 1,565
NB 100 1850
SB 290 620
TOTAL 390 2470 2,860
NB 185 1140
SB 300 1020
TOTAL 485 2160 2,645


PEDESTRIAN FLOW One Way Two Way LEVEL OF SERVICE C 3000pph per Traffic Lane* 2000pph per Traffic Lane*
STAIR FLOW One Way Two Way LEVEL OF SERVICE C 2400pph per Traffic Lane* 1600pph per Traffic Lane*
ESCALATORS 32' Wide CRUSH CAPACITIES SOOOpph at 90 ft./m 6500pph at 120 ft./m
40" Wide 7000pph at 90 ft./m 9000pph at 120 ft./m
46 wide SOOOpph at 90 ft./m lO.OOOpph at 120 ft./m
FARE EQUIPMENT Deficit Fare Vendor Ticket/Change Vendors Transfer Vendors 6ppm 6ppm 40ppm
PLATFORM 13 sq. ft./pp
Design Capacity LEVEL OF SERVICE D (Walkways) leoopph (One Way) per Traffic Lane' 1200pph (Two Way) per Traffic Lane*
Crush Capacity 6 sq. ft./pp LEVEL OF SERVICE E (Walkways) 2400pph (One Way) per Traffic Lane* 1600pph (Two Way) per Traffic Lane*
Maximum Holding Capacity 2.5 sq. ft./pp LEVEL OF SERVICE E (Queuing)
Queuing Space 3-7 sq. ft./pp LEVEL OF SERVICE D
Traffic LANE defined as 22-24 inch wide path.
Note: Capacities are based on a 15 aiinute peak load (factor 0.30) and 9iven for a flow of people per aiinute (ppeO except where noted otherwise. Design capacities are baaed on guidelines presented in Volume 4, Design Guidelines of the ACT Guideway and Station Technology report series prepared by De Leuw, Cather & CO. for UMTA.
\NCrade ^v\Sepa rat ion Statlon^-*^^ Type Less than 22 ft. Vertical Distance More than Z2 ft. Vertical Distance
Center 6' wide stair 6' wide stair
Platform Elevator for HC 40 escalator for peak flow (1)
Elevator for HC
| (3,000 p/hr.)
3 Side 6* wide stair 6' wide stair
O Platform Elevator for HC 40' escalator for peak flow (1)
(each) Elevator for HC
i (2,550 p/hr.)
Center 6* wide stair 6' wide stair
Platform 48' escalator a 48' escalator (2)
in Elevator for HC Elevator for HC
> s (8,000 p/hr.) /
Side a 6' wide stair 6' wide stair
> Platform a 40' escalator for a 48' escalator peak direction (2)
B (each) peak direction
a Elevator for HC a Elevator for HC
tl X (6,800 p/hr.)
Center ... a 4-6' wide stairs a 61 wide stair
Platform'- or 2-6' wide stairs and a 2-48' escalators peak direction
c 2-48" escalators a 1-48" escalator non-peak direction
a Elevator for HC or (5)
(20,000 p/hr.)
Sid. a 3-4.5' wide stairs a 6' wide stairs
1 Platform' or 2-6* wide stairs a 48~ escalator peak direction
(each) 48' escalator for peak a 48" escalator for non-peak direc-
> direction tion
sc a Elevator for HC or (5)
X (17,000 p/hr.)
1. Escalator may be desirable for user coafort, but is not Included in costs for low voluae operations.
2. A second escalator for non-peak flow direction nay be desired for user coafort.
3. Vertical access element requirements indicate two access points to platforms may be necessary (double end loading).
A. Where station voluae in peak flow direction is less than 9,000 p/hr. a reduction to one 48" escalator for peak flow can be made with overflow aoveaents handled by stairs.
5. Use of two speed escalator (90 and 120 ft./a.) will allow for greater flexibility to accommodate peak hour. Use of one 46' escalator for peak flow direction can be Increased to 11,000 p/hr. (3).
Note: Escalators estimated for reversable direction capability to handle change in AM/PM peak flow direction.


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Mezzanine Level Plan
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SMS-RD California Street Deep Tunnel CBD
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