THE ERAWAN HOTEL
An Architectural Thesis presented to
The College of Design and Planning University of Colorado at Denver
of Master of Architecture
The Thesis of Borvomsak Kambhu is approved
University of Colorado at Denver
Introduction - Project description. - Thesis statement.
Design Concept - Thai art & architecture. - Influence of Western architecture. - Project design guideline.
Site Analysis - Location. - Climate. - Traffic. - Zoning. - Building code. - Site engineering
Programing - Hotel organization. - General requirement. - Area requirement. - Relation diagram.
Hotel business is one of the business that depends on the demand for different tyres of accommodation which are very much influence by local attraction and political attitudes. It is also defended on good planning ana design which are ensuring the most appronri-ate orovision.
The period of 1961 to 1971 was one of intensive building of hotel throughout the world. So as in Thailand, numbers of new hotels were built during the past two decade. Tourism in Thailand ranks among the ton five of country income. Over 1.5 million tourists visited Thailand during 1978.
Most tourists suend their time in Bangkok. To serve these visitors, Thailand has been developing a wide range of facilities. It offers a good variety of hotel accommodations and most attractive prices in Asia. Bangkok alone has 13,000 hotel rooms.
The Erawan hotel is one of the luxurioxis hotel in Bangkok, which has been operated for more than 30 years. The purpose of this hotel, when it was first built, was to provide hosnitallity for the guests of the government. However, the hotel has also been accenting some tourists who can afford the price of this kind of hospitality.
During the past decade, the hotel has loosen a lot of money because of the economic inflation. So, the hotel has hired a consultant company to do the feasibility study for solving the problem. The result came up with increasing the ability of getting more guests into the hotel.
For this reason, the board of director of the hotel decided to demolish the present building which is very old, and rebuild a new hotel building which will be twice as big as the size of th old one. The new concept for this hotel is to get more tourists at affordable price, but also keep the luxuriousness for the government's guestso
Since the hotel can not stop operating for rebuilding the new hotel, the construction has to be done in phases. However, the hotel hasnot come up with any plan yet.
This project is to study the master plan of the new hotel for construction phases and to design the main building which included 100-150 guest rooms and facilities*,
The site of this project is in the urban area of Bangkok, the capital city of Thailand. It is surrounded by different types o building and styles. The major consideration is to approach the relationship of the surrounded buildings without losing its charactor and function
Since the hotel can not stop operating during construction, it must be done in phases. The hotel have to be closed some parts of it for construction working. After finishing the ccnst-rvcticr ,
all the services and facilities will be moved to the new ouiiaing. The next phase is to close the remaining part of t'-'o hotel for the new construction of the main building ( Thesis proposal ). After the construction is completed,some facilities will be moved back to the main building and some will remain in the first building.
Phase I South Buildinf
- Account office
- Housekeeping dept.
- 300 Guestroom and suites Temporary department
- Lobby and front office
Phase II Main Building ( Thesis Proposal)
- Executive office
- Main lobby
- Front office
PR and Sales office
Main kitchen Parking and retails.
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Hotel building is one of the most interesting building in terms of design and construction. It demands a great deal of consideration in design. Form and shape of the building are parts of the promotion, along with the quality of serviceability. The well-prepared facilities can help approach the efficiency services.
Different types of architecture have different characters. The
design must have the character of what is inside the building.
The hotel's character does not only tell the type of architecture, but also tells the tyre of the hotel itself.
The understanding of different forms of hotels is essential for developing a new hotel. The classification of the hotel gives the knowledge of the individual character and detail.
In this project, it is considered to be a downtown hotel. The'site is surrounded by different tyues of buildings. The design must have strong character to compete with the others.
The form and character of the hotel also give advantage in attracting the guests, who are not only the tourists but also the local community. A well design hotel will draw people in to use the facility which is another way to bring the income to the hotel.
Since the services are the heart of hotel business, the hotel should be designed from inside out. It has to be designed from the operational view of serving, and also from the guest view that are served.
The hotel operation is a very complex one. The program of this project needs to be carefully studied. It is a combination of many departments that work in cooperation. The understanding about hotel operation can help approach in planning for the efficiency services.
Two major criteria groups of people for this project are, firstly, the guests which are devided into government's guests and the tourists. Secondly, the hotel staffs which are included both employers and employees. These two group of people have different reauirements. one needs a comfortable way to serve, the other needs a comfortable way in being served.
The design needs to provide for the demands of these people who are the users of this building. The planning of different areas has to follow the function and relation those areas.
This hotel is operated under control of the government. Parts of the guests of this hotel are the government's guests who stay in this hotel during country visit. The design should be some kinas
of local architecture which is one way to represent Thai arts and culture.
However, pure local architecture may not be appropriate for this type of building. The new combination of local architecture ana new technology of construction will help to approach the idea.
The characteristic of local architecture needs to be studied and developed to combine with new type of construction. The result might be a new symbolic for local architecture in the future.
ARCHITECTURE OF THAILAND
THE HISTORY SINCE 13th CENTURY
The actual history of Thailand begins only in the 13th century, when the Thais of the middle menam basin succeeded in freeing themselves from Khmer domination'and founding their 1st Kingdom, at Suknothai. Archaeological evedence nevertheless enables us partially to reconstruct the previous period as well, which is of no small importance for the formation of Thai art and civilization. It would appear that at least as early as the 6th century A.D. there existed in the menam Delta an Indianized state, Dvaravati Kingdom. The bronze images of Budaha created by Dvaravati artists (discovered at Korat and Nakorn Patama) show in fact a clear Indian influence of Gupta period. It is probable that the expansion of this Kingdom is related to the dismemberment of Funan, but though we can reconstruct the history situation little is known of Thai's aritstic development in this period.
Later, in the ninth to tentn centuries, the country underwent a process of progressive "Khmerization" (in the sense of an absolute hegemony of Khmer culture at the expense of local traditions), which reached its height in the eleventii century, when Suryavarman I, a Siamese mon, ascended the ^hmer throne to become one of the greatest rulers of this multinational empire. However, despite the preponderant Khmer influence, Thailand remained the most orthodox center of Hinayana Buddhism, which was so strong a faith that it asserted itself even at Angkor when the conquests of the Khmer kings led to the integration of Thai territory with their other possessions. Unfortunately, we know very little of the art of this period (eleventh to twelfth centuries) as well, aside from the undeniable fact that it was an art inspired by Buddhism. Only recently has researcn in the vicinity of Nakorn Patama brought to light the remains of the few large brick complexes (Picture A-1, A-2).
In the architectural sphere, the existence of stupas of obvious Indian derivation has been ascertained, as well a. that of a kind of reliquary-monument or cnaitya, consisting of a brick cube surmounted by a full roof with molded levels. Ghaityas were decorated on the outside oy Buddhist images under arcades, and temple complexes were surrounded oy ambulatory galleries. Often the chaityas were erected on imposing terraces. The two most interesting monuments of this kind are Wat Pra Patama and Wat Pra Men.
The Thais, a people of the same stock as tne Vietnamese, succeeded during the thirteenth century in dominating the Siam region. The extended exposure of the Thai people to the Mon-Khmer civilization had already left its mark in their embra-cement of Hinayana Buddhism. Once they had conquered the co-ountry, the Thais limited their efforts to spreading their own feudal organization and the Thai language (formerly called Siamese). Meanwhile, they were, ofcourse, assimilating the Indianized culture of their new subjects. Increasingly, the Thais asserted themselves feudally at the expense of the Khmer Kingdom, which by now was well in decline, and they finally founded a new nation with its capital at Sukhothai. History links its beginnings and growth to the name of Ram Kam-heng (1257-1300),the monarch under whose rule the process of unification began. Later, tne Thais of the Lop Buri region, the center of which was Ayuthia, succeeded in annexing Sukhothai and conquering Angkor (1353). They would rule Siam until 1767, when they were finally defeated by the Burmese, who had been attacking them sporadically since the 15th century.
The earliest style we find in the Siam region is the Lop Buri, twelfth-to-t'nirteenth century development of the Khmer. One example of the Lop Buri style is the Pra Prang Sam Yot(pic.A-3) a Khmer sanctuary formed by three towers frontally aligned, locatec in the province for which this innovative style was named. Two interesting elements of this structure are the stucco decoration and the presence of human masks at the bases
of its columns. In the Wat mahadhat (monastery of the Great Relic) at Lop Euri (pic. A-4), the principal sanctuary is still inspired by the ogival tower at Angkor Wat, but displays considerable vertical thrust and rests on a high pedestal.
An unmistakable desire for surface movement is apparent in the reduction and fragmentation of the structures; the interior cell has also become smaller, and its unique position on a very elevated pedestal makes it a true reliquary, inaccessible for direct worship.
The Wat Kukut at Lamphun, completed in 1218, more faithfully maintains the appearance of the Indianized art of the Dvara-vati phase(pic. A-5A-6). Itis a brick construction erected on a square base; and the five cubic bodies, progressively reduced in size, that rise in livels above this base are decorated on their faces by three niches containing images of Buddha. Furthermore, they display at each corner a oell-shapea structure that perhaps reproduces, on a reduced acale, the pinnacle in which the building must originally have terminated.
The socio-political structure of Siam was transformed under Thai domination, and inevitable the change was reflected in the artistic sphere. In the feudal society of the Thais, -the chief-besides being lord and head of his family, of his vassals, and of the free men who owed him military service- had a religious authority that reinforced his political power, sonce it made him the ruling figure in the cult of the earth spirit,'the phi muong'. This tratition remotely echoed the Chinese system, and led to a form of royal cult very similar to that of the deified Khmer kings. It was not by accident that Ram Kamheng had placed on a hill near Sukhothai the sacred image of a "Lord of the Summit", who rose above "all the spirits of the kingdom".
The architecture of the Sukhothai period abandons stone as its prime construction material and makes use of stucco-covered brick. A preference for two characteristic building is now manifest as well: the prang (or shrine), derived from the
Khmer tower, is preceded by a hall with columns, which is covered by an imposing roof of wood and tiles. This hall, which contains the statue of Buddha, may even be large enough in size for use as a meeting place for monks. The second type is the stupa, often placed next to the sanctuary, in a form that either recalls the bell-shaped Indian structure transmitted from Burma or else imitates the tower-sanctuary of tne Wat Kukut type. The structures and variations of the prang and the Thai stupa have their origin at Sukhothai.
Among the other kinds of monuments we find, those of the curam-emorative type are exemplified in the .vat Mahadhat at Sukhothai (pic. A-7), characterized by a slender tower terminating in a bulb.
Before the total unification of Siam was completed, the Thai kingdoms produced various regional schools, among which the Lan ha, which imitates Singhalese examples, should oe mentioned. The founding of Ayuthia and the unification of the country marked the merging of the two artistic traditions on Siamese territorythe Thai and the kumer. From the beginning, the most important characteristic of this long phase was a return to Khmer models. Furthermore, the Thai rulers themselves would largely assimilate the organization of the Khmer court, an investiture that assumed, as we have noted, almost the nature of a deification. Of their old capital of ayuthia, there remain today only slight traces of the foundations and crick walls of the palace. Still standing, however, are some of the ancient city's five hundred pagodas, which are scattered over the entire urban area. The southern part of the city once contained the royal chapel, or Wat Fra Si Sanpet (fifteenth to eighteenth centuries), its nucleus formed by three large brick stupas in hemispherical form, covered in stucco and containing Buddhist relics (pic. A-8); all three stupas had been placea on a terrace surrounded by a gallery.
In 1782, some years after the destruction of Ayuthia, a new capital was founded at Bangkok; the intent was to have it re-
produce the appearance of the capital city that had been destroyed. The Royal Palace allows us to verify the survival of certain architectural forms elaoorated oy the Thais. The wat Pra Keo, a Suddhist temple of precious stones (pic. a-9,A-10), is formed by a sanctuary with a rectangular plan, with concave roofs and pronounced slopes, covered in brightly colored tiles. This type of roof is common to any meeting hall, whether it be the one intended for monks( bot) or that built for laymen (vihan); inside there may be only one nave or three.
The statue of 3uddha was placed at the end opposite the entrance. The Wat Pra Keo is surrounded by a cloister; to the northwest a'chedi' was erected, in a bell form derived from the Singhalese stupa. It rises from a base surmounted jy a small colonnade and a bell-shaped structure, on which rests the spire, composed of diminishing concentric rings. To the north, we find a'mondop', square in plan and formed by a cubic mass crowned by small diminishing levels and topped by a spire Finally, to the northeast, t~ere rises the temple where tne statue of kings were preserved. It is aprasat'(palace; derived from the Khmers, similar in its plan to a Greek cross, surmounted by superimposed roofs and enclosed by a slender prang the final, stylized, Siamese result of the Khmer tower
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THE U1THONG AND AYUTHIA STYLES (Fourteenth-Eighteenth Century)
The true Thai style was inaugurated about 1350, when a prince of the cit.v of U'Thong founded a new capital a short distance north of the present city of Bangkok, on the Chao Phrava River.
The city of Sukhothai was included in the new Thai Empire and rapidly developed to become one of the principal capitals of Southeast Asia. The successful wars fought by the Thais of Ayuthia against the Khmers, and the treasures brought back from Cambodia, increased the wealth of the kingdom- Many religious establishments were founded, and a large number of images of Buddha were cast not only in precious metals, but in bronze as well. Monasteries were built almost everywhere, ana ail tne earlier styles were imitated, with the result that toward the close of the period they became stereotyped, dull, and affected- In 1767 this luxurious city was stormed and captured by the Burmese who did not withdraw until it was only a heap of ashes and pillaged of all its fabulous treasures.
The chief characteristics of Ayuthia art (in the beginning at least) were the adaptation of certain Khmer forms to architecture and sculpture. The Khmer prasat was taken as a model- Slightly modified in the beginning, about the close of the seventeenth century the upper part became somewhat slender, ana in tne following style, known as "national," it became a iluted spire (prang) -Stupas also followed this tradition and became increasingly attenuated and needle-like, eases were generally aaomea with lions ana niches moaeiea in stucco. By the diminishing arrangement oi its piled-plate tiers, the terminal spire ox tne stupas was reminiscent
.of the chattras or parasols of Indian and Ceylonese examples<>
These stupas are surmounted by a prang, like certain pavilions and wooden -palaces* The latter, however, have disappeared* The form of these stupas (almost identical to those of the light Sukhothai monuments) is found only in relatively modern constructions. The telescored roofs of these buildings are typical of this style and remain the glory of the national Thai architecture.
FIG. 42. TYPES OF CHEDIS. A AND B: NORTHERN THAILAND CHEDIS; C. CLASSIC SUKHOTHAI CHEDI; D. COMPOSITE AUYTHIA CHEDIJ E. PRANG STYLE PRIOR TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY;
F. PRANG STYLE AFTER THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY
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THE BANGKOK STYLE (Late Eighteenth-Twentieth Century 1
After the destruction of Ayuthia, the Siamese established a new capital at Tonburi, on the right bank of the Chao Phraya; several years later, in 1782, they transferred their capital to Khrung Then, on the onpsite bank. This was to be known as the "City of Angels" the narr.e given by Europeans to one of its villages: Bangkok. The king of the new city promoted a style which (logically derived from Ayuthian art) was really nothing more than a baroque continuation of the Ayuthia style. Many of the more important monuments were erected by Kings Rama I and II (1786-18c'l) Monkut (1851-68), and Chulalongkora (1868-1910). European influence (structures) and also Chinese (gardens, ornamental sculptures) are also quite evident. All the traditions of Ayuthian a^'t are here develoned, enlarged, and overdecorated to the noint of uarox-ysm. The prang is develoned to such a degree that it replaces the stipa as a monstrous needle, and is built of reinforced concrete adorned with inset fragments of Chinese noroelain (Vat Amn).The example started in Bangkok was followed throughout the province.
At Nagara Sri Dhammara.ia, the Sinhalese-type stuoa is surmounted by a needle formed of piled plates similar to those which existed at Ayuthia. At Saraburi, the roof of mondon (mondana) containing the famous imprint of Buddha's feet, combines the prang styles, the Burmese roof, and the stupa needle. Finally, the telescooed roofs of the palaces are developed on a Greek, cross plan, and their ridge crossing was embellished with a mondop roof or a reduced orang.
It is only fair to add that Thailand, like Cambodia, is one of the rare countries which has attempted to adant its traditional architecture to the requirements of modem techniques. Many official buildings retain a definite charm, and represent a valid attempt to harmonize tradition and progress <> It is interesting to note that the present-day architects of Thailand have been quite successful in this venture.
Wall painting developed: the inner walls of the vats were decorated with scenes combining Buddhist religious themes and great princely feats with architectural representation, offen with pleasant effect Sculpture is affected and mannered, lacking in senlus, and excessively ornamented with wings, flames,and lace-like motifs of great complexity. Gold predominates. Wooden or bronze Buddhas have the same stiffness, the same insipidity. The wealth of costume, the headdress topped by a high point, takes precedence over the body and the sense of plastic form. This is a traditional, baroque
IflELUENCE OF WESTEIuN ARCHITECTURE
The first Euronean-stvle building apoeegred in Bangkok during the neriod of King Rama III (1894-1851), and the first European took un semi-oermanent residence in the cauital.Some of these were missionary who were to ex-rt the strong influence over the next king,
In the neriod of King Rama IV (1851-1868) Bangkok changed fiom a remote oriental capital known principally for its temples and oalaces into a thriving center of international commerce. The foreign embassies and trading company were establisnea t.,ere.
King Rama V (1868-1910$ was the first king to travel abroad to other countries. On his first trio to Eurore, impressed by the broad avenue of Paris and Berlin, he decided tnat Bangkok should have one of comparable proportion. The result was Raj ad am era Avenue. One of the most significant building in this period was the Dusit Palace,within the Grand Palace area,designed in western style. And in the Grand Palace itself he added the purely Euiooean ai annex for the reception of foreign guest.
King Rama V death in 1910 marked the enc- of the era in Thailand. Bangkok has bcome one of the largest and. most important cit..es in Southeast asia.The long period after trie King RamaV 's death to the end of the second world war saw little change in trie cit.v because of the social and economicuoheaval brought aooux oy the 1939 1932 revolution which ended trie absolute monarchy, and because othe the world degression of those year.
The real boom in Bangkok started in the second half of the fifties anc show no sign of steering even now. I ost of them are radiccally different in designand funtion from anything in the city's past anartment blocks,hotel,shoneing centers,bowling alleys,oflies, cinemas,night club- transforming the new Bangkok to such an extent., t
Hotel entrance is the most conspicious space and the most subjected to scrutiny in selecting a hotel. The entrance could be one thing that tynif.y the hotel The entrance should be easily identifiable what the guest could expect from the hotel, the design should be clea clearly define and provide good view of interior which is one way to invite people to the hotel.
The raised entrance tend to be more impression but need to be considered in stepping and ramp. Canopy ox- Porte1-Cicheres may be provided to attract the vision and to protect the guest from the weather
The alternative entrance for coaches and buses seem to be more preferably to avoid the traffic jam at the entrance in front of the hotel
The entrance should lead straight to the reception area and lobby for the guest convenience w/hich is the major criteria for the hotel operation.
The entrance door should wide enough for a person carrying two bags and provide good view to the interior. The coor should be keeping with the scale and charactor of the hotel, lobby
Lobby is one of the most important pert of the hotel design. It is th the multipurpose area,an assembly point for the guest. It is the place where the most prominant and impression should be created.
Lobby can be a grand volumn of space that creats the excitmen t and aesthetic to the guest or an intimate space the gives the
opposite impression of personnalize service. Cne thing to be concern with ib all the service points should be clearly identified to reduce the confussion of the guest.
Lobby in general is the main traffic circulation with a lot of peoples and activities. The material used in this area should be permanent, noise reduction to meet the condition of the area.
Front desk is the place where people has the first and the last contact in the hotel. The long horizontal line are preferable to mee meetthe heavy demand of the guest. This area should be seen easily from the entrance or lobby but need to avoid congestion at the door way. The direct access to the office are required for back up information and service.
In the reception area it is good to provide some public facilities for the guest's convenience such as Telephone booth,information desk desk,kaoses,tour and airline agencies,lounge,toilet. These can help this area more valuable and exciting.
Guestroom is the heart of the hotel business.60% of the income are from the guestroom. It needs to provide guest comfort and well being. In one hotel,different types of bedroom should be provided to meet the difference need of the guest. In general,the most preferably type of room is the double-double room which has 2 tv ins size bed in each room with connected door to each other. Types o^. room may vary as describe below.
King bedroom 43%
The size of guestroom may vary by the types of bedroom. It is the column spaceing thatdictate the width of the room. In general, guestroom should be in rectangular shape. The balcony may ce provided to help guestroom look larger but it is rarely used. Bathroom
Because of the cost of construction and fixture is very high, the bathroom should be very carefull designed. The size of bathroom fall into about 1/6 of the total guestroom. Grouping back to back in pairs and superimposed from floor to floor can reduce a lot of coi construction cost and problem.
BINNING ROOM AND LOUNGE Planning Criteria
- Entry to restaurant should be through a reception lounge or foyer. This area can be used for assembly point before entering or leaving.
- All entrance and exit should be positioned to allow supervision control.
- Circulation pattern of customer and serving staff must be carefully studied.
- Fethod of food service Cocktail lounge
This is the place where peonle come sit and relax or enjoy themselves. The design should be an inviting place for oeople.
Targe open void is less inviting than the one wnich is broken up into smaller and more intimate area. It can be done easily by alcoves,screen,
alcoves, screen, partition or change in levelo
The environment of this area is very important. Lighting should ce be installed providing soft warm incandescent light, screened and shaded to prevent glare. The transmission of disturbing sound from associate working area should be reduced to minimal. The high standard of air-conditioned system required to remove the smoke and dirty air out.
So as the club lounge, the sophisticated environmental contiol are highly recuired. Window may be provide to take advantage of view and to attract outside attention. For mainly evening dinning, restaurant may be completely enclosed.
The waiting area for people should be provided but need tc avoid t the congestion at the entrance.
The types of food service is the most important of the restaurant design. In french restaurant, the server requires some area between table to table for cooking cart. In some speacialty restaurant may require space for food display or cooking station within the restaurant where people can see while the food are preparing.
Function room for a hotel are designed for large meetings, conventions, Banquets or any function facilities. This space shoul should be designed for multi-purpose. The flexibility of dividing the room to smaller are prefered. The use of movable partition make it possible to achive a great flexibility in the size of
The entrance to the function room should be separated from the main entrance to be able to handle a large amount of people. The function room foyer can be the most valuable space.
FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICE Kitchen
In preparing food for a large hotel a central kitchen offer many advantages.The used of equipment,the controlling of food cost and quality can be done effectively. From the main kitchen the food can be sent to sub-station in the restaurant,cafeteria or banquet for serving to the guest.
The planning of kitchen can be open plan arrengement or separated tyc types. The size of kitchen need to allow all the eouipment needed. Food delivery
The food and beverage delivery route must be separated fiom trie guest.The loading dock should have space for vehicle turning, unloading, and passing. From this space food snould be directed straight through the storage.
Food storage should be provided for four main group of food.
- Deep-freeze storage for frozen items.
- Chilled storage for fresh food
- Cooled storage for vegetable
- Dry storage for general store.
From these storage, food will be distributed to the main kitcnen for preparation. These storage need to have protection from insect and rodent. The tempera'ture in these storage must be maintain in stable temperature.
For the city hotel it is good to provide some recreation facilitie for the guest. The most favorite one seem to be s irnming pool
The shape of the swimming pool for the hotel could be geometric form or free form. The free form seem more appropriate with some landscaping around the pool. The pool for children should be separated from adult if possible but should be in view of each other.
Around the pool, the shelter may be provided for protection of col cold wind and for screening this area fiom nearby properties.
The orientation of the pool should facing to the sun to piovide some space for sun bathing.
Ad.iacent to this area, some other facilities such as changing room or sauna, may be grouped in vicinity to confine noise and
Bangkok is one of the East's most cosmopolitan cities. The total area is about 5,986 sq.km. ( 2,305.89 kq.mi.), as compare to New York 5,124.8 sq.km. ( 1,974 sq.mi.). Its full name is Krungthep mahanakom amomratanakosin mahintra ayutthaya mahadilok pob non-arat rachatani burirom udom ratchanivet mahastarn amompimam awatamsatit sakka thatiya vissanu kamprasit." that means city of angels, Greatest of cities, Immortal Precious Jewel, All nower-ful, Ancient, Nine Jewelled Heavenly City Built by Vissanu.
Bangkok is the country's transport center as well as the focal noint of its aviation, railroad and comunications netvrorks. Each year about 1.5 million tourists and businessmen occupy the city's 13,000 hotel rooms.
Bangkok still has no recognizable city center eqivalent to London's Trafalgar Square or New York's Time Square. City-wide, lining main streets and side lanes, block of two, three or four-storey shop-houses contain specialty shops or small factories which are generally family concerns. Workers and family are commonly housed on the upoer floors.
Traditional Thai architecture decline around 1900 when buildings were increasingly built in European styles. Today, a new generation of architects is studying the methods of their ancestors with greatly renew interest and in response to a growing demand.
prom the late 1940s, American influence grew. Local architects enthusiastically embraced the concept of such giant as Frank Lloyd Wright and Mies Van Der Rohe. The result to date has been a tentative eclecticism.
Nowadays, the influence of western architecture can be seen throughout the city. Office buildings, shopping centers, hotels.and apartments were built around the city and still growing rapidly. Thai students and workers returning from Europe and United States have been instrumental in introducing and creating a taste of new fashions, life styles and the new face of Bangkok.
The site of this project is at the southeast comer of Eaj-Prasong intersection, Bangkok, Thailand. The site is in the center of the capital city which is surrounded by shopping centers, retail stores, office buildings, etc. The site is formed by two main roads: Sukumvit road in the north and Rajadamri road in the west. The north part of the site, across Sukumvit road, is facing a 7-storev western-style glass wall office building which is connected to a row of 3-storey shophouse. Next to them is the location of a 7-storey modem style hotel building.
The east part of the site, along the Sukumvit road, is a hugh, complicated-style mix-used building which has just been completely done in the early of 1984 <>
Along the Rajadamri road to the south, the site is connected to an open space before the ne*t 4-storey modem renaissance style shopping center, which is now in construction Next to them is another luxurious hotel which was built in 1983.
Across the Rajadamri road to the west, the site faces to a 7-storey hospital building which is screened by a row of trees.
Diagonal to the site is the 3-storey shophouse and retail stores.
At the northw,est comer of the site is one of the most important part of this project. Here is the famous Brahmanic ritualistic-statue > where people from all around the country comie to pray witn respect. It has become an untouchable space that needs to be careful in design because it concerns with people's belief in terms of religious object,,
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Thailand is in the ironical, hot-humid zone. The temperature range from annual hieh of 38 degree C ( 100 deg.F ) to low of 19 dee.C ( 66 dee.P )
Because of the high temperature through almost all year long, the building in the city normally needs to have air-conditioning system..
The building generally required shading to protect interior space from the very bright and shiny sun.
The year is devided into three seasons; three months of winter, another three months for summer, and the six months left is the
rainy season. There is so much rain in Thailand that sometimes causes the flood even in the capital city like Bangkok. So, the design must be considered about the rain also.
279 Station/Country Bangkok/Thailand
Heignt aoove sealevel 2 m Climate symbol. Koppen Aw Troll V.2
1 Mean daily temperature
2 Mean daily maximum temperature
3 Mean daily minimum temperature
4 Absolute maximum temperature
5 Absolute minimum temperature
6 Mean relative humidity
7 Mean precipitation
8 Maximum precipitation
9 Minimum precipitation
10 Maximum precipitation in 24 h
11 Mean number of days with precipitation
12 Mean duration of sunsh.ne
13 Mean quantity of radiation
14 Mean potential evaporation
15 Mean wmdspeed
16 Mean predominant direction of the wind
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The traffic system in Thailand is different from the United States. "People drive on the left side of the street instead of the right. Along the Sukumvit road in the north, is the westbound one-way traffic. The road is about six lanes wide with pedestrian walkway on both sides.
Along the Ra,iadamri road in the west, is a two-way traffic street. The road is also six lanes wide with the median along the way, which is treated with trees and bushes.
The traffic on both streets are usually busy during the days, especially in the rush hour between 7:30 9:00 a.m. and A;30 -6:00 p.m.
In Thailand, The law and regulation about zoning and building are far behind from the United States and some other countries The responsibility is left to individual architects. However, there are some rules and regulation about the site which are stated in the Bane-Ieoh zoning district
Zoning Business district.
Set back No requirements.
Height limit 30 stories.
Bulk limit 2 times the distance from the building
to the center of the street.
There is no requirements about parking
and open space. It is left to the
Since the law about building code in Thailand does not have many regulation and is not quite good enough, in this project, the Uniform Building Code 1985 will be auplied for information..
This project fall into P-1 Division 1 by occupancy classification and building tyre 1 fire resistive by building. The basic regulation for this project is as describe below :
- Maximum allowable basic floor area. Unlimited (T.5-C).
- Maximum allowable height : Feet Unlimited.
- Exterior wall must be fire resistive for 1 hour. (T.5-A).
- Exterior wall can have 50% opening with 3/4 hour fire urotec tion rating.
- No omening allowed for distance less than 3 feet to adjacent site.
- Window area required for l/lO of floor area.
- Minimum ceiling height 7'-6" (3.1207 a).
- Minimum floor area of room 120 sq.ft. (S.1207 b).
- Fire resistive require :
Exterior bearinv walls 1 hr.
Interior- bearing walls 3 hrs
Structure frame 3 hrs
Permanent nartition 1 hr.
Floor 2 hrs
Exterior window 3/4 hrs.
Structure required :
Framework can be steel, iron, reinforced concrete or reinforced masonry.
Stair can be reinforced concrete, steel or iron.
Fire extinguishing systems require sprinkler on every floor exceeding 1500 sq.fto, at top of rubbish and linen chutes.. Dry standpipes class 1 are required on every floor.
The Bangkok subsoil consists of a serie of alluvial clays. The top soil is about 2.S meters thick, beneath which is very dark erey clay. Hard yellowish brown clay of considerable resistance are usually encounter at the elevation about 14.. 00 meters. A layer of dense yellow fine sand lays at fluctuating depths between Elev.-20.00 m. to Elev.-22.00 m. The same pattern of subsoil formation can be expected throughout the city..
Bangkok is situated on the basin of Chao Phraya River. The light structures in the cauital city are supported on timber files driven in soft clay of very low strength. Numerous heavy structure have been constructed during the last decade. Engineers who work in the locality become aware of the time and expense spent in subsoil investigation to obtain data for the design of foundations Attemns have be^n made to include the past records of explorations which have survived in the files of private organizations and also new boring records made in potential developing districts.
The general feature is presented as the subsoil profileso
100*31' E S3' S3' 36'
fig. I.Locution Mup of Bangkok' Area.
6i823CSfBro81c'jof Subsoils along the alignmcnlof Sukumvlt Highwa^
Relative Consistency of Cohesive Soils.r
Number of Unconftncd Compressive >
u!ows per foot Strength, ton/sq m H Consistency
02 below 2.5 very soft
2 4 2.5 5.0 soft
48 5.0 10.0 medium
815 10.0 20.0 stiff
1530 j 20.0 40.0 very still
over 30 over 40 hard
The Erawan hotel is operated under control of the government of Thailand. The aim of the hotel is to entertain and provide hospitality for the government guest. However,the ordinary tourist are also welcome, the hotel is in the luxury class with the highly guest service.
After operation for almost 30 years,the hotel cannot afford the increase of the operation cost. The board of director decioea to make some changes in operation by trying; to get more guests with the affordable price in hospitallity.
In 1982,the hotel hired a consultant company to do the feasibility study. The result come up with demolishing the old building and rebuild a new one. However, the hotel cannot stop operating so the construction has to be done in phases. The hotel has not come up with any plan yet.
The new aim of the hotel is to get more guests at tourist price and keep the fully high service for the government's guests. So the design have to be able to serve both groups of people.
The hotel organization is. devidec into 8 departments.
1) . Public Pelation and Sales
2) . Front Office
3) . House Keeping
4) . Maintenance
5) . Accounting
6) . Personnel
7) . Catering
8) . Kitchen
Each of this department require their own space and sone need to be connected or easily contact to another department. The detail of these department will be explain later- on.
The hotel personnel are divided by heirachical level into levels o
3) . Manager or Head of division
4) .Basic pel sonnel
5) .Miscellaneous labor Since the new hotel is going to have twice as large as the old one,the amount of area and personnel requirement need to be refigured by the number of room,w'hich will be detailed in the
'Public Relation and Sales
This department consist of 4 divisions under the responsibility of the director.
1). "Puolic relation
Quantity : 1 (1)
: Responsible for guest's information
Space req. Location 2). Sales
publicities and for preparing bj ochurs and folders, organize publicities receptions and help to receive guest at such reception.
: Office space with filing
: 1 (1)
space req. Location
: Work co-ordinate with PR : Office space with filing .
Waiting area for visitor.
: Administration Exchange
: l/shift (3 shift)
: To put calls through guest and department Record the sum to be entered on the guest bill by front office.
: Telephone room and S itch board Connected to front office
4). Post Office
Quanti ty Duty
Space req. Location Front Office
l/shift (3 shift)
Take care of hotel and guest posxal service,telegram,telex, machine room with work space Accesible feom front office ana loos.
This department is the first guest-contact reception in t..e a?tel under the control of the director of f.ont office. This department consist of 2 divisions.
1). Deception and reservation
quantity : 3/shift (3 shift)
Duty : Guest reception ana reservation.
Prepare and check r est* s bill.
Inform the guest expectation to arrive or depart to other aeoartr ^nts. receive payment ana catry out t.irou;h cusaier.
Space req. : Front desk
Location : Close to entrance.
Connected to lobby.
2) Bell Captain Quantity Duty
Space req. Loc tion
: 2./shift (3 snift)
: Take care of guests luggage and emand. : Vork station
: Closer to entrance ana lobby.
This department res^on -?bl for orderliness and cleanliness of the hotel und-r the control oi the dir-ctor ox houseke oing. This department consist of 2 divisions.
1 ). lyaid
Suace req. Locar?on
2). Linen store luantitv Duty
2 c max.
Glean ana tidy trie rooms ana sanitorv installation assigned.
Each suesxroom floor.
Each part of the notel.
6,/shift (2 shift)
Take care of all linen from li.unary. Prepare all linen to be ready to use and keep in stool.
Space reo. : fork room.
Location : Close to laundry*
This department responsible for maintenance and repair hot-.- ; 1 property and equipment. This department includea 6 aivisions.
Quantity : 6
; Pesponsiole for note! renovation ana
Off?ce space with crafting
Quantity : l/shift (3 shift).
But y Responsible for hotel electricity
Space req. : Electrical control room.
location : Seperate from public space
3). Air Conditioning
Quantity : l/shift (3 shift).
Duty : Responsible for hotel's air-conditioneo
Snace rec. : Machine room..
Location ; A). Steam Boiler Senerate from public snace.
Quantity l/shift (3 shift).
Duty : Responsible for water supply for Hotel.
Space req. : Boiler room.
Location : Seperate from public snace.
5). Skilled laborrer
Quantity : 4
Duty Repair and maintain hotel's property.
Space req. : Workshop.
Location : 6). laundry Seperate from publjc snace.
Quantity : 4
Duty : Wash and launder hotel's linen ana other
articles of the hotel and guest.
Space req. : Laundry room.
location : Seuerate from public space.
Close to linen store.
This denartment responsible for all hotel income and expense, consist of A divisions.
1)o Account office
Quantity : 3
Duty : Bookeeping
Keeping record and filing.
Space req. : Office snace with filing.
location : Administration.
2) . Cashier
Ouanti ty : 1
Duty : Take care of hotels money ana recqras.
Space req. : Office space with filing.
Location : Administration
3). Store Keening
Quantity : 2
uty : Take care of hotel's main storage,inventory
snace req. : work space
Location : Fain storage.
4). Purchasing Office
Quantity : 2
Tiuty : Contact and order all hotel's supply ana
Location : Administration.
This department responsible for all employee's matters consist of 5 divisionso
1). Personnel record
Keep record of all employee Office work and filing Administration
Space req Location 2). Security
Location 3). Oil nic Quantity Duty
Sua ce reo,
Location 4). Motor pool Quantity Duty
3/shift (3 shift)
Take care of hotel ana guest security Observation station Record writing area Through out hotel
1 (l)/shift (3 shift)
Pii'st aid examination
Accessable foe ambulance
Limousine service for guest Work station
Location : Close tc entrance and lobby
This department responsible for guests food and beverage service including banquet facilities,consist of 5 divisions.
quantity : 60 max.
Duty : Responsible for hotel's 2 restaurants
and 2 cafeterias.
Space req. : Work station.
t,o cation Close to restaurant ana main kitchen
Quantity 8 max.
Duty : Prepare ana set ut> for- banquet facilities.
Snace req. : 7/ork station.
Lo cation Close to banquet and main kitcnen.
Quantity 20 max.
Duty Stock and nrenare beverage for service.
Snace req. Work station.
Location : Close to restaurant and banquet.
: Work in the bakery shot) : Work station.
Space req Location 5). Florist Quantify Duty
Space req. location
: Accessible f t om outside and inside hotel.
: Take care of hotel and guest service.
: Work station
: Accessible from outside and inside hotel.
This department resnonsible for preparing food for restaurant, cafeteria,and banquet srevice.
1). IWain kitchen
Space req. Location
2). Pastry Quantity Duty
Space req. Location
: Prepare food to be reaa.y to serve.
: Work station Storage
: Seperate from public space.
Close to restaurant and cafeteria and banque-banquet.
: Prepare pastry for bakery,restaurant, cafeteria and banquet.
: Work station.
Space req. Location
: 2/shift (2 shift)
: Take care of kitchen cleaning and organizing
: V/ork station Store room : Main kitchen.
Guestroom 400 Guestrooms '?250 sq.ft/room 100,000 sq.ft.
Lobby Flow area 4,000 tt
Seating area 500 tf
Retail 1,000 IT
Bellman station 50 ft
Fen's toilet 600 If
Women's toilet 420 U
Women's oowder room 380 II
Subtotal 6,750 II
Food and beverage service
Lounge 2,4C0 If
2 Cafeterias 2,800 II
2 Restaurants 6,200 II
Bar and night club 3,000 If
Bar storage 100 . tf
- Subtotal 14?500 It
Banquet 4,000--8,000 It
Foyer 1,300--2,600 ft
Storage 400 oOO ft
Serving pantry 9201,840 tl
subtotal 6,620-13,240 ft
Front desk 400 ft
Director office 120 ft
Fire control room 120 ft
Bellman store 200 ff
Saft deposit box 60 tf
Storage 80 If
Subtotal l,13p_ ff
Fanaging director 200 fl
General manager 200 ff
Night manager 200 tf
Asst, manager 180 ft
Food and beverage director 200 ff
Secretary 150 tf
Reception and waiting 250 ff
Storage and copying 100 ft
Subtotal 1,480 If
Public relation and sales
Director office 180 tl
Public relation 150 If
Sales 150 tf
Reception and waiting 200 fl
Storage and copying 150 ff
Subtotal 630 ff
Director office 160 ft
Purchasing _150 It
Subtotal 1,050 ft
Main kitchen 4,400 It
Bake shop 800 It
Room service area 300 rt
Chef's office 120 ii
Dry food storage 1,000 it
Refrigerated food storage 600 n
Beverage store 500 it
Utensil store 500 ti
Subtotal 6,420 ii
Receiving and storage
Loading dock 400 it
Receiving area 500 . it
Receiving office 150 it
Locked storage 175 IT
General storage 2,000 II
Subtotal 3,225 II
Time keeper 120 II
Security o CM i1 II
Personnel director office 150 It
Personnel reception 140
Pile and storage
Mens locker 960
Womens locker 960
Canteen 1,000 II
Subtotal 4,060 II
Laundry and housekeeping
Laundry room 2,600 ft
Storage 12 5 II
Housekeeping; director office 12 3 If
Linen store 1,500 II
Supply store 100 (1
Lost and found 150 II
Working room 100 II
Subtotal 4,900 II
Director office 150 II
Design office 500 II
Work shop 200 II
Mechanical room 3,000 II
Electrical control room 1,000 II
Boiler room 2,000 II
Subtotal 6j_650 II
Pool 1,200 1
Locker/toilet and sauna 500 f?
Pool pump and filter 200 If
Total area requirement 161,815 - 168,435
DIAGNOSIS RELATION CHART
Clean up store
Res taurant 1
Banquet Bakery ~ Florist kitchen Parking
1) . Joseph de Chiara ft John Handcock Callander; Time Savers
Standard for Building Type Kcgraw Hill,1980.
2) o End,Henry; Interior Second Book of Hotel ; Hew York :
Whitney Library of Design.
3) . Lawson,Fred; Hotel, Motel and Condominium ; Design, Planning
and Maintenance. Cahner Books International, Inc.
4) . Bussagli, Mario ; Oriental Architecture, Hew York : Harry
N Abrams, Incorporated.
5) . Frederic, Louis ; The Art of Southeast Asia New York :
Harry Abrams, Incorporated.
6) . Thailand into the 80's ; Office of Prime Minister Royal
Thai government, Bangkok : Thai Watana Panich Press Co;Ltd.
7) . Chai Muktabhant, Pairoje Teerawong, Vichien Tengamnuay :
Engineering Properties of Bangkok Subsoil,Bangkok : Chulalongkom University, Thailand.
8) . Warren, William and Brake, Brian ; The House on the Klong ,
New York ft Tokyo Walker / Weatherhill. 1968.
9) . Muller, Manfred J.; Selected Climatic Data for a Global Set
of Standard Station for Vegetation Science Dr.W.Junk Publisher : Hague, Boston. London, 1982.
10). Gaskell, Thomas Frohock ; World Climate London : Thames ft Hudson, 1979.
Accounting Personnel Catering
jut k, H
[ a ii. -A.