Citation
Proposed Heil Quarry

Material Information

Title:
Proposed Heil Quarry a practicum
Alternate title:
Heil Quarry
Creator:
Korbobo, Kathleen K
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
52 leaves : illustrations, maps (some folded), plans (some folded) ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Quarries and quarrying -- Colorado -- Boulder County ( lcsh )
Landscape architecture -- Colorado -- Boulder County ( lcsh )
Landscape architecture ( fast )
Quarries and quarrying ( fast )
Colorado -- Boulder County ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Cover title: Heil Quarry.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master's degree in Landscape Architecture, College of Design and Panning.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Kathleen K. Korbobo.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
08815368 ( OCLC )
ocm08815368
Classification:
LD1190.A77 1981 .K67 ( lcc )

Full Text
0
U1S701 T73SE4A
HEIL QUARRY
STUDENT PAPER-280


PROPOSED HEIL QUARRY
By
KATHLEEN K. KORBOBO A PRACTICUM
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Landscape Architecture
Graduate Program of Landscape Architecture College of Environmental Design University of Colorado at Denver May 1981
Advisory Committee: Robert Comer Robert Lathrop Gail G. Gunter Jerry Shapins Daniel B. Young


TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION PAGE
SUMMARY.......................................................... I
INTRODUCTION..................................................... 4
INVENTORY........................................................ 8
Vegetation.....................................................8
Ecology....................................................... 8
Climate.......................................................10
Wildlife......................................................10
Slope...................................................... 14
Geology.......................................................16
Hydrology.....................................................16
Geologic Hazard and Constraint Areas..........................20
ANALYSIS.........................................................20
The Site......................................................20
CONSTRAINTS......................................................26
POTENTIALS.......................................................42
METHODOLOGY......................................................47
COST ESTIMATE....................................................51
CONCLUSION.......................................................52
LITERATURE CITED,
53


SUMMARY
An inventory and analysis of the site revealed several site potentials and constraints. These potentials and constraints of visibility, access, wildlife, landforms, water, grazing potential and the aggregate resource, combined with the guidelines developed for that land in the Boulder County Comprehensive Plan defined the end land use to be a combination of agriculture, wildlife habitat and mixed grazing between domestic and wild animals.
Once the end use was established the operations plan was modified in terms of landforms created. Reclamation followed logically and reworking of the slope and highwall face was not necessary.
The reclamation effort has five areas of development:
1. Wildlife. The numbers and types of wildlife present on the site could be increased through special landscape treatments. These include such things as raptor perches, raptor nesting, the creation of a wetland habitat and some nesting islands.
2. Water. The climate of the front range is semiarid and water is precious to plants, wildlife and humans. The creation of ponds and waterfalls would maximize the potential of water in this area.
3. Planting and Stabilization. Planting pockets help achieve vegetative blending between cut and natural slopes. Erosion control fabrics will minimize erosion until vegetative cover takes hold.
k. Revegetation seed mix. The seed mix will be determined by grazing and their preferences for certain grass species.
5. Dryland farming. A crop of supplemental winter feeding of the farm animals can be grown on the mine floor.


All of these things are consistent with the surroundings and historical background of the Heil property and lead one to the conclusion that quarry development can take place in a way that can minimize adverse impacts on the physical and biological systems.




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A
INTRODUCTION
It is my belief that if the Landscape Architect is involved with projects from their conception to their finish that the impacts on the land can be lessened through proper planning and design. Many mining projects, large or small, are in operation for thirty years or more. In that amount of time the design process must be able to accept and adjust to changes, technological advances and land value shifts. Reclamation plans designed at the onset may not be valid at the project's completion.
The C & M Rock Company has agreed to sponsor my practicum project which will demonstrate that the impacts on the land can be lessened through proper planning and design, and that the Landscape Architect can have valuable input in all parts of the mining process, not only in quarry beautification.
My practicum project is the proposed Heil Quarry, located in Geer Canyon, Boulder County, Colorado (Fig. I). This site is a designated mineral resource area as described by the Boulder County Comprehensive Plan (BCCP)( I ) The C & M Rock Company filed for a special use permit in 1979, for the purpose of mining a felsite deposit located in Geer Canyon. Feisite is a high quality rock used for commercial grade aggregates. The special use permit was refused in 1980 for political, environmental, and community objections. I will use this site to show that aggregate mining, along the front range, can be developed to minimize adverse impacts on the physical and biological systems, and that the land can be returned to a viable and productive state.
The objective of this project was to ascertain the final land use. Once postmining land use had been identified there was an emphasis for the solution of on-site problems and off-site objections (Table I). The specific problem situations addressed in the project were hydfology, both surface and subsurface, water


5
quality and transportation. Consideration is also given to: wildlife, slippage, vibrations, environmental hazards, air quality and visual aesthetics.


FT. COUJH

I 'TO
Figure I
Regional Location Map


f
TABLE I FLOW CHART
APPROACH TO THE DESIGN SOLUTION
Inventory
Site Analysis Potentials:
Visual
Water
Wildlife
Constraints:
Water
Access
(trucks)
Noise
Fugitive Dust Wildlife
Competition
~T~-T~.T~ZZ
^Operations Plan £
Site Related:
End-Use Related: Cost Anaiysis
-------------End-Use Plan
--------------- i£
Land Use Possibilities:
--------IBCCP)---------
Low Density Residential Agricultural Open Space No Action
'j


8
INVENTORY
Vegetation:
A study done in 1979 by Stoecker-Keammerer and Associates (2) reported that the flora of the Geer Canyon Area is quite diverse. One hundred forty-five native and introduced plant species were observed. Past agricultural and grazing activity in the valley has created the appropriate habitat for many undesirable weed species. The report also states that neither threatened nor endangered plant species were observed within the study area. Trees and shrubs were located from an aerial photo taken of this site in 1979. Since trees and shrubs provide many of the same animal needs, they were mapped together on the vegetation map.
Ecology:
Geer Canyon contains two biomes: coniferous forest and plains grassland. The transitional zone between these systems is marked by the dry shrub ecotone. There are two plant communities of the Montane zone: Doug-Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) predominant in the mountain forest ecosystem of the site. Ponderosa pines favor warm, dry sites at elevations from 5600 to 9000 feet. Ponderosa pine dominates the south-facing slopes and ridgetops in the foothills. Doug-Fir growth takes place most frequently at elevations over 6000 feet. On the Heil Ranch, Doug-Fir mainly occurs on the north-facing slopes where they interface with areas of Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides). Plains grassland ecosystems are found at elevations below 5600 feet and are characterized by perennial sod-forming grasses, interspersed with occasional shrubs and forbs (3).


10
Vegetation provides cover, shelter, food and habitat for the wildlife on the site. Grasses and forbs provide food for cattle, Mule Deer, elk, and wild horses. Many of the shrubs also provide browse for the same, as well as shelter and habitat for songbirds. Trees afford cover, habitat, food and shelter for almost all wildlife species found on this site. The area is rich with diverse animal, plant and insect species, which qualitatively indicates a balanced system. The more diversity in a system, the more readily it can adjust to change.
Climate:
Two climatic zones are represented within the study area: the foothills zone, which generally exists within the elevations of 5000 to 5400 feet, and the Lower Montane, which applies to areas generally between 5400 and 7200 feet in elevation. Average annual precipitation for the foothills zone is measured at 18.5 inches with the maximum rainfall occurring in April and May. The Lower
Montane zone is characterized by an average annual precipitation of 21.2 inches, again, with the heaviest rainfall occurring in April and May (4). Water availability is crucial in revegetation efforts particularly for this area because C & M Rock Company does not plan to irrigate.
The wind direction is generally up canyon (to the north) during the day and down canyon in the evening and night. Temperature inversions occur, producing the "worst possible" situation as far as air pollution dispersal is concerned. The mixing height or inversion levels can remain at as low as 500 feet during the entire course of a day. Most inversions occur in winter, early spring and late fall (4).
Wildlife:
The results of the wildlife survey are based upon siting of tracks, scat or animals made within the permit area plus a one-mile surrounding zone.


Specific species sited in this area were: Mule Deer, Black Bear, Striped Skunk, Muttall's Cottontail, Abert's Squirrel, Pine Squirrel, Ground Squirrel, Blacktailed Prairie Dog, Golden Eagle, Great Horned Owl, American Kestrei, Broadtailed Hummingbird and Common Flicker. Elk, wild horses, mountain lions, coyotes, bobcats, raccoons, wolverines, badgers, porcupines, mice, turkeys, doves, and twenty-two species of perching birds were also noted (Vegetation Map). It has been reported by Stoecker-Keammerer & Associates (2) that no threatened nor endangered wildlife species were identified. However, there are two active Golden Eagle nests one is one mile northwest of the proposed quarry and the other is one and one-half miles southwest. Golden Eagles are not classified as neither a threatened nor endangered species; however, they are protected under the Bald Eagle Act Amendment of 1973. Impacts to these nesting Golden Eagles from the proposed quarry are unlikely due to the distance and location of the nests. Critical wildlife habitats and boundaries of travel routes for elk and deer herds were identified (6) but were not on or close to the Heil Ranch.
Stoecker-Keammerer (2) also reported that the riparian habitat, located near Left Hand Creek, is of local importance to many wildlife species because of the permanent open water and the occasional stands of relatively dense riparian vegetation. "Prominent cliff faces are common at the higher elevations along the rim-rock that tends to parallel the valleys (Fig. 2). Also smaller cliffs and rock ledges occasionally occur at lower elevations. These areas provide important nesting habitats, especially for raptoral birds." (2) The coniferous forest provides an important wildlife habitat as well; however, this habitat is extensive throughout the general area, and therefore, can be considered less important than the more limited riparian habitat.


Figure 2. LANDFORMS
There is a diversity of landforms within the site. The rolling valley floor is mostly open meadow. The side slopes of the hogbacks are uniform, and the exposed rock cliffs at the top of the hogbacks provide unique habitat for wildlife.
%


14
Cattle are grazing on the site and there is evidence of overgrazing near the water sources. Cattle are currently in direct competition for food with the wild horses, elk and Mule Deer for a good portion of the year according to Skiles et aL (5). This competition is a serious matter because the Boulder County Comprehensive Plan (6) identified most of the Heil Ranch as prime agricultural land, i.e., less than 25 acres is required per animal per year, and prime agricultural land is of statewide importance (Fig. 3). The Heils are grazing within their recommended limits, but due to a limited water supply, topographic preferences, and competition among animal species for food and water, some areas are being overgrazed.
Slope:
Slope was evaluated in terms of access, grazing preferences, and visibility of the site to the public. It was determined that an access road to Highway 36 through Lykins Gulch (northern end of the site) is possible. However, the Left Hand Canyon access is preferable because: (I) roads already exist, and (2) at the intersection of Left Hand Canyon Road and Highway 36 acceleration and deceleration lanes exist and the site distances are ample. None of these features exist at Lykins Gulch. Slopes also delineate grazing preferences among deer, elk, and cattle. Cattle prefer slopes of less than 10% (7). Cattle are not as agile as deer, elk, and horses, and their grazing can be limited by low walls. The area to be mined is surrounded by enough topography so that it is not generally visible to the public. The hogback to the east separates the site visually from Route 36 and a residential community. The lower rolling hills to the south visually separate the site from Left Hand Canyon Road. The site can be seen from two houses on the easterly hogback, south of Left Hand Canyon Road, about a mile away. The access points and increased truck traffic will be in view.


Figure 3. PASTURE
The gently sloping valley floor supports native herbaceous plants. The species types and shallow slopes provide excellent grazing areas for cattle and wildlife.


16
Geology:
The hogbacks were uplifted as the Rocky Mountains were formed, and are sedimentary in nature. The deposit to be mined is Felsite rock, an igneous intrusion between two sandstone layers, and is located in the valley floor of Geer Canyon between the first and second hogbacks (Geology Map). The Review Data for Specicl Use Permit (8) described the material overlaying the deposit as colluvial in nature. It ranges in depth from practically none to areas where it is in excess of eight feet. The surface layer consists of sandy loam that contains varying amounts of stones and cobble. The underlying material ranges from loamy sand to clay.
The felsite rock deposit is known to extend from Left Hand Canyon, north, to the Plumely Canyon entrance and has a surface width ranging from approximately 400 to 700 feet. "The felsite sill dips to the east at approximately 25 (Fig. 4) and is an intrusion into the Lykins formation with Lyons Sandstone beneath it and Forelle Limestone above it. Felsite is a fine-grained light-colored igneous rock that has excellent characteristics for concrete and roadbase aggregate applications" (8). Felsite fractures relatively easily and produces litlle dust; therefore, C & M believes that washing the crushed stone will not be necessary.
Hydrology:
"There are no water rights currently being used on the proposed mining or processing area" (8). The flow of the intermittent drainage that runs through the site has been estimated at 30 cubic feet per second (cfs) or greater in spring runoff and 1.5 cfs in summer (Fig. 5). Frequently the surface water dries up from late August to October. The ground water potential has been estimated from


Figure 4. THE RESOURCE
The felsile sill to be mined is located in the valley floor between the first and second hogbacks. Its formation suggests that the western side of the deposit be extracted on a slope, and the eastern edge become a highwall. There is enough elevation from south to north that positive drainage can be maintained out of the quarry at all times.


Figure 5. WATER
The intermittent drainage on the site flows most of the year. Due to the minimal flows and limited source, the cattle grazing on this land are polluting their own water source.


20
negligible to supplies sufficient for community water supply systems and commercial enterprises (15 or more gal/min)" (9).
Geologic Hazard and Constraint Areas:
The easternmost portion of the leased area is shown in the Boulder County Comprehensive Plan (10) as a major high risk area, subject to landslides, mudslides, mudfalls, expansive soils or claystone, soil creepage, rockfalls and rock avalanches. All of the drainage paths are considered flash flood corridors. In comparison, the majority of the remaining area has a moderate geologic hazard risk (Environmental Hazards Map).
ANALYSIS The Site:
The site is located on the Heil property in Colorado, about halfway between the town of Lyons and the city of Boulder (Fig. I A). The Heils own about 5300 acres, bordered on the west by National Forest Service land and on the east by private ownership. Most of the site is isolated from development and there are portions that the Heils have never explored. The majority of their land has been treated similarly to the Forest Service land and feels continuous with it. There is a great diversity of animal life, vegetative cover, and land forms within the site. The rolling valley floor is mostly open meadow. The side slopes of the hogbacks are uniform slopes with evergreen tree cover, and the exposed rock cliffs at the top of the hogbacks provide unique niches for wildlife (Analysis Map).
Extracting the aggregate will not necessarily destroy the site (Figs. 6 and 7). In fact, proper planning and reclamation can often raise land values (II). An


Figure I a
The Heil property is located between Lyons and Boulder, in Boulder County, Colorado. It is bordered on the west by National Forest Service land, which in turn surrounds Rocky Mountain National Park. East of this site is the rapidly growing front range, a metropolitan corridor, which stretches from Fort Collins to Colorado Springs (south of Denver.)
Boulder County contains a portion of the plains, foothills, and the eastern Rocky Mountains up to the Continental Divide.
Between the plains and the foothills are the hogbacks. They were formed by the geologic uplift of the Rocky Mountains and are sedimentary in nature.
The Heil property spans the hogbacks from east to west, and the igneous intrusive sill that is to be mined lies in the valley floor between the hogbacks.


Figure 6. PHASING The phosing is based on extraction prior to moving
the existing stream (Phase I), and after moving the stream (Phase II).


Figure 7. OPERATIONS
Phase i will be developed leaving the drainage in place. Phase II will involve diverting the drainage and then extracting the remaining aggregate. Conveyors will be used to transport the blasted rock to the crushing and stockpiling area. Wildcat blasting will be used for onsite design of the benching.


26
analysis of the proposed postmining topography revealed canyonlike properties, deep narrow valleys with precipitous sides often with a stream flowing through.
CONSTRAINTS
Situation:
Wildlife
Experts have varying opinions as to the effect the noise, dust and increased activity will have on the wildlife of the area. In any case, the mining activity is temporary and, if the surrounding area of similar habitat is large enough to absorb the disruption, the animals will return after the operations are completed (12). Stoecker-Keammerer & Associates (2), ecological consultants, reported that the wildlife is not likely to be impacted to any major extent. The BCCP does not show any critical wildlife habitat in the area.
Proposal:
Access through Lykins Gulch should not be used except in the summer when Left Hand Canyon Road is heavily used by tourists and truck traffic could pose a hazard.
Situation:
Vibrations and noise from blasting
The local residents on the east side of the eastern hogback are concerned that the blasting vibrations through the hogback may be sufficient to cause landslides and that their homes may incur damage or actually slide down the hillside. This may sound unreasonable at first but further investigation revealed that beneath the Morrison Formation, on which the subdivision is situated, is a layer of bentonitic shale. This shale is being lubricated with water from septic


27
systems, which would allow slippage. The homeowners are also concerned that their well casings (some as deep as 500') may crack with the vibrations. Local residents directly to the south of the site fear a possible megaphone affect on the sound waves as they leave Geer Canyon.
Proposal:
C & M Rock Company should fire a full strength test blast and monitor both surface and subsurface vibrations. This should be done with the full knowledge and approval of the residents so that they will be satisfied with the results.
Situation:
Truck Traffic
Highway 36 and Left Hand Canyon Road are said to be deficient in transportation capacity during the summer months. The added load of truck traffic on Left Hand Canyon Road could possibly cause a safety hazard and, at the least, could worsen the traffic jams caused by people going to and from the mountains.
Highway 36 has a bicycle lane and bicyclists are concerned about loose gravel falling from the trucks.
The residents are concerned that loose gravel will remain on Left Hand Canyon Road, that dust will be raised every time a truck passes, and that the subcontractors hauling gravel from the site will use their jake brakes at the entry to Geer Canyon and at the intersection of Left Hand Canyon Road and Highway 36. They also feel that the empty trucks returning to the site will "rattle and bounce," creating unacceptable noise.


Figure 8
A secondary truck access road will connect the site to Highway 36 through Lykins Gulch. This access should only be used when traffic on Left Hand Canyon Road slows the hauling of material from the site. This will normally occur in the summer when the large herbivores are at higher elevations.


I
29
Proposal:
1. Safety. An occess road out Lykins Gulch should be used when warm
weather flow of traffic to the mountains increases to the point of
slowing the truck trips (Fig. 8).
2. Loose gravel. Cover the truck beds with a tarp to reduce flying gravel when traveling on the highway.
3. C & M promises not to use jake brakes and that no subcontractor will
use them either if they do, that driver will no longer haul from
this site. All trucks entering the site will have hard rubber blocks (as cushions) or some other means of securing tailgates on empty trailers to negate the rattle, and maintain equipment properly. C & M will provide education on driving techniques to mitigate noise, and maintain road surface conditions in the area (4).
4. Dust. Hose down the trucks once each day; maintain a clean image. Oil the unpaved roads and parking lots on the site.
Situation:
Citizen Complaints
The citizens of the nearby communities want to maintain an avenue of communication with the company.
Proposal:
Establish a procedure for handling complaints. Open lines of communication between the company and the residents by scheduling monthly meetings, distributing information on the project, passing out "gripe" surveys, etc. Each complaint should be addressed, with action taken on relevant matters.


I
Figure 9. WATER DIVERSION
Water diversion is a temporary measure. A channel, or diversion ditch, is dug around the area to be disturbed, and the normal runoff water can leave the site without being Ireated.


Figure I
Figure 10. SEDIMENT POND
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The use of several small sediment ponds will be more efficient than using one large pond.


*
RECLAMATION
Reclaiming an area as soon as possible has several benefits: (I) eliminates the cost of double hauling, (2) reduces erosion and sediment loads, (3) reduces dust, and (4) visually reduces impact on the land.
I


33
Situation:
Water quality and sediment control Proposal:
Erosion control measures: Clean water runoff is diverted around
disturbed areas (Fig. 9). Clean water drainages and streams must be intercepted above and channeled through or around construction areas without contaminating the water with sediment from disturbed ground. With the clear water diverted around the construction area, only on-site runoff and ground water will need to be treated. All sediment-laden water must be diverted to sediment ponds (Fig. 10). In principal, sediment ponds are intended to hold the water until the sediment has time to settle out, then the clear water is removed from the top and discharged into the stream. However, the red clay in the processing area forms a colloidal suspension, requiring lengthy settling times, and chemical flocculants may be added to precipitate the clay out of solution. The chemical settling agents used on the Vail pass Project (13) were tested for potential environmental impacts and none were found.
Sediment ponds are to be constructed to handle water collected from specific drainage areas within the disturbed area. This division within the project will lead to more efficient use of smaller sediment ponds (Fig. I I).
Situation:
Air Quality, Dust Proposal:
It has been estimated by Kucera (4) that this extraction can take place within the limits of the law; however, some additional measures could be taken that would greatly reduce the particulates entering the atmosphere.


Figure !2. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
Specific air pollution control measures con be taken that will reduce fugitive dust by over 40%. Covering the conveyor and misting will reduce particulate pollution considerably.


igure 12a. OPERATIONS
I
The processing and stockpile area will be on the flat area above the highwall. The blasted rock will be transported to the crusher by covered conveyors.
I


36
1. All sections of the conveyor system, used in transporting rock material to other stages in the operation, should be totally enclosed (Figs. 12 and 12a), and cold fog or misters should be used at drop points and crushers. This could reduce the total operation emissions by over 40%.
2. The feasibility of using "wafer bag" suppressants in the blasting component of the operation should be considered. Utilization of water bags could reduce total operations emissions by 16%.
3. A system should be established to monitor particulate levels and meteorological conditions such as low-level inversions, which would provide indications of impending problems.
4. The operation should not be run at times judged to have strong low-level inversions conducive to higher pollution levels (4).
5. Access roads, parking areas and loading areas should be oiled.
6. Trucks should be hosed down prior to leaving the site.
Situation:
Environmental hazards
Environmental hazards such as flash flooding, rockfalls, and other moderate-risk geologic hazards abound on the site.
Proposal:
No major permanent development should take place on the site including moderate to high density residential, commercial development or industrial parks.


37
Situation:
Visual
The site is not visible to the general public at present; however, portions of the access roads and entries are visible.
Proposal:
Plantings of Alder, Red and Yellowstem Dogwood near the drainage to Left Hand Creek would create a nice backdrop for the company sign. Plantings of Ponderosa pines, Three-lobed Sumac, Yucca and Rabbit Brush or Apache Plume would enhance the dry areas along the haul road.
The site will be visible to horseback riders. The Heils own a riding stable and conduct guided tours through the back portions of their ranch. An area will be reclaimed as soon as operations cease in that area in an effort to improve the general appearance of the mining operation and soil conservation. The topsoil from the next area will be spread on the completed area, thus eliminating the need for double handling.
Species selection and time of planting should be coordinated with water availability. Once the cover establishes, it will reduce the sediment-laden runoff. This procedure of immediate reclamation demonstrates the company's response to environmental concerns.
Situation:
The high wall and uniform 27% slopes created by the proposed plan of extraction will appear stiff and unnatural in a natural setting.
Proposal:
Using Vail Pass as a model, treatment of unnatural cuts are made to blend into the surroundings, the draws are laid back to a natural angle (Fig. 13), and


LAY BACK DRAWS
ACCEPTED
HIGHWALL
TREATMENT
r i 1
\ 1 #* f +
1 r ri PROPOSED HIGHWALL
J TREATMENT
J
Figure 13. LAY BACK DRAWS
Draws ard laid back to a natural angle to visually continue existing drainages. This results in more natural appearing cut slopes.


ACCENT RIDGES
Figure 14. ACCENT RIDGES
Where a ridge exists, the highwall face is modified to leave benches extending into the quarry area.


I
Figure 15. ROCK WORK
When the rock work is completed it will vary the linearity of the highwall, increase wildlife habitat, over the existing conditions, and reduce the overall impact of the quarry on the land.
I
)
I


PLANTING AND STABILIZATION
Planting pockets help achieve vegetative blending between cut slopes and forest. Erosion control fabrics will minimize erosion until vegetative cover takes hold.
PLANTING DETAIL
A boulder or large rocks should be placed to hold the soil in place in the planting pockets.
SLOPE STABILIZATION
Erosion control netting will provide seedbed protection for the grasses during germination.


42
the ridges are accentuated (Fig. 14). In areas where natural drainage exists, the steep slopes are flattened to match that of the draw and the result is a natural appearing cut slope. Where ridges occur, contours can be broadened to create a convex form. Rounding the top of cut slopes also provides a softer transition between constructed and existing slopes. Rock sculpting in 5' or 10' high benches creates diversity in the landform and reflects natural terrain (Fig. 15). Rock and cobble should be placed in drainageways across cut slopes (Fig. 16). The rock slows the water flow and helps prevent erosion as well as appearing natural and aesthetically pleasing (13).
POTENTIALS
Situation:
Natural and Existing Features of the Site
The rock cliffs in the side canyons and along the rim rock of the hogbacks provide habitats required for certain raptors. The flat canyon floor provides grass for cattle, wildlife and insects. Wildlife is abundant in numbers and in diversity on and around the site. The area is special to the front range for both humans and wildlife.
Proposal:
If at all possible, the site should not be subdivided. Subdividing it for low-density residential housing would destroy its wildlife and habitats.
The flat mine floor should be restored to seeded fields and a part of it could be used to grow a supplemental feed crop. The top of the high wall should be used to create raptor nesting areas, in which a nest could be implanted. The nesting ledges or indentations should be about 6 feet down from the top of the


SWALES
Rock placed randomly in drainageways slows water velocity and limits scouring action.
WATERFALLS
Figure 16
When creating rock cuts opportunities to create waterfalls should be developed.


I
I
Figure 17. PLANTINGS ON BENCHES
Plantings of trees on the benches will visually reduce the massive walls and soften hard edges. A ground cover on the benches will also help minimize the visual scar.
I
I
I


45
high wall, 6 feet wide and 4 to 6 feet deep (3). Also, the rim rock and cliff faces should be used as examples for on-site rock sculpting, including some waterfalls.
The rock sculpting should be supervised by an engineer, a geologist, and a landscape architect (Fig. 17). Where slope stability is not a factor, "wildcat" blasting techniques should be used. This allows the natural rock fractures to be exposed and produces a more natural result than when drill holes are placed evenly at 2 feet apart.
Wildlife should be encouraged to return to the area after reclamation. This can be accomplished by removing fences that had previously been used to keep cattle from the revegetation area, planting palatable browse, not ice cream plants, and creating areas of cover in open fields.
Situation:
Water along the front range is more plentiful than in the plains, but compared to eastern standards, it is close to being a desert, evidenced by cactus growing naturally in field. This makes what water is available valuable in terms of plant life, wildlife, and human needs, both physical and psychological.
Proposal:
If it is proven true that the water from these intermittent drainages is not owned, it can be impounded. This would be desirable for irrigation, perhaps a gravity flow system. It would also be desirable to create a small riparian habitat for wildlife (Fig. 18). Water would encourage the return of some animals to the area and perhaps attract other native species.


Figure 18. WETLANDS
The addition of a riparian habitat would encourage wetland species to visit the site. Also, additional small animal species would establish on the site.


47
METHODOLOGY
Throughout the previous situations and proposals the end use has been established. In the flow chart (Table I), the interim use of the land for aggregate extraction was accepted. The end-use possibilities were narrowed by compliance with the Boulder County Comprehensive Plan. The land-use possibilities that the BCCP outlines are low-density residential, agricultural, and open space. Then, through the analysis of existing conditions and postmining conditions, the end use of farming and rangeland for cattle and wildlife combined became evident. A correction will need to be made for the grazing potential of the land since it will include cattle, horses, Mule Deer and elk.
Proposal:
The use of the quadratic model with constraints, as defined by Korptopates et d. (14), is recommended. This takes into account: (I) the
acreage, (2) allowable use of a plant in a given season, (3) the availability of that plant at the beginning of that season, (4) additional growth of the plant in that season, (5) the number of herbivores during the season, and (6) the relative preferences for the plants during the season. It will also be possible to determine a specific seed mix for revegetation that will account for animal preferences. Cattle, Mule Deer, elk, and horses have specific preferences for diet (Skiles et d.) (5), and through plant species manipulation and ample supplies, dietary consumption can be separated and competition minimized.
Proposal:
Some special treatments may be developed for wildlife. The lake that is created for wildlife should have an island (Fig. 19). Waterfowl will use the lake, but an island with some grasses and sedges will encourage nesting. Raptor


Figure 19. ISLAND NESTING
Waterfowl will use a pond for feeding but if it has an island with grasses 12" to 18" tall they will nest.


RAPTOR PERCHES
Figure 20. Raptors perch in tree tops or on dead tree limbs to
survey an area. In the absence of these, the addition of perches near the wildlife pond will attract raptors and other birds.
The top of the highwall can be sculpted to create nesting areas. Implanting a nest may encourage a pair to relocate.


I
I
I
RIPARIAN PLANTS-^
POND BOTTOM


4
, o A* t^'V <." * 4;' ^ .y '* b
GABIONS

EMBANKMENTS
Erosion may occur along the water's edge. To prevent this, gabions are used to stabilize the edge and provide an excellent medium for water plants to take hold.


51
perches could be constructed and placed around the lake's edge (Fig. 20). Through the use of low terracing walls (5 to 6 feet), a pattern can be developed around the lake that would keep cattle away and allow the more agile wildlife access to the water's edge. The cattle should be kept away from the wildlife pond to prevent nitrogen and phosphorous pollution of the water.
COST ESTIMATE (Adapted from Colorado Department of Highways' Cost Estimates for 1980 and applied to a 200-acre site one mile long.)
Earth Work:
Separation of topsoil
avg. depth 1.5' at cu. yd. $ 2,081
Overburden removal
avg. depth 3.5' at cu. yd. 7,792
Landscape Improvements:
Soil preparation, mulch, jute, seeding,
fertilizer, and water at $1,500 300,000
Seedling trees, 5,000 at $5 25,000
Special Landscape Affects and Erosion Control:
$310,000/mile at I mile long 310,000
Subtotal $644,873
Contingency:
Provides funds for unexpected problems such as flash flooding, eroding a revegetating slope, or
failure of a sediment pond 64,487
Grand Total $709,360
Total cost per acre
$3,546


52
CONCLUSION
Development along the front range is occurring rapidly, and with this development there is an increased demand for aggregate. Most of it is taken from the alluvial deposits of the plains. These sources are getting further away from the development occurring along the front range, so other sources are being considered. The proposed Heil Quarry is one of the sources being considered. In spite of the definite need for this resource to be extracted, the project evokes concern and fear in people over the possible reduction in the quality of life surrounding the Heil property.
The interim environmental impacts can be lessened through erosion control techniques and special landscape considerations, such as emphasizing the landforms existing around the quarry as they join the disturbed land. The use of a team to solve specific problems is preferable. A team of qualified experts (soils engineer, geologist, landscape architect, etc.) can work through problems more quickly and consider more aspects of a problem and how they relate to the whole than an individual can. Implementing the reclamation plan as soon as possible will reduce some environmental concerns and the cost of handling overburden and topsoil.
When viewed as an interim land use, the focus of the quarry project becomes end use. Quarry development will occur in a manner such that its form is consistent with the surrounding landforms because of the nature and location of the sill. The postmining utilization of the land for farming, combined with grazing and developing the wildlife potential, is also consistent with the surroundings and historical background of the Heil property.


LITERATURE CITED
1. BCCP. 1978. Boulder County Comprehensive Plan. Volume I. Environmental Geology. Section 2:5-38 and Map I.
2. Stoecker-Keammerer & Associates. 1979. Vegetation and Wildlife of Geer Canyon, Boulder, Colorado. Prepared for C & M Companies.
3. Sasser, E. S. 1980. UD 640. Class report. University of Colorado af Denver.
4. Kucera, K. 1980. UD 640. Class report. University of Colorado at Denver.
5. Skiles, J. W., P. T. Kortopates and G. M. Van Dyne. November 1980. Optimization Models for Forage Allocation to Combinations of Large Herbivores for Grazingland Situations: A Critical Review and Evaluation of Dietary Botanical Composition. Unpublished.
6. BCCP. 1978. Boulder County Comprehensive Plan. Volume I. Environmental Resources. Section 3:7-12 and Maps 9 and 4.
7. Stoddart, L. A., A. D. Smith and T. W. Box. 1943. Range Management. 3rd Ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company. N.Y., New York.
8. C & M Rock. 1980. Review Data for Special Use Permit, Heil Quarry. C & M Rock Company.
9. U.S. Geological Survey in Cooperation with the Colorado Geologic Survey. Water Resources of Boulder County, Colorado, Bulletin 42.
10. BCCP. 1978. Boulder County Comprehensive Plan. Volume I. Environ-
mental Geology. Section 2: Map 2.
I I. Childs, S. W., and R. D. Comer, 1980. An Analysis of Sand and Gravel Supply of Two Towns in New Haven County, Connecticut. Project in Natural Resource Policy and Economics. Yale University, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies.
12. Kerr, Dick. March 1981. Personal communication.
13. Colorado Department of Highways. 1978. 1-70 In a Mountain Environment,
Vail Pass, Colorado. Publication FHWA-TS-78-208.
14. Kortopates, P. T., J. Skiles and G. M. Van Dyne. 1980. Optimization Models
for Forage Allocation to Combinations of Large Herbivores for Grazingland Situations: Concepts and Formulation of Alternative Optimization Model
Structures. Unpublished.
I
I


WILDLIFE MAP

KATHLEEN K. K0R8080
APRIL 10, 1080
PROPOSED HEIL QUARRY
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
SCALE: 1**24000
9
LEGEND:
-H : f
- +-
OVERLAP
IIIIIIIIIIIIIKIIUM
ABERT'S SQUIRREL
MULE DEER
ML- MOUNTAIN LION P PORCUPINE O GREAT HORNED OWL T WILD TURKEY C COYOTE B BLACK BEAR L BOBCAT GE- GOLDEN EAGLE R RACCOON
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
CAM ROCK COMPANY
NORT


FOUNTAIN FORM
ROAD
LYONS SANDSTONE
f ROAD
FELSITE PORPHORY
! ROAD GEER CREEK
V LYKINS FORM. (Shale) LYKINS FORM. (Limes
LYKINS FORM,
JELM FORM.
. MORRISON FORM,
DAKOTA GP.

Ill
PREPARED BY: KATHLEEN K. KORBOBO
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
PROPOSED HEIL QUARRY
CAM ROCK COMPANY
APRIL 10, 1980
SCALE: 1"1000 APPROX.


ENVIRONMENTAL
~HIf
PREPARED BY: KATHLEEN K. K0R808O UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
PROPOSED HEIL QUARRY
CAM ROCK COMPANY
HAZARDS MAP LEGEND:
MODERATE HAZARD
II I lllllllli
HIGH RISK AREA
L.
FLASH FLOODING
APRIL 10, 1980 SCALE: 1t1000* APPROX,
NORTH*


VEGETATION MAP
*"*V____tey'
Vr$iDjTf/j ^
fNimi ) 4
_./ i\\l \ / / i
' / s\\ 11 1 \ I / / (
ALLENS LAKE
PREPARED BY: KATHLEEN K. KORBOBO
* APRIL 10, 1080
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
PROPOSED HEIL QUARRY
SCALE: r1000 APPROX.
CAM ROCK COMPANY
LEGEND:
TREE AND SHRUB COVER
OPEN GRASSES AND FORBS
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
NORTl


ANALYSIS
PREPARED BY: KATHLEEN K. KORBOBO
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
PROPOSED HEIL QUARRY
C&M ROCK COMPANY
SCALE: 1*>1000 APPROX.
NORT
ACCESS
HIGH GEOLOGIC HAZARD AREA
VISUAL ACCESS T< SITE BLOCKED
THE RESOURCE SILL LOCATION
MINING
OPERATION
PROCESSING
WATER
CLIFFS
PASTURE, GRAZING LAND
WILDLIFE