Citation
The Denver Institute of Contemporary Art, Denver, Colorado

Material Information

Title:
The Denver Institute of Contemporary Art, Denver, Colorado
Creator:
Keller, Bruce Charles
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
96, [50] leaves : illustrations, charts, maps (some color), plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Art museums -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Art museums ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Bruce Charles Keller.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
15525167 ( OCLC )
ocm15525167
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1986 .K44 ( lcc )

Full Text
THE DENVER
INSTITUTE OF CONTEMPORARY ART DENVERy COLORADO
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver partial fulfillment of the requirements for The Degree of Master of Architecture
V
Bruce Charles Keller


The Thesis of BRUCE CHARLES KELLER is approved
Paul Heath, Committee Chairman
Bob Davis, Principal Advisor
Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver 1986


CONTENTS
Page
Thesis Statement..................._............................. 1
Site Analysis.................................................... 6
Cl imate.........................................................24
A Brief History of Art Museums.................................28
A Brief History of Lower Downtown Denver........................39
Zoning Requirements..............................................43
Denver Building Code Requirements................................44
The Program......................................................51
Bibl iography....................................................95
Appendix.........................................................97
Cl imate.................................................... A
Lighting.................................................... B
Security.................................................... C
Conclusion
98


THESIS STATEMENT


Introduction
For my thesis project I have chosen to design The Denver Institute of Contemporary Art.
An institute of contemporary art functions in much the same manner as a museum of contemporary art, the difference being that an institute does not have a permanent collection.
The major reason for this is one of definition. If an institute were to collect contemporary works of art as part of a permanent collection, in time the works would change from contemporary, to modern, to historical. The museum would be stationary in time and soon would not be exclusively contemporary.
A second reason is one of finance. Money spent on collecting art is not available for mounting shows. If the objective of the institute is to deal with contemporary art, its primary concern should be to show new works, not in storing away works for the future.
Lastly, retrospection is needed to judge and amass a collection of truly great works. It takes time to distinguish between the good and the bad, and to recognize achievement.
An institute of contemporary art must be free to take chances, to show what is the current trend in the art world, to not be concerned with safe bets. The making of


2
An institute of contemporary art must be free to take chances, to show what is the current trend in the art world, to not be concerned with safe bets. The making of art involves risk taking, an institute of contemporary art should be involved in that risk.
Thesis Proposal
The question to be answered is: what should architecture do for art in general, and in this case, contemporary art in particular? A building which is designed for the display of art has to be a participant in the function of the building. That is, the building acts like a frame for a painting or a pedestal for a sculpture. The building must then take a secondary supportive role to the displayed art as it provides the backdrop for exper iencing that art. Paul Goldberger compared a good art museum to a stage set by saying,
A stage set that wins applause is not a good set for it detracts attention from the play, and a museum building's problem is similar. It must provide a sympathetic background, enhancing the visitor's appreciation of works of art yet not be- ^ coming the major object of display itself.
This does not mean a boring, neutral space is the answer, there still needs to be architectural interest and variety The best gallery spaces strike a balance between architectural concerns and art display requirements.
The Denver Institute of Contemporary Art will house


3
temporary exhibitions with the displays constantly changing. This above all demands flexible gallery space.
Some exhibits will consist of very large aggressive pieces, while others will be of small delicate works. The gallery spaces will have to respond to the needs of the art work, accommodating the large works while not overpowering displays of smaller pieces.
Not only should systems be supplied to actively enhance the flexibility of the gallery spaces, but the building should put as few constraints on the galleries as possible. The building must not be precious, it should exist only as a framework for displaying art. From time to time, the building may need to be altered to accommodate an exhibition. As we cannot predict what form contemporary art will take in the future, the galleries must be anticipatory to change, must welcome innovation, and be adaptable to experimentation.
The program of the Institute of Contemporary Art can be separated into two paths. The public path of the visitor to the art work and the private path of the art to the public. The destination of both is the gallery. Each arrives after a different sequence of spaces with a different purpose. The public path is a procession while the private path is a progression. Both are important to create a successful institute of contemporary art.
The architecture needs to provide a procession that


4
Edward T. White, Concept Sourcebook (Tucson, Arizona: Architectural Media LTD., 1975), p. 42.


5
first prepares the visitor for the contemplation of the works of art, and then enhances that experience. This is done by providing a sequence of spaces that adjusts the mood of the visitor allowing him to leave behind the outside world and submerge himself in the displayed art. Upon entry the architecture should invite the visitor to proceed to the display galleries. There, the viewing of art follows a sequence which is set up by the curator. The visitor's path through the galleries needs to be guided so that he gets the experience that the curator has intended. At the same time, there needs to be allowance for some wandering and doubling back. Art should be viewed and reviewed from a multitude of distances and angles. There should be opportunity to see the work from close up, far away and mid-range, from across the room and sometimes, even from another room.
The functional aspect of the Institute of Contemporary Art is the progression of the works of art from loading dock to gallery space and then back. The sequence of these spaces is as important to the success of the Institute of Contemporary Art as is the procession of the visitor. Adequate facilities for the receiving, handling, preparing, and installing a work of art are needed. These functions must be arranged in a logical, smooth succession. The quality of an exhibition ultimately rests on how well these functions are performed.
'Paul Goldberger, "What Should a Museum Building Be?" Art News, October 1975, p. 34.


SITE ANALYSIS


7
VERBAL SITE DESCRIPTION
I have chosen a site in lower downtown Denver on the northwest corner of the intersection of Nineteenth and Blake Streets. The site extends 200 feet up Blake Street and is 125 feet deep. It is assumed for this project that the three buildings presently occupying this site have been eliminated.
The surrounding area is a very rich and diverse mix. Only a few blocks to the south is downtown Denver with its tall office buildings and retail stores. A short walk and you can be at the Sixteenth Street Mall, The Tabor Center, or the new restaurants in the renovated buildings along Market Street. To the Northwest is the Union Pacific Railyards, the Platte River and Interstate 25. A few blocks Southeast is Denver's skid row. Laimer Street between 20th and 22nd is lined with bars and pawn ships. Immediately around the site are warehouses and commercial businesses, or warehouses and commercial buildings that have been renovated into offices. Going Northeast from the site the use becomes more and more industrial.
Most of the buildings of the area are fifty to eighty years old. Their facades are brick bearing walls. Many are quite ornate. Some have been renovated, but others are empty and run down. Predominately, the buildings are one to three stories tall with a few being four or five


8
and some of the new ones being twenty stories or more.
Most are built to the property line and do not step back as they go up. This creates a wall of buildings lining the street. There is quite a few holes in the wall where buildings have been torn down. In some blocks only two or three buildings remain. The West side of Market Street between 18th and 19th streets is completely vacant. In place of the missing buildings are either parking lots, storage lots or in some cases, just vacant lots.
The lots here have twenty-five feet of street frontage. Most of the older buildings were built on this twenty-five foot module and so are either twenty-five, fifty or seventy-five feet wide. This gives the street a certain rhythm and gives the buildings a vertical emphasis.
Blake Street rises slightly from 19th Street to 20th Street. The site is about two feet higher at the North end than it is at the South end. There is a sidewalk along only one half of the block on the west side of the street and none at all on the East side. The East side of the street is lined by a waist high concrete loading dock. Both the lack of sidewalks and the concrete loading docks are typical throughout the area especially as you go Northeast.
On the Southwest corner of Blake Street and 20th Street is a new interior design showroom. It is built of brick in a style that is similar to the older existing buildings.


9
On the Southeast corner of Blake Street and 19th Street (catercorner from the site) is an addition/renovation that is again of brick and also attempts to fit into the surrounding context. The south side of Blake Street between 19th Street and 20th Street is warehouse/shipping facilities and interior design businesses.


10






13
BUILDING AND LAND USES OF THE SURROUNDING AREA


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VIADUCT 16TH ST. MALL
Built Since 1970


24
THE CLIMATE


25
Denver has a mild, sunny and semi-arid climate. The relative humidity is low, the average precipitation is low, and there is considerable clear-sky sunshine. The annual mean temperature is 50.1 degrees Fahrenheit, with a summer midday average of 85.6 degrees Fahrenheit and a January average of 42.6 degrees Fahrenheit. Extreme temperatures of hot or cold rarely last more than five to six days. The night to day temperature swing is greater than the winter to summer swing.
Denver's mean annual precipitation equals 15.51 inches. The spring is the wettest season bringing 37% of the annual precipitation. The winter months are the driest. From November to March, the precipitation usually falls as snow. The average annual snowfall equals 59.9 inches.
Wind speeds in Denver are normally calm to light.
Wind speeds are highest in the winter and the spring and lowest in the later summer and fall. Chinook winds from the west can have a warming effect in the winter.
Denver receives an average of 70 percent of the total pgssible sunshine throughout the year. The fall has the clearest days and the spring the cloudiest. Denver has an average of 115 clear days, 133 partly cloudy days and 117 cloudy days.
Air pollution, paved surfaces and the proliferation of building have altered Denver's climate. The core city is hotter than the surrounding countryside in the summer and cooler in the winter. During the summer,


26
buildings and paving absorb and radiate the sun's heat. In the winter, air pollution interferes with the solar radiation causing surface air temperatures to be lowered by as much as ten degrees Fahrenheit.




28
A BRIEF
HISTORY
OF
ART MUSEUMS


29
The Latin word, museum, is derived from the Greek mouseion, meaning a sanctuary dedicated to the muses.
The Greek mouseion housed a conglomerate of objects and activities having to do with art, music, drama, dance, scholarship, or science and included collections of art objects. Later, wealthy Romans collected examples of Greek art.
With the decline of the ancient world, the concept of mouseion disappeared. We trace our lineage of art collecting to the Italian Renaissance. An interest in history lead to ^he collecting of the artifacts of Classical Antiquity. The paintings and sculpture were often displayed along long passages or galleries. So frequently was this the case that gallery became synonymous with museum. These collections were, however, the private property of the wealthy.
The first public museums were collections of both art and science which emerged from the private collections of the sixteenth and seventeenth century. The first of them, opened in 1683, was the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. It housed treasures of antiquity, as well as scientific and archaeological instruments. In 1753, the British government acquired Sir Hans Sloane's library. It became, in 1758, the British Museum which houses Great Britain's primary anthropological, archaeological and literary collections as well as the Elgin marbles and Assyrian
bas-reliefs.


30
The art museum, as we know it, is a product of the Age of Enlightenment. The first truly great public museum was the Musee National de Louvre, it being a product of the French revolution as well as being revolutionary in concept. On August 10, 1793, the first anniversary of the revolution, the former royal palace of the Louvre was opened to the public. It displayed what had been the royal collection and was now the property of the people of France. There were guided tours, a cheap catalogue, and the pictures had labels. Napoleon stocked the Louvre with the spoils of his conquests making it the great museum in the western world.
The art museum as a specific building type emerged at the end of the eighteenth century. These first art museums were straightforwardly planned for the sequential viewing of works of art. They were designed in the classical styles which were popular at the time, those of Ancient Greece, Imperial Rome, and Renaissance Italy. These styles as the image of an art museum are still with us today. J.-N.-L. Durand's project for a museum of 1803 (inspired by E.-L. Boullee's project for a museum of 1783) established a precedent which would become the staple of museum architecture. Durand's museum had long colonnades which front the facades, solid walls punctuated by niches for sculpture, vaulted galleries lighted by clerestory windows and a large central rotunda.


A Porchf ft Vtvtihilf .
B Saflf* d'fccpcsiiwnf aiumfl/fs C SaHts dt dtrnfurt .
D da Jits dt i' 'culture .
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Durand, Project tor a Museum, 1803.
Elevation, plan, and section. (Durand,
Precis des lemons d'architecture, Paris,
1801-5.)
E. Sa/Zes S'Arc/utectare E J'a/Z de Reu/iwn G. CaduvU des .Irtirtes. II. Entrees parheu&eres.
Right:
Fig. 1. E.-L. Boullee, Project for a Museum, 1 85. Plan.
:immw
Uinitir

aiiraii:


32
Fig. j.J.-N.-L. Durand, Design for a Picture Gallery,
1805. Section and plan. (Durand, Precis des lemons d\ir-cbitecture, Paris, 1801-5.)


33
World War I radically changed the way museums presented their collections. Traditionally, museums had displayed their entire collection. Gallery walls were crowded with paintings, stacked almost to the ceiling.
After the war, many paintings that had been removed and put in storage for safekeeping remained in storage. The work of minor masters were relegated to the basement. The works chosen to be displayed in the galleries were hung in a linear fashion so that each work could be considered separately. Sparsely appointed galleries have lead to overflowing storage bins. An image of an art museum before World War I had been a palace; after the War, it became the clean, white clinic.
The Museum of Modern Art in New York City, founded in 1929, expanded the definition of art to include photography, motion pictures, and contemporary industrial design. Its traveling shows not only put Americans throughout the country in contact with the best examples of contemporary art, but also required regional museums to set aside space for temporary exhibitions to display them. The result was a new set of museum planning ideas. The Museum of Modern Art expanded the social and cultural activities of the museum with lectures, debates, films, radio programs, and eventful openings.
After World War II, museums went through another evolution. Increased temporary exhibitions put greater


34
The Dutch Gallery at the Hermitage.



The Salon Carre in 1865 by Joseph Castiglion, Louvre Museum, Paris. The walls were completely covered with paintings disposed without any concern for chronology or style.


The Rubens Room at the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna before 1914.
The same room after 1914.


37
Exhibition of modern paintings at the Guggenheim Museum, New York
in 1954


38
demands on space and flexibility. Museum staffs increased in size and gallery space was made over into offices, libraries, and storage areas. To draw a larger public, museums increased public services. Restaurants, coatrooms, and auditoriums were added. While the older image of the monumental museum is by no means forgotten, it is rivaled by the concept of the museum devoted to public activity and changing display.


39
A BRIEF
HISTORY
OF
LOWER DOWNTOWN DENVER


40
In 1859, the short-lived settlement of St. Charles was founded east of Cherry Creek near what is now Blake Street. Blake Street was the principle business avenue of St. Charles. Soon after its founding, St. Charles merged with Denver. Floods and fires were frequent occurrences in early Denver, and the early wooden buildings of lower downtown often failed to survive these disasters. After the fire of 1863, a city ordinance was passed prohibiting wooden buildings in the business district. Within two years, the area had been redeveloped with a more fireproof brick construction. Lower downtown was then the business center for the entire Cherry Creek district.
In 1870, the railroad arrived in Denver, linking the previously isolated city with the rest of the nation. The stations and rail yards were located on the same site they currently occupy in lower downtown. The railroad spawned a renewed vigor and growth in business. However, the trains also brought air pollution to the Central Platte Valley. As business activity began to move east, up Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth Streets, the residents moved to Capitol Hill and Highlands to be away from the noise and air pollution of the valley.
The silver panic of 1893 and ensuing economic downturn caused the closing of many of the remaining lower downtown area businesses and retail companies. The area slid into a long, gradual decline and was used mostly for storage (warehousing facilities) for the business-oriented upper downtown.


41
The renovation of Larimer Square in the 1970's marked a new beginning for lower downtown. The area is rapidly being renovated and redeveloped through public and private efforts. Attention is being focused on the area for its abundance of remaining historical buildings.


42
ZONING & BUILDING CODE


43
ZONING REQUIREMENTS
Building zone B7; Fire zone 1 Setbacks 0 Floor Area
Maximum gross = 2x area zone lot.
Premi urns 6: 1-enclosed plaza w/opening 40' width
3:l-enclosed plaza with opening equal to or greater than 20 ft.
3 :1-Unenclosed arcade
3 :1 -Atri urn
2:1-Enclosed arcade
2:1-Low level light area
0.75:1-Underground parking
Sign Restrictions -
Permitted types Wall, window, ground and arcade.
Maximum area: 1 1/2 x each linear foot of
front line for first 100 feet,
1 for 1 thereafter.
Maximum height above grade:
1. Wall + window signs: The roof line
2. Ground and arcade signs: 32'
Parking Class 2
1 space for each 750 sq. ft.
Compact spaces = not more than 50%
Compact space is at least 8 1/2 ft. wide All other spaces are at least 9 ft. wide
Loading
Space 10' wide, 26' long, 14' high Number of spaces required 1


44
CODE REQUIREMENTS
-Building Code of the City and County of Denver, 1985
-Occupancy Classification:
Group B, Division 2 Assembly Building
without a stage and an occupant load of 300 or more
-Construction Type 1
-Maximum allowable basic floor area Unlimited
-Maximum allowable height Unlimited
-Fire resistance of exterior walls:
Openings shall not be permitted in exterior walls located less than 5 ft. from adjacent HL or CL of street or alley.
Set-back requiring protection of openings in exterior walls 20 ft. If sprinkled set-back can = 0.
No portion less than 5'-0
Minimum ceiling height in rooms: 7' Minimum floor area of rooms: over 50%
Fire resistive requirements: Exterior bearing walls 4 Hours
Interior bearing walls 3 Hours
Exterior non-bearing walls 4 Hours
Structural frame 3 Hours
Permanent partitions 1 Hours
Vertical openings 2 Hours
Floors 2 Hours
Roofs (Section 1806) 2 Hours
Exterior doors 3/4 if less than 20 ' setback Hours
Exterior windows 3/4 if less than 20' setback Hours
Inner court walls HL between opp. walls-exterior open- Hours
ing requirements apply.


45
Mezzanine floors (area allowed) ___________________1______Hours
No mezzanine floor shall cover more than 1/3 area of a room.
Roof coverings Class A or B ( Sec ._1806 )______1_____H ours
Boiler room enclosure _____________________________1______Hours
Structural requirements:
Framework Steel concrete or masonry____________3______Hours
Stairs Reinf. concrete or structural steel
Floors
Roofs
Noncombustible fire-resistive const.___________
Where every part of roof structure is 25 above floor, noncombustible material protected^by
sprinkler or resistive material.
Hours
Hours
Parti t i o n s
Exits:
Occupancy load basis (square feet per occupant)
Occupancy Type
Basis
Actual Load
Assembly (Low concentrated use)
Exhibit Rooms Dining Room
15
Assembly (Concentrated used 7
Kitchens (Commercial) 200
Offices 100
Number of exits required: 2 or more
occupancy load exceeds:
Exhibits 50
Dining 50
Assembly 50
(Concentrated)
K i t c h e n 50
Office 50
Minimum width of exits: 3 ft.
or more exists required when
Total width of exits in ft. shall be at least the total occupant load divided by 50, and divided equally among separate exits, and including a percentage of the occu-pant loads of the adjacent floors.


46
Exit separation arrangement:
Exits will be accessible in at least 2 different directions. Minimum travel distance between fire exit doors shall be 25' apart mi nimum .______________________________________________
Maximum allowable travel distance to exit 150'__________
With sprinklers ______________________________200 '_________
Allowable exit sequence:
At least 1/2 of req'd. exits shall be located to be reached without going through checkout stands. Exits from a room
may open into an adjoining or intervening room or area,_______
provided the adjacent room is accessory to the area served and provides a direct means of egress to an exit._____________
Exit doors:
Minimum width allowed _____________3 ft.
Maximum leaf width allowed
Exit corridors:
Minimum allowable width _________44 in. (3 1 8")________
Required to have exit at each end of corridor: Yes when 2 exits are req'd. except for dead-end allowance.
Dead end corridors allowed? Yes Maximum length 20'
Wall fire resistance required 1 HOUR________________________
Doors and frames fire resistance required
45 min.


47
Stairs:
Minimum width 44 in. (3'-8") For occ. load of + 50
36 in. For occ. load of 50
For occ. load of
Maximum riser a 11 owed 7.5 i n.
Minimum tread al 1 owed 10 i n.
Winders are not allowed.
Landings:
Minimum size Dimension measured in direction of travel = width of stairway but not exceeding 5' -0 w/straight run
Maximum size required 5' 0 w/straight run___________________
Maximum vertical distance between landings 12 1 -6_____________
Minimum vertical distance between landings ___________________
Required height of rails (21 -6 to 2'-10) 30-34" above nosing Handrail s:
Required at each side ________________________________________
Intermediate rails required at stairs 8311 wide yes___________
Maximum width between int. rails Equal spacing________________
Exceptions applicable _______________None_____________________
Height above nosing _________________3 0-34"__________________
Intermediate rail required? _________Yes 61 max.______________
Handrails return to wall at ends or terminating in posts?
Handrails extend beyond stair 6" (at least one handrail
at both top and bottom
Stair to roof required If in bldgs. 4+ stories, one___________
stairway shall extend to roof with hinged door. Stair to basement restrictions Provide barrier to prevent persons from going to basement when exiting.
Access to roof required? Yes, to mechanical___________________


48
Stair enclosure required? _______Yes_____________ Hours 2
Exceptions Enclosure shall not be required for a____________
stairway, ramp or escalator serving only one adjacent_________
floor and not connected with corridors or stairways serving
other floors.
Horizontal exit requirements (if applicable) 1 hour fire rating_____________________________
Ramps:
Maximum slope to use as exit _________1:12___________________
Handrails required On at least one side min. 3.2" high
measured from surface of ramp. Extend 1 ft. beyond top and bottom of ramp.
Exit signs required? Yes, at every req'd. exit door w/occ.
load of +30
Balcony rails REQUIRED on all unenclosed floor, roof_________
openings, open and glazed side of stairs, ramps, and landings, balconies, etc.
Height required 42" (3 1 6 )________________________
Balusters or intermediate rails required 6" o.c. max.
Penthouses:
Area limitations 33-1/3% of the area supporting roof_________
Height limitations None in Type 1 construction. Use only
for shelter of mechanical equip, or Use limitations vertical shaft openings._____________________
Construction requirements Shall have walls, floor and a
roof constructed as the main part of bldg, unless penth,
walls are +5'-0 from HL may be of 1 hour construction._______
Parapet walls:
Required on All exterior walls_______________________________
Height 30" above where roof surface and wall intersect. Fire extinguishing systems:
Sprinklers required WHEN FLOOR AREA exceeds 1,500 sq. ft.


49
Wet standpipes required in bldgs. +4 stories_________________
Number required (hose run) One or more 4" s. pipes for +4 stories (100 ft. max, distance to any point in bldg.) Location In a public corridor w/in 10' to the opening
of a req'd stairway on all floor levels.__________________
Fire extinguishers required At each standpipe location.
Toilet room fixture count:
Men :
Lavatories 1:1-30; 2: 31-60; 3:61-120 1 per each 40 additional Water Closets 1: 1-30; 2:31-60; 3:61-90 1 per each 30 additional Urinals 0:1-10; 1:11-60; 2:61-120
1 per each 60 additional
Women:
Lavatories 1:1-30; 2:31-80; 3:81-120 1 per each 40 additional Water closets 1:1-10; 2:11-30; 3:31-60 1 per each 20 additional
One drinking fountain per 75 with 1 per floor minimum. Showers:
Walls Hard, smooth, non-absorbent surfaces__________
Floors Hard, smooth, non-absorbent surfaces___________
Compartments 30" wide x (w.c. + 24") long = 14 sq. ft.
Skyli ghts:
Separation Min. 41 -0 between units
Maximum size 100 sq. ft.
Maximum aggregate area in room 25% of room area sheltered
Curb height by roof. 9" above roof plane.


50
Use of public property:
Doors are prohibited from swinging into city property. Marquees, canopies, etc.
Support from building? Entirely_________________________
Laminated safety glass, plastic, Material restrictions Fabric_________________________
Distance above walk _____8 1 -0_________________________
Min. 2 0 inside
Maximum distance of extension over walk curb line_______
Drainage Toward the building____________________________
Other projections:
Minimum height above "ground" +81-0_______________________
1" per 1" of clearance up
Maximum allowable projection to 41 -0_____________________
Fire Alarm:
Type Manual pull stations____________________________________
Emergency lights or power required In exit ways which are
continuous and unobstructed means of egress to a public________
way--to illuminate to one foot candle._________________________
Access doors required in exterior walls without openings?______
Doors may be included as required openings if provided with
the minimum glazing requirements.
Atriums:
Building must have automatic sprinkler protection throughout.
Shall be separated from adjacent occupied spaces by one hour fire wall.
Openings in atrium wall shall be protected by a self-closing fire assembly.
Exceptions 1: Any two levels may open directly to the atrium. 2: May be separated by glass if glass is protected by sprinkler system.
Atrium exhaust system for smoke control required.


51
THE PROGRAM


PUBLIC
29,750
Galleries 23,000
Lecture/Performance 3,000
Book Shop 600
Restaurant and Kitchen 2,000
Coat Room 150
Entrance Lobby 1,000
ADMINISTRATION 3,500
Director's Office 350
Assistant Director's Office 150
Curator's Assistant's Office 350
Staff Office 300
Reception 150
Secretarial Pool 250
Conference Room(s) 400
Employee Lounge 200
Membership/Development 300
Public Relations 250
Education Curator 200
Mailroom/copy room 200
Accounting 200
Publications 250
Security Office 150
SERVICES 9,500
Loading Dock 200
Receiving 1,200
Registrar's and Assistant's Office 450
Installation Director's Office 400
Construction Shop 1,500
Paint Room 400
Photo/Documentation 200
Electric Shop 400
Mating and Framing 300
Prep Room 2,000
Staging Areas 1,000
STORAGE 6,500
Temporary Storage 2,000
Crate Storage 1,500
Prop Storage 1,500
Miscellaneous Storage 1,500
UTILITY 4,100
Maintenance Department 200
Toilets 2,400
Mechanical 1,500
CIRCULATION 7,100


53
Total Gross Building Area = Exterior Sculpture Court = Parking 80 cars at 350 =
60,000
5,000 (approximately) 28,000


GALLERIES (3)
23,000 Sq. Ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Display of artwork.
USERS: Public
SPACIAL QUALITIES: Flexible, open, light, flowing PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Proportions Door 8'-0" X 10'-0"
Flexibility: Yes Ceiling ht. 15'-0" -20'-0"
Furniture: Equipment:
Benches
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:
Adjacent to entrance lobby, sculpture court, close to restaurant, and toilets.


55
SCULPTURE COURT
5,000 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Display to sculpture.
USERS: Public
SPACIAL QUALITIES: Outdoors, garden or terrace
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Proportions Door
Flexibility Ceiling ht.
Furniture: Equipment:
Benches
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:
Adjacent to galleries and restaurant.


56
LECTURE PERFORMANCE 250 seats = 3,000 $q. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Room for lectures, performances, slide presentations, movies.
USERS: Public
SPACIAL QUALITIES: Open, flexible space
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Proportions Flexibility
Furniture:
Removable theater seats
Door 6'-0" x 7'-0"
Ceiling ht. 15'-0" x 20'-0"
Equipment:
Stage, podium, movie screen
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:
Close to entrance lobby. Able to separate from galleries for after hours security.


57
BOOK SHOP 600 sq. ft.
FUNCTIOM/PURPOSE: Sale of books and posters. USERS: Public
SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Proportions Flexibility
Furniture:
Door 6'-0" x 7'-0" Ceiling ht. 10'-0"
Equipment:
Shelves, poster rack, sales counter
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:
Adjacent to entrance lobby. Close to coat room, galleries, and toilets


58
Restaurant 1500 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Serve lunch, give the public a place to break from viewing artworks.
USERS: Public and staff
SPACIAL QUALITIES: Natural light, cafeteria style service
and seating.
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Proportion Flexibility
Furniture:
Dining tables and chairs
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:
Adjacent to kitchen and sculpture court, close to toilets.
Door 6'0" x 7'-0" Ceiling ht. 10,0"-lA,-0"
Equipment:
Cafeteria counter


59
Restaurant Kitchen 500 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Prepare food for restaurant patrons. Cater special events.
USERS: Kitchen staff SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Proportions Flexibility
Door 6'-0" X 7'-0" Ceiling ht. 8'-0"
Furniture:
Equipment:
Commercial oven and range. Walk-in refrigerator
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:
Adjacent to restaurant, direct route from receiving


60
COAT ROOM 150 Sq. Ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Coat, purse and package check.
USERS: Public SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Proportions Flexibility Furniture:
Door 3'-0" x 7'-0" Ceiling ht. 8'-0" Equipment:
Coat racks, storage shelves
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES :
Adjacent to lobby. Close to book shop, galleries and toilets.
^ ^ LOBBY
GALLERIES
)
'book SHOP
TOILETS


61
ENTRANCE LOBBY
1,000 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Entrance and orientation space. Information point. Waiting or resting area.
USERS: Public
SPACIAL QUALITIES: Open, well-lighted
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Proportions Flexibility
Furniture:
Chairs or benches
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:
Adjacent to galleries, bookstore, coat room, stairs and elevator. Relate to lecture and sculpture court.
Door 6'-0" x 7'-0"
Ceiling ht. 15'-0"
Equipment:


62
OFFICE DIRECTOR 350 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Private office for director with
private secretary
USERS: Director, private secretary and visitors
SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Proportions Flexibility
Furniture:
Desks 3'-0 x 5'-0
A side chairs
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:
Adjacent to assistant director's office, conference room, and reception. Close to other staff offices.
Door 3'-0" x 7'-0" Ceiling ht. 9'-0"
Equipment:
Bookshelves, file cabinet

^DIRECTOR STAFF
u OFFICES
r i .


63
OFFICE ASSISTANT DIRECTOR 150 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Private office
USERS: Assistant Director
SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Proportions Flexibility
Furniture:
Desk: 2'-6" x 5'-0"
2 side chairs File Cabinet
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:
Adjacent to director's OFFICE
Door 3'-0" x 7'-0" Ceiling ht. 9'-0"
Equipment:


64
OFFICE
CURATOR AND
ASST. CURATOR 350 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Private office
USERS: Curator and assistant curator
SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Proportions Flexibility
Furniture:
3'-0" x 5'-0" desk Chairs: A side chairs Table
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:
Close to other staff offices.
Door 3'-0" x 7'-0" Ceiling ht. 9'-0"
Equipment:
Bookshelves, file cabinet
r 1 CURATOR/A .STAFF
\ ASSISTANT ^OFFICES LI J
I CURATOR


65
OFFICES
CURATOR/RESEARCH
STAFF (3)
300 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Staff office
USERS: Research and curator staff
SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Proportions Flexibility
Furniture:
Desks: 3 Chairs: 5 Table
Door 3'-0" x 7'-0" Ceiling ht. 9'-0"
Equipment:
Bookshelves, file cabinet
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES :
Relate to other administrative offices


66
OFFICE RECEPTION/ SECURITY 150 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Reception and waiting area. USERS: Receptionist, visitors
SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Proportions: Door 3'-0" x 7'-0"
Flexibility Ceiling ht. 9'-0"
Furniture: Equipment:
Desk: 3'-0" x 5'-0"
Chairs: Lounge (6)
End Tables File Cabinet
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:
Entry and control point to administration area.
ENPLOYEE/
VISITOR ENTRANCE


67
OFFICE
SECRETARIAL POOL 250 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Area for secretarial work for
administrators.
USERS: Staff SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Proportions Flexibility
Furniture:
Desks: A,2'-6 x 5'-0"
File cabinets
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES
Close to administrative offices.
Door 3'-0" x 7'-0" Ceiling ht. 9'-0"
Equipment:
Word Processor


68
CONFERENCE ROOM AOO sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: General conference room for administrative
staff.
USERS: Administrative staff
SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Proportions Flexibility
Furniture:
Conference Table 12 chairs Credenza
Door 3'-0" x 7'-0"
Ceiling ht. 9'-0"
Equipment:
Slide projector and screen
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:
Adjacent to the director's office and the curator's office. Close to other administrative offices.
[
DIRECTOR
CURATOR
CONFERENCE
ROOM
^ADMINISTRATIVE
OFFICES


69
EMPLOYEE LOUNGE 200 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Lunch and break area for administration
staff. Includes kitchenette.
USERS: Administration staff SPACIAL QUALITIES: Natural light
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Proportions Flexibility
Furniture: Tables: 3 Chairs: 12
Door 3'-0" x 7'-0" Ceiling ht 9'-0"
Equipment:
Counterspace, cabinets, sink, microwave, coffee maker, refrigerator
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:
Close to administrative offices

ADMINISTRATIVE^ EMPLOYEE ]
T LOUNGE /
> - J


70
OFFICE MEMBERSHIP/
DEVELOPMENT/
PUBLIC RELATIONS
300 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Private office
USERS: Shared by staff in charge of membership, development and public relations
SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Proportions Flexibility Door 3'-0" x 7'-0" Ceiling ht. 9'-0"
Furniture: Desks: 3 at 2'6" x 5'-0" Equipment: File cabinets
Chairs: 2 side chairs RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES
Close to other staff offices.


71
OFFICE EDUCATION CURATOR 250 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Private offices
USERS: Education Curator
SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Proportions Door 3'-0"
Flexibility Ceiling ht. 9'-0"
Furniture: Equipment:
Desk 3'-0" x 5'-0" Bookshelves
Chairs: 2 side chairs File Cabinet
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES
Close to other staff offices.


72
OFFICE
ACCOUNTING
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Private office USERS: Accountant SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Proportions Flexibility
Door 3' -0" x 7'-0" Ceiling ht. 9'-0"
Furniture:
Desk: 2'-6"
Equipment:
File cabinets
x 5'-0"
Chairs: 2 side chairs
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES
Close to other staff offices.


73
OFFICE ACCOUNTING 200 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Private office USERS: Publication staff SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Proportions Flexibility Door 3'-0" x 7'-0" Ceiling ht. 9'-0"
Furniture: Desk: 2'6" x 5'-0" Work Table Equipment:
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES Close to other staff offices.


74
MAILROOM/ COPY ROOM 200 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Sorting of incoming and outgoing mail.
Copy machines for staff use.
USERS: All Staff SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Proportions Flexibility Door 3'-0" x 7'-0" Ceiling ht. 9'-0"
Furniture: Sorting Table Storage Cabinets Storage Shelves RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES Close to staff offices. Equipment: Copy Machine


75
SECURITY OFFICE 150 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Headquarters for security staff.
USERS: Security staff
SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Proportions Flexibility
Furniture:
2 Desks:
2'6" x 5'-0"
A Chairs
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:
Adjacent to lobby, close to entrance and galleries "outposts" at receiving and staff reception
Door 3'-0"
Ceiling ht. 9'-0"
Equipment:
Close circuit TV, Monitors


76
LOADING DOCK 200 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Loading and unloading area.
USERS: Loading dock crew
SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Proportions 7 x 20 Door 20 x 15
Flexibility Ceiling ht 15'
Include stair to roadway
Furniture: Equipment:
Forklift, hoist,
hand trucks
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES: Adjacent to receiving.


77
RECEIVING 1500 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Area for handling incoming and outgoing goods. The interior component of the loading dock area for registrar to inspect and catalog incoming works.
USERS: Loading dock crew, registrar SPACIAL QUALITIES: Completely open PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Proportions: 25 x AO Door 15' x 15'
Flexibility: Ceiling ht. 15'
Furniture: Equipment:
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:
Adjacent to loading dock. Close to security, registrar, temporary storage, crate storage, photography
Shared with loading dock
("security
LOADING
DOCK
^ RECEIVING £-----^CRATE STORAGE '
TEMPORARY STORAGE )
PHOTOGRAPHY


78
STAGING AREA 1000 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Area for the crating and uncrating
of art objects.
USERS: Installation Staff
SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Proportions Door 8'-0" x 12'-0"
Flexibility Ceiling ht. 15'-0"
Furniture: Equipment:
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES


79
PREP ROOM 2000 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Clean space to prepare art works for
display.
USERS: Installation Staff
SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Proportions Flexibility
Door 8'-0" x 12'-0" Ceiling ht. !2'-0" x 15'-0"
Furniture:
Equipment:
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES
TEMPORARY STORAGE


80
OFFICE REGISTRAR AND ASSISTANT REGISTRAR A50 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Private office for registrar and
assistant who check and catalog all incoming and outgoing artwork.
USERS: Registrar and assistant
SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Proportions Flexibility
Door 3'-0" x 7'-0" Ceiling ht. 9'-0"
Furniture: Equipment:
Desks: (2) 3,-0" x 5'-0" Computer Chairs: A
Credenza: 20' x 72"
File Cabinets
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:
Adjacent to receiving.


81
OFFICE INSTALLATION DIRECTOR
AOO sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Office for installation director. Place
for planning and coordinating installation and construction.
USERS: Installation director, installation staff
SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Proportions Door 3'-0" x 7'-0"
Flexibility Ceiling ht. 9'-0"
Furniture: Equipment:
Desk: 2'-6" x 5'-0"
Drafting Table File Cabinet
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:
Adjacent to construction shop. Close to registrar, receiving, paint room.


82
CONSTRUCTION SHOP 1500 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Construction and repairs of exhibits,
partitions, crates and pedestals. Includes area for storage of materials.
USERS: Construction crew SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Proportions 25 x AO Door 8'-0" x 8'-0"
Flexibility No Ceiling ht. 10'-15'
Furniture:
Tool lock-up Work benches
Equipment:
Table saw, radial arm drill press, band saw, joiner/planer
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:
Adjacent to installation director's OFFICE, paint room, and loading dock


83
PAINT ROOM 400 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Area for spray painting small objects.
Paint and equipment storage.
USERS: Construction crew
SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Proportions Door 8'-0" x 8'-0"
Flexibility Ceiling ht. 10'-15'
Furniture:
Paint tables
Storage lockers
Equipment: Spray Booth
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:
Adjacent to construction shop, close to installation director.


84
PHOTOGRAPHY/ DOCUMENTATION 1200 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Photography and document art work when
it comes in and also when it goes out. Include dark rooms.
USERS: Photographic staff
SPACIAL QUALITIES: High ceiling and large door in photo
studio, cat walk for lights.
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Proportions Flexibility
Door 20' x 15' Ceiling ht. 20' x 0"
Furniture:
Pedestals
Equipment:
Tripods, lights, backdrops Sinks in darkrooms
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:
Close to receiving and temporary storage.
'
RECEIVING ____________/
PHOTOGRAPHY/ TEMPORARY ]
DOCUMENTATION STORAGE J



85
ELECTRICAL SHOP AOO sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Area for electrical work and the storage
of electrical equipment, fixtures and supplies
USERS: Electrician SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Proportions Door 6'-0" x 7'-0"
Flexibility Ceiling ht. 9'-0" x l2'-0"
Furniture:
Workbench
Equipment:
Storage shelves Storage cabinets
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES
Close to other services.
ELECTRICAL SHOP

CONSTRUCTION
SHOP
PAINT SHOP


86
MATING AND FRAMING 300 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Area for mating and framing art work.
USERS: Installation staff and volunteers.
SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Proportions Door 6'-0" x 7'-0"
Flexibility Ceiling ht. l0'-0"
Furniture:
Work Tables
Equipment:
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES
Close to receiving and to other service areas.


87
TEMPORARY STORAGE
2000 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Storage for incoming and outgoing artworks. USERS: Installation staff
SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Proportions Flexibility
Furniture:
Door 6'-0" x 8'-0" Ceiling ht. 15'-0"
Equipment:
Shelving, picture storage racks
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:
Adjacent to receiving. Close to registrar and crate storage.


88
CRATE STORAGE
1,500 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Temporary storage of packing crates.
USERS: Installation staff
SPACIAL QUALITIES: Open
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Proportions Flexibility
Furniture:
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES: Adjacent to receiving.
Door 6'-0" x 7'-0" Ceiling ht. 10' -15'
Equipment:
Close to temporary storage.
t^>[
TEMPORARY
STORAGE


89
PROP STORAGE
1500 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Storage to props used for displays. USERS: Installation crew
SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Proportions Flexibility
Furniture:
Door 6'-0" x 7'-0" Ceiling ht. 10'-0"
Equipment:
Bookshelves, storage cabinets
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:
Close to construction shop.
CONSTRUCTION
SHOP


90
MISCELLANEOUS STORAGE 1500 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Extra storage space to be used as needed. USERS: Staff
SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Proportions
Flexibility
Furniture:
Door A'-O" x 7'-0" Ceiling ht. 8'-0"
Equipment:
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:


91
MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT 200 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Office and storage for maintenance.
USERS: Maintenance crew SPACIAL QUALITIES: PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Proportions Flexibility Door 3'-0" x 7'-0" Ceiling ht. 8'-0"
Furniture: Equipment:
Desk and chairs Sink, storage lockers
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:


92
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE:
USERS: Staff and public
SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Proportions Door 3'
Flexibility Ceiling ht.
Furniture: Equipment:
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:
(1) Lobby
(2) Second Floor
(3) Receiving
(A) Administration
TOILETS
8 at 300 sq. ft. 2,A00 sq. ft.
0" x 7'-0" 8' -0"


93
MECHANICAL 1500 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: HVAD Plant USERS: Maintenance Staff
SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Proportions Flexibility
Door
Ceiling ht. 12'-0"
Furniture
Equipment:
Heating and air conditioning
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES: Separate from galleries


94
PARKING GARAGE 80 cars at 350
28,000 sq. ft.
FUNCTIONS/PURPOSE: Secure parking for employees and public.
USERS: Employees and public
SPACIAL QUALITIES:
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Proportions
Flexibility
Furniture:
Door
Ceiling ht. 7'-0" Equipment:
RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES:


95
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bazin, Germain. The Museum Age. New York: Universe Book Inc., 1967.
Brawne, Michael. The New Museum: Architecture and Display.
New York: Fredrick A. Praeger, 1965.
______. "Museums: The Continuity of Tradition." The
Architectural Review. Vol. 175, February 1984.
16-71, 74-75.
Brettell, Richard R. Historic Denver. Denver: Historic Denver, Inc. 1973.
Coleman, Lawrence Vail. Museum Buildings. Washington, DC: American Association of Museums, 1950.
Davis, Douglas. "The Idea of a Twenty-First Century Museum." Artculture. New York: Harper and Row, 1977.
De Chiara, Joseph and John Hancock Callender, eds. Time-Saver Standards for Building Types. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1980.
Denver Planning Office, Planning with Climate and Solar Energy.
Fisher, Thomas. "Shedding Some Light on Art." Progressive Archi tecture. February 1984, 105-1 1 1.
Friedman, Mildred S., ed. "Design Quarterly 81."
Minneapolis, MN: Walker Art Center, 1981.
Goldberger, Paul. "What Should A Museum Building Be?"
Art News, Vol. 74, October 1975, 33-38.
Klotz, Heinrich. New Museum Buildings: In the Federal
Republic of Germany. New York: Rizzo!i International Publications Inc., 1985.
Lee, Sherman E., ed. On Understanding Art Museums. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975.
______, Past, Present, East and West. New York: George
Braziller Inc., 1983 .
O'Doherty, Brian, ed. Museums in Crisis. New York: George Brazille, Inc., 1972.
Pevsner, Nikolaus. A History of Building Types. Princeton,
NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976.


96
Searing, Helen. New American Art Museums. New York: Whitney Museum of Art, 1982.
Yee, Roger. "Smoke Gets in Your Van Eycks." Progressi ve Archi tecture, March 1975 78-81.