Citation
Douglas County Elementary School No. 14

Material Information

Title:
Douglas County Elementary School No. 14
Creator:
Kenyon, David S
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
140 leaves in various foliations : illustrations, charts, maps, photographs, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
School buildings -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Douglas County ( lcsh )
School buildings ( fast )
Colorado -- Douglas County ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 139-140).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
David S. Kenyon.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
13771537 ( OCLC )
ocm13771537
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1986 .K466 ( lcc )

Full Text
DOUGLAS COUNTY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
NO. 1
An Archi tsctura 1 Thesi s presented to the College of Design and Planning University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulifiilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture
David 3,
Kenyon
Spring 1986
Date Due

I





*' *v
PAVIO -s*
The Thesis of ----------------------- is approved
Uni versi ty o-f Coi orado at Denver


"fin elementary school building has no meaning except in terms of the life given it by children and teachers, parent and citizens. The design of an elementary scnool begins with the design of the things that take place in it. The pattern of activities takes its shape from the desires of society for its youngdesires compounded out of hopes anc love of parents,, the thinking of philosophers and the spokesman of society,, the understandings of human beings gained by scientists,, and the experience and insight of teachers. !!
N. L. Eng cel h art N. L. E n g e 1 h a r t, J r 31 a n t o n 1- e g g e t
Planning Elamentary 3choo1 3uiidings


TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
Project Description Vicinity Map
THESIS STATEMENT
HISTORY at SCH00L3/EDUCATION
SITE INFORMATION
Site History/Description Area Maps Site analysis Site photographs
PROGRAM
Space Requirements Space Characteristics
APPENDIX A
Zoning Requirements Building Code Requirements
APPENDIX B
Cli matalogical Information
APPENDIX C
Soils Report
APPENDEX D
Graphic Design Standards
BIBLIOGRAPHY


INTRODUCTION
Procject Description Vicinity Map


INTRODUCTION
School is a place for teaching and learning. An elementary school is a place -for the initial public education of youngsters between the ages of five and twelve. The contemporary facility utilized for this elementary education is not so elementary itself, however, in its design requirements. An elementary school has inherent complexity due to its variety of space needs, the variety of uses a particular space may be put to, and the implications which history, culture, and context may have on its image. This complexity affords opportunity for a unique and exciting architectural statement, and so I have chosen this building type for a thesis project.
Specifically, the design of Douglas County Elementary School No. 14 will be the attention of my energies. To be located at the southwest corner of Dad Clark Drive and Maplewood Drive in unincorporated Douglas County, Colorado, the site is at the current southern border of the Denver metropolitan area on the edge of a recently developed
subdivision.


THESIS STATEMENT


THESIS STATEMENT
Three distinct, theoretical design issues will be investigated in the architectural solution to the problem of designing this elementary school. They are: 1) the relationship between form and function; 2) the use of structure to emphasize and reinforce design themes; and 3) the degree to which the circulation system can acheive a "sense of place" and the resulting impact of the whole of the architecture. These ma.j or issues are interrelatedeach demanding consideration and each influenceing the outcome of the final solution in their own way. These issues I have chosen to -focus on because of their interest to me and appropriateness to the building type. Each is an essential factor in the design process.
"Form follows function" is a basic axiom of modern architecture, and one which will be explored in this thesis. It might be better phrased for these proposes, "form relates to function". To some degree it is a two-way street rather than one following the other.
Function is largely predetermined by the pragmatic needs for which the building is to serve. Space requirements, areas, and interrelationships are given.


Through -form, -functional spaces or elements may be expressed in such a manner as to portray their character. Spaces with similar function may have similar form character, while unique spaces may be accordingly unique in their form. Form is not solely determined by function, however. It is also dependant on the other major issues at the same time. As a result, form has some control over funtion.
The control of form over funtion exists in a limited range. Functional requirements are usually given in relatively general terms. For example, a particular space may be given to be of a certain size and desired to be close to another particular space. It is usually not stated specifically what shape the space must have, or whether it specifically needs to be to the north, south east, or west of the other space. It is within this range of specific space shaping and location that form is independant of and somewhat in control of function.
Structure is what gives physical stability to architecture. Structure is what stops the ever-present forces of gravity from pummelling a building and it's parts in to the center of the earth, and prevents howling gusts of wind from blowing it in to Kansas. Structure is an obviously important component of architscture. However, its importance in the design process, in the generation of space and form, and the manner in which structural elements are


treated is a matter of individual priference.
Structure can
be made to fit a previously determined plan, ater the fact, or it can be incorporated in the early stages of the design process becoming a space and form generator itself.
Structure can be hidden and clad over, or it can be exposed and emphasized. Either way it is always there.
For this thesis, I wish to explore the possibilities whcih structure can add to the architecture, the implications it may have on space and form generation by incorporating structure in the earliest stages of the design process, and how structural elements can be emphasized to reinforce concepts relating to the other major issues.
F = ma
Force equals mass times accelerationthis simple equation is a basic law of physics whcih mathematical 1y describes an aspect of the universe in whcih we find ouselves. It is an aspect which has direct bearing on the design of structure in the form of the physical forces caused primarily by gravity and wind. The acceleration component of the force of gravity near the suface of the earth is known to be 32 ft./s while that of wind is also a measured, definable quantity with maximum values which vary from region to region. The mass component of the equation again is a measured, known quantity dependant on dead and live loads. Therefore, the forces which may act on a


structure can always be predicted, due to the logical,
ordered nature of the universe of whcih farces are a part.
Structure, in combatting the forces of gravity and wind, has an inherent logic and order as well. As a result, structure usually takes the form of a systeman arrangement of parts in a definite pattern of organization dominated by the general character of the whole. The parts of the system, usually referred to as "members", each respond to a variety of forces which have been transferred through the system, from the initial impact of gravity or wind, to the individual member. The individual member's shape is often dependent on the type of force which it is resisting. For instance, the system may impart an axial force on a member which then may take a squat, round shape, or the member may be primarily sujected to shear forces, in which case the member may be deep and narrow in shape.
The selection of a structural system, with it's inherent logic and order, can be used to clarify the repetition, or at a point of emphasis the structure may add excitement. Structural members can express in their form the forces whcih pass through them, thereby giving character to a space or building form.
Circulation is "orderly movement through a ciruit," as defined by Webster. In the architectural sense, it is the means by which people move from one place to another. Just


as with structure, circulation is often organized into a system, which has logic and order to it, for its main purpose is to serve people who themselves, to a certain degree, rely on rationality to guide them. Through circulation, the designer can control the way the user encounters space and perceives the whole of the architecture. Within the circulation system a series of events can occur, beginning with entry and ending with destination. Along the way, the character of the circulation space and form can change to express transition and arrival. Visual clues can be repetatively employed to inform the traveller of important spots along the way. A widening and narrowing of the circulation path may add drama to the sequence of events encountered.
The circulation system of an elementary school is unique among circulation systems, for its use and importance can go far beyond simply providing the means by which people go from one place to another. The circulation system can be a place itself, just as the classroom or gymnasium are places. A primary investigation of this thesis project will be the extent to which the circulation system can acheive a "sense of place" itself, and the resulting impact on the architecture of the entire school facility.
The circulation system is composed of a variety of parts. It begins outside the building with the way in which students, faculty and visitors are brought to the building, and moves through the entry into a lobby from which


corridors may disperse people to their destinations. All
the parts must work together to form a continuous and clear pathway so that even people who have never used the building before could find their way with relative ease.
The approach and entry are important to the school
child because they create a first impression of what it is
going to be like insideto be in school. Those of us who
began our education in one of those big, ugly, fortress-1ike
school buildings remember that First Day as a frightening
experience. The grim face of the building was awesome; it
was bullying. Here was a witches'' castle, a place of fierce
1
teachers and cruel older children." The entry must be inviting, perhaps with a courtyard to smooth the transition, and with plenty of glass so that the child can see what it is he/she is about to enter. The scale of the entry must relate to the scale of the child, rather than being a monumental symbol of the noble activities within.
The lobby can serve as a showcase of the schools activities, a social gathering place, and a place for general information. Its design should reflect the importance of this significant node in the circulation system.
The corridors are perhaps the most important part of the circulation system to the students and teachers. The corridor serves an important role psychologically in that it is a place for the refreshment on the mind from intense activity in the classroom, and is therefore a place where


students and teacher might go to relax or socialize. As
such, it is important -for views to the outside to be
provided to limit the -feeling of confinement as much as
possible. Natural lighting is an important tool in expanding
the feeling of the corridor space. The elementary school
corridor is inherently large in size due to the large
numbers of people it may serve at one time. Functionally it
can be quite complex in its accomodation of all the
activities that may take place in it. ". . corridors
consist of more than traffic movement. Corridors are
conceived of variously as education areats, general service
areas, and special service areas. They also maty serve as
locker areas, information areas, museum or display areas,
drinking fountain areas, social areas, emergency first aid
centers, waiting areas, library areas, emergency shelters,
and emergency and fire-equipment centers. They may also
serve as centers for cleaning and maintenance service,
stages for adjacent seating areas, or routes for equipment
and supply movement. Under duress, corridors have been used
as temporary supply and equipment storage areas, and as
classrooms. In fact, corridors somewhere at some time have
been used in connection with some phase of almost every
Z
school activity." Students can take an active participatory role in the creation of the "sense of place" within the corridor by pinning up their art work, painting murals, or arranging displays.


The major goal in the design of the circulation system is to provide opportunity -for a wide range of activities through flexibility and inviting spaces. Given the opportunity for the gathering of people within the circulation system, a "sense of place can be created which will give a unique character to the school as a whole.


HISTORY o-F SCHOOLS/EDUCATION


H T s T 0 r Y"
Education i s the transmission of know 1 edge, cui ture, and skills -from one generation to another. In contemporary society, the young are given a -formal education which is ci o n d u. cz c 0 d i n ii n 0 t q r rn .1 in 5 *c i Ic li in 1 o n o *f ths sen 0 01 F* o r* prehistoric men, who lived together in small groups, the young were educated less -formally, through ritual,
story-telling, and by example. There "school was the whole of the environment in which they found themselves. Since pre-hi stori c time to the present, education and the schools where education takes place have undergone vast changes re-f 1 ec:ti ve of the changi ng societies they serve 7o understand the history of the school building, it is necessary to understand the hi story of education as well.
d1
-. v
5000 or 6000 vears ago to aid in the teaching of the "3 Ss (r e a d i n g ,, w r i t i n q a n d a r :i f h m e t i c) . 1! T h e s c i-i o o 1 b e c a; \ e a
social necessity when letters were invented. Special 1 e a r n i n g w a s r e q u i r e d t o m a s t e r t h e s y m b o .1 s T h e e x i s t a nee
of these symbols made possible the accumulation and transmission of knowledge on a scale that had been imp ass i b 1 e bef ar e t ine i r i n venti on A spec i a 1 ag enc y was needed to take over this respansibi1itv 'for a type of education which life in the group did not provide. The


school was this agency," The schools or the ancient world served an elite minority or the populationreligious leaders and the nobility. The large, lower class majority remained illiterate and uneducated. Education served as a means to maintaining class distinctions within society.
The role or education reached a lofty height in ancient
Greek society, when Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
participated in what has come to be known as a "liberal"
educationan "education that would enable a person to lead
Z
a complete life beautifully and happily." As with many of the concepts developed in ancient Greece, their ideas about education have great influence today. It is interesting to note? here the recent trend by many people in today's highly yftechnoiogical society to question the value of a liberal education as apposed to a pragmatic education which teaches specialized skills to satisfy the specialized demands associatad wi th the advancement of techno1cgy.
The Romans attempted to incorporate the Greek sytsm of education, but their empire fell with education having little effect on the character of their society. In the ensuing Middle Ages only the church continued formal education, out of the necessity to train priests who in turn spread their religion. Their school was the stern, bleak institution of the monestary.
.The availability of education to larger numbers af people was made possible during the Renaissance due to the invention of the printing press, which allowed the


production or large numbers of books, and due to the Protestant Re-formation, whose leaders advocated widespread education as a means to promoting their beliefs, For the first time education became available to the general public (actually, only to those who could afford it), but it wasn't until later that the school where this education was disseminated had a facility of its own. "The first public schools in the age of reformation had no buildings of their own, but were accomodated in secularized convents?, pupils
were kept in their cloisters and vaults as little grown-ups
3
and instructed in monastic seclusion."
The philosophy of education, up until this century, was one of discipline, memorization, recitation, and the supression of originality. When finally the first school
buildings were built, these educational precepts were made
)
evident in the architecture of the building. "School architecture in the true meaning of the concept did not come i nto eistence until the end of the 171h century when the state began to consolidate educational matters, just in the same way as to improve road construction and to provide sewage systems in a general effort to raise the level of public: welfare. These schools. . . were rather
unpretentious, if purposeful buildings. . the scheme of
these buildings clearly reflects the attitude towards the school; discipline and order were the principles governing the building construction as well as internal school affairs
4-
and education."


With the -founding of the United States in the 13th century and its belief in democracy, the first free, public schools were instituted to provide education to all classes rich and poor. This resulted in the advent of the elementary school, which provided a basic education for children form grades one through eight (each grade representing a year of age, beginning at the age of 3). Following .elementary school a secondary education could be obtained by attending an academy which charged tuition and was geared toward college preparartion. By the end of the 19th century, the private academy gave way to the public high school. "The high school, first established in Boston in 1821, grew slowly, but,after the War Between the States it replaced the? academy as the American secondary school.
I n i t s development it became an ex tension of r element
school and also the cheif means of preparing for Cel 10g0
The or ganization of free pub1i c hi gh school compl eted wh
has been called, the American education ladder,
Along with expansion of the public school system in th 19th century, the curriculum expanded beyond the basics of the "3 Es" to .include other important subjects such as science, literature, history and art. In our present century, elementary education has acquired an entirely new dimension. "Elementary education in the 20th century has broadened beyond rote memory of basic subject matter. Now emphasis is also on social and intellectual growth through experiences, based on the everyday life of the
variety of


c*
elementary school child." As a result, a third step was added to the eduatio.n ladder between the elementary and high school. This step, junior high school, today either serves grades 7 and 3, 6, 7 and 3, or 7, 3 and 9, leaving the elementary school with grades 1 through 6 in most cases,
As the educational system and its philosophy have changed, so has the school facility. Prior to World War II, the traditional school building was much like a temple or fortress, within which the grim and serious task of learning facts could be conducted without the distractions of the outside world. "Buildings were solid, designed to protect pupils and teachers from the elements, They were functional in a rudimentary way. . . they rose from a massive base to
encompass room areas, and, in a carryover from the day of
4
the village clock tower, terminated in a lofty bell tower." The beliefs and values of the adult community were imposed on the children without regard to the nature of the children and their unique perception of the world. The contemporary school facility holds an important place in the community just as the traditional school did, however the current school is less monumental and more inviting. To reflect and a:i. d i n the desire of modern education to f oster crsati vi ty s a c i a 11 y e n g a g e, a n d i n t e 11 e c: t u a 11 y s t i m u 1 a t e t h e s t u den t,
t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e is open to t h e c o m m u n i t v, fie i b Is, and
responsive to th e individual and thier needs. he
e n v i r o n m e n t h a s become that of t he chiId7s war 1 d i n who i h
a11 the desi red edueationaI ob j e c t i v e s c a n b e a c h 0i V e > ca r] u


FOOTNOTES
1
Encyclopedia Britannica, Britannica Junior, vol. 5, pg
Ibid., pg. 234.
Otto, Carl; School Buildings 1, pg. 11. 4
Ibid., pg. 11.
Encyclopedia Britannica; Britannica Junior, vol. 5, pg
6
Ibid., pg. 235.
Landes, Jack L.; Planning Functional School Buildings, 2S7.
3
Engelhardt, N.L.; Planning Elementary School Buildings fore ward.


SITE INFORMATION
Site History/Sescription Area Maps Site Analysis Site Photographs


THE SITE
As with most schools built at this time in the history of our country, Elelmentary School No. 14 will be located in an outlying region of a major metropolitan area commonly called suburbia. The name of this particular suburban development is Hi glands Ranch. It lies on the extreme southern edge of the Denver metropolitan area, about 25 miles from the Denver central business district.
Denver, just as with many western cities, has been experiencing rapid population growth for the last two decades. Much of the recent housing built to accomodate this growth has spread to the south and east of the metro area. This is due in part to the natural geography, politics, and land values of the metro area. Mountains lie not too far to the west, limiting expansion in that direction due to the physical slope of the land, To the north are many incorporated towns which have stricter development controls than the one large town to the east, namely Aurora. Housing development to the south has been spurred by the success of the Denver Technological Center, which is a large growing business park at the southeastern corner of the metro area. Commercial centers are springing up one after another to provide goods and services necessary to support the new communities.
County Line Road runs directly east-west along the line


which separates Arapahoe County to the north from Douglas County to the south. Development spreading to the south had mostly filled in and stopped right along County Line Road until very recently. Prior to 1978, the land to the south of County Line Road was entirely agricultural or ranch land, the majority of which was owned by one indidividual. With suburbia bursting at the seams waiting to swallow up the land to the south of County Line Road, the inevitable transaction occured with the ranchers exchanging their vast land holdings for vast financial rewards. E^y September of 1979, the Mission Viejo Development Company gained approval from the Doug1 as County Board of Commissioners of their 34 square mile development plat known as the New Town of Highlands Ranch. Work on infrastructure soon began, and within the last two years houses have started to dot the 1 andscape.
Highlands Ranch is a completely planned community, with low, medium and high density residential areas, community activity centers, town centers, business and industrial centers, three high schools, five junior high schools, numerous elementary schools, and 607. open space provided for in its design. A major state highway, C-470 is being constructed to the north of the Highlands Ranch town roughly paralelling County Line Road.
Elementary School No. 14 will be located at the northern edge of Highlands Ranch, just south of C-470 and almost in the middle of the development in the east-west


direction.
The site is on a high point from which downtown
Denver can be seen to the north and almost the entire front range of the Rocky Mountains can be seen to the west,. The views are fantastic!
Specifically, the site is at the southwest corner of Dad Clark Drive and Maplewood Drive. It is a fairly steep 11.03 acre parcel of land with no existing vegetation to speak of. Mission Viejo developers have already roughly graded the site and installed a fence with a 10 foot landscape strip along the north property line. A major constraint is the existance of a ISO foot water easement along the entire west property line. To the immediate east and west are two-story, wood frame dwellings of a style which is typical of recent suburban houses. To the south i open space and to the north is the future home of a private school. Dad Clark Drive (along the north property line) is a 4 lane arterial feeding 2 lane side streets such as Maplewood Drive. A brick wall and column structure on both sides of Maplewood Drive frame an entry into the neighborhood at the intersection with Dad Clark Drive.




\




!


PROGRAM
Space Requirements
Space Characteristics


SPACE REQUIREMENTS
This portion of the program is adapted from the Ed u c a t i on a .1 Specific a t i on for Dou g 1 a s Cou n t y E Isms n t a r y School No. .1.4, prepared by Lamar Kelsey Associates, Inc. Colorado Springs, Colorado, January 21, 19SS. The
educational specification contains information other than space requirements such as time scheduling and costs. The educational specification was produced by a design team composed of the architects., school administrators, teacher speciali sts,
and parents.


FACILITIES TO BE LOCATED ON THE SITE
The following outline lists the facilities to be located on the school site. Each of the facilities contained in the outline will be described in some detail on the following pages of this section of the Educational Specification.
1. Play Facilities
a. Play Area (Kindergarten)
b. Play Area (Primary and Intermediate)
c. Open Field Play Area
2. Environmental Areas
a. Landscaping
b. Watering System


3.
Vehicle Areas
a. Main parking lot
b. Service lot
c. Bus area
d. Driveway
e. Student dropoff and pickup
f. Fire access requirements
g. Handicapped access requirements
4. Pedestrian Facilities
5. Bicycle Facilities
a. Parking
b. Circulation
6. Mobile Classroom Provisions
a. Site
b. Utility Extensions
7. Outside Lighting
a. Night Use
b. Protective
8. Outside Public Address System
9. Signage
a. Building Identification
b. Directional


10. Miscellaneous Site Items
a. Fencing
b. Flagpole
c. Other
PLAY FACILITIES
The following outdoor play facilities are required:
Kindergarten Play Area
A Kindergarten play area should be located immediately adjoining the Kindergarten classrooms. This area should be primarily soft surface (squeegee). Play equipment such as slides, swings, and a small climbing apparatus should be installed in the soft surface area.
The Kindergarten play area should be approximately 30' x 60' in size.
Primary and Intermediate Play Area Primary Requirements
This area is also seen as a mix of paved and soft (squeegee) surfaces. It is desirable to locate this play area close to the building to minimize tracking of mud and water from the playground into the building and permit supervision. The pave portion of the play area should be approximately 8,000 sq. ft. and should contain tetherball circles, foursquare boxes, hopscotch markings, and two large game circles. A handball wall would be desirable in the paved surface area.
The soft surface area should be approximately 4,000 sq. ft. and should contain creative and skill building play equipment. This equipment will be furnished by the School District; it is not to be part of the construction contract. Safety will be a major consideration in the selection of this equipment. The primary play area (paved and soft surface areas) should be located separate from the intermediate play area.
Diagrams on Page 2-10 provide further information regarding the paved play area.


Intermediate Requirements
This play area should be similar in size to the primary play area in that the size of the paved and soft surfaces would be 8,000 sq. ft. and 4,000 sq. ft. respectively.
The paved portion of the play area should contain one small basketball court, several tetherball circles, and foursquare boxes. A handball wall would also be desirable in the paved surface area.
Open Field Play Area
A large open field play area with sod surfacing would be provided similar to that shown on the diagram on Page 2-9.
Contained within the play area would be a soccer field with two overlapping softball diamonds. Two softball backstops would be located behind the ball di amonds.
ENVIRONMENTAL AREAS
Since it is important for an elementary school to be a visual asset to the neighborhood in which it is located, the School District desires an attractive landscaped site. The most intensive revegetation of the site will occur at the front (main entrance) facade of the building and along the street perimeter of the site. The selection of the trees and shrubs will be based upon appearance and hardiness of the species under consideration and their ability to blend in with the existing vegetation of the area. To provide an attractive year round appearance, the landscaping plan will utilize a mixture of evergreen and deciduous species. The entire landscape layout will be designed to consider ease of maintenance, and minimize the amount of irrigation required.
The landscape areas near the front facade of the building, and along the street perimeter of the site, and the soccer field will be provided with an appropriate underground lawn watering system. The design of the system as well as the selection of component manufacturers will comply with already established School District standards.
VEHICLE AREAS
Facilities must be provided to accommodate the safe and convenient circulation of automobiles driven by parents dropping off or picking up students, visitors to the site, faculty and staff members, and others; school buses,


trucks involved in deliveries to the school, refuse collection, and the like; emergency vehicles; and site maintenance vehicles. Facilities required to accommodate these vehicles are described in the following paragraphs.
Main Parking Lot
The main parking lot shall be asphalt surfaced with concrete curb and gutter of standard design. In order to minimize the "sea of asphalt", landscape islands should be placed at appropriate locations in the lot. The main parking lot must be convenient to the front entrance of the building. It should provide 55 parking spaces as follows:
Faculty, staff, aides, specialists Visitors and parent volunteers Handicapped
35 spaces 18 spaces 2 spaces
TOTAL
55 spaces
Service Lot
A service lot is required near the kitchen. This lot must be of adequate size to permit the unloading of one truck (a food service delivery truck, a warehouse truck, or a garbage truck). It should be located in an area which is separate from student pedestrian traffic patterns and, since the service area of the building is not likely to be its most attractive feature, it would be well to either locate this lot where it cannot be easily seen from the street or to provide some sort of landscapped screen or wall. The service lot must also provide a location for a 4' x 6' dumpster to receive refuse from the building.
The service lot should have concrete paving and concrete curb and gutter. A concrete unloading pad should connect the service lot with the main receiving entrance to the kitchen. For safety reasons, this pad should be grade 1evel.
Bus Area
Facilities must be provided for simultaneous unloading or loading of eight school buses for daily use. This area could be the same as that used for


student dropoff and pickup. The area should be designed to permit children to step off the bus immediately onto a sidewalk. Design of the bus area should be such that buses are never required to operate in reverse.
Ori veways
Driveways will connect the perimeter street network with the main parking lot, the student dropoff and pickup area, and the service lot. Driveways will be of asphalt or concrete paving with concrete curb and gutter. Width and curb radii shall be determined by vehicular circulation patterns. Driveways should generally have a one-way traffic pattern. The driveway to the service lot must provide for turnaround of trucks and may have two-way traffic. Keep the vehicular penetrations (driveways) on the site to a minimum for safety, cost, and land use reasons.
Student Dropoff and Pickup Areas
Some of the children will be delivered and picked up by their parents. Consideration should be given to the simultaneous curbside parking of between 5 and 10 cars. It is anticipated the parents' cars will be unloaded and loaded at either the perimeter street curb of the curb of the main entrance driveway in front of the school. Obviously, a "rainy day" situation creates a demand for curb space which will far exceed the available space along the on-site driveways. Thus, delivery and pickup will extend to the curb along the perimeter streets.
PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES
Pedestrian facilities provide for those who walk to school as well as those who arrive in vehicles and after leaving their vehicles, become pedestrians. Essentially, the pedestrian sidewalk system includes the following:
1. A sidewalk at the perimeter of the site, on-site sidewalks, and sidewalks at pickup and dropoff points.
2. To provide for the safety of pedestrians, particular attention must be paid to the minimization of intersections between sidewalks and vehicular circulation elements such as driveways. The width of sidewalks should be designed for traffic patterns they accommodate. Straight walks with 90 degree corners do not usually serve traffic patterns well; angled or round corners reduce grass wear. Keep walkways in the building's north shade to a minimum for winter safety reasons.


BICYCLE FACILITIES
Some elementary school students will ride bicycles to the school. A paved parking pad will be required for bicycle parking. The pad must be large enough to accommodate 20-30 bicycles parked in metal racks. Racks will be purchased by the School District and will not be part of the construction contract. Since bicycle parking areas are often the scene of vandalism, it will be important to locate them so easy visual supervision is possible.
Bicycle circulation will be accommodated on the pedestrian sidewalk system.
MOBILE CLASSROOM PROVISIONS
An appropriate area of the site shall be reserved for future installation of a maximum of three-double wide mobile classroom units adjacent to the school building. The dimensions of a typical double wide mobile unit are 24' x 60'. Location may be determined by the need to maneuver the units into their proper position and later to remove them. This often calls for a location near the service drive or lot. The land area reserved for the mobile units may be initially grass or paved play area. Utility extensions for the mobile units shall be stubbed out through the foundation walls to the approximate area where the mobiles will be located. The following utilities are required: Water line, electrical service, sanitary sewer, and conduit for communications and fire alarm systems.
OUTSIDE LIGHTING
Outside lighting must be provided at portions of the site which are likely to be used at night and to provide protective lighting for the building itself to reduce the potential of vandalism or break-in. The portions of the site which must be lighted to provide for night use of the building include the main parking lot and the sidewalk extending from the main parking lot to the main entrance of the building. Design of the lighting fixtures shall be such that the light source is shielded to avoid undue glare which will bother close neighbors. The lighting for the main parking lot shall consist of metal lighting standards no higher than 30' and installed on a concrete base. Protective lighting shall be provided to illuminate openings into the building. Again, the design of the fixtures should minimize glare which would be objectionable to the nearby neighbors.
SIGNAGE
A sign containing the name of the school should be mounted on the building. It should be a design capable of withstanding vandalism and should be


clearly visible from the street. Directional signage should be provided to identify entrances and exits from the parking lot as well as to identify the service drive and no parking areas.
MISCELLANEOUS SITE ITEMS
A 30-ft. flagpole should be located in the concrete sidewalk near the main entrance to the building. It should be remembered that many visitors to the schools identify the main entrance as being the entrance located closest to the flagpole.
The entire playground/playfield portion of the site should be fenced with an appropriate fence. The height of the fence will vary, depending upon the type of play area. It should be 5* at most locations but higher where nearby residential properties require protection from "wandering" balls, etc.
Provide a common enclosure for the electrical transformer, the gas meter, and the trash containers. This enclosure should be constructed of the same material as the building. Access to the electrical transformer and gas meter should be provided by appropriate gates. It is important that this utility enclosure be located such that it will not provide a means of climbing to the roof of the building.



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Kindergartens
The Kindergarten space cluster includes 2 Kindergarten Classrooms, each having a small Toilet Room, plus a Storage Room which would ideally be located between the 2 Kindergartens so direct access could be made to it from each Kindergarten Classroom.
The following list sets forth desired characteristics for the Kindergarten Room:
1. General Data
a. Provide two rooms of this category.
b. The room shall have an area of approximately 950 sq. ft. and shall be generally rectangular in shape.
c. This room should be located convenient to an adjoining outside play area.
d. Provide doors from this room to the interior corridor system, the small toilet rooms, the storage room, and the outside Kindergarten play area.
e. Windows should be provided to the outside similar to classrooms. No "window walls" are desired.
f. The scale of all elements in the Kindergarten should relate to the little people" who will occupy it.
2. Interior Finishes
a. In general, the floor should be carpeted except approximately 25% of the floor area which shall be seamless resilient flooring. This flooring should be located in front of the sink counter.


b. The ceiling shall have effective acoustical characteristics.
c. Two 8-ft. chalkboards are required. These chalkboards should be located such that the chalk tray is 24" above the floor.
d. All walls should be tackable if possible.
3. Casework and Fixtures (in Construction Contract)
a. Provide a low counter containing a built-in sink (cold water and tempered water), drinking fountain, and work surface. The sink base should be designed such that students can have access to three sides of the sink. The sink base unit should be approximately 6' long and have enclosed storage capabilities below the counter. Towel holders should be provided at the sink.
b. Provide 20' to 24' of 16" deep x 30" high continuous bookshelves under the exterior windows.
c. Provide an open storage rack for large paper (Six 6 36" rolls).
4. Furniture (Owner-Supplied)
Provide a movie screen, a playhouse, movable partition or storage units
from which "cubbies" can be formed and other normal Kindergarten furniture.
Kindergarten Toilet Rooms
1. General Data
a. Provide one Toilet Room for each Kindergarten Room.
b. These rooms shall have an approximate area of 30 sq. ft. and shall be square or rectangular in shape.
c. Each room shall open to the Kindergarten which it serves.
d. The scale of elements in this room shall be related to the "little people" it serves.
2. Interior Finishes
a. The floor shall be a seamless resilient surface.
b. Walls and partitions should be of materials which are easily cleaned.


3. Fixtures
Provide one "child-scaled" water closet and one sink (tempered water only).
Kindergarten Storage Room
1. General Data
a. Provide one room of this category.
b. This room shall have an approximate area of 50 sq. ft. and shall be square or rectangular in shape.
c. This room shall be located convenient to the Kindergarten it serves.
d. Windows to the outside are not desired.
2. Interior Finishes
a. No special interior finishes are required. Surfaces in this room should be durable and such that they can be easily cleaned.
3. Casework and Fixtures (in Construction Contract)
This room will be used primarily for the storage of educational supplies and materials.
Coat Storage
Space should be provided for the hanging of 30 coats. Double coat hooks should be provided with spacing at 1* on center. A continuous shelf for books and backpacks should be provided above the coat hooks. Boots will be stored on the floor below the coat hooks.
CLASSROOMS
Eighteen classrooms serving Grades 1 through 6 required; three for each grade level. The classrooms are to be arranged in grade level pods. Each pod will contain six classrooms (clustering two grades in a pod). While the classrooms will not have doors directly to the outside, each classroom pod should be very convenient to an exit by way of the corridor system. The characteristics of the spaces in the classroom clusters are described as follows:


Classroom
1. General
a. Provide 18 rooms of this category.
b. Each room shall have an approximate area of 800 sq. ft. (_+ 15 s.f).
c. These rooms should be planned in clusters of 3 for each grade level. It would be helpful if the primary classrooms (Grades 1, 2,
3) were located closer to the Office and Health Room.
d. Classrooms should be convenient to the Resource Center and the main circulation system.
e. Provide a door from each classroom to the interior corridor system. The doors from the classroom to the corridors should be provided with a small view window.
f. Provide a direct access from the corridor system to the exterior for each classroom cluster. Doors from the classrooms directly to the outside are not desired.
g. Windows to the outside are desired in all classrooms (provide window blinds for room darkening).
h. Demountable partitions (of the panel type having good acoustical separation characteristics) should be installed between the three classrooms in each grade level pod. A connecting door with glass sidelight should be located in these partitions to allow view and passage between classrooms. Partitions should be tackable if possible and should have chalkboards.
It must be understood that the demountable partitions must be moved by custodial personnel.
2. Interior Finishes
a. The classroom floor should be carpeted with an area of approximately 4' x 6 of seamless resilient flooring in front of the sink base unit.
b. Walls and partitions should be tackable to the extent possible.
c. The ceiling shall be a standard acoustical ceiling.


3. Casework and Fixtures (in Construction Contract)
a. Provide a 6' counter with built-in sink (cold water and tempered water), drinking fountain, and work surface. Provide enclosed storage below counter. Provide towel holders at the sink. The design of the sink base units should be such that three students can work simultaneously around the sink.
b. Provide 6' wide by 7' high lockable storage cabinets. A 1' section of this storage cabinet should be provided with a coat rod for hanging the teacher's coat.
c. Provide 24'_+_of 30" high x 16 deep open book shelves under the exterior windows.
d. Coats, boots, and lunch boxes will be stored in the secondary corridors immediately adjacent to the classrooms. Provide 30 double hooks at 1' on center for each classroom.
e. Provide room darkening blinds at the exterior windows. These blinds shall be furnished by the window manufacturer and shall be install between the two panes of glass.
f. Provide 16' of chalkboard at the front of the room.
4. Furniture (Owner-Supplied)
a. Provide desks, chairs and a few tables. Sled chairs are desired and desks should be of type which can be combined to make tables. Provide a teacher desk and chair for each classroom.
Classroom Work Center
This Work Center has three Classrooms clustered around it with visual control of each Classroom from the Work Center.
1. General Data
a. Provide six rooms of this category.
b. This room shall have an area of approximately 160 sq. ft.
c. This room shall have a door to interior corridor system.


2.
Interior Finishes
a. The floor can be carpeted or have seamless resilient floor. (This would allow for wet projects.)
b. Walls should be tackable if possible.
c. Acoustical ceiling with sound isolation from Classroom areas.
3. Casework and Fixtures
a. Built-in counters for three teachers and one aid (with undercounter file drawers (3) by Owner).
b. A sink should be provided with gooseneck swivel faucet, hot and cold water.
4. Furniture (Owner-Furnished)
a. Rolling storage units along one wall, 7'-0" high and 20" deep x 6' wide (4 sections) end units may be stationary.
b. Coat hook.
c. Undercounter file drawers (see 3.a).
RESOURCE CENTER
1. The Resource Center is a cluster of related and connected spaces including the Resource Area, the Office/Production Room, and a Storage Room for audio/visual material. The Resource Center must be centrally located in the main entrance. The entire cluster is visualized as being self-contained rather than open to the corridor system. Philosophically, the design of the Resource Center should create a sense of openness that invites people to enter.
Resource Center
The Resource Area is an open space of 2,000 sq. ft. Within the open space, areas are created for the card catalog, stacks, reference and study, professional material, and periodicals.
The following sets forth the desired characteristics for the Resource Area:


1. General Data
a. Provide one room of this category.
b. The room shall have an area of approximately 2,000 sq. ft. Its shape should be such that all portions of the room can be observed from both the circulation desk and the Librarian's office/pro-duction area. This room should be easily accessed from the corridor system.
c. Windows to the outside are not required but, on the other hand, if they can be properly placed, there is no objection to them. Windows between the Resource Area and the corridor system would be considered desirable inasmuch as they would create a sense of openness and welcome but would still serve as an appropriate barrier.
d. The scale of this room and the elements in it should related to the size of elementary school students.
2. Interior Finishes
a. The floor should be entirely carpeted.
b. It would be useful if walls and partitions were tackable.
c. The ceiling should have an effective acoustical characteristic.
3. Casework and Fixtures
Casework and fixtures for this room are covered under the Owner-Supplied furniture category.
4. Furniture (Owner-Supplied)
The following furniture has been recommended. It will be necessary to make furniture layouts to determine whether all furniture listed below can be accommodated within the square foot allotment for this space.
a. Circulation Area
1) Circulation desk providing two counter heights, a book return, storage, a typing area, a management area, and a computer space.
2) Book trucks with shelves.


3) Bulletin board.
4) Chair or stool.
b. Stepped Seating Area
1) Large projection screen.
c. Stack Area
1) Shelving for 8,500 books and paperback racks for 600 books of various sizes. It is desired that shelving be of wood construction with backs and adjustable shelves.
d. Card Catalog
1) A 36-drawer wood, card catalog unit broken into two units so it won't be too tall and to permit access by a greater number of students at the same time. Provide card rods in the unit and provide a note-taking area. An alternative to this would be a computerized card catalog system consisting of two or three terminals; provide support appropriate electrical wiring.
2) A/V Storage Cabinets: 3' x 3' x 3' (tapes, filmstrips, etc.)
e. Periodicals
1) Magazine display rack for 30 titles.
2) Shelving for back issues.
f. Reference Study Area
1) Seating for 35 students at tables and four A/V study carrels.
2) A wood dictionary stand.
3) Shelving for reference sized books.
4) Chalkboard and tackboard.
5) One legal sized filing cabinets (lateral type preferred).


Resource Center (Office/Production Room)
The following list sets forth desired characteristics for this room:
1. General Data
a. Provide one room of this category.
b. The room shall have an area of approximately 200 sq. ft.
c. The room shall open from the Resource Area and more specifically shall be convenient to the circulation desk. Provide a large glass window area between this room and the Resource Area.
d. Provide a lockable door between the Resource Area and this room.
e. Windows to the outside are not required.
2. Interior Finishes
a. The floor should be carpeted.
b. Walls and partitions should be tackable.
c. The ceiling should have effective acoustical characteristics.
3. Casework and Fixtures
a. Built-in counters should be installed along one wall. The counter top base unit should have storage below it and wall hung storage cabinets above it. A built-in desk with typing area should be installed along the wall common with the Resource Area. Windows should be installed in this common wall to permit supervision of the Resource Area from the Office Area.
4. Furniture (Owner-Furnished)
a. Two 4-drawer file cabinets of which one will be letter size and one legal size.
b. A 15-drawer shelf list filing unit.
c. Rolling shelves (bookmobile).
d. Coat hook.


Audio-Visual Storage Room
The following list sets forth characteristics for this room:
1. General Data
a. Provide one room of this category.
b. The room shall have an area of approximately 150 sq. ft.
c. This room should open from the Resource Center and should be located near the major entrance to the Resource Room.
d. Windows are not required.
2. Interior Finishes
Interior finishes should be durable and easily cleanable.
3. Casework and Fixtures (in Construction Contract)
a. Shelving for A/V software and equipment with space for rolling carts below.
4. Furniture (Owner-Supplied)
a. Rolling shelves for small equipment (tape recorders, phonographs, etc.)
b. Stool.
SPECIAL EDUCATION
This Special Education cluster contains the following spaces; (2) E.H. Classrooms, (1) Speech Room, (2) Office Testing Rooms. These rooms should be located close to the Classroom clusters for easy access to students and main-streami ng.
The following list sets forth desired characteristics for this room.
Educationally Handicapped Classroom
1. General Data
a. Provide two rooms of this category.


b. The room shall have an approximate area of 350 sq. ft.
c. Windows are desirable if possible.
d. These classrooms shall have a door to the central corridor system and shall be adjacent to the Special Ed. Office/Testing area.
2. Interior Finishes
a. The floor shall be carpeted.
b. Walls and partitions shall be durable and have soundproofed characteristics. Sound is particularly distracting to these students.
c. The ceiling should have effective acoustical characteristics.
d. Provide tackable walls.
3. Casework and Fixtures
a. Provide 12' of countertop along one wall of the room with storage below and wall cabinets above. This counter should have a sink with tempered water and bubbler.
b. Provide 12' of chalkboard.
4. Furniture (Owner-Furnished)
Furniture and equipment to be conferenced at a later date.
Speech Room
The following list sets forth characteristics for these rooms:
1. General Oata
a. Provide one room of this category.
b. The room shall have an area of approximately 120 sq. ft.
c. Windows are not required.
d. The room should be located off the central corridor system.


2. Interior Finishes
a. The floor should be carpeted.
b. Walls and partitions should be tackable.
c. The ceiling should have effective acoustical characteristics.
3. Furniture (Owner-Furnished)
Furniture should consist of rectangular or round conference tables with seating capacity for 6-8 people.
Office Testing
1. General Data
a. Provide two rooms of this category.
b. The rooms shall have an area of approximately 90 sq. ft.
c. Windows are not required.
d. The rooms should be located off the central corridor system.
2. Interior Finishes
a. The floor should be carpeted.
b. Walls and partitions should be tackable.
c. The ceiling should have effective acoustical characteristics.
3. Furniture (Owner-Furnished)
Furniture should consist of a small or round conference table with seating capacity for 3-5 people.
DISTRICT-WIDE SPECIAL EDUCATION
This Special Education cluster contains the following spaces; (2) S.L.I.C. Classrooms, (2) E.B.D. Classrooms, (2) T.M.R. Classrooms, (2) Toilets.
The following list sets forth desired characteristics for these rooms.


S.L.I.C./E.B.D. Classrooms
1. General Data
a. Provide two rooms of this category.
b. The room shall have an approximate area of 900 sq. ft.
c. Windows are required.
d. These classrooms shall have a door to the central corridor system. These classrooms can be shared spaces with S.L.I.C./E.B.D. Classrooms separated by a movable partition. One S.L.I.C./E.B.D. Classroom to be located with primary classroom clusters and one
S.L.I.C./E.B.D. with intermediate classroom clusters.
e. These classrooms need a shared "Time-Out" area of approximately 30
sq. ft. with access to both rooms.
2. Interior Finishes
a. The floor should be carpeted.
b. Walls and partitions should be tackable.
c. The ceiling should have effective acoustical characteristics.
d. Provide tackable walls.
e. Provide movable partition between classrooms with a pass door and tackable surface.
3. Casework and Fixtures
a. Provide a 4 sink counter with base cabinet in each classroom.
b. Provide a 4 wall cabinet over coat hooks for 10 children.
c. Provide two movable cabinets 4* wide^-B' highland 1-3' high both 24" deep with doors and adjustable shelves.
4. Furniture (Owner-Furnished)
Furniture and equipment to be conferenced at a later date.


T.M.R. Classrooms
1. General Data
a. Provide two rooms of this category.
b. The rooms shall have an area of approximately 700 sq. ft.
c. Windows are required.
d. These classrooms shall have a door to the central corridor system and be located remote from other classroom areas. These classrooms are to be separated by a movable partition.
2. Interior Finishes
a. The floor should be carpeted.
b. Walls and partitions should be tackable.
c. The ceiling should have effective acoustical characteristics.
d. Provide tackable walls.
e. Provide movable partition between classrooms with a pass door and tackable surfaces.
3. Casework and Fixtures
a. Provide a 4' sink counter with base cabinet in each classroom.
b. Provide a 4' wall cabinet over coat hooks for 10 children.
c. Provide two movable cabinets 4' wide 1-5' high and 1-3' high both 24" deep with doors and adjustable shelves.
4. Furniture (Owner-Furnished)
Furniture and equipment to be conferenced at a later date.
Toilets
1. General Data
a.
Provide two rooms of this category.


b. The rooms shall have an area of approximately 80 sq. ft.
c. One toilet to have a 3 x 3 shower stall with curtain.
2. Interior Finishes
a. The floor, walls and ceiling should be durable and easily clean-able.
3. Casework and Fixtures
a. Provide a counter with sink and mirror for handicapped.
b. Provide a toilet for handicapped.
PHYSICAL EDUCATION
The Physical Education Program serves all of the children in the school. It requires a Gymnasium from which an Office and a Storage Room open. While the Gymnasium will not be used as a Cafeteria, it will serve as the "Auditorium" for the school. Thus, a platform will also open from the Gymnasium. This platform is described in later paragraphs in this book as the "Dining-Commons". Storage of chairs (to be used in the Gymnasium during programs from the Dining-Commons) will be accommodated by providing space below the Dining-Commons. The Gymnasium is likely to serve as a community facility on occasion.
The characteristics of the Physical Education spaces are as follows:
Gymnasium
1. General Data
a. Provide one room of this category.
b. The room shall have an area of 3,500 sq. ft. and shall be rectangular in shape. The approximate dimensions of the Gymnasium will be 50 feet x 70 feet.
c. This room will be located in the Activities portion of the building convenient to the main entrance. It should also be appropriately related to outdoor Physical Educational facilities.


d. Kroviae QOOTS to tne turnuur/ym icijr, uic u i ii i iivj-i>imniiuii3 anu iu the Office and Storage Rooms.
e. Windows to the outside are not required.
Interior Finishes
a. The floor should be carpeted and stripes should be provided for required courts.
b. Walls should be smooth (without dangerous projections), easily cleaned, and durable. The drinking fountain in the Gymnasium should be recessed into the wall.
c. The ceiling should have acoustical characteristics and should be a durable surface. An 18-foot clear ceiling height is desired.
Casework and Fixtures
a. Provide six basketball backstops (two at each end of the court and four on the side walls).
b. Provide anchors for floor, wall, and ceiling mounted Physical Education equipment (two climbing ropes in ceiling volleybally main court only).
c. Provide fixed pads or walls under baskets.
Furniture (Owner Supplied)
a. Physical Education programs will require cargo nets, ropes, mats, and other special equipment.
b. Provide 200 stacking or folding chairs for large group meetings. The chairs should be stored on rolling carts which can be pushed into the storage space beneath the Dining-Commons Area.
c. A built-in stereo system is desired in the Gymnasium. This should be a simple economical system but should include cassette and public address (microphone) capabilities.


Office
1. General Data
a. Provide one room of this category. The room shall be divided by full height partitions into three areas; the Office, a small Dressing-Locker Space, and a Shower.
b. The room shall have an area of 160 sq. ft.
c. This room shall open directly from the Gymnasium.
d. There should be no windows to the outside. A view window should be installed between the Office and the Gymnasium either in the door or in the wall.
2. Interior Finishes
a. The floor, walls, and ceiling should be durable and easily clean-able.
b. A small tackboard and chalkboard are desired.
3. Casework and Fixtures
Provide three standard height lockers in the Dressing Room.
4. Furniture (Owner-Supplied)
To be determined at a later date.
Storage Room
1. General Data
a. Provide one room of this category.
b. The room shall have an area of 370 sq. ft.
c. This room shall open from the Gymnasium.
d. The door from the Gymnasium should be lockable. This should be a double door which will provide a clear width of 5 feet to permit easy movement of large equipment between the Gymnasium and the Storage Room.
e. Windows are not required.


2. Interior Finishes
Interior finishes shall be durable and easily cleanable.
3. Casework and Fixtures (in Construction Contract)
A substantial amount of metal utility type heavy-duty shelving will be required in this room for storage of Physical Education equipment. Some storage should have doors and locks.
DINING-COMMONS
The Dining-Commons is a multi-purpose space serving two functions; as a platform for stage events with the audience seated in the Gymnasium and as a Cafeteria. It will be separated from the Gymnasium with a hand-operated, panel-type, operable partition which will be designed to stack out of the way at the sides of the "proscenium" opening. It will have special lighting for platform events and its acoustics will be carefully treated to assist it in serving its several functions.
The Dining-Commons shall have the following general characteristics.
1. General Data
a. Provide one room of this category.
b. The room shall have an area of 1,800 sq. ft.
c. This room shall be located adjacent to the Gymnasium and the Serving Kitchen.
d. Provide doors to the main corridor system, the Serving Kitchen, the operable partition to the Gymnasium, a door to the outside. If room arrangement permits, provide a door into the Music cluster.
e. Windows providing a pleasant view to the outside would be desirable but are not required. If windows are provided, it will be necessary to provide darkening devices such as visual blinds or draperies.
2. Interior Finishes
a. The floor and walls should be hard-surfaced and easily cleanable.
b. The ceiling should have acoustical characteristics appropriate for functions programmed.


3. Casework and Fixtures
Provide countertop 10' long over storage cabinets along one wall.
4. Furniture (Owner-Provided)
Cafeteria seating must be carefully laid out so the room will function properly. The seating may require a combination of folding table-bench units. A variety of seating configurations would make the room far more pleasant.
Table Storage
1. General Data
a. Provide one room of this category.
b. This room should have an area of 300 sq. ft.
c. This room should be located adjacent to the Dining-Commons.
d. Provide double doors between this room and the Dining area to permit easy movement of the tables and chairs between the two spaces.
2. Interior Finishes
a. The floor and walls should be hard surfaced and easily cleanable.
FOOD SERVICE 1. Scope
The Kitchen will be used for preparing food on site. The following spaces will be included in this area.
a. Kitchen 700 sq. ft.
b. Dry Storage 130 sq. ft.
c. Office 120 sq. ft.


d. Toilet 20 sq. ft.
e. Cooler 100 sq. ft.
f. Freezer 70 sq. ft.
2. Use
About 50% of the students attending this school will be served hot meals each day. While the dining style is selected by the Principal, the food service personnel are very satisfied with cafeteria style dining". Kindergarten students do not participate in the food service program. The food service facilities may also include community use for such functions as Parent-Teacher Association (PTA) sponsored dinners.
3. Seating Capacity of the Dining Area
While only 52% of the students are served hot meals, seating must be provided for the entire student body since the remainder of the students bring their own lunches. Based upon an enrollment of 550 students, the total number of students needing to use the lunch room facilities would be 450 (550 100 Kindergarten students who do not eat lunch at school). Assuming 4 seatings of students will be used and subtracting 5% absent (23 students), the simultaneous seating of the Dining Room should be 106 children.
If the enrollment increases above 600 students due to the addition of mobile classrooms, 5 seatings would be acceptable. Above 5 seatings, "brown baggers would be required to eat elsewhere or other arrangements would need to be made".
4. Scheduling
In a school of 550 enrollment, there will be 4 seatings in the Dining Room with each dining period extending for 20-30 minutes.
5. Equipment (See Diagram)
6. Fixtures
All interior surfaces should be smooth, non-absorbent, and easily clean-able.
7. Openings
Doors are indicated on the diagram. Windows are not required.


8.
Mechanical
Plumbing fixtures are indicated on the diagram. Special heating, ventilating and air conditioning requirements are called for by this facility.
9. Electrical
Special lighting and power requirements are called for by this facility.
10. Furniture and Equipment
Furniture and equipment are illustrated on the diagram.
11. Space Sharing
The Dining Room may be shared by such other functions as: Community uses, platform, instrumental music, etc., as determined by the remainder of the Educational Specifications.
The Kitchen should be located immediately adjacent to the service drive.


inscription
111* Cabinet Oesk
Corner Guards
Washer/Oryer
fallen
She I v ing
Moo Sink C Rack Walk-in Cooltr/fretltr Pallets Spare Mo.
Shelving
Tire Protection System Hood
Convection Oven Trough Crete Creme Kettle
Tilting Cry Pm Steamer
Worktable w/sink Spare No.
Milk Cooler
Silver l Napkin Olspenser
Cashier Stand
Stool
Pan Rack Cart Worktable Can Opener Miier
Miier Stand Wall Cap Spare No.
Worktable w/sink SI leer
Soap l Towel Olspenser Hand Sink Serving Counter Mot Cood Wells Protector Shelf Cood Warmer Spare No.
Warming Cabinet Silver Soak Sink Soiled Oishtable Oisposer Oish Machine Spare No.
Clean Oishtable Wall Shelf Tray Cart Scale Stand Scale
Three Compartment Sink Shelving
Compressor Assembly Casework locker Spare No.
Wall C1 ashing Trash Can
DINING
k-E.
Food Service/Kitchen


MUSIC
Facilities are required for both Instrumental and Vocal Music. The Vocal Music program includes singing, dancing, marching, "free" movement, playing instruments, sitting on the floor, sitting in chairs, and lying on the floor. Vocal Music is a self-contained General Music Room.
More detailed characteristics of the Music Room are as follows:
General Music Room
1. General Data
a. Provide one room of this category.
b. The room shall have an area of 900 sq. ft. to accommodate from 20 to 35 students in Grades K-6. This room should have access from the central corridor system. Doors should be treated carefully to provide appropriate sound barrier characteristics.
c. Windows to the outside are desirable but may not be considered as required.
2. Interior Finishes
a. Floors should be carpeted.
b. Walls and ceiling should provide for effective room acoustics and should block sound transmission to other spaces.
3. Casework and Fixtures
a. Provide an 8' chalkboard and if the walls are not tackable, a tackboard.
b. Provide a minimum of 16' of countertop space with enclosed storage below and wall cabinets above.
c. A sink (cold water only) including drinking fountain would be desirable although not necessary.
4. Furniture (Owner-Supplied)
a. Provide a piano and bench, a high stool, a music stand, a solid table for storage, a teacher's desk and chair, a filing cabinet, stacking chairs for 25 to 35 students, and portable risers.


Instructional Music/broup hv
1. General Data
a. Provide one room of this category.
b. This room should have an area of 1,200 sq. ft. to accommodate 90.
c. Outside windows desirable but not required.
d. Provide fixed risers for seating levels.
2. Interior Finishes
a. Floors should be carpeted.
b. Walls and ceiling should provide for effective room acoustics and should block sound transmission to other spaces.
3. Casework and Fixtures
a. Provide 20 l.f. of instrument storage cabinets 7'-0" height, 4'-0" wide and 26" deep.
b. Provide space and cable hook-up for AV/TV console unit (furnished by Owner 4'-0" high, 4'-0" wide and 26" deep).
c. Provide projection screen, 8' chalkboard and 4' tackboard.
ADMINISTRATIVE CENTER
The Administrative Center includes the Administrative Offices and the Health facilities. The Conference Room in the Administrative Office cluster will serve a variety of functions including: Conferences for administration, teachers, and parents; Special Education activities, etc. The Administrative Offices should be immediately identifiable from the front entrance and open from the central corridor system. Seating for visitors waiting to meet with administrative personnel should be provided in the area immediately outside the Administrative Offices. An overhead rolling door above a 36" countertop will permit communication between the central corridor system and the Receptionist's Office. Traffic patterns should be such that faculty and staff are not encouraged to travel through the Administrative Offices.
The several spaces within the Administrative cluster have the following characteristics:


Reception
1. General Oata
a. Provide one room of this category.
b. The room shall have an area of approximately 250 sq. ft. to house a secretary and a clerk.
c. The room should open to the central corridor system and will provide circulation to all other spaces in the Administrative Center.
d. Doors to this room should be lockable.
e. Windows to the outside are required.
2. Interior Finishes
a. The floor should be carpeted.
b. Walls and partitions can be tackable.
c. The ceiling should have effective acoustical characteristics.
3. Casework and Fixtures
One main counter is required in this area. It should be located between the Reception area and the central corridor system. Built-in storage should be provided below the counter. Also, located in the Reception area should be the intercom system and main control panel for the fire alarm system and central clock system.
4. Furniture (Owner-Supplied)
a. Appropriate office furniture is required including 4 4-drawer letter files, desks, chairs, etc. Word processors may be used. This room should include a state-of-the-art public address system (2-way, can be initiated at classrooms) having a weather warning station and pleasant bell tones.
b. 2' x 3" wall space for monthly calendar.
5. A mailbox should be located in this room. The mailbox should provide 54 cubby holes 9" wide x 6" high x 14" deep to receive mail and handouts for faculty and staff.


Workroom
1. General Data
a. Provide one room of this category.
b. The room shall have an approximate area of 200 sq. ft.
c. This room should open from the Reception Room and should have a lockable door.
2. Interior Finishes
a. The floor should be carpeted.
b. Walls may be tackable.
c. The ceiling should have effective acoustical characteristics.
3. Casework and Fixtures
a. A substantial amount of built-in cabinet space is needed for storage for paper and supplies.
b. Provide counter space including a sink with hot and cold water.
A separate 12' section of counter should be provided with storage below and wall cabinets above. The height of this countertop should facilitate the placement of a countertop copying machine, one typewriter, a laminating machine, etc.
c. Provide a built-in security closet for personal coats, purses, etc., for the administrative staff.
d. Provide an effective exhaust fan for laminating machine.
4. Furniture (Owner-Furnished)
a. Provide such business machines as a ditto machine, a mimeograph, a countertop-type copying machine.
b. Floor safe installed by Contractor.


Principal's Office
1. General Data
a. Provide one room of this category.
b. The room shall have an area of 150 sq. ft.
c. This room should open from the Reception Room and should have a lockable door. An alternative exit route should be provided for the Principal into the corridor system.
d. Windows to the outside are desirable.
2. Interior Finishes
a. The floor should be carpeted.
b. Partitions may be tackable.
c. The ceiling should have effective acoustical characteristics.
3. Casework and Fixtures
a. Provide privacy draperies.
4. Furniture (Owner-Supplied)
a. Provide the required Office furniture (desk and chair plus three side chairs).
b. Provide filing cabinets.
Conference Room
1. General Data
a. Provide one room of this category.
b. The room shall have an area of 200 sq. ft.
c. The room should open from the Reception area and should be convenient to the Principal's Office.
d. Windows to the outside are not required.


2.
Interior Finishes
a. The floor should be carpeted.
b. The walls may be tackable.
c. The ceiling should have acoustical characteristics.
3. Casework and Fixtures
a. Provide 4' chalkboard and, if the walls are not tackable, a 4" bulletin board.
4. Furniture (Owner-Supplied)
a. Provide a Conference table and 8 chairs.
Health Room and Toilet
1. General Data
a. Provide one room of this category with a Toilet Room opening from it.
b. The Health room shall have an area of 130 sq. ft. to provide space for one bed.
c. This room should open from Reception area and the doors should be wide enough for wheelchairs and a stretcher.
d. Windows to the outside are not required but a window should be provided to permit supervision of this area from the Reception Room.
2. Interior Finishes
a. Interior finishes should be hard-surfaced and easy to clean.
3. Casework and Fixtures
a. Provide a counter with sink (hot and cold water) including built-in storage for scales, eye charts, hearing equipment, etc., above and below the counter. Provide a lockable storage cabinet for medication.


4. Furniture (Owner-buppiieo;
a. One small undercounter refrigerator.
b. One bed.
c. Desk and chair with filing drawer.
5. Special Note
The Toilet Room should have a water closet and lavatory. It should be arranged to permit access by the handicapped.
TEACHERS' LOUNGE
The Teacher's Lounge should be centrally located near the classroom clusters in the building. Entrance to the Teacher's Lounge should be from the central corridor system. Special exhaust provisions should be made for this room since smoking may be permitted.
The Teacher's Lounge should have the following characteristics:
1. General Data
a. Provide one room of this category.
b. The room should have an area of 550 sq. ft.
c. This room should be centrally located and convenient to the classroom clusters and Cafeteria/Kitchen.
d. Provide a door to the central corridor system.
e. Windows to the outside would be desirable but may not be possible.
f. Provide electric outlets for (2) vending machines.
2. Interior Finishes
a. The floor should be carpeted.
b. Walls should be tackable but should be of materials that provide a pleasant lounge environment.
c. The ceiling should have acoustical characteristics.


3. Casework and Fixtures
A short kitchen-like counter should be provided with storage below and wall cabinets above. A sink should be recessed into the countertop and should provide hot and cold water.
4. Furniture (Owner-Provided)
a. The furniture should include four tables with five chairs for each table.
b. Provide a refrigerator and a microwave oven.
5. Special Provisions
a. If the walls are not tackable, provide large bulletin boards.
Telephone Booth
1. Provide a small telephone booth in the Teachers Lounge.
Teacher Restrooms (2)
1. General Data
a. Provide two rooms of this category.
b. Each should should have an area of approximately 30 sq. ft.
c. Locate the restrooms adjacent to the Teacher's Lounge area.
2. Interior Finishes
a. The walls and floors should be smooth/non-absorbent and easily cleanable.
3. Casework and Fixtures
Provide a water closet in each restroom and a vanity with a recessed sink in the countertop. Provide a mirror above the vanity in each restroom.


SUPPORT
Support Spaces are essentially for building operation and maintenance personnel. The characteristics of the support spaces are as follows:
Central Custodial
1. General Data
a. Provide one room of this category.
b. The room shall have an approximate area of 200 sq. ft.
c. This room should be located in the Activities section of the building and convenient access to the main Mechanical Room, the Kitchen, and outside.
d. A window is not desired from this room.
2. Interior Finishes
Interior finishes shall be durable and easily cleanable.
3. Casework and Fixtures (in Construction Contract)
a. Provide a small backboard (pegboard).
b. Provide mop racks over floor sink.
4. Furniture (Owner-Furnished)
a. Work bench.
b. Shelving with doors.
5. Special Features
Provide a floor sink in this room with hot and cold water.
Building Grounds Room 1. General Data
a. Provide one room of this category.


b. The room shall have an approximate area ui cuu it..
c. This room should be adjacent to Central Custodial and direct access to outside.
d. No windows are required.
2. Interior Finishes
Interior finishes should be durable.
3. Casework and Fixtures (in Construction Contract)
Provide floor to ceiling storage shelves on adjustable standards along one wall, 12 deep.
4. Provide exterior vent for storage of flammable material and double doors.
Custodian's Closets
1. General Data
a. Provide two rooms of this category.
b. Each room shall have an area of 80 sq. ft.
c. One of these rooms should be located in the Classroom area (probably near Toilet Rooms) and one room should be located adjacent to the Gymnasium.
d. Doors to the corridors or the Gymnasium should be lockable.
e. Windows are not required.
2. Interior Finishes
a. Interior surfaces should be durable and easily cleanable.
3. Casework and Fixtures (in Construction Contract)
Appropriate shelving and mop racks over floor sink should be provided.
4. Special Features
Provide a floor sink with hot and cold water.


SPACE CHARACTERIST ICS
Douglas County Elementary School No. 14 will be designed to accomodate up to 600 students as well as special education facilities for the district. The school district is arranged so that elementary school is attended by children in kindergarten through grade 6, junior high school handles grades 7 through 9,, and high school grades 10 throught 12. Children begin kidergarten at the age of 5 and a d v a n c e o n e q r a d e (ass u m i n g they pass) e a c h v e a r
The major spaces ares 2 kindergartens, 3 sections of classrooms (grades 12, 3-4, and 5-6), a special education cluster, music area, resource center (similar to a library), g y ma n a s i um (wh .i c h i s a f 1 ei b I e s p a c e u sed a s a c a f et er i a and stage), administrative offices, food service, custodial spaces, and outdoor playground spaces. The gross building area is expected to be 48,000 square feet.
About hat If the students will take a bus to school and half will walk. The school year begins the last week of August and ends the first week of June with a three week Christmas vacation, one week spring break and thanksgiving
b r e a k . Fhe scnij<_> 1 day begins around 9; 0 0 a m a n d e n d s about
32 30pm. Lunch is provided in three s lx a g e s bs tw e e r ... 1 s 30 and
1 ; 00. Along with a noon rece ss, t he students have on e other
racess per day in either the mornx ng of afternoon. P hysical


education, music and art are alternately taught two and three times a week.
Teachers are given a good deal of freedom with techniques used to educate, and therefore desire a certain amount of flexibility within the classroom clusters. Team teaching, however, is only allowed from the 3rd grade on. Furniture arrangement is up to the teacher and rarely changes once it is determined. The teachers may share a common office space and have access to a lounge.The special education staff (speach therapist, learning specialist, and psychologist) will use their facilities as a home base while travelling frequently to the other schools.
The elementary school organization is led by the principal, followed by the teachers who are all on the same level, and supported by a classified staff which includes teacher aids (one per eighty students), a
sscretary/receptionist, day and night cusodians, and a cook w i t h h e 1 p e r s. T h e p r i n c i p a 1 a n d t e a c h e r s a r a p r a s i d e d o v e r b y t. h e s c h o o 1 d i s t r i c t board. See d i a g r a m
The school building is usually opened by 7;00am and locked up by the night custodian around 1 Is 30pm. On nights and weekends the building will frequently be rented out to organisations such as church groups, boy scouts, girl scouts, brownies, cubscouts, and adult excercise classes, or it may be use for P.T.A. meetings, performances, and fairs. The design will have to provide for security to the parts of the building which will not be used for these activities.


APPENDIX A
Zoning Requirements Building Code Requirements


ZONING REQUIRMENTS
The Highlands Ranch subdivision has been zoned PD (planned development) by Douglas County, and as such has its own requirements defined in their Planned Community District Development Guide. Applicable pages -from this document relating to the building of a school and the specific site have been photocopied and included in this section. It is interesting to note that the school district is not required by law to obtain approval from the planning and zoning department, therefore these guidelines are only thatguidelines and not requirements.
Planning Area; Pa 23
Setbacks; 30 ft. on all sides
Ma>; i mum Bui 1 di ng Ht; 50 ft.
Required Landscaping; 107. site area
Parking Required; 2 spaces per classroom
2 handicap spaces


Urban Uses
Residential
Density PA' GRA* DUGRA* Total DU
Low 1 216 2.0 432
2 66 3.2 212
[LI? 1 3 208 29 600
4 364 29 1.055
5 268 33 882
6 86 0.2 17
7 137 0.2 27
8 109 0.2 21
9 75 0.2 15
10 212 0.2 42
11 108 0.2 21
1.849 1 82 3.324
Medium-Low 20 209 40 836
20-34 '1 23 f 24 48 191 4.0 4.0 192 764
25 77 40 308
IT' - ~ i 26 235 40 940
1 27 95 4.0 380
i 28 94 40 376
29 153 4.0 612
30 91 4.0 364
31 351 4.0 1.404
32 284 4.0 1.136
33 101 40 404
34 187 40 748
Sub Total 2.116 4.0 8.464
Medium 40 72 5.0 360
*> j 41 284 5.0 1.420
42 139 5.0 695
44 206 5.0 1.030
45 92 5.0 460
46 284 SO 1.420
47 47 5.0 235
48 82 5 0 410
49 82 5.0 410
50 231 5.0 1.155
51 59 5.0 295
52 165 5.0 825
53 143 5.0 715
Sub Total 1.886 5.0 9.430
High 60 92 8.0-15.0 996
60-65 | 61 176 8 0-15 0 1.912
62 34 8.0-15.0 365
63 42 8.0-15.0 452
64 73 80-15 0 /86
65 235 8.0-15.0 1.925
66 275 80-15 0 2.246
Sub Total 927 8.0-15.0 8.682
Nonresidential
PA1 GNA3
70 Communitv Activitv 70 79
Center
71.72,73, Town Center 71 172
72 170
73 173
Corridor Activity Center 74 132
Shop-N-Ride 11
Sub Total 737
75-81 ; Industrial Park 75 37
76 60
77 107
78 76
79 38
80 105
81 81
Sub Total 504
Circulation
2 Lane Arterial Highways 4 Lane Artenal Highways 6 Lane Artenal Highways
Total Artenais
511
Intra-Community Transit O/O Interchange Proposed/Existing
Total Nonresidential
1,752
Nonurban Uses
§ Schools
Elementary School Junior High School High School Hiking and Biking Trail *5? Community Park
Y/////.- Ranch Homesites (133 DLTs maximum) I Nonurban
Easements Floodplains (100 yr.)
Remaining Area
Total Nonurban
GNA3
370
160
1.330
600
741
9.706
12,907
Total Residential 6,778 29,900 Total Planned 21,437
Community District (acres)
Section XVDI of The New Town of Highlands Ranch Planned Community District Development Guide
Footnotes Planning Area KSroM Residential Acres Xjross Nonresidential Acres
Dwelling Units/Gross Residential Acre 4/22/85
Planned Community District Development Plan Statistical Summary


BUILDING CODES
Douglas County utilises the Uniform Building Code, 1935 edition. A brief summary of important codes affecting the project are listed below, while photocopies of applicable pages have been reproduced from the Uniform Building Code for reference.
OCCUPANCY! E-l, A-2 (gymnasium with stage)
CONSTRUCTION TYPE: Any of Types 3 lhr., 4, or 5 lhr.
AREA SEPARATION: none required
ALLOWABLE HEIGHT: 2 stories, 50 ft. (Type 5 lhr.), 65 ft. (Type 3 lhr. and 4)
ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA:
(jonr[/Uch'o*\ Tyr*- Boiic Area, OA 2- ^piriWe^ fofuwie. l-*ky w/ 4 ^f>ri*iineel
A-2 X2-1 Vtr T8L 5-F 1 o^to 2 0, 250 5F 16,, ISO * fr 31 )$oo U>,756> 4-7, wo
pef&i'adrtOA ov\ A- a*f*y*
e-! Tyfe TIC 1k 1ST 'SZMkr. zo, too ^ tze>) 'L&o 16,7oo AOo AotAoo 31, 4eD 4et4Cot* ^>,4go 3) ,4^o %o) eoo eo,oo &z.)


TABLE NO. S-AWALL AND OPENING PROTECTION OF OCCUPANCIES BASED ON LOCATION ON PROPERTY TYPES II ONE-HOUR, ll-N AND V CONSTRUCTION: For exterior wall and opening protection of Types II One-hour, ll-N and V
buildings, see table below and Sections 504,709,1903 and 2203.
GROUP ...V -t 91 * WWW DESCRIPTION OP OCCUPANCY FIRE RESISTANCE OF OPENINGS IN
A See also Section 602 1Any assembly building with a stage and an occupant load of 1000 or more in the building
[2Any building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of less than 1000 and a stage 2 hours less than 10 feet, 1 hour less than 40 feet 1 1 \ Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 10 feet
i. 1Any building or portion ot a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of 300 or more without a stage, including such buildings used for educational purposes and not classed as a Group E or Group B, Division 2 Occupancy
3Any building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of less than 300 without a stage, including such buildings used for educational purposes and not classed as a Group E or Group B, Division 2 Occupancy 2 hours less than 5 feet, l,hour less than 40 feet Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 10 feet
4Stadiums, reviewing stands and amusement park structures not included within other Group A Occupancies .* 1 hour less than 10 feet Protected less than 10 feet
B See also Section 702 1 Gasoline service stations, garages where no repair work is done except exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no open flame, welding, or use of Class 1,11 or III-A liquids 2 Drinking and dining establishments having an occupant load of less than 50, wholesale and retail stores, office buildings, printing plants, municipal police and fire stations, factories and workshops usihg material not highly flammable or combustible, storage and sales rooms for combustible goods, paint stores without bulk handling Buildings or portions of buildings having rooms used for educational pur-. poses, beyond the 12th grade, with less than 50 occupants in any room 1 hour less than 20 feet Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 10 feet
u
-u
(Continued)
t
u TABLE NO. 5-AContinued
TYPES II ONE-HOUR, ll-N AND V ONLY
GROUP DESCRIPTION OF OCCUPANCY FIRE RESISTANCE OF EXTERIOR WALLS OPENINGS IN EXTERIOR WALLS
B (Corn.) 3Aircraft hangars where no repair work is done except exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no open flame, welding, or the use of Class 1 or II liquids Open parking garages (For requirements, See Section 709.) Heliports 1 hour less than 20 feet Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 20 feet
4Ice plants, power plants, pumping plants, cold storage and creameries Factories and workshops using noncombustible and nonexplosive materials Storage and sales rooms of noncombustible and nonexplosive materials 1 hour less than 5 feet Not permitted less than 5 feet
E See also Section 802 1 Any building used for educational purposes through the 12th grade by 50 or more persons for more than 12 hours per week or four hours in any one day 2 Any building used for educational purposes through the 12th grade by less than 50 persons for more than 12 hours per week or four hours in any one day 3 Any building used for day-care purposes for more than six children 2 hours less than 5 feet, 1 hour less than 10 feet' Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 10 feet'
H See also 1Storage, handling, use or sale of hazardous and highly flammable or explosive materials other than Class I, II, or II1-A liquids [See also Section 901 (a). Division 1.] See Chapter 9 and the Fire Code
902 and 903 2 Storage, handling, use or sale of Classes I, II and III-A liquids; dry cleaning plants using Class I, II or III-A liquids; paint stores with bulk handling; paint shops and spray-painting rooms and shops (See also Section 901 (a), Divi- sion2.] 3 Woodworking'establishments, planing mills, box factories, buffing rooms for tire-rebuilding plants and picking rooms; shops, factories or warehouses where loose combustible fibers or dust are manufactured, processed, generated or stored; and pin-refinishing rooms 4 Repair garages not classified as a Group B, Division 1 Occupancy 5 Aircraft repair hangars 4 hours less than 5 feet, 2 hours less than 10 feet, 1 hour less than 20 feet 1 hour less than 60 feet Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 20 feet Protected less than 60 feet
'Group E, Divisions 2 and 3 Occupancies having an occupant load of not mote than 20 may have exterior wail and opening protection as required for Group R, Division 3 Occupancies.
1985 EDITION 5-A 5.A UNIFORM BUILDING CODE


H (Corn.) 6Semiconductor fabrication facilities and comparable research and development areas when the facilities in which hazardous production materials are used are designed and constructed in accordance with Section 911 and storage, handling and use of hazardous materials is in accordance with the Fire Code. [See also Section 901 (a). Division 6.) 4 hours less than 5 feet, 2 hours less than 10 feet, 1 hour less than 20 feet Not permitted less than 5 feet, protected less than 20 feet
1 See also Section 1002 1Nurseries for the full-time care of children under the age of six (each accommodating more than five persons) Hospitals, sanitariums, nursing homes with nonambulatory patients and similar buildings (each accommodating more than five persons) 2 hours less than 5 feet, 1 hour elsewhere Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 10 feet
2Nursing homes for ambulatory patients, homes for children six years of age or over (each accommodating more than five persons) 1 hour
3Mental hospitals, mental sanitariums, jails, prisons, reformatories and buildings where personal liberties of inmates are similarly restrained 2 hqurs less than'5 feet, l^iour elsewhere Not permitted less than 5 feet, protected less than 10 feet
M2 1Private garages, carports, sheds and agricultural buildings (See also Section 1101, Division 1.) $ 1 hour less than 3 feet (or may be protected on the'extenor with materials approved for 1 -hour fire-resistive construction) _ Not permitted less than 3 feet
2Fences over 6 feet high, tanks and towers Not regulated for fire resistance
R See also Section 1202 1Hotels and apartment houses Convents and monasteries (each accommodating more than 10 persons) 1 hour less than 5 feet Not permitted less than 5 feet
3-Dwellings and lodging houses / 1 hour less than 3 feet Not permitted less than 3 feet
2For agricultural buildings, see Appendix Chapter 11.
NOTES: (1) See Section 504 for types of walls affected and requirements-covering percentage of openings permitted in exterior walls.
(2) For additional restrictions, see chapters under Occupancy and Types of Construction.
(3) For walls facing yards and public ways, see Part IV. -
(4) Openings shall be protected by a fire assembly having a three-fourths-hour fire-protection rating.
T
TABLE NO. 5-BREQUIRED SEPARATION IN BUILDINGS OF MIXED OCCUPANCY
(In Hours) _________________
A-1 A-2 A-2.1 A-3 A-4 B-1 B-2 B-3 B-4 E H-1 H-2 H-3 H-4-5 H-6 1 M2 R-1 R-3
A-1 N N N N 4 3 3 3 N 4 4 4 4 4 3 1 1 1
A-2 N N N N 3 1 1 1 W/ 4 4 4 4 4 3 1 1 1
A-2.1 N N N N 3 1 1 1 nr 4 4 4 4 4 3 1 1 1
A-3 N N N N 3 N 1 N N 4 4 4 4 3 3 1 1 1
A-4 N N N N 3 1 1 1 N 4 4 4 4 4 3 1 1 1
B-1 4 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 1- 4 1 3' 1
B-2 3 1 1 N 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 N
B-3 3 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 N
B~4 3 1 1 N 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 4 N 1 N
E N N N N N 3 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 3 1 1 1 1
H-1 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 4 1 1 1 2 4 l 4 4
H-2 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 I 4 l 1 1 1 4 1 3 3
H-3 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 4 1 3 3
H-4-5 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 4 1 3 3
H-6 4 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 4 3 4 4
1 3 3 3 3 3 4 2 4 4 1 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1
M2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N 1 I 1 1 1 3 1 1 1
R-1 1 1 1 1 1 3' 1 1 1 1 4 3 3 3 4 1 1 N
R-3 1 1 1 1 1 1 N N N 1 4 3 3 3 4 1 1 N
Note: For detailed requirements and exceptions, sec Section 503. , 4
iThe three-hour separation may be reduced to two hours where the Group B, Division 1 Occupancy is limited to the storage of passenger motor vehicles having a capacity of not more than nine persons. This shall not apply where provisions of Section 702 (a) apply. ,
2For agric^'^'ral buildings, see also appendix Chapter 11. . . .


TABLE NO. 5-CBASIC ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA FOR BUILDINGS ONE STORY IN HEIGHT!
(In Square Faat) ___________________
OCCUPANCY TYPES OP CONSTRUCTION
1 N *1 IV V
F.R. F.R. ONE-HOUR 1 N ONE-HOUR | N M.T. ONE-HOUR | N
A-l Unlimited 29,900 Not Permitted
A) 2-2.1 Unlimited 29,900 13,500 Not Permitted 13,500 Not Permitted 13,500 10,500 Not Permitted
A) 3-42 Unlimited 29,900 13,500 9,100 13,500 9,100 13,500 10,500 6,000
B) 1-2-33 Unlimited 39,900 18,000 12,000 18,000 12,000 18,000 14,000 8,000
77 non 71 OOO 12.000
! E 45.200 20.200 13.500 20.200 131500 20.200 15.700 9.100 1
H) 1-24 15,000 12,400 5,600 3,700 5,600 3,700 5,600 4,400 2,500
H)3-4-5 Unlimited 24,800 11,200 7,500 11,200 7,500 11,200 8,800 5,100
H-6 Unlimited 39,900 18,000 12,000 18,000 12.000 18,000 14,000 8,000
I) 1-2 Unlimited 15,100 6,800 Not Permitted 6,800 Not Permitted 6,800 5,200 Not Permitted
1-3 Unlimited 15,100 '* Not PermittedS _
M6 See Chapter 11
R-l Unlimited 29,900 | 13,500 9,1007 13,500 | 9,1007 13,500 10,500 | 6,0007
R-3 Unlimited
1 For multistory buildings, see Section 505 (b). 2For limitations and exceptions, see Section 602 (a). 3For open parking garages, see Section 709. 4 NNo requirements for fire resistance
4See Section 903. F.R.Fire Resistive
5See Section 1002 (b). 6For agricultural buildings, see also Appendix Chapter 11. H.T.Heavy Timber
7For limitations and exceptions, see Section 1202 (b). t .
TABLE NO. 5-DMAXIMUM HEIGHT OF BUILDINGS
TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
1 II III IV V
OCCUPANCY F.R. F.R. ONE-HOUR " ONE-HOUR H.T. ONE-HOUR N
MAXIMUM HEIGHT IN FEET
Unlimited 160 65 55 1 65 . 65 50 40
MAXIMUM HEIGHT IN STORIES
A-l Unlimited 4 Not Permitted
A)2-2.1 Unlimited 4 2' Not Permitted 2 Not Permitted 2 2 Not Permitted
A) 3-4' Unlimited 12 2 1 2 2 1
B) 1-2-32 Unlimited 12 4 2 4 2 4 3 2
12 4 2 4 2 4 3 2
EJ Unlimited 4 2 1 2 1 2 2 1
H-l Unlimited 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
H) 2-3-4-5 Unlimited 5 2 1 2 1 2 2 1
H-6 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 1
I-1 Unlimited 3 1 Not Permitted 1 Not Permitted 1 1 Not Permitted
1-2 Unlimited 3 2 Not Permitted 2 Not Permitted 2 2 Not Permitted
1-3 Unlimited 2 Not Permitted4
M5 See Chapter 11
R-i Unlimited 12 4 2 4 26 4 3 2
R-3 Unlimited 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
'For limitations and exceptions, see Section 602 (a).
2For open parking garages, see Section 709.
3See Section 802 (c).
*See Section 1002 (b).
5For agricultural buildings, see also Appendix Chapter 11 <>For limiuiinQs and exceptions, see Section 1202 (b).
NNo requirements for fire resistance F.R.Fire Resistive H.T.Heavy Timber /
5-D UNIFORM BUILDING CODE


pue>U^> ^g^Ti^oM
HANJOI^AF3 SCC?E£=> T^aUiraEMEKJTS>


APPENDIX B
Climatalogical Information


Chapter I
CLIMATE AND PLANNING WITH EMPHASIS ON DENVER
I
WHAT IS CLIMATE?
I The earths climate is the product of the sun which supplies the energy to set the atmosphere in motion. Climate can be
I defined as the collective state of the atmosphere for a location at a given time of day or year. It is frequently described in terms of these statistical weather variables: temperature, wind, sunshine, precipitation and cloud cover.
The state of the atmosphere at any moment for a given location could also be described in terms of energy, because it is the result of continuous exchanges of energy within itself and with the surface of the earth. If the surface changes, as when urbanization replaces countryside with concrete and
[buildings, the mechanisms of energy are modified and the climate changes.
In Denver the combination of buildings, paved surfaces and air pollution has altered the local climate. The core city is hotter than the surrounding countryside in summer. During the winter air pollution interferes with the receipt of solar radiation. It is estimated that a smoggy day can lower the surface air temperature by as much as ten degrees F.
TEMPERATURE
Denver area temperatures typify a mild interior continental region. Extremes of hot and cold temperatures lasting beyond 5-6 days are a rarity. The diurnal temperature range between night and day is greater than the winter to summer swing. Table I gives the mean and extreme temperature summary as recorded by the United States Weather Bureau at Denver, Colorado.
I
TABLE I
MEAN AND EXTREME TEMPERATURE SUMMARY IF] DENVER, COLO.
I Yonch Daily Maxinun Daily Mininum Monthly Mean Record High Record Low Sornal Degree Days Base 65Q? 'Vio Vi-Sor H 90F and above **V5 32 F and below
(Heating) (Cooling)
1 Jan 43.5 16.2 29.9 72 -25 1083 0 0 30
1 eb 46.2 19.4 32.8 76 -30 >02 0 0 27
5 Mar 50.1 23.8 37.0 94 -11 368 0 0 27
Apr 61.0 33.9 47.5 85 - 2 525 0 0 13
| May 70.3 43.6 57.0 96 22 253 0 * 2
Jun 80.1 51.9 66.0 104 30 80 110 5 0
| -ul 87.4 58.6 73.0 104 43 0 248 15 0
Aug 85.8 57.4 71.6 101 41 0 208 9 0
| Sep 77.7 47.8 62.3 97 20 120 54 2 1
Oct 66.8 37.2 52.0 88 3 408 5 0 9
Mov 1 53.3 25.4 39.4 79 - a 763 0 0 25
1 7ec 46.2 13.9 32.6 74 -18 1004 0 0 29
t Annual £ .... 64.n 36.2 50.1 104 -30 6016 625 32 162
-ess chan one half.
I
*ir:e: Department of Conferee, 1977
42


PRECIPITATION
WIND
Denver lies in the semi-arid rain shadow ol the Rocky Mountains. Mean annual precipitation equals 15.51 inches with the bulk of the moisture coming in the spring months. The winter months are normally the driest months. From November to March, the precipitation usually falls as snow. Heavy thundershowers are not uncommon during the warm summer months. Table II shows Denver's precipitation characteristics.
Daily precipitation amounts greater than or equal to 0.10 inches can be expected on the average of 88 days per year and the maximum daily rainfall recorded at Denver is 3.55 inches. Thunderstorms account for most of the summer precipitation, and annually there is an average of 41 days with thunderstorm occurrences. Snowfall averages 59.9 inches per year and snow has been recorded in every month except July and August. The maximum monthly and maximum 24-hcur snowfalls recorded are 39.1 inches and 19.4 inches, respectively.
Wind speeds in Denver are normally highest in winter and spring and lowest in late summer and fall as shown in Table III. Sustained wind speeds of 90 miles per hour with gusts to 120 miles per hour have been recorded along the foothills west of Denver. The maximum recorded surface wind speed at Stapleton International Airport was 56 mph in April, 1960 and again in July, 1965. The latter is not, however, a recommended design wind speed representative of the Denver area, since winds a few feet above the surface or along the foothilis might be considerably higher.
Knowledge of the prevailing wind direction is a grossly overused and not particularly revealing statistic by itself. For heating, ventilation and air conditioning applications it is much more important to know the various wind directions and wind speeds in relation to the outdoor air temperatures and those desired temperatures in the building at the time heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment is func-
TABLE II
DAILY, MONTHLY AND ANNUAL PRECIPITATION DATA (inches) DENVER, COLORADO
Month Total Preclnltation Mean Number of Days with Preclnltation ^,.01 inch Snow Mean Number of Days with Snow 1.0 inch
Mean Monthly Maximum Monthly Mininun Maxinus 24-hour Monthly Mean Maximum Monthly
Jan .61 1.44 0.01 1.02 6 8.4 23.7 2
Feb .67 1.66 0.01 1.01 6 8.0 18.3 2
Mar 1.21 2.89 0.13 1.48 8 12.6 29.2 4
Aor 1.93 4.17 0.03 3.25 9 9.6 2R.3 3
May 2.64 7.31 0.06 3.55 10 1.5 13.6 *b
Jun 1.93 4.69 0.10 3.16 9 T= 0.3 0
Jul 1.78 6.41 0.17 2.42 9 0.0 0.0 0
Aur 1.29 4.47 0.06 3.43 8 0.0 0.0 0
Sep 1.13 4.67 T* 2.44 6 1.9 21.3 *
Oct 1.13 4.17 0.05 1.71 5 3.8 31.2 1
Nov 0.76 2.97 0.01 1.29 5 7.6 39.1 2
Dec 0.43 2.84 0.03 1.38 5 6.5 30.8 2
Toral 15.51 7.31 T 3.55 88 59.9 39.1 18
* Monthly totals are rounded to the nearest whole day. h*Denotes less then one-half.
CTnnotes a trace of precipitation
SOURCE: U. S. Department of Cosanerce, 1977
A3


TABLE III
MEAN AND EXTREMES OF WINDS DENVER, COLORADO
Month Mean Wind Speed (mph) Prevailing Direction Maximum Wind Speed Recorded (mph) Direction Associated with Maximum
Jan 9.2 S 53 N
Feb 9.4 S 49 NW
Mar 10.1 S 53 NW
Apr 10.4 S 56 NW
May 9.6 s 43 sw
Jun 9.2 s 47 s
Jul 8.5 s 56 SW
Aug 8.2 s 42 sw
Sep 8.2 s 47 NW
Oct 8.2 s 45 NW
Nov 00 s 48 W
Dec 9.0 s 51 NE
Annual 9.1 s 56 NW
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Cocvnerte, 1977
TABLE IV
AVERAGE HOURLY WIND SPEED (m.p.h.) AND DIRECTION AT DENVER
Mountain JAN FEB MAR APR MAY - JUN JUL AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC ANNUAL
Standard Time Gi r. * aph 2 01 r. mf,n Oir. mph Dir. aph Oir. aph Oir. ph Cir. aph Oir aph Oir. aph Oir aph Oir. aph 0>r aph i)ir. aph
4.M 1:00 S 7.2 S 6.9 s 5.9 S 7.3 S 6.5 S 5.3 S 5.3 S 5.2 5 6.3 S 6.7 s 7.0 s 7.3 S 6.7
2:00 s 7.2 S 5.0 s 5.9 s 6.3 5 6.3 e * 6.1 s 6.1 S 3.0 5 5.3 S 6.5 S 7.; s 7.4 s 5.6
3:00 s 7.2 5 5.9 s 5.3 s 6.3 S 6.0 s 5.9 s 5.7 z 5.9 c 6.1 s 5.5 $ 7. s 7.4 s 6.5
4:00 s 7.2 c 5.3 s 5.3 3 6.7 s 5.3 5 5.7 s 5.4 s 5.5 5 5 2 s 6.4 c w 7.2 5 /.£ s 6.4
5:00 $ 7.2 C C.7 3 6.8 s 6.5 s 5.7 5 5.5 s 5.2 3 . 5 * 5.3 s n C 7.3 $ 7.5 c 5.4
5:00 s 7.3 c a 5.3 s 5.3 s 6.5 s 5.7 c 5.3 s 5.1 s 5. J c 5.9 3 3.6 s 7.3 s 7.6 s 6.4
7:00 s 7.5 s 5.3 s 6.9 s 0.0 s 5.; S 5.3 c 5.0 z 3. 1 S c 0 5 6.5 j 7.4 5 7.5 c 6.4
3:00 3 7.5 s 7 3 s 7.0 s 6.9 s 6.2 s 5.7 s 5.2 s 5.0 c 5.5 S 5.4 s 7.4 S 7.; s 6.5
9: JO s 7.7 5 7.3 s 7.5 it 7.4 s 6.3 s 6.1 s 5.5 s c S 5.7 3 5.4 6 7.4 s 7.7 s 5.7
10: JO s 7.7 S 7.5 s 3.0 il 3.0 ' It 7.6 a 6.7 M 5.5 HE 5.4 > 5.9 c 5.6 s 7.1 s 7.7 s 7.0
11:00 s 3.0 s 3.2 a 8.7 E 3.3 mE .3 ME 7.6 ME 5.5 :i£ 6.2 Tic r..5 Me 7 J s 7.4 3 .Me 7.5
12:00 s 3.3 lit 3.H M 9.5 c 9.4 0.9 ME 2.3 i.E 7.2 r 5.3 r*c ME .5 J '.2 i c 3.2
*1 1:00 s 9.1 .£ 9.5 E £ J* 'C 10.2 E 9.5 it 9.1 E 7.9 ME 7.7 ME 7:6 E 7 NE 3.4 s 2.5 .Me 3.9
2:30 a£ J u£ 50.0 t I0.7 :i£ 1C.5 .£ :o.3 Me 9.5 a 3.6 1c 2.1 2.1 .£ 2.7 e 3.5 N 3.7 c 7.2
3:00 ;e J.5 NE :o.i E 11.0 ME !0.9 HE 10.6 NE 10.2 a 9.4 i 3.7 £ 2.6 9. *£ 5.6 Me o. / e 5.5
1:00 9.1 £ i:.z .£ 11.2 c 11.2 10. ii£ 10.5 ; 9 5 9.1 a a 2 e 5.3 MC 3.5 M 8.2 "i £ 9.7
5: CO *E 3.4 mE 9.7 in 51.1 ME 11.2 tc 10.3 a 10.5 a 9.7 i 9.3 Me z.; ME 2.5 c \7 a / .0 m£ 9.4
5:00 c 7.7 .*;£ 2.3 1 10.1 a 1C.5 NE ?C.2 :.£ lo.; j. 7.2 NW 1.6 ;; 772 16 7.5 M 6.2 s 7.: ME 8.7
7:30 S 7.3 u 7.2 .< .*:£ 9.3 ..c 9.3 Me 9.; 9 C. 5 _c 7.7 - _2 it 5.7 S 5.4 s 8 ,r 7.9
8:00 s 7.1 s 5.7 a 7.3 h 3.4 ME 3.4 .W 3.0 5 i s 7 1 z 5.7 s 6.3 S 5.7 s ; a S 7.3
9:00 r 7.1 3 6.3 s -. ] Sw 7.7 7d 7.7 c 7.2 3 7 s 6.6 s 6.3 s 5.4 S 7.J s 7.1 £ 7.C
50:00 c 7.1 S 6.3 3 5.9 S 7.4 $ 7. * t 6.3 S 5.3 s 6.6 z 5.4 s 0.9 s *. J s *. _ 5 6.9
11:00 c 7.2 s 5.3 c 6.5 s i.y s 6.3 S 8.7 5 6.7 s 6.4 r 6.5 s 5.3 7.1 z r i 5 5.9
12:00 5 7.1 s 6.3 s 6.9 s 1. J s 6.7 s 5.5 S 5.5 s 6.3 5 5.3 s 5.3 * 7.1 s . 4 S 3 3
Data Source: U.S. Weather Suroou
Lor*cion of Wind Venae: Dovatovn Denver. rooftop elevation# c or near Halo Poot Office
44


TABLE V
MONTHLY AND ANNUAL SUNSHINE AND CLOUD DATA
Denver, Colorado
Month Percent of Possible Sunshine Number of* Clear Days Number ofa Partly Cloudy Days Number of* Cloudv Davs Mean Sky Cover (Tenths)
January 72 10 10 11 5.5
February 71 8 9 11 5.8
March 70 8 10 13 6.0
April 66 7 10 13 6.1
May 65 6 12 13 6.2
June 71 9 13 8 5.0
July 71 9 16 6 5.0
August 72 10 14 7 4.9
September 74 13 9 8 4.4
October 73 13 10 8 4.4
November 66 11 9 10 5.3
December 68 11 10 10 5.3
Total 70 115 132 118 5.3
Monthly totals are rounded to the nearest whole day. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1977.
tioning. Tables III and IV, used together, may be of some limited use in this regard.
Table III presents monthly annual mean and extreme winds at Denver. The annual average wind speed is 9.1 miles per hour with April having the highest average (10.4 miles per hour). Because of the nighttime drainage wind down the South Platte Valley, south is the prevailing wind direction in all seasons. During late morning and afternoon hours, north and northeast winds are most frequent as shown in Table IV.
SUNSHINE DURATION AND CLOUD COVER
Sunshine duration is defined as the number of hours of sunshine reaching the surface which is intense enough to cause distinct shadows. Denver receives on the average 70 percent of the total possible sunshine throughout the year. Clearest days occur in the fall and cloudiest in the spring.
Annualiy Denver averages 115 clear days (10 to 30 percent cloud cover), 133 partly cloudy days (30 to 80 percent cloud cover) and 117 cloudy days (80 to 100 percent cloud cover). Table V presents daytime solar and cloud data at Denver.
SOLAR RADIATION
Solar radiation varies with latitude and season. Incoming radiation has a value (solar constant) of about 2 gram calories per square centimeter per minute at an angle perpendicular to the outer boundary of the atmosphere. The solar collector on a Denver house will receive about half that rate of energy during an average summer solar day. The depletion is caused by many factors including reflectivity, cloud cover, ozone, sun angle and absorption by the earth's vaporous atmosphere. Table VI is a summary of average daily solar and reflected sky radiation for Denver and other western cities.
45


TABLE VI
SUMMARY OF AVERAGE DAILY SOLAR AND SKY RADIATION IN LANGLEYS |cal/crn2/dayl
Station Jan Feb Mar Aor Mav Jun Jul Aug Sect Oct Nov Dec
Riverside, Calif. 260 305 390 500 540 585 595 540 475 375 290 205
La Jolla, Calif. 260 305 400 460 505 510 500 475 400 340 290 240
New Orleans, La. 220 275 350 425 460 470 425 425 380 380 300 205
Fresno, Calif. 170 275 400 575 650 7C0 685 615 510 480 360 155
Nashville, Tenn. 140 210 310 410 500 530 510 460 385 300 200 110
Davis, Calif. 210 2S0 375 560 640 700 690 615 515 360 240 115
Phoenix, Ariz. 270 330 480 570 660 650 600 555 495 400 300 260
Grand Junction, Colo. 210 265 400 470 550 620 610 545 445 340 230 195
Boise, Idaho 130 185 310 420 525 565 600 525 405 275 160 115
Dodge City, Kansas 235 265 375- 460 515 575 585 540 440 345 235 215
Ely, Nevada 215 270 420 495 565 620 600 560 460 360 250 200
Brownsville. Texas 260 265 365 390 500 525 555 510 410 360 250 235
Fort Worth, Texas 230 265 380 430 510 575 570 550 445 365 270 230
Midland, Texas 260 295 250 490 545 560 560 540 450 355 295 250
Spoltane, Washington 105 155 280 395 495 565 605 510 350 210 115 80
Lander, Wyoming 205 265 410 480 535 590 595 530 430 330 215 180
Boulder, Colorado 200 270 400 450 460 515 510 460 430 315 210 190
Denver, Colorado* 240 325 425 510 560 610 620 S60 460 345 240 195
Based on Haaon, Weiss and Wilson nomograph and the U.S. Weather Bureau climatological normals (percent of possible sunshine) for the 1941-1970 period of record.
Source: U.S. Weather Bureau Records (unless otherwise noted)
TABLE VII
SOLAR POSITION AND INTENSITY;
SOLAR HEAT GAIN FACTORS* FOR 40 N LATITUDE
Solar Time A.M. Solar Position Direct Normal irradiation, Btuh/so ft Solar Heat Gain Factors, Btuh/sq ft Solar Time P.M.
Alt. Azimuth N NF r SE S SU V NV Hor.
SOMMER 5 4.2 117.3 21 10 21 20 6 1 1 1 i 2 7
6 14.8 108.4 154 47 142 151 70 12 12 12 12 39 6
June 21 26.0 99.7 215 37 172 207 122 21 20 20 20 97 5
8 37.4 90.7 246 29 156 215 152 29 26 26 26 153 4
9 48.3 80.2 262 33 113 192 161 45 31 31 31 201 3
10 59.3 65.8 272 35 62 145 148 69 36 35 35 237 2
11 69.2 41.9 276 37 40 80 116 38 41 37 37 260 1
12 73.5 o.n 278 38 38 41 71 95 71 41 38 267 12
Half Da v Totals 242 714 1019 810 311 197 181 180 1121
WINTER 8 5.5 53.0 88 2 7 67 83 49 3 2 2 6 4
9 14.0 41.9 217 9 10 135 205 151 12 9 9 39 3
Dec 21 10 20,7 29.4 261 14 14 113 232 210 55 14 14 77 2
11 25.0 15.2 279 16 16 56 217 242 120 16 16 103 i
12 26.6 0.0 284 17 17 18 177 253 177 18 17 113 12
P Half Da v Totals 49 54 380 331 781 273 50 49 282
*Total solar heat gains for DS (1/8 in.) sheet glass Based on a ground reflectance of 0.20
Reorinced from ASHRAE "Handbook of Funi!a?encali, 1972
46


TABLE VIII
EFFECT OF DATE ON SOLAR ANGLES FOR 40 N LATITUDE
Solar Time Winter Solstice Dec. 21 Equinoxes (Mar. 21/Sept. 21) Summer Solstice (June 21)
Altitude Azimuth Altitude Azimuth Altitude Azimuth
4:00 a.m. __ 0. -121.3
5:00 a.m. 4.2 -117.3
6:00 a.m. 0. -90.0 14.8 -108.4
7:00 a.m. 0. -58.7 11.4 -80.2 26.2 -99.7
8:00 a.m. 5.5 -53.0 22.5 -69.6 37.4 -90.7
9:00 a.m. 14.0 -41.9 32.8 -57.3 41.9 -80.2
10:00 a.m. 20.7 -29.4 41.6 -41.9 59.8 -65.8
11:00 a.m. 25.0 -15.2 47.7 -22.6 69.2 -41.2
12:00 noon 26.5 0.0 50.0 O.O6 73.4 0.0
TABLE IX
SHADOW LENGTHS FOR SELECTED SLOPES AND TIMES [in feet per one foot of obstruction!
40 N LATITUDE
Solar Time Level Ground 5% S* Slope 5% N Slope 5Z W Slope 57. E Slope
Winter 10:00 a.m. 2.7 2.4 3.0 2.8 2.5
Solstice 9:00 a.m. 4.0 3.5 4.7 4.7 3.5
Equinoxes 10:00 a.m. 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1
9:00 a.m. 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.5
Summer 9:00 a.m. 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8
Solstice 8:00 a.m. 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.2
7:00 a.m. 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.3 1.9
* Slope is downward to the south at a rate of 5 feet per 100 feet of horizontal distance.
HOW TO PLAN WITH CLIMATE AND SOLAR ENERGY IN DENVER
The first step in planning with climate and solar energy is to identify those parts of a development project which are sensitive to weather and climate including solar variations. For construction of a residential unit or project, or with any decision to install solar equipment, information on solar positions and intensity, percent of possible sunshine, and air tempera-
ture will be a necessity. Refer to Tables I, V, VII, VIII, and IX for relevant Denver data.
The cost benefit ratio and how a planned solar system compares with conventional systems, will be important. In this regard it is important to compare projected costs based on the expected life of the equipment. Solar is expected to become more and more attractive as fossil fuel related energy systems continue to increase in cost. In some geographical areas the tipping point has already been reached.
47


HEATING uEGREE DAYS, BASE 65* F COOLING DEGREE DAYS
FIG. 1
HEATING AND COOLING CHART, DENVER, COLORADO
4.8
SUN ANGLE


The site upon which the development occurs may have important micro-climatic characteristics such as slope and exposure, vegetative screening, and/or shadows. The problem of continuing solar access will be important, particularly for adding greenhouses and solar systems, both active and passive.
Precipitation statistics will be useful in planning window orientation and planting trees or gardens.
Wind data will be helpful in determining the way doors should swing open, patio construction, and the creation of wind breaks and breezeways.
Degree-day temperature data will help predict seasonal heating and cooling demand.
Consideration of each of the above mentioned climate factors will invariably result in long-term economies and increased enjoyment and appreciation of the development and the climatic characteristics at the site.
COMPUTING DEGREE DAYS
The concept of degree-days is useful for determining energy requirements and for predicting energy demand. Briefly stated, outdoor temperatures as indicated by degree-days are closely related to energy- consumption. In the winter, energy for space heating peaks in January as shown in Figure 1. In summer, energy for air conditioning peaks in July as shown on the same chart.
Table I in Chapter I lists the monthly heating and cooling degree-day normals for Denver. These are depicted graphically in Figure 1. The sun angle curves are superimposed on the same chart to shew the relationship with the soiar seasons. It is interesting to see how the seasonal temperatures (as shown by degree-days) lag behind the sun by about a month.
Degree days, base 65F, are computed in the following manner:
Max. temp for the day = 50F Min. temp for the day = 30F
Sum = 80 -s- 2 = 40F Degree day base = 65F 40F
= 25 degree days
PLANNING FOR SOLAR ACCESS
Solar Access may be defined as the necessary view of the sky required by a solar collection system to provide a given thermal performance. The skyview will vary depending on the daily and annual use pattern, the site and its environment. and the location and function of the collection system.
ZENITH
SOLAR ANGLES, SEASONAL VARIATION, DENVER.|40NI
FIG. 2
Heating for domestic hot water usually requires access to the sun throughout most of the day all year long. A roof-mounted collector would be best for this purpose.
Solar access requirements for space heating depend on the length and intensity of the cold season as defined by the number of degree-days recorded below 65CF. The heating season in Denver normally encompasses all but the three summer months of June, July and August. Table I, seventh column, shows the relative intensity of the cold experienced in each month by listing the normal degree-day totals. Access to the sun during the coldest winter months is a necessity for space heating.
Winter access is the most difficult to attain because of the low sun angle. Roof mounted collectors are obviously easier to protect for solar access than wall mounted collectors or those installed at ground level.
For maximum solar collection efficiency, new houses should preferably face south and have no shading obstruction in that direction during collection hours. Orienting new streets predominately in an east-west direction may be the most desirable.
49


PLAN OF SOLAR ANGLES FIG. 3
50


51


APPENDIX C
Soils Report


A. G. WASSENAAR, INC. GEOTECHNICAL CONSULTANTS
PHONG: 303/759-8100 2 1 80 S IVANHOE. SUITE 5 DENVER COLORADO 80222
PRELIMINARY
SOIL AND FOUNDATION INVESTIGATION FOR
PROPOSED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL NO. 14 SOUTHWEST OF MAPLEWOOD DRIVE AND DAD CLARK DRIVE HIGHLANDS RANCH DEVELOPMENT DOUGLAS COUNTY, COLORADO
PREPARED FOR
DOUGLAS COUNTY SCHOOL DISTRICT RE 1 131 WILCOX STREET CASTLE ROCK, COLORADO 80104
MARCH 20, 1985 PROJECT NO. 5773


A. G. WASSENAAR. INC. GEOTECHNICAL CONSULTANTS
PHONE: 303/759-8100 2 1 80 S IVANHOE. SUITE 5 DENVER. COLORADO 80222
March 20, 1985
Douglas County School District RE 1
131 Wilcox Street
Castle Rock, Colorado 80104
Attention: Mr. William P. Reimer
Executive Director of Auxiliary Services
Subject: Preliminary Soil and Foundation Investigation
Proposed Elementary School No. 14 Southwest of Maplewood Drive and Dad Clark Drive Highlands Ranch Development Douglas County, Colorado Project No. 5773
Gentlemen:
We have completed the preliminary soil and foundation investigation for the proposed structure at the subject site. Our summary of the data collected during our field and laboratory work and our analysis, opinions and conclusions are presented in the attached report. The purpose of our investigation is to provide preliminary design criteria for planning and site development, foundation systems, floor slabs and other geotechnically related portions of the proposed structure. Preliminary pavement design recommendations are also included.
In general, the subsoils consist of 1.0 to 18.0 feet of stiff to very stiff clay and weathered claystone bedrock overlying firm to very hard claystone, sandstone and interbedded claystone-sandstone bedrock. Ground water was encountered in four test holes at depths of 15.5 to 21.5 feet.
The structure should be founded on straight-shaft piers drilled into competent bedrock.
Slabs-on-grade placed on the natural, clayey soils or claystone bedrock will require some special precautions.
As a precautionary measure, perimeter subdrains should be installed in all below grade areas.
The pavements in service/drive areas should consist of 4 inches of Asphaltic Concrete Surface (ACS) over 6 to 10 inches of crushed Aggregate Base Course (ABC). For parking areas, the pavement section should consist of 3 inches of ACS over 6 to 10 inches of ABC.


Douglas County School District RE 1 Project No. 5773 March 20, 1985 Page Two
Additional recommendations are presented in the following report.
If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to call our office. We have appreciated the opportunity to provide this service for you.
Sincerely
A. G. WASSENAAR, INC
TimothyS^encdrTstaff^Engineer
Allen G. Wassenaar, P. E
TJS/AGW/yp


Title
Table of Contents
Page
Purpose........................................................ 1
Proposed Construction.......................................... 1
Site Conditions................................................ I
Investigations................................................. 2
Laboratory Testing............................................. 2
Subsoil Conditions............................................. 2
Site Development............................................... 4
Overlot Grading.............................................. 4
Construction Excavations..................................... 5
Miscellaneous Considerations................................. 5
Preliminary Foundation Recommendations......................... 5
Straight-Shaft Piers......................................... 5
Slab-on-Grade Construction..................................... 6
Surface Drainage............................................... 6
Subsurface Drainage............................................ 7
Preliminary Pavement Recommendations........................... 8
Limitations.................................................... 8
Attachments
Site Plan..................................................Figure 1
Logs of Exploratory Borings..........................Figure 2 & 3
Legend and Notes...........................................Figure 4
Settlement-Swell Test Results..................Figures 5 through 8
Gradation Test Results.....................................Figure 9
Specifications for Placement of Structural Fill