Stanford conference center

Material Information

Stanford conference center
Karmel, Kelly Anne
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
146 pages in various pagings : illustrations, chart, maps, plans ; 22 x 28 cm +


Subjects / Keywords:
Buildings ( fast )
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )


Includes bibliographical references (pages 115-117).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Kelly Anne Karmel.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
12266091 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1985 .K37 ( lcc )

Full Text

Stanford Conference Center .

Stanford Conference Center
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture.
Kelly Anne Karmel Spring 1985

Stanford Conference Center
The Thesis of Kelly Anne Karmel is approved.
gtjplv^_ h} Law)
Robert Karn, Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver May 1985

To my mother Barbara Marbut Karmel for her love and support
To my grandmother Charlotte Reed Marbut in loving memory.

From Nature doth emotion come, and moods Of calmness equally are Nature's gift:
This is her glory; these two atributes
Are sister horns that constitute her strength.
Hence Genius, born to.thrive by interchange
Of peace and excitation, finds in her
His best and purest friend; from her receives
That energy by which he seeks the truth,
From her that happy stillness of the mind Which fits him to receive it when unsought.
From "Prelude", by Wordsworth

Project Summary
The Stanford Conference Center is a thesis project for the Master of Architecture degree at the University of Colorado at Denver. The Center is intended for academic-related conferences sponsored or attended by Stanford University faculty, administrators, staff, and students.
The site for the Center lies in the foothills on University land, at the address of 1600 Arastradero Road. The building program includes
40,000 square feet of meeting rooms, overnight accomodations, dining rooms, and conference support facilities.

Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Thesis Statement
3.0 Thesis Background
4.0 Program Summary
5.0 Site Analysis
6.0 Building Standards
7.0 Conference Facilities Program
8.0 Residential Facilities Program
9.0 Food Service & Support Facilities Program
10.0 Thesis Design
11.0 Conclusion
12.0 Bibliography

d Introduction

Thesis Introduction
The most remarkable trend in the United States today is the shift from a society based on the production of goods to a society based on the exchange of information. We are reminded daily of the changes in our economic, social, and political lives. Whether the evidence is the closure of another steel mill or the increase in sales of personal computers, the shift towards information is well under way. In many respects, this transformation illustrates the beginnings of the etherealization of our culture, as we place increasing value on the development of our minds.
The reasons for this transformation are very complex, and they are part of the process of maturation of developed countries and the growth of developing countries around the world. In the United States, these changes create new needs for communication and exchange of the information we gather. Most individuals find it difficult to remain current in their own field of interest, let alone follow developments in other fields. People involved with scientific and technologic research are especially pressed to keep track of the newest developments.
Improvements in communication technology and access will facilitate the free flow of information to individuals and groups. However, the supply of information in and of itself is not enough; the information must be analyzed and understood if it is to be of any real benefit. The small conference has a rich tradition as a means to arrive at new understandings with the help of one's peers. Scholars have long used conferences to communicate ideas to each other, to develop specialized techniques and vocabularies, to evaluate the consequences of the information, and to expand or alter their concepts. Conferences have been used more recently for continuing education programs, especially for executives. The popularity of conferences is due largely to the fact that in a relatively short period of time a wealth of ideas and information can be communicated within a group of people who feel a great sense of cooperation and purpose, even comraderie.

Lands of Stanford University
Arastradero Road
Page Mill J' Road---------
Felt Lake Alpine Road y
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El Camino Real-----
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Interstate 280
Junipero Serra Blvd. Main Campus
San Francisco
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Thesis Introduciton
A center for conferences, then, should be a place specially designed to facilitate the exchange and resolution of information. This function is also part of what a university provides to its students and faculty. A commitment to learning and understanding is the hallmark of a fine university, and Stanford University has a long history of excellence in this area. Stanford has actively developed a conference program, taking advantage of the expertise and scholarship of the University's faculty by inviting them to speak or lecture to conference groups. The earliest records of a conference program date from 1947, when 317 participants came to campus in the summer. By the summer of 1984, the number had increased to 13,000 participants attending 150 conferences. Not all of the conferences are academic in nature, but most of them are either continuing education programs or scientific seminars or colloquia. The participants stayed in dormitory rooms used by university students during the school year, and the conference meetings are held in classrooms and auditoriums on campus.
Despite the demand for quality meeting space and accomodations, Stanford does not have a special conference facility for use during the school year as well as during the summer. The subject of this thesis is the design of a conference center that will benefit the University's conference program and the University's community of faculty, administrators, staff, and students. The conference center is intended to serve the needs of two types of conferences: Continuing education programs sponsored by a department of the University or by the Alumni Association; and for special seminars and colloquia for Stanford groups. The conference center should be accessible to the Stanford community, as a benefit to everyone, not the province of any particular school or interest group.

Thesis Introduction
The conference center program calls for 35,000 square feet of meeting rooms, overnight accomodations, offices, dining rooms, and conference support facilities, (see Program Summary section). The conference facilities can accomodate as many as 170 participants if simultaneous meetings were held in the auditorium and the large and small conference rooms. It is anticipated that the conference center might host as many as three separate conference programs at a time. The auditorium and large conference rooms will be equipped with state-of-the-art audio-visual equipment, including special projection and recording units. Guest rooms for 40 people are also part of the conference center program. These rooms will be for participants who do not live locally, or for those who do live locally but prefer to remain with other participants at the conference center. Integration of the residential and conference facilities will be an important concern of the conference center design.
The conference center design will also incorporate a series of lounges, dens, libraries, and small niches where people can retreat to reflect individually or to discuss their ideas with one or two other participants. Special and deep understanding of a new concept is often hard to reach while involved in a group discussion. Participants will need the time and the place to reflect and ponder, or to seek out the council of their peers. They also need areas to relax, socialize, and exercise so that the conference becomes a real and memorable experience.
The site for the conference center lies in the foothills on 50 acres of Stanford land. The area is along the southern edge of University property, along Arastradero Road roughly equidistant from intersections with Alpine Road and Page Mill Road.
The site has the gently rolling hills, covered with native grasses and spotted with eucalyptus, pine, and oak, characterstic of the foothills region. The area has lovely views in all directions, with Stanford's Academic Reserve lands to the north, a Santa Clara County park to the east, and sparsely populated residential areas to the south and west. The overall effect is quiet and contemplative; an ideal location for a conference center.

Thesis Introduciton
Your days are short here; this is the last of your springs. And now in the serenity and quiet of this lovely place, touch the depths of truth, feel the hem of heaven. You will go away with old, good friends. And don't forget when you leave why you came.
- Adlai Stevenson

Thesis Statement

Thesis Issues
The purpose of a conference center is to provide a place for people to meet and to communicate their ideas. The focus of the conferences may vary, ranging from setting policies to presenting and analyzing research to conducting educational seminars. The number of participants may vary as well, from 80 people in the auditorium to 8 people in the small conference room to 2 people in a small niche.
The central activity remains the same: the pursuit of deeper understanding with the assistance of one's peers.
The contention of this master's thesis is that architectural design and planning can not only provide a space for conferences to occur, but can also facilitate meaningful social contact and thoughtful exchange of ideas. C.M. Deasey, in his book entitled Design for Human Affairs, writes "The purpose of design and planning is not to create a physical artifact, but a setting for human behavior."
He goes on to say, "In a social and psychological sense, the settings we use help or hinder us in three major ways: they influence the stress we experience in accomplishing our group or personal goals; they influence the form and nature of our social contacts; and they influence our feelings of identity and self-worth." (Deasey, 1974).
Research also suggests that when activities are centered around groups, individuals need to be given a place, or a perception of a place, that instills a sense of control and autonomy. In the language of the social scientist,
"Although architectural environments should support wide ranges of behavior, they should facilitate social interaction under positive conditions, permitting, people to get to know one another while maintaing a level of social control." (Baum, 1977). Successful conferences foster confidence and equality among the participants, so that each person feels welcome to express an idea or a criticism.

Thesis Issues
The thesis that architecture can facilitate social contact and the exchange of ideas covers a wide range of architectural issues. Five issues that are of special interest are:
People come to a conference center to address a particular problem or idea. They may wish to expand their understanding of a subject already familiar, or they may want to be exposed to new ideas and concepts. In either case, the participants will need to take the time to reflect on the issues and their responses. Part of the goal of the conference center is to convey a sense of balance and harmony, concepts familiar to the ancient Greeks. Contemplation cannot occur in a discordant environment, nor in a sterile environment. Balance, and a sense of richness, needs to be an integral part of the conference center design.
The primary means of expressing oneself is through the spoken word. Though other cues may be given through the other senses, it is through conversation that we indicate our opinions and beliefs. The conference center will depend on conversation, and the environment should be conducive to this exchange. Variety in the spaces for conversation, whether in the amount or type of space or degree of quiet, would help individuals exercise some control in how they express themselves.
The Italians of the Renaissance understood the importance of landscapes to the daily life of people. The gardens were an integral part of the design; the villa and the garden reflecting each other. Surprise and delight, as well as a sense of repose, were desirable qualities in a garden. The climate of the Stanford area and the site of the conference center both deserve

Thesis Issues
some special attention with respect to the landscape design. The conference participants should be able to stroll in the late afternoon, discussing the day's events and pondering their meaning. The garden design should also help to make the transition from the built forms to the natural landscape.
The conference center will include residential facilities for overnight guests who might stay for two days or as long as three weeks. The purpose of providing the guest rooms is to provide the option of becoming totally immersed in the conference experience. The residential portion of the conference facility must be carefully integrated so that the guests do not feel isolated from the conference activities or from the non-resident conference participants. The guests should feel welcome, and should be given the sense that they are a part of an exciting, elegant, and memorable experience.
The conference center is located on Stanford land, and serves the Stanford community. It is also part of an established University tradition of learning and excellence. In these ways, the conference center is strongly linked to Stanford. This link should be respected and encouraged, but not in an obvious manner. The identity of Stanford is rooted firmly in its original quadrangle: images of buff-colored sandstone, arcaded walkways, red-tiled roofs, carved ornamentation, and palm trees come immediately to mind. The conference center should reinforce the organized and calm identity of Stanford's past architecture, yet also includp elements of variety and complexity that are more characteristic of our modern life.

Thesis Background

Stanford University
The character of Stanford University is very complex. It is an institution rich with talent and bright minds. The "context" of Stanford can be understood only by combining the institutional character of the university with the more obvious charms of the campus architecture and landscape. The following exerpt from a position paper accompanying the 1974 Land Use Policies, and reprinted in the 1980 Land Use Plan, excellently describes the institutional context of Stanford. Stanford University is:
1) A residential university: The educational process, particularily at tie undergraduate level, is based upon the close relationship of classroom, laboratory, library and residence teaching facilities. From its inception tie physical plans for Stanford have contemplated that students and faculty would, to the extent possible, live in close proximity to each other and and to the teaching and research facilities.
2) A research instiution: The hallmark of a distinguished university is the interaction between teaching and research. The vitality of teaching depends on the advancement of knowledge through original research, and scholarship is kept alive through the training of young and lively minds.
3) A dynamic institution: Universities are by nature conservative institutions in the sense that they are charged with conserving and teaching the best of man's past learning. But they are also by their nature engaged in change, both adjusting to'the changing world around them and providing the intellectual stimulus for the forces which produce change.
4) A private, nonprofit institution: Stanford was founded and organized as a private trust, and its on-going financial support and operations are derived primarily from private sources -- tuition, gifts, and endowment. While Stanford receives public monies in return for specific activities, its ability to remain an independent, self-determining institution is dependent upon stable and flexible sources of private funding.

Stanford University
5) A permanent, perpetual institution: By virtue of its Founding Grant, its land endowment, and its plant investment, Stanford is permanently committed to its present location. Unlike other institutions or organizations, it cannot readily change its situs. Of equal importance, it is likely to exist in perpetuity. A univerity's time horizons are measured in centuries, not decades.
6) A national and international resource: Stanford is looked upon to provide teaching, research, and public service to meet needs which know no jurisdictional boundaries. While the University exists in a particular place, derives important benefits from its location, and has responsibilities to its neighbors, it is also subject to demands and assumes responsibilities that are national, indeed worldwide, in character.

Stanford University Campus Plan

Stanford University
View of the Stanford University Quadrangle from Hoover Tower.
The "Quad" was completed in 1891 after many years of planning and design. The design was executed by Charles Coolidge, a protege of H.R. Richardson. The materials, arcades, ornament, and articulation form a distinctive identity for Stanford.

Stanford University
The original conception of the University and its surroundings was the work of the most mature and effective mind America has so far produced in city planning and landscape design... A fresh independent analysis... brings one back to Olmstead's essential contribution: compactness, concentration, unity.
- Lewis Mumford
Memorandum to Stanford Planning Office, 1949

Conference Formats
Though all conference programs are intrinsically participatory, there are several different types of conference formats:
Policy Conferences: Negotiation of treaties; developing new policies;
revising or evaluating existing policies.
Research Conferences: Scientists or scholars present and discuss
research results; special research needs are identified.
Educational Conferences: Lecture style conferences with "experts" and
"students"; discussion of new information and concepts.
Experimental Conferences: Novel formats or groupings of people; unusual
topics of discussion; group dynamics studies.
The size of conference programs vary widely, depending upon the subject matter, the degree of interest, and the duration of the program. Large groups (over 30 people) seem to work best when they have a chance to break up into smaller groups after or in-between the large sessions. Studies have been conducted to determine the most common size of discussion group. One study in particular observed 7,405 groups of people in a wide variety of settings and found that 71% of the groups contained only two individuals, 21% three individuals, 6% contained four, and only 2% contained five or more (Deasey, 1974). These results indicate that the emphasis for designing meeting areas for informal discussion should concentrate on providing space for the small groups that are the most comfortable form of human interaction.

Sample of Continuing Education Conferences During Summer 1984
Conference Sponsoring Department Duration Participants
Executive Program in Organizational Change Graduate School of Business 12 days 42
Seminar in the Humanities Alumni Association 7 days 30
American Press Institute Improving Newspaper Content Professional Journal Fellow 5 days 35
Chemistry, Physics, and Engineering or Macromolecules Chemical Engineering Department 9 days 50
Intercultural Communication Interns School of Education 14 days 12
SLAC Summer Institute on Particle Physics Stanford Linear Accelerator 14 days 50
Literature and the Visual Arts Faculty Renewal Program 2 days 8
Stanford Engineering Executive Program Alumni Association 11 days 40
Summer Institute in Neurobiology Neurobiology Department 21 days 24
Executive Program in the Humanities Alumni Association 11 days 20
John F. Kennedy Institute on North American Studies Housing Management Office 6 days 15

Potential Users of the Conference Center
The conference center is intended to serve the Stanford community of faculty, administrators, staff, and students, and continuing educaiton programs. The following page lists a few of the conferences held on campus during the summer of 1984, along with the duration of the conference and the number of participants. The continuing education programs must have a University sponsor, whether in the form of a school department or the Alumni Association.
There are many groups at Stanford that might be interested in utilizing the conference center facilities. A sample of them are listed below:
Stanford Linear Accelerator Program (SLAC)
Center for Arms Control and Disarmament Center for Research on Women (CROW)
Institute for Energy Studies Monticello West Foundation Alumni Association Honors Seminars
Center for Space Science and Astrophysics Speakers Bureau
Center for Research in International Studies Department Retreats and Seminars

Program Summary

Program Totals
Net Square Feet* Gross Square Feet
Conference Facilities 14000 17500
Offices 1970 2460
Residential Facilities 10240 12800
Restaurants & Food Service 4350 5440
Support Facilities 2050 2560
40,760 GSF
* Net Square Feet assumed 75% efficent
Parking: 30 overnight guest spaces @ 1 car/person @ 300 SF 9,000
75 conference spaces @ 1 car/2 people @ 300 SF 22,500
12 staff spaces @ 1 car/person @ 300 SF 3,600
35,100 GSF

Conference Facilities
Auditorium 1
Large Conference Room 2
Small Conference Room 6
Sitting Room / Den 4
Library 2
Lobby / Reception 1
Small Gathering Areas 10
Coffee Break Areas 2
Restrooms & Cloakrooms 4
Conference Storage 1
Atrium / Interior Court 2
Total NSF
3600 3600
1200 2400
400 2400
250 1000
500 1000
1000 1000
50 500
150 300
200 800
200 200
400 800
14,000 NSF
17,500 GSF

Offices Number
Conference Center Director 1 Director Reception 1 Director Assistant 1 Restaurant Manager 1 Residence Manager 1 Conference Services (incl. phones) 2 Participant Office Space 4 Reservations Office 1 Audio-Visual Office & Equip. 1 University Coordinator 1
Total NSF
220 220
100 100
150 150
150 150
150 150
100 200
100 400
200 200
200 200
200 200
1,970 NSF
2,460 GSF

Residential Facilities
Suite ?
Room 150 SF
Sitting Room 150
Bath 80
Private Room
Room 150 SF
Private Bath 65
Entry 40
Cluster Room
Room 150 SF
Shared Suite 60
Shared Bath 45
Residents' Lounge / Lobby 4 Conference Area 2 Maid / Janitor Closet 4
Total NSF
10,240 NSF 12,800 GSF

Restaurant & Food Service
Large Dining Room 2 Small Dining Room 2 Cafe 1
Kitchen 1 Serving / Food Preparation 1 Restrooms 2 Food Storage 1 Wine Cellar 1 Delivery / Disposal 1 Bar 1 Bakery 1 Cleaning Area 1
Total NSF
600 1200
250 500
800 800
500 500
100 100
150 300
150 150
100 100
150 150
250 250
200 200
100 100
4 i350 NSF
5,440 GSF

Support Facilities
A/V Control Room 1
Copy / Graphics Room 1
Dark Room 1
Service / Delivery 1
Gardener's Storage 1
Weight Room 1
Dance Studio 1
Jacuzzi / Sauna 2
Lockers & Showers 2
Total NSF
150 150
200 200
200 200
200 200
200 200
200 200
400 400
150 300
200 400
2.050 NSF 2,560 GSF

Site Analysis

Area Map
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Site Location

Vicinity Map
Highway 101
Stanford University Campus
Route to the site
1600 Arastradero Road
Interstate 280
Scale 1 : 62,500

Site Introduction
Though Stanford University owns 8,180 acres of land, nearly all of it has been allocated for a specific use. Allocated areas include the campus of the University, the Jasper Ridge Biological Reserve, the Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC), the academic reserve lands in the foothills, the Arboretum, the Stanford Shopping Center,
The Stanford Medical Center, and the Stanford Industrial Park. However, several parcels of land remain open to development of university support or university related facilities.
The site for a conference center has some very special requirements. The site must be easily accessible to the participants and staff who use it every day. Yet the site should have a quiet and contemplative quality, a mood that is conducive to reflective thought. Part of that mood might be set by varied topography and vegetation,
and by the presence of water whether in the form of a nearby lake or as part of the
landscape design. From a practical point of view, the ideal site would already have a main access road and have major utilities on or near the site area.
The selected site on 1600 Arastradero Road fits these special requirements very well. Though it is located at the far southern end of University property, the site can be easily reached by several paths. The Vicinity Map on the preceeding page shows the location of the site and its relationship to main roads and highways. The site is 34 miles south of San Francisco, 12 miles north of San Jose, 25 miles from San Francisco International Airport, and 5 miles from the Stanford campus. The topography consists of gently rolling hills, covered with native grasses and ringed by
eucalyptus trees at the periphery. The site has a very pleasant exposure in all
directions, particularly to the south and east. A reservoir on academic reserve lands, named Felt Lake, is near the site boundary. Occasional access to the lake, and nonconsumptive use of water from the lake, might be arranged for the conference center.
The site map on the following page shows the location of Felt Lake and the utilities existing on site.

Site Map
Palo Alto City Boundary
Site Boundary
Electrical Service 12 kV, 3 wire, 400 amps
6" Domestic Water Supply 10" Fire Supply
8" Sewer pipe
8" Gas main
Scale 1 : 500 N

Site Planning & Zoning
The site is known to the Stanford Planning Office as the "D.C. Power Lab" site because of the building constructed there in 1961. That building, originally designed for power research and testing, now serves as the temporary home for Stanford's Computer Music Department. The building is underutilized, inflexible, and deteriorating rapidly. Stanford planners and real estate personnel are in the process of studying alternative uses for the site, including demolition of the Powers Lab building and the construction of a facility better suited to the site and to the University's needs.
The site encompasses 77 acres in a "dumbell" shaped area. Part of the site, 50 acres, will be the subject of the conference center design. The remaining 27 acres could be used as open space, or for later development of a different facility. The two parcels are separated visually by eucalyptus, and physically separated by a rapid change in topography.
The site has been zoned "PC" or Planned Community District by the City of Palo Alto. The "PC" zone is intended to accomodate developments for residential, commercial, professional, research, administration, industrial or other activities, including combinations of uses appropriately requiring flexibility under controlled conditions not otherwise obtainable under other districts. The planned community district is particularly intended for unified, comprehensively planned developments which are of substaintial public benefit." (18.68.010 Palo Alto Zoning Ordinance,
June 1982). The particular zone for the site, PC 1941, further specifies the uses permitted: "A research center devoted to the general fields of communication and electronics and including laboratories, professional, executive, and administrative offices, library facilities, shop facilities, field installations, and accessory uses." (Palo Alto Zoning Ordinace No. 1941, May 1960).

Site Planning & Zoning
The conference center is consistent with the general PC zone requirements, hut not necessarliy with the particular zoning ordinance 1941. The City of Palo Alto might be convinced to grant a variance to PC 1941 to include the conference center use, and this project will proceed on that assumption. However, the awareness remains that the philosophy of zoning and development have changed radically in Palo Alto since 1960.
The City, as well as the people owning homes near the area, might object to new and active use of the Powers Lab site, no matter how beneficial the project might be to the public and to the University.
Relevant provisions of PC 1941 (including amendments) are:
Current Use: Research center devoted to the general field of communications and electronics.
Development Type: Campus-type establishment developed with minimal disturbance of the existing contours, retaining the site in its present state or appropriately landscaped.
Maximum Square Footage: 70.000 square feet of building coverage 110.000 square fdkt of total floor area
Maximum Height: 44 feet at the building centerline.
Parking: Use permit for 252 parking spaces maximum.
Zoning Changes: For a different use or a greater size than that allowed by the use permit, a PC application or other zone change would have to be approved. The application must include a development program statement, development plan, and development schedule.

Site Planning & Zoning
Water, gas, electricity, and sewer lines were brought on site at the time of construction of the Powers Lab building. Assuming that the pipes and conduits are still in sound condition, the conference center will use the existing utilities. Additional equipment, such as a transformer for the electrical service, will be located unobtrusively on the site. The existing facilities are:
Water Supply: 6" diameter domestic water supply 10" diameter fire service supply
Gas Supply: 8" diameter gas main
Sewer Line: 8" diameter reinforced concrete pipe
Electrical Service: 12 kV, 3 wire, three phase service @ 400 amps

Site Views
View of the entrance to the site from Arastradero Road.


Site Views
View from the site, looking north to Felt Lake and beyond to San Francisco Bay. The eucalyptus trees framing the view are part of a mature line of eucalyptus along the north boundary of the site.
View from the site, looking southeast towards Los Altos Hills. This is a characteristic view of the foothills area -- grass covered hills with live oak, digger pine, and eucalyptus trees.

Plans of Villas Doria Pamphilli, Pratolino, Campi, and Albani From "Italian Gardens of the Renaissance," Shepard & Jellicoe

Landscape Planning
The conference center site, with its rolling hills and dramatic views, is a reminder that design does not stop with the solution of the building design.
The site will exert a strong influence on the form, placement, articulation, and circulation of the architectural response. In turn, the architectural themes may find their way back into the landscape around the building grouping. The outdoor areas should be used freely by the conference participants, whether for meetings, relaxation, reflection, or dining. The landscape should also be a memorable part of the conference center, and part of the reason for wishing to return.
The plans of four different Renaissance villas are included on the preceeding page, not to suggest a similar organization for the conference center grounds, but as a reminder of the special determinants of a comprehensive design. Gardens of the most successful villas responded well to three issues: Adapting the garden to the architectural lines of the villa, adapting to the severity of the climate and the needs of the garden users (shady walks, sunny plazas, etc.), and adapting to the landscape beyond the garden. The old Italian garden was meant to be lived in, to be used for gatherings, recreation, or solitary walks. The garden was a place to find "a pleasant sense of variety and surprise without sacrifice of repose." (Wharton, 1976). The gardens did all this with a very limited palette of materials: shades of green from trees and shrubs, shades of grey and buff from marble or other stone, water, and occaisionally, flowers.
In addition to design issues, landscape planning will also have to address slope stability. There are no recorded slope movements on the site, and the slopes of the hills are only moderately inclined. However, the soil profile (see Soils Map in this section) consists of a relatively thin and expansive layer of soil over well-faulted sedimentary rock. This profile has been found to be unstable due to earthquakes or improper excavations into the hillsides. Proper excavation practice and installation of retaining walls are recommended.

Landscape Planning
He may recline now under an old tree And again on the soft meadow,
While the waters fall down from the steep banks, Birds lament in the woods,
And the springs with murmuring veins Suggest soft sleep.
from Horace, Epodes II translated by Thomas Jefferson

Landscape Planning
Conservation of water has become a critical issue in California. Limited supplies of water and a rapidly growing population have made the conservation of water resources into one of the most potent political issues of the 1980's. In addition, Northern California has experienced serious droughts, the most recent during 1975-76. The landscape design, so important to the image of the conference center must be sensitive to the wise use of water.
The plant types listed below require relatively small amounts of water once they are established. These plants were culled from a large number of native and non-native plants (Saratoga Horticultural Foundation, 1983). They were chosen for their color, size, shape, and flowering characteristics.
Ground Covers Vines
Atlas Cedar European Hackberry Silver Dollar Eucaluptus Crepe Myrtle Canary Island Pine Coast Live Oak Cypress
French Lavender Oleander
Carolina Laurel Cherry Holly-Leaf Cherry India Hawthorne Westringia
"Tuscan Blue" Rosemary
Emerald Carpet Snowball Grace Ward Hall's Honeysuckle
Trumpet Honeysuckle Wisteria

Soils Map
The map shows the distribution of geologic formations in the vicinity of the site. "QTs" means Quaternary 3nd Tertiary sedimentary rocks: weakly to moderately consolidated and indurated mudstone, sandstone, and conglomerate. "QTs" is also known as the Santa Clara Formation: it overlies shale and sandstone Franciscan Formation bedrock, and underlies a thin layer of younger sedimentary deposits and organic matter.
San Andreas Fault Zone
Scale 1 : 125,000
From: "Generalized Geologic Map," Borcherdt, et. al., USGS, 1975.

Predicted Earthquake Intensity Map
The map shows the predicted maximum intensity of earth tremors as a result of a large earthquake on the San Andreas or Hayward faults. Letters A-E indicate grades of the San Francisco intensity scale ranging from A (very violent) to E (weak).
Grade C Very Strong Intensity
San Andreas Fault Zone (Hayward fault runs approx, parallel to the San Andreas 20 miles to the east)
Scale: 1 : 125,000
From: "Maximum Earthquake Intensity Predicted on a Regional Scale", Borcherdt, et. al., USGS, 1975

Building Standards

Codes & References
All new buildings under the jurisdiction of the City of Palo Alto must file with the City's Building Inspection Department. The Department will distribute plans to other related agencies. All buildings other than one-family residences and duplexes are subject to approval by the Architectural Review Board of Palo Alto.
Stanford University has its own internal process for the approval of planning and design of new facilities. The process, outlined in greater detail in the publication "The Facility Project Development Process" (see bibliography), is summarized in the development process diagram on the following page. The project is eventually approved by the Board of Trustees' Committee on Finance & Administration.
The following codes and regualtions are applicable to work in the City of Palo Alto (of which the site is a part):
Uniform Building Code (1979 edition)
Uniform Mechanical Code
Uniform Plumbing Code
National Electric Code
Uniform Fire Code
Titles 8, 19, 20, & 24 of the California Administrative Code State of California Restaurant Code City of Palo Alto Zoning Ordinance

Codes & References Facilities Project Development Process
Approvals Phases

Codes & References Code Analys
Building Type Group
Auditorium A-3
Conference Facilities B-2 Offices, Lounges,
Dining Facilities
Relevant Code Section
A1lowable Area
Chapter 6 Type II 1 hour 13,500 SF 2
Chapter 7 Type II 1 hour 18,000 SF 4
Chapter 12 Type V 1 hour Unlimited 3

Codes & References Fire Resistive Construction Requirements
Building Element
Exterior Bearing Walls Interior Bearing Walls Exterior Non-bearing Walls Structural Frame Permanent Partitions Shaft Enclosures Floors Roofs
Exterior Doors & Windows
Type II (1 hour)
1 hour 1 1 1
1 (see Section 407)
1 (see Section 1906) (see Section 1903 (b))
Type V (1 hour)
1 hour 1 1 1 1
1 (see Section 1706)
(see Section 2103 (b))

Codes & References Exit Requirements
Occupancy Area
Square Feet per Handicapped
Occupant Access
Relevant Code Section
Auditorium 7 Yes Table 33-A Table 5-A
Conference Room 15 Yes
Dining Room & Lounge 15 Yes
Commercial Kitchen 200 No
Locker Rooms 50 Yes
Offices 100 Yes
Library 50 Yes
Mechanical Areas 300 No
Guest Rooms 200 Yes (at first floor)
The occupant load permitted in any building shall be determined by dividing 3301(d) The floor area assigned to that use by the square feet per occupant as set forth in Table 33-A. Accessory areas used only by occupants of the main area need not be included in computing the total occupancy.
In all occupancies, floors above the first story having an occupant load 3302(a)
of more than 10 shall have no less than two exits.
Exits from successive floors must carry 50% of the floor above plus 25% of 3302(a)
the next floor above.

Codes & References Exit Requirements
The exit width (in feet) shall not be less than the occupancy divided by 50. 3302(b)
Maximum distance to an exit shall not exceed 150 feet (or 200 feet in a sprinklered building). Distance may be 250 feet if the last 150 feet is within a protected corridor (see Section 3304). 3302(d)
Exits must be separated by one half of the maximum diagonal of the floor or area served, measured in a straight line between exits. 3302 (c)
Corridors serving an occupant load of 10 or more shall not be less in width than 44 inches. 3304(a)
Door swings shall not obstruct required width by more than half. 3304(d)
Walls and ceilings serving an occupant load of 30 or more shall not be less than 1 hour fire-resistive construction (not required if the building is sprinklered). 3304(g) 1807(m)2
Opening requirements for corridor walls. 3304(h)
Stair width: 44 inches if serving over 50 36 inches for 10 to 50 30 inches for less than 10 3305(a)
Stair landing: Length equal to width of stair (need not exceed 4 feet) 5 feet landing length when door opens over landing. 3305(g) 3305(h)
Stair enclosures are not required when serving two levels only, or within individual dwellings. 3308(a)
Ramps required by TAble 33-A shall not exceed a slope of one on twelve. Other ramps shall not exceed a slope of one on eight. 3306(c)
Maximum stair rise is 7'/2inches, minimum stair tread is 10 inches. 3305(c)

Codes & References Sanitary Facilities
Title 8 of the California Administrative Code requires the following sanitary facilities for both men and women:
Number of people served Minimum Number of Water Closets*
1 - 15 1
16 - 35 2
36 - 55 3
56 - 80 4
81 - 110 5
11 - 150 6
over 150 6 plus 1 additional per 40 people
*Urinals may be installed instead of water closets in toilet rooms to be used by men provided that the number of water closets is not less than two-thirds of the minimum number required,
Number of people served Minimum Number of Lavatories
1 - 15 1
16 - 35 2
36 - 60 3
61 - 90 4
91 - 125 5
over 125 5
5 plus 1 additional per 45 people

Codes & References Seismic Issues
The site of the conference center is located in a highly seismic area (see Predicted Earthquake Intensity Map in the Site Analysis section). It is anticipated that concern for life-safety will influence many decisions about the design of the center. Configuration of the building, type of structural materials and foundation system, site grading and slope stability are among the most critical issues in a seismic region. Concerned about life-safety, the Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) has recommended in its 1980 Commentary that buildings should be designed to:
Resist minor earthquakes without damage.
Resist moderate earthquakes without structural damage, but with small amounts of
non-structural (architectural, contents, etc.) damage.
Resist major earthquakes, of the intensity of the strongest experienced in
California, without collapse, but with some structural and non-structural damage.
This recommendation pertains primarily to the design of the structure, but also to the design of architectural elements that interact with the structure (including cornices, parapets, non-bearing partitions, masonry infill, exterior cladding, etc.).
The minimum earthquake force on the building will be determined by the UBC 1979 base shear equation V = ZIKCSW (2312(d)), where Z = 1.0 for Zone 4. The structure will conform to UBC Chapters 23 (General Design Requirements), 26 (Concrete), and 27 (Steel).

Energy Codes & Issues
After many years of indiscriminate use of non-renewable resources, we now realize that we must carefully manage our fuel consumption. The conference center is intended for use well into the next century, a time when our oil and natural gas resources are likely to be exhausted. The project must therefore be designed to minimize energy use and to be adaptable to renewable energy resources as they become cost effective.
The Stanford University area is blessed with a lovely climate, often compared to that of Mediterranean countries. For most of the year outdoor temperatures and humidity levels are very comfortable, and people in the area spend large amounts of time enjoying the climate. Based on 28 years of records, the mean daily temperature in January ranges from a minimum of 37 degrees F to a maximum of 56 degrees F. The mean daily maximum temperatures for the summer months ranges from 76 to 78 degrees F. On winter nights the temperature occaisionally drops to freezing, though usually for short periods. During summer days the temperature may rise above the comfort level (above 95) for a few days at a time, but this is typically compensated for by a significant drop in temperature at night (to the 68 to 72 degree F range). Refer to the Appendix for more specific climatic data.
The conference center design should interact well with the site and climate, and the emphasis will be on passive systems design. Active energy systems (such as solar collectors) remain a possibility, though the cost of the systems and the unavailability of tax credits due to Stanford's private non-profit status make an active alternative less attractive. Important parts of an energy-conserving design might included:
High standard of wall and roof insulation
Reduction of unwanted infiltration
Controlled cross-ventilation for summer cooling
Natural ventilation through vertical spaces such as elevators and stairs
Daylighting wherever possible, especially in the public areas

Energy Codes & Issues
Individual controls for heating and ventilation in the guest rooms, multiple zone controls in the public areas
Heat recovery systems in the kitchen area
Limit air conditioning to the kitchen or other high heat-producing areas Water-conserving plumbing fixtures Off-peak water heating
The California Energy Commission's building regulations that apply to the conference center are (effective July 1982):
Title 20, Chapter 2, Subchapter 4, Article 1, 1401 1410
Title 24, Part 2, Chapter 2-53, 2-5301 thru 2-5307, 2-5311 thru 2-5344
The regulations of Title 20 and Title 24 that are relevant to the conference center include:
Minimum insulation requirement for the roof is R-19 for areas with 3000 heating degree days or less (the Stanford area has 2900' degree days).
The total calculated annual energy consumption of the service systems shall include energy used for comfort heating, comfort cooling, ventilation for health and comfort of the occupants, service water heating, and lighting.
Table 2-53C 2-5313(e)
Climate zone for the Stanford area is Zone 3.
Fig. 2-53A

Energy Codes & Issues
Maximum allowable energy consumption per year (for heating only): Table 2-531
Dining and Drinking establishments 126,000 BTU/ SF of conditioned floor area
Auditorium 154,000
Offices 135,000
C iassrooms 118,000
Storage 104,000
The CALCON I Public Domain Computer Program or Certified Alternative Calculation Method shall be used to determine the calculated annual energy consumption for comparison with the maximum allowable consumption in Table 2-531. 2-5314(a) 1409(c)
For purposes of Building Envelope Calculations, the indoor design temperatures for specific localities shall be 70 degrees F for heating and 78 degrees F for cooling. 2-5321
Electric resistance heating systems shall not the resistance system is used to supplement a a non-depletable source of energy. be used for space heating unless heat-pump system or a system using 2-5331(a)
Lighting standards and maximum lighting loads by task and type of area. 2-5343 2-5344 Table 2-53Q

Program Details

Major Uses: Large group meetings or lectures; presentations of slides, videos, or movies; performances by small musical groups.
Capacity: 70 80 people.
Times of Use: Throught the day and evening.
Adjacencies: Small conference room, A/V control room, coffee break areas.
Visual Qualities: All people should have a clear, unobstructed view of the lecture stage. Colors and surfaces should be comforting and soothing to the eye.
Special Acoustics: The acoustics should allow speech or music to be heard without using amplification equipment.
Special Materials: Carpet should be used on the floors, acoustic material on the walls and ceilings.
Lighting: The lighting should be completely artificial to allow maximum control of light levels. However, the lighting should be pleasant, unobtrusive, and "natural" in effect.
Equipment/Furnishing: The auditorium seats should be quite comfortable. Most seats will be built-in, though some movable chairs should be available for overflow crowds. See A/V Control Room program for service needs.
Comments: The auditorium is the largest single space in the conference center. It is an opportunity to convey a sense of importance and elegance to the center, and selection of materials, forms, lights, and colors should reflect this sense.

Large Conference Room
Major Uses: Medium-sized meetings or lectures; presentation of slides or videos.
Capacity: 24 30 people.
Times of Use: Throughout the day and evening.
Adjacencies: Auditorium, A/V control room, coffee break areas, small gathering areas.
Visual Qualities: Views to the outside should be provided on at least one wall. Access to the outside might also be provided.
Special Acoustics: The room should be well-insulated from noise emanating from adjacent spaces.
Special Materials: Carpet should be used on the floor, well-textured materials on the walls and ceiling.
Lighting: The space should be light and cheerful (perhaps daylit), though it should be possible to lower the light levels for A/V presentations.
Equipment/Furnishing: Comfortable chairs and ample table space should be provided. The table should be designed to enable face-to-face conversation (see comments below). See A/V Control Room program for service needs.
Comments: The conference rooms, whether large or small, must accomodate discussion and conversation between several people. This is a different function from that of the auditorium, where a large group assembles to listen to a lecture or presentation. The conference rooms depend on interactive conversation, and research suggests seating people face-to-face aids the discussion process (Deasy, 1974).

Small Conference Room
Major Uses:
Times of Use: Adjacencies:
Visual Qualities: Special Acoustics: Special Materials:
Seminars, small presentations, "break-out" conferences from the auditorium or the large conference rooms.
8-10 people.
Throughout the day and evening.
Auditorium, large conference room, small gathering areas.
The rooms should be well-insulated from outside noise.
The materials may vary from room to room, to individualize the space and to set different moods.
Lighting should be pleasant and contemplative, and adjustable to several light levels by the conference participants.
Comfortable, movable chairs at a single table. No special A/V equipment required.
The small conference rooms are intended for meetings of a more intimate scale, with either a seminar or discussion format.
The meetings would be more oriented to conversation than those in the larger conference facilities, and more formal than meetings held in the sitting room/den or library.

Sitting Room / Den
Major Uses:
Times of Use: Adjacencies:
Visual Qualities: Special Acoustics: Special Materials:
Impromptu meetings, social gatherings, relaxation after meetings. 20 24 people.
Throughout the day and evening.
Near but not directly linked to the more formal conference spaces, might be near the dining facilities.
See comments below.
Carpet on the floor, hardwood paneling or wainscoting on the walls, native California stone for the fireplace and hearth.
Ambient light level should be low, task lighting used for den activities such as reading.
Fireplace, comfortable lounge chairs and low tables.
This room should have the atmosphere of a personal den, though shared with several other people. It should be a place for reflection and conversation with fellow conference participants, perhaps with a glass of brandy in hand.

Major Uses:
Times of Use: Adjacencies:
Visual Qualities: Special Acoustics: Special Materials: Lighting:
Equipment/Furnishing: Comments:
Reading, preparation of conference materials, researching.
18 20 people.
Open while conferences are in progress.
Sitting room / den, near but not directly linked to the conference facilities.
The library should be well-insulated from outside noise.
Task-lighting should be provided at the desks and carrels, ambient light provided by daylighting and artifical lighting.
Tables, chairs, and carrels; bookcases and shelves; computer terminals, reference and information counter.
The library should be stocked with reference material (not to be circulated), including guides to periodicals and journals. A link should be provided to SOCRATES, Stanford's computerized card catalog of books and periodicals. Requested items could be transported from Stanford campus to the library via the conference center shuttle.

Small Gathering Areas
Major Uses:
Times of Use: Adjacencies:
Visual Qualities:
Special Acoustics: Special Materials: Lighting:
Discussions between a few people, or reflective thought by a single person.
1 4 people.
Throughout the day and evening.
Large and small conference rooms, coffee break areas, atrium.
Partial views of the atrium or conference rooms ... enough to give a "window" out of the small space, but not so much as to interfere with a sense of privacy and enclosure.
Warm artificial lighting, with the light level adjustable by the person using the space.
Mixture of fixed benches or perches and movable chairs should be provided so that the relationships of seating can be varied, depending on the number of people and the type of discussion.
Small areas like this where very small groups can meet and discuss issues in depth should be a great contribution to the effectiveness of the conferences. Large meetings can be used productively, especially to acquaint everyone with basic facts or procedures. However, there should be areas or "niches" in which people can express themselves freely in a thoughtful exchange of ideas with fellow conference participants.

Lobby / Reception
Major Uses:
Times of Use: Adjacencies:
Visual Qualities: Special Acoustics: Special Materials: Lighting:
Equipment/Furnishing: Comments:
Primary entrance and exit, reception and registration for conference participants and overnight guests.
40 people, half of whom may have baggage.
Throughout the day and evening.
Reservations office, conference center director and assistant offices, residence manager, atrium.
Views should be directed to the atrium.
Resilient floor surface should be provided in high-traffic areas.
Daylighting should filter in from the adjacent atrium space, warm artificial lighting on walls and ceilings.
Reception counter, comfortable chairs in waiting areas.
The lobby is the first interior space the conference participant encounters, and it should set the tone of the conference center, perhaps through materials, scale, color, or other elements.

Major Uses:
Times of Use: Adjacencies:
Visual Qualities:
Special Acoustics: Special Materials:
Equ i pment/Furn i sh i ng: Comments:
Circulation, informal meetings, special receptions or parties.
80 people (standing close to each other)
Throughtout the day and evening.
Large conference rooms, lobby / reception, small gathering areas, offices, stairs to the second floor.
The atrium should have a light and festive appearance, an inviting quality.
Resilient floor surface in the central atrium area, carpeting along the perimeter.
The space should be daylit from above, with wall-mounted lights provided for low levels of illumination in the evening.
Comfortable lounge chairs and small tables along the perimeter of the atrium.
The atrium is a major circulation space for the conference center, and will be an active space most of the day. It should be light, elegant, and pleasant to pass through or to pause while talking to a fellow conferee. Formal receptions and cocktails parties will frequently be held in the atrium area.

Major Uses:
Times of Use:
Visual Qualities: Special Acoustics: Special Materials: Lighting:
Organization and management of the conference center functions, interaction with conference participants.
1 2 people per office.
8:30 AM 5:30 PM Monday through Friday, except for the residence manager's office, participants'offices, and reservations office which should be open 24 hours.
Lobby / reception, atrium, conference facilities, residential facilities.
Views to the outside where possible.
Artificial lighting should be used, both for general illumination and for task-lighting.
ng: Desk, chairs, credenza, bookshelves, filing cabiniets, etc. as required.
Though the offices are not part of the center's primary public space, any available opportunities to make them pleasant and interesting to the people who use them should be taken.

Organizational Diagram
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Major Uses: Overnight accomodations for special speakers or lecturers, informal meetings for 1 4 people in the sitting room.
Capacity: 1 overnight guest.
Times of Use: At any time during the day or night.
Adjacencies: Conference facilities, residential facilities.
Visual Qualities: Suites should command a pleasant view, perhaps over the landscaped gardens.
Special Acoustics: Sound transmission between adjoining rooms should be kept as minimal as possible. Sound-buffering walls should be provided between all types of rooms.
Special Materials: See Comments.
Lighting: Ambient lighting should be subdued, with task-lighting used as required. Lighting should also be adjustable by the guest.
Equipment/Furnishing: Comfortable chairs and low table for the sitting room, bed, writing desk and chair, valet, bureau, etc. for the bedroom, plumbing as required in the bathroom.
Comments: The suites are intended for distinguished scholars or practictioners who have been invited to lecture at a conference. The rooms should be elegant and comfortable, but not unusually luxurious. Conferences at the Center should be run as a meeting of equals, each person being equally free to contribute. However, conferences often invite keynote speakers or special experts to help focus the proceedings, and these people should be provided with gracious accomodations.

Private Room
Major Uses:
Times of Use: Adjacencies:
Vispal Qualities:
Special Acoustics: Special Materials: Lighting:
Overnight accomodations for conference participants.
1 overnight guest.
At any time during the day or night.
Residents' lounge, cluster rooms, pantry.
Private rooms should have views to the outside, either to the gardens or to the hills beyond.
See Suite program.
See Suite program.
Comfortable reading chair, bed, bureau, writing desk and chair, radio (no television).
The private rooms are intended for conference participants who do not live locally, or those who do live locally but prefer to stay closer to the conference activities. The rooms should be used for sleeping, reading, or studying ... they do not include sitting rooms for meeting or receiving as do the other room types. Guests who need informal meeting space close to their rooms should use the Residents' Lounge.

Cluster Room
Major Uses:
Times of Use: Adjacencies:
Visual Qualities: Special Acoustics: Special Materials: Lighting:
Overnight accomodations for conference participants, informal meetings in the sitting room.
1 overnight guest per room.
At any time during the day or night.
Residents' lounge, private rooms, pantry.
The rooms should have views to the outside, to the gardens or hills. See Suite program.
See Suite program.
Comfortable chairs and low tables for the sitting room, bed, writing desk and chair, bureau, radio for the bedroom.
The cluster rooms provide separate sleeping quarters with shared bathroom and sitting room/entry areas. These rooms should be less expensive and less isolated than the private rooms, and therefore should provide a choice in the type of accomodation. The sitting room could be a place for impromptu meetings or relaxation by either or both of the guests.

Residents' Lounge
Major Uses: Informal gatherings of conference participants (most of whom will be overnight guests staying in adjacent rooms), listening to music, reading, watching television, relaxing.
Capacity: 15 18 people.
Times of Use: Throughout the day and evening, especially during the evening hours.
Adjacencies: Private rooms, cluster rooms, suites, pantry.
Visual Qualities: The lounge should be visually accessible from the circulation path to and from the private and cluster rooms.
Speical Acoustics: The lounge users may generate a great deal of noise at times. The walls and materials in the room should be able to absorb most of the noise, and prevent it from disturbing guests in their rooms.
Special Materials: See Special Acoustics.
Lighting: Ambient lighting should be subdued and adjustable, task-lichting should be provided as required.
Equipment/Furnishing: Comfortable chairs and low tables, writing desk and chair, bookcases, audio/visual equipment.
Comments: The lounge should be a community space, where conference participants can gather outside of their rooms to relax and enjoy each other's company. The lounge should include A/V equipment, such as a stereo and video apparatus. Televisions should not be provided in indiviual rooms (they are incompatible with the conference center's purpose of promoting social and intellectual contact) though one may be included in the lounge for groups to watch special programs.

Organizational Diagram

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Large Dining Room
Major Uses: Service of lunch and dinner, formal or informal gatherings.
Capacity: 40 people.
Times of Use: Mid-morning through late evening.
Adjacencies: Small dining rooms, kitchen, bar, cafe, atrium.
Visual Qualities: See Comments.
Special Acoustics: The dining room should be shielded from outside noise, including kitchen noise, and be quiet enough so that people could converse at normal levels of speech.
Special Materials: Special attention should be spent on selecting the texture, color, and refinement of the dining room materials ... the goal is to create an elegant and memorable space.
Lighting: The lighting should be adjustable to allow brighter light levels during the lunch hours, and more subdued light at dinner. Individual tables might be lit from wall or ceiling fixtures.
Equipment/Furnishing: Comfortable chairs and tables. Several different sizes of tables should be provided, ranging in capacity from 1 6 people.
Comments: The dining room should be an elegant space, a place to which to retire for a sustaining meal after or in-between meetings. Conference agenda could continue into the dining room if the participants choose to discuss their ideas over lunch or dinner.

Small Dining Room
Major Uses: Service of lunch and dinner, secondary seminar space.
Capacity: 8-10 people.
Times of Use: Throughout the day and evening.
Adjacencies: Large dining room, kitchen, bar.
Visual qualities: Each of the small dining rooms should be slightly different in character ... to provide diversity and interest for people who might use one room for a seminar and another for dining.
Special Acoustics:
Special Materials: See Visual Qualities.
Lighting: Lighting should appear warm and inviting, and should not exacerbate the small size of the rooms.
Equipment/Furnishing: One dining table with 8-10 chairs.
Comments: The small dining rooms should be flexible and able to be used either for seminars or for dining. The small conference rooms should accomodate most of the need for small meeting space, but should there be overflow attendance, or a group that wishes to discuss the topics at hand over a meal, then the small dining room will serve that purpose.

Major Uses:
Times of Use: Adjacencies:
Visual Qualities:
Special Acoustics: Special Materials: Lighting:
Equipment/Furnishing: Comments:
Service of breakfast or light meals, informal meetings, lively social gatherings.
30 40 people indoors, with additional seating area outdoors.
Throughout the day and evening.
Bakery, kitchen, bar, outside gardens and seating.
Views should be provided to the outside, including the outside seating area.
Brightly-colored, durable materials for all surfaces.
The cafe space should be well-lighted during the day, especially in the morning (eastern exposure is desirable). Daylighting should be used wherever possible. Light levels should be much lower in the evening, when light might be supplied by lamps at each table.
Durable and comfortable chairs and tables with capacity to seat 2-6 people each.
The cafe will be used most in the morning and late evening when other dining facilities are closed. It should be a place for informal gatherings and conversation; a place to savor fresh baked goods in the morning, and wine or coffee in the evening.

Food Service and Storage
Major Uses:
Times of Use: Adjacencies:
Visual Qualities: Special Acoustics:
Food storage, preparation, and service; clean-up activities, liquor storage and service, delivery and disposal.
Varies with each space, see the Restaurant & Food Service program summary.
Throughout the day and evening.
Large and small dining rooms, cafe, service/delivery area.
Special Materials: Durable and washable surfaces throughout the facilities.
Lighting: Bright lighting (possibly fluorescent) over food preparation
areas, lighting as required in storage areas.
Commercial kitchen cooking and preparation equipment, display cases for the bakery, shelving for storage areas, special ventillation equipment, special plumbing and electrical outlets as required.
Comments: Liquor will be served in the cafe and dining rooms as well as
in the bar, so the bar has been allotted a relatively small amount of space. Owing to the conference center's location in California, a well-stocked cellar of domsetic wines should be an important inclusion.

A/V Control Room
Major Uses: Projection of visual presentations, producing and recording sound, controlling light levels and direction, storing small amounts of equipment.
Capacity: 1 2 A/V specialists.
Times of Use: During operation of auditorium or large conference rooms.
Adjacencies: Auditorium, large conference rooms, A/V office and storage, dark room and graphics room.
Visual Qualities: -
Special Acoustics: Conference participants should not be able to hear sounds of activity from within the booth, only the sound of the presentation.
Special Materials: -
Lighting: Controls for the light level of the rooms should be located in the A/V booth.
Equipment/Furnishging: Special electrical supply for the projectors, recording equipment, lights, etc., stools or chairs for the A/V specialists.

Dark Room & Graphics
Major Uses:
Times of Use: Adjacencies:
Visual Qualities: Special Acoustics: Special Materials:
Production of slides, photographs, and graphics for conference programs; layout of brochures and posters for marketing purposes.
1 2 people in each room.
During weekday work hours, or by appointment.
A/V control room, A/V office and storage, conference services office.
Washable and durable materials should be used on the room and equipment surfaces.
Safe lights should be provided in the dark room. Task-lights should be provided in the graphics room at the drafting and layout tables.
Drafting table and chair, layout table, storage cabinet and shelves, copying machine for the graphics room; darkroom equipment and special plumbing for the dark room.

Thesis Design

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Thesis Conclusion
contemplation. Dispersing the buildings in this manner does increase the cost (construction cost estimate $5.1 million, project cost estimate $7.4 million for 44,100 square feet) and the difficulty of site prepararion. It is my opinion, however, that the overall plan is so sensible and coherent that the extra cost beyond that of a single centralized building is a worthwhile price to pay.
The image of the conference center as expressed in the elevations also took many hours to refine. I am generally quite pleased with the result -- the facades are reminiscent of Stanford's Quadrangle in proportion and overall color scheme, yet different in detail, material, and plan. During my presentation, the jurors suggested that the building plans could be more reminiscent of the elevations, and I agree that would be a worthy refinement. However, in all important respects,
I am very pleased and proud of my design and its response to the thesis and the site.


Books & Periodicals
Baum, Andrew, and Stuart Valins. Architecture and Social Behavior: Psychological
Studies of Social Density. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawerence Erlbaum Associates, 1977.
Booth, Norman K. Basic Elements of Landscape Architectural Design. New York:
Elsevier Science Publishing Co., 1983.
Campbell, Robert. "Arcadian House of the Intellect: Two Views of Kallmann, McKinnell & Woods' Headquarters of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences." AIA Journal,
Mid-May (1982), p. 134 144.
Canty, Donald. "Shining Vessel of Religious Thought." AIA Journal, Mid-May (1982), p. 124 133.
Conway, Donald, ed. Social Science & Design: A Process Model for Architect & Social
Scientist Collaboration. Washington D.C.: American Institute of Architects, 1973.
Deasey, C.M. Desiqn for Human Affairs. Cambridge, Massachusettes: Schenkman Publishing Co., 1974.
De Chiara, Joseph, and Lee Koppleman. Site Planning Standards. New York: McGraw Hill Book Co., 1978.
The Facility Project Development Process. By Office of the Provost, Stanford University. Stanford, California. December 1981.
Gibaldi, Joseph, and Walter Achtert. MLA Handbook: For Writers of Research Papers,
Theses, & Dissertations. New York: Modern Language Association, 1977.

Books & Periodicals
Marlowe, Olwen C. Outdoor Design: A Handbook for the Architect & Designer.
New York: Whitney Library of Design, Watson-Gupti1 Publications, 1977.
Naisbitt, John. Megatrends. New York: Warner Books, Inc., 1982.
Newton, Norman T. Design on the Land: The Development of Landscape Architecture. Cambridge, Massachusettes: Belknap Press, 1971.
Nuttgens, Patrick. The Landscape of Ideas. London: Faber & Faber Limited, 1972.
Physical Program for New Student Residences. By Stanford Office of Design & Construction. Stanford, California: Stanford University, May 1980.
Pope, Robert J. & Associates. Silver Creek Hills Conference Center. Palo Alto, California, 1983.
Success List of Water Conserving Plants. By Saratoga Horticultural Foundation. Saratoga, California. 1983.
Shepard, J.C., and G.A. Jellicoe. Italian Gardens of the Renaissance. New York: Architectural Book Publishing, 1966.
Stanford from the Beginning. By Stanford Office of Public Affairs. Stanford, California: Stanford University, 1984.
Stanford Land Use PLan. By Stanford Planning Office. Stanford, California:
Stanford University, 1980.

Books & Periodicals
Tobey, George B., Jr. A History of Landscape Architecure: The Relationship of People to Environment. New York: American Elsevier Publishing Co., 1973.
Turner, Paul V. The Founders & the Architects: The Design of Stanford University. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1976.
Wharton, Edith. Italian Villas and Their Gardens. 1904; rpt. New York: De Capo
Press, 1976.

Personal Interviews
Blue, Amy. Director of Project Management. 18 July 1984.
Chan, Judy. Associate Director of Planning. 26 July 1984.
Fariello, Lois. Director of Conference Administration. Phone interview. 3 July 1984. Johnson, Carolyn. Real Estate Investment Office. Phone interview. 22 August 1984. Kays, William. Dean of the School of Engineering. 5 July 1984.
Kershner, Eugene. Associate Director of Project Management. 20 July 1984.
Lyons, James. Dean of Student Affairs. 17 July 1984.
Neerie, Robert. Manager of University Projects. 20 July 1984.
Player, Marian. Director of Continuing Education. 10 July 1984.
Veronian, Valerie. Assistant Provost. 10 August 1984 & 26 October 1984.
Williams, Phillip. Director of Planning. 7 August 1984.


Conference Center Research
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Conference Centers Catch On
As Some Firms Shun Hotels
By Robert Guenther
Staff Reporter of Thf. Wall Strkkt Journal
Real ESTATE DEVELOPERS really dont have the herd instinct, though the eagerness of many developers of suburban office parks to include business-conference centers in their projects might give that impression. Its just that developers believe that the specialized centers will create a blue-chip aura that will attract tenants at top rents.
A measure of the interest in conference centers is that Benchmark Management Co., one of the handful of managers in the fledgling business-conference center field, rejected 32 offers last year from developers who asked Benchmark to manage centers that they wanted to build. Burt Cabanas, chief operating officer of Benchmark, says, Every developer thinks his project will make it if it has a conference center. Centers can be catalysts for other development, but only if they're economically feasible on their own.
While its no surprise that the meetings market is huge, what has caught developers' eye is the loyal following such centers are building among corporations.
Henry Hamel, director of administration for Pfizer International, has held a meeting at Arrowood, a center opened nearly two years ago by Citibank outside New York. No hotel in New York City has proper meeting facilities. Something's always wrong, he says. In contrast, Arrowood was designed for meetings of 30 to 100 executives. "The meetings at a conference center have to be superior, and they are. They thought of everything, he says.
From: Wall Street Journal, March 6, 1985
W HAT MAKES such centers attractive is that a corporate meeting isn't disrupted by a wedding reception or reunion in the room next door, as often happens in hotels. In addition, the centers feature auditoriums, small meeting rooms with upholstered armchairs, the latest audio-visual equipment and recreation such as swimming and golf. The guest rooms often have large desks with reference books, direct-dial telephones, triple-sheeted beds and 24-hour room service.
Everything is geared to tell the participants: This is a serious meeting. As a result, center operators say, participants retain more of what they hear.
Of course, this has a price. The typical new conference center has 1,000 square feet of public space and two employees for every guest room; hotels, other than convention hotels, have about 700 square feet and one employee for each room. Consequently, users of conference centers pay a premium. However, meetings planners say the costs are competitive with luxury hotels, since the centers' rates include all meals and services. Richard Barger, president of Conference Environments Corp., another operator of centers, says, The corporate controllers love it, because they know exactly how much a meeting will cost.
Another attraction to developers is that some centers are proving to be resilient even in soft hotel markets. The Woodlands Inn, which at 10 years old is the granddaddy of the new generation of conference centers, is in one of the softest hotel markets, the North Loop market in Houston.
OIL-RELATED COMPANIES used to be two-thirds of the Woodlands business, but the collapse of oil prices and acquisitions of some major oil companies have cut their usage in half. But because of the Woodlands meeting and recreational facilities, Carl McKee, the inn s general manager, believes it has a competitive advantage.
According to Benchmark, which operates the inn for Mitchell Energy Co., occupancy has been about 68% with a quoted rate of $158 a night. Though thats down from 1981, when rates were higher and occupancy was 74%, its still better than North Loop hotels with occupancies that average 53% with deep discounts.

Conference Center Research
Likewise, Arrowood in Rye Brook, N.Y., had a 71% occupancy and an asking rate of $239 a night in 1984, a good performance for its first full year. Sam Haigh, general manager, says, Our gross operating profit is certainly higher than a comparable hotel.
One reason conference centers have been able to offset their high capital costs is that they know weeks in advance how much staff and food they will need for any particular day, unlike a hotel. .__
The centers have had their problems, though. Not all executives buy the claimed advantages of the centers meeting facilities, and many centers are deserted on weekends and holidays. Others, such as the Houstonian, have gotten off to slow starts and confused the marketplace by shifting their emphasis from business meeting to traveling executives and back again. Even the Woodlands required seven years before it turned a profit.
THEN, TOO, THE CONCEPT behind the centers has had to be
refined. The 300-room Scanticon-Princeton Executive Conference Center, Princeton, N.J., was designed by a Danish firm along the lines of its successful center in Denmark. Since opening in 1981, Scanticons occupancies have risen slowly from the 55% range to 65%, a level which Niels Olsen, the general manager, calls "satisfactory.
Some in the industry say the stark Danish Modern look and Danish meals didn't go over with U.S. executives. For instance, a respected Danish chef offered buffets with herring prepared 20 different ways, something only a Danish gourmet would appreciate. Since then, Scanticon has tailored itself more to American tastes and has embarked on aggressive expansion plans, including a center near Minneapolis with Prudential Insurance Co. and others near Denver, Palo Alto and La Jolla, Calif.

Potential Users of the Conference Center
Space agency task force to meet in five-day conference at Stanford
Times Tribune staff
A- space agency task force now planning the design and scientific uses for the proposed $8 billion space station will meet in a five-day conference at Stanford University later this month.
About 60 scientists and National Aeronautics & Space Administration officials are expected to attend the meeting, which will be held from Aug. 13-17.
Stanford Professor Peter Banks is the chairman of the NASA Task Force, on the Scientific Uses of Space Station and will be the leader of the conference. Most of the 28 members of this high-level advisory committee will attend the meeting.
NASA established the task force
to plan the scientific uses of the space station and to be a focal point for scientists to communicate their ideas about the use of the space station.
One of the topics the task force probably will address during its five-day conference is the upcoming report by the congressional Office of Technology Assessment that questions NASAs plans for a space station. The study is expected to acknowledge the need for a permanent space station that orbits Earth but to criticize NASAs preliminary schemes, which it said are expensive and poorly planned.
The task force also will give special attention to the following topics:
Review of the models for
space stations, including the types of platforms and scientific instruments that will be included, the degree of remote control that will be used to operate the station, and the overall concept.
Evaluation of scientific experiments from current Spacelab and space shuttle missions that would be eligible for the space station.
Review of universities and other research agencies that could provide the research for experiments to be included on the space station.
The proposed space station is scheduled to be launched in 1992 and is intended to orbit the Earth for 20 years.
From: The Penninsula Times-Tribune, 6 August 1984.

Potential Users of the Conference Center_
$2 million gift focuses Rapport between Stanford and industry
A major new center that soon may become a catalyst for both cooperative research and information exchange between the University and industrial manufacturers has been created at Stanford. Initial impetus for the action is a four-year $2 million gift from IBM.
The Stanford Institute for Manufacturing and Automation (SIMA), chaired by Prof. Robert Cannon, head of the Aeronautics and Astronautics Department, will serve as an umbrella organization for several research and educational centers on campus.
Prof. Elliott Levinthal of Stanfords Medical Center has been named SIMA director. He recently has returned from three years of service as director of the Defense Sciences Office with the Defense Advanced Projects Agency.
SIMA will serve to coordinate industrial interaction for the member centers and assist in the development of new programs. The initial members are the Center for Teaching and Research in Manufacturing Systems, the Center for Design Research, and the Center for
Automation and Manufacturing Science, (CAMS) all three of which are located on the Stanford campus.
The seven-member steering committee forSIMAconsistsof Cannon; Levinthal; Prof. Thomas Binford of the Computer Science Department and co-director of CAMS; Prof. Charles Kruger, chairman of the Mechanical Engineering Department; Prof. Warren Hausman, chairman of the Department of Industrial Engineering; Associate Prof. Larry Leiferof the Mechanical Engineering Department; and Prof. Von Eshleman, associate dean of engineering for research.
An Industrial Advisory Committee, composed of executives of sponsor companiescompanies that do manufacturing or for whom high-tech manufacturing is important will be named during the next year. The sponsor companies will provide the primary support for SIMA.
SIMA also will have a cooperative arrangement with the Outer for Integrated Systems, because of the importance of VLSI to automation and the importance of automation to the manufacture of VLSI components.
From: The Stanford Observer, May 1984.

Potential Users of the Conference Center
Summer is big business: $3.5 million in conferences
Not too many Stanford programs gener ate S3.5 million in gross income in just two-and-a-half months, but that is the amount Lois Lariello is projecting from this years summer conferences.
From mid-June to late August, 13,000 visitors are expected to attend 150 conferences, ranging front cheerleader training to "Technological Advances in Complex Angioplastv." T he guests, whose visits last from overnight to 12 weeks, will stay in campus residences and eat food prepared by University Food Services. And spend money.
"The $3.5 million is just for housing and food," said Fariello, who has managed the conference program since 1960. "It doesn't count the income benefits to the Athletics Department, Tresidder, the Faculty (dub. the bookstore, local transportation and businesses. It doesn't even include the tuition for the conferences."
Fariello is aware of the academic benefits of the summer program. We get a lot of Nobel w inners and academicians w ho share research, and the knowledge thats gained is tremendousbut in one deep breath she also can recite a long list of additional benefits that accrue to the Stanford community from the summer program:
* After administrative costs are deducted, the program's remaining funds are used to defray room-and-board charges for students during the academic t ear. This averages out to about $10 to $15 per tear per student, she said.
* The programs policy of advance billing has resulted in a fund of $20,000 from interest that is kept in reserve in the housing and food account for emergencies.
* Professors are paid for teaching at the conferences, and sponsoring departments can raise funds from conference fees.
* The program provides year-round employment for Housekeeping and Food Services employees.
* Lip to 300 temporary employees, including Stanford and local high school students, are hired in the summer to work in the conference housing and food service program.
* The conferences provide summer work for employees in the Audiovisual Department and Operations and Maintenance.
* Residences get some sprucing up with shampooed carpets, washed windows, and other cleaning.
* Local hotels and restaurants are enthusiastic about the business the program brings into the community, and donate items that can be used in the residences.
To lure the potential visitors who provide these benefits. Fariello and her staff of four-and-a-quarter" offer a range of services packaged and priced to suit the pot ketbooks of those attending the conferences.
Our office is a one-stop shopping center where the contacts we work with arrange for all their needs from bousing, food service, meeting rooms, special cocktail