Citation
The International Athletic Club of Aurora

Material Information

Title:
The International Athletic Club of Aurora
Creator:
Mathiott, Ellen Laura
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
approximately 100 leaves : illustrations (some color), charts, maps, plans ; 29 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Athletic clubs -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Aurora ( lcsh )
Athletic clubs ( fast )
Colorado -- Aurora ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Ellen Laura Mathiott.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
11303851 ( OCLC )
ocm11303851
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1984 .M385 ( lcc )

Full Text
t

The International Athletic Club
AURARiA


THE INTERNATIONAL ATHLETIC CLUB OF AURORA
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for The Degree of Master of Architecture.
BY
ELLEN LAURA MATHIOTT
Presentation of Thesis Report December 5, 1983
Presentation of Design Solution May 9, 1984


The Thesis of Ellen Laura Mathiott is appproved.
Ron Rinker, Committee Chairman
University of Colorado at Denver December 5, 1983 May 18, 1984


CONTENTS
SECTION
INTRODUCTION 1
THE CLUB 2
THE SITE 3
THE PROGRAM 4
CODES 5
CLIMATE 6
ADDENDUM 7
INTERVIEWS 8
SCHEDULE 9
BIBLIOGRAPHY 10
DESIGN SOLUTION
CONCLUSION


INTRODUCTION
The Project:
My architectural thesis project is the design of a physical fitness center called the International Athletic Club of Aurora. This is an existing private physical fitness and health center located in Aurora, Colorado just east of the intersection of 1-225 and Parker Road.
The I.A.C. opened for business in the spring of 1982 and was designed by Rolland Grote of KDC Architects, psc. I have chosen the site and program for the International Athletic Club to set parameters for my design.
The Club's facilities include a gymnasium, running track, weight room, racquetball and squash courts, numerous spa features, lap pool, locker rooms, restaurant and a nursery. It is a 45,000 sq. ft. building on a 1.7 acre site with a capacity for approximately 3,000 members.
The parklands of Cherry Creek Reservoir lie to the south of the site across Parker Road. The vicinity in the other three directions to the site is a new and fast growing business and commercial district. Surrounding these buildings, which line the major traffic arterials, is a sea of middle class suburban housing stock.
Note: During the course of graduate school I went through a phase of
giving up all extra-curricular activities. I found this created an imbalance in my life which felt unnatural and unhealthy. So I changed course and made it a priority to have some physical diversion which would counterbalance the demands of acadamia. I began a regular routine of exercise and found an improved sense of physical and mental fitness. I am not alone in this experience and know that many people recognize the direct connection between physical and mental health.
I chose to design a physical fitness center because it is a project of personal interest and one in which I feel I will enjoy the pursuit of the architectural ideas which inspire me. My reason for studying architecture is to learn how to apply my creative thinking and skills to the problem of building better human environments. I feel external environments are a reflection of the collective thoughts of humans and that they will improve as we grow and live better lives as individuals.
My experience has shown me that one prerequisite to a better life is physical and mental health. This recognition led me to a building type whose function is to help people work at maintaining their personal health.


In contrast to the architectural emptiness of functional buildings, I think of the rich beauty and simple complexity of Mother Nature's architecture. City dwellers often flee the country to get a look at its incredible beauty and to find a place to relax. These are the experiences people seek to enrich and maintain balance in their lives. I feel these qualities must be combined with functional requirements in architecture and particularly in an athletic club if we are to create better environments for people.
The key issues I have decided to focus on in this project cover the scope of traditional architectural concerns and specifically relate to the design of buildings which allow people to rekindle their connection with the world around them. In terms of evaluation criteria, they can be stated as the following questions:
1. Does the architecture engage our senses?
2. Are the forces affecting the architecture in balance?
3. Does the architecture satisfy the objectives of the club's management?
The first question suggests, in order to have a connection to something we must be aware of it. Thus, if we create windows in a building and allow the users to experience natural light wherever possible we engage the sense of sight and make a connection with nature possible.
The notion of balancing forces has to do with a tendancy in nature for things to stablize or maintain equilibrium. People also strive for a balance in their lives. Since there is such an emphasis on activity in an athletic club, the architect should remember the need for places to take a break and cool off or watch activities rather than participate in them. Balance must also be maintained between such notions as in and out, high and low, light and dark, etc.
The last issue has to do with my philosophy on athletic clubs. I believe they should facilitate the pursuit of physical health, personal achievement, amiable competition and social interaction. However, I sense that many athletic clubs market and promote a social atmosphere that is analogous to the "Meat Market" syndrome of nightclubs. I wish to design for the former and plan to avoid such programmatic and managerial precedents that encourage the latter.


THE SITE
This section includes: Site Location Maps
Photos of the Site and Views Soils and Foundation Investigation Storm Drainage Report
The topographic map for this site is too large to include in this format. Pictures of the existing International Athletic Club give some idea as to the topography/ although there was considerable excavation done on the southern portion of the site. This allowed the construction of the pool and patio to be on a flat terrain and created a small hillside effect between Parker Road and the building. This affords the building an added amount of privacy and some noise control from the traffic.
The only vegetation on this site if what was installed by a land scape contractor after the building was constructed. For purposes of the thesis design the site will be considered to be devoid of vegetation.
Utility lines are shown on the topographic map.


LOCATION MAP
AUKOI2A
MAMFCCM
Note: The International Athletic Club site is ideal in terms of
location. It is easily reach from two of the most major traffic routes in Aurora, 1-225 and Parker Road. The club is located on a service road off of South Vaughn Way which stems off of Parker Road on the North side (as seen in the following map.)


LOCATION MAP
Note: The site has excellent southern exposure and no neighboring
buildings are big enough or near enough to block any sunlight. There is a small vacant parcel of land to the west of the site which is approximately \ acre. The Ramada Renaissance Hotel is located Northwest of the site and it shares a parking lot with the club which is located directly North of the site. Currently there are 3 office buildings located on So. Vaughn Way which were part of the Planned Building Group that served to zone the I.A.C. site. The four buildings mentioned are all designed in a red brick and black glass vernacular. This expanse of dark glass forms a backdrop to the Club's site and will play a role in determining the materials used for this thesis design.
In addition, the pictures which follow show how the bridges which form the 1-225 overpass at Parker Road frame the view of the site and building.


THE CLUB
Ownership and Atmosphere
The International Athletic Club of Aurora (IAC) is a privately owned business venture. Its purpose is to capture a corner of the fitness market with a facility designed to be much more than an athletic club. While having enough athletic options to choose from to suit anyone's taste, the IAC attempts to create an atmosphere filled with exciting activity and beauty. Club members are offered a "luxurious health center...a vibrant social environment... an exclusive restaurant and a private country club. Most of all, it is a facility established with an explicit committment to personal service and the total satisfaction of members."
The pampered members are offered friendly athletic instruction, stress management programs, aid in injury rehabilitation, social events, and even programs to improve their financial situation.
With a total fitness program the club is a partner in improving its members lifestyles. Given the opportunity to relax in a whirlpool, sauna or the restaurant the members "can regain the sharpness and clear thinking we tend to lose is a stress oriented world.
It's a place where you can get to know yourself and like yourself a lot better."
(Note: The description given above is derived from an interview
with the IAC Corporate Business Manager, Rick Herbert and from the IAC Publicity Brochure. It does not exactly characterize the kind of atmosphere I wish to create in my design of the International Athletic Club. It is my feeling that the existing club is marketed in a superficial-capitalistic way, appealing to the "jet set/beautiful people" with a sensual come on technigue so often used in advertising. I contend that this mind set is part of the problem that adds to our "stress oriented world." Although I feel strongly that we need physical activity to maintain bur health, I feel egually as strong that our minds must be kept healthy through wholesome intellectual challenge and meaningful social interaction.
So that I don't sound too puritanical I wish to say that I think there are for the most part very good intentions expressed on the part of the IAC Management. However I want to avoid creating an atmosphere that might in some ways resemble the "Meat Market" scene associated with the social life of bars and discos that I'm reminded of when I read that the IAC is "exciting, vibrant, luxurious, etc." I'd rather place an emphasis on the opportunities for personal growth and enrichment through contact with others who value and enjoy physical activity or sporting competition.)


Physical Accomodations & Membership
With this grand image in mind, the International Athletic Club is designed to house facilities for playing squash, racquetball, volleyball, basketball and for running, exercise classes, weight training and swimming. As a health center it provides whirlpools, saunas, steam rooms, showers and locker rooms. The added benefits of a nursery and restaurant are also built in.
Having studied the demographics, economics of the potential clientele, location, club program, and competitors' fees in the SW Aurora and greater Denver market, the IAC owners and business managers planned a club for a patronage of middle and upper middle class folks in the 25 45 year old age range. However there are absolutely no restrictions on who may join the club. Anyone who can pay the (average) initiation fee of $300.00 and the monthly dues, ranging from $57.00 for a single woman, to $70.00 for a single man and $98.00 for a couple may join the club.
Membership capacity is 2500 members. Since a couple is considered to have one membership, the actual capacity is for approximately 3300 people as members. At present the club has 2300 memberships. About 48% of the members are couples. The male/female ratio of members is about 53% to 47% respectively. About 500 children (between the ages of 8 and 18) have use of the club through their parents' memberships. Their use of the club however is restricted. They are not allowed to use the club during the "prime times" of 11 AM 1 PM, and 5 7 PM. Those children who range in age from 8 to 14 must be accompanied by an adult. Members with children under 8 years old (and over 6 months) may leave their little ones in the IAC Nursery for an additional charge of $1 $1.50/hour
Non members can only use the club if they are guests of a member. They must pay $10.00 for this privilege.
Use Patterns
The IAC is open from 5:45 a.m. to 12 midnight on weekdays and from 7:45 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. on weekends. Cleaning and maintenance service goes on during daytime hours. Business hours are 8:30 a.m to 7:00 p.m. Monday thru Friday, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Saturday, and 12 noon 4 p.m. on Sundays. As stated before, the club's heaviest use comes at the prime times of the noon hour and at the end of the work day (11 1, 5 7). Peak loads could bring the number of members in the club at once to 600. Winter if the peak season for club use.


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THE SITE
This section includes: Site Location Maps
Photos of the Site and Views Soils and Foundation Investigation Storm Drainage Report
The topographic map for this site is too large to include in this format. Pictures of the existing International Athletic Club give some idea as to the topography, although there was considerable excavation done on the southern portion of the site. This allowed the construction of the pool and patio to be on a flat terrain and created a small hillside effect between Parker Road and the building. This affords the building an added amount of privacy and some noise control from the traffic.
The only vegetation on this site if what was installed by a land scape contractor after the building was constructed. For purposes of the thesis design the site will be considered to be devoid of vegetation.
Utility lines are shown on the topographic map.
(


LOCATION MAP
Note: The International Athletic Club site is ideal in terms of
location. It is easily reach from two of the most major traffic routes in Aurora, 1-225 and Parker Road. The club is located on a service road off of South Vaughn Way which stems off of Parker Road on the North side (as seen in the following map.)


vnvavh
LOCATION MAP
Note: The site has excellent southern exposure and no neighboring
buildings are big enough or near enough to block any sunlight. There is a small vacant parcel of land to the west of the site which is approximately ^ acre. The Ramada Renaissance Hotel is located Northwest of the site and it shares a parking lot with the club which is located directly North of the site. Currently there are 3 office buildings located on So. Vaughn Way which were part of the Planned Building Group that served to zone the I.A.C. site. The four buildings mentioned are all designed in a red brick and black glass vernacular. This expanse of dark glass forms a backdrop to the Club's site and will play a role in determining the materials used for this thesis design.
In addition, the pictures which follow show how the bridges which form the 1-225 overpass at Parker Road frame the view of the site and building.


SOILS AND FOUNDATION INVESTIGATION
The following information pertaining to the site of the International Athletic Club was copied from the report entitled, "Soils and Foundation Investigation" prepared for Athletic Clubs Associates, c/o Wickliff & Co., 5975 So. Syracuse, Englewood, Co. 80111. The report was made by A.G. Wassenaar, Inc., Soil and Foundation Consultants, 2180 So. Invanhoe, Suite 5, Denver, Co. 80222 on November 25, 1980.


CONCLUSIONS
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1.. The soils are somewhat variable. There is an upper layer of silty sand ranging in elevation from 100 to 85 in Test Holes 1 through 5. In Test Hole 7, the upper soil Tayer consists of expansive, sandy clays. The upper soil is underlain by hard to very hard sandstone bedrock at elevations of 93 to 85 and continued to the maximum depth drilled of elevation 66.
Some scattered siltstone lenses were encountered in Test Holes 5 and 6. Claystone bedrock exists at elevations 82 to 69 in'
Test Hole 5 .and elevations 88 to 81 in Test Hole 6.
|2. Ground water was encountered at depths ranging from 17 to 26
feet below existing ground surface. Ground water was encountered within the bedrock formation.
3. Some site grading is anticipated over the area. Site grading recommendations are presented in the body of the report.
4. We recommend founding the proposed building upon drilled piers bottomed in the underlying bedrock. All drilled piers should bottom at-;-!east 12 feet below /l'nis'fied grades into'tKe Hard "
rsandstone-clavstone bedrock. Design criteria is presented-in the body of the report.
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5. Pronnspd siabs-on-arade will rest on the lower expansive clay-c+nnp hpH>-nrfc. The only solution to eliminate fToor'lsyslem,move:-ment would be a structural floor supported by the walls. Heave of slabs-on-grade can be expected. The risk of floor slab heave
. can be reduced bv over-excavation and replacement of these soils aith Hon-xpapsi,Yg, gc^ular,
b.p.lnw..hnUnm,Qf..sLab- A subsurface drainage system is...rp-cnmi£Dded
-to.medium dense, clean to clayey sand underlain by very hard sand-
1 s wi tti, a, ,aut,v
surface drainage system is recommended.
stone' bedrock. Normal
8.
Surface,drainage is important both to the performance of the foundations and paved parking areas. Surface drainage recommendations are presented. .
Up. .uadp.rstand there wilL_be below-orade walls associated with
building, construction,____Walls attached to the building should be
dpsioned for an "at rest" earth pressure. We recommend using an. equivalent flujd~57essure of 70 .pounds oer.'cubic.foot'to / arrnnnt fnr. lapa:a.l.lna-dsaDQl.ied-to. the....foundation walls by the

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9. In our opinion, paved parking areas can be designed with a
minimum section of at least 6 inches of high'qua! ity base'course topped by 2 inches of asphaltic concrete. In heavy truck traffic aceas.,-such dg1,i,Y.e.i:v..tr.u£L . Jncto-of-aspha 1 tic contr.sts.uQd,^,Uln..bxXIa£iag.sai.ti&ag,£flur,s&v,,
Subgrade preparation for paving is also discussed in the report.
SCOPE
This report presents the results of a soils and foundation investigation for the proposed International Athletic Club of Aurora to be con-
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structed at the northwest corner of Parker Road and So. Vaughn Way in Aurora, Colorado. The report presents a description of the subsurface ... conditions encountered at the site, recommended foundatir- *
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slab recommendations construction cri based upon facutal data
ion systems, floor .

gathered during the field and laboratory investi-
gation and on our experience with similar soil conditions in the area of :\t*'
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the proposed building.
PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION ,

As
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presently planned, the building will include a two-story high
.
gymnasium structure. The building will be of prestress concrete construction

or cast-in-place concrete construction. The entire area of the building is; shown on Figure-1. The area will be overlot graded to provide the building site and parking areas. The building is to have a full depth basement as shown on the Logs of Exploratory Borings, Figure 2, We understand the lower floor is planned as a slab-on-grade. The north portion of the lower


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level will have a below-grade wall. A swimming pool is to be included at the southwest corner of the site.
SITE CONDITIONS
The proposed site is located as shown on Figure 1. The site at the time of our investigation was vacant being covered with weeds^nd grass. There was a temporary office trailer southeast of the proposed building
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area. The terrain is sloping gently downward dropping from south to north. There is approximately 2 feet of elevation difference across the
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building area. This area was graded in the past with cut in the southern

portions of the property with some fill in the north and west portions
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INVESTIGATIONS : *
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Subsurface conditions
ns were investigated.by'drilling 7 test borings

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At frequent intervals, samples of the subsoils were taken using a California
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- .. ;. sampler which is driven into the soil by dropping'a 140 pound hammer through.
a free fall of 30 inches. The California sampler is a 2.5 inch outside
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diameterby 2 inch inside diameter device. The number of blows required to drive the sampler into the soils is known as a penetration test. The number of blows required for the sampler to penetrate 12 inches can be evaluated and gives an indication of the consistency 'or relative density of the soils encountered. The results of the penetration tests are presented on the Logs of Exploratory Borings, Figure 2.
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Samples of the subsoils were returned to the laboratory where appropriate testing was assigned to evaluate the engineering properties of the various soil layers. The laboratory testing included swell -consolidation tests to evaluate the effect of loading and wetting on the soils. The results of these tests are presented on F.igures 4 through 7. In addition, gradation tests were conducted on the more granular samples. The results of these tests are presented on Figures 8 and 9. The laboratory test results are summarized and presented on Table I.
SUBSOILS
TL. I__
The borings drilled indicate somewhat variable conditions. There,is
c\ an upper layer of silty sand ranging in elevation from 100 to 85 in Test
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Holes 1 through 6. In TestHole 7 the upper soil layer
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; exoansive sandv clavs. The UDDer soil is underlain bv h
consists of
expansive sandy clays. The upper soil is underlain by hard to very hard
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sandstone bedorck'at elevations of 93 to 85 and continued to the maximum
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82 to 69 in Test Hole 5 and elevations 88 to 81 in Test Hole 6. A
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pictoriat^representation of the various soil and bedrock layers is pre-


sented on the Logs of Exploratory Borings, Figure 2.
'A ' ,
GROUND WATER '
Ground water was encountered in the borings at depths ranging from 17 to 30 feet below existing ground surface. The ground water was encountered in the claystone and sandstone portions of the bedrock. We


believe ground water will be encountered within fractures and joints in the bedrock. Ground water levels will fluctuate with seasonal variations. In our opinion, ground water levels could be anticipated as
much as 5 feet higher than those encountered in the borings during wetter seasons or wetter years.
LABORATORY TEST RESULTS
The laboratory testing indicates the soils exhibit low to moderate potential for expansion upon an increase in moisture content. Most of
the samples tested showed no swell with some settlement under a load of
1000 pounds per square foot. The maximum expansion exhibited in the samples

tested was 3.2 percent with swell pressures ranging from 2,000 to 10,000
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pounds per square foot. Natural moisture content of the soils was rela-' tively low and quite variable. Natural moisture contents varied from 7

to 23 percent. Dry density of the materials was also variable ranging from
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97 to 116 pounds
The results of the laboratory testing i
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are variable in engineering properties. The soils exhibit-potential for
.. \ an increase in volume upon an increase in moisture content. The potential
for vol ume-ichange is moderate.
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SITE GRADING
Some site grading will be required in order to prepare the site for parking and building areas. We understand cuts will be on the order of 20 to 22 feet in the racquet court area. Most of the soils will consist


of the upper sands and sandstone.
We recommend continuous inspection by the soils engineer during the overlot grading process so that certification of the fill can be accomplished and to make certain fill will adequately support floor slabs and pavements without excessive settlement. .
FOUNDATION RECOMMENDATIONS

We have analyzed the soil conditions based on the results of the

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borings, the laboratory testing and our experience in the area. The upper
soils are quite variable in engineering properties and should not be. >
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used for support of foundations. Building loads will be relatively heavy;
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In our opinion, the proposed building should be founded upon drilled piers
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bottomed in the underlying bedrock. The upper zones of the bedrock are not as hard as lower levels. Therefore, we recommend bottoming piers '
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the underlying hard sandstone a.nd claystone bedrock which occurs at 6le-
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vations ranging fronr
at the
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time of construction should be accomplished so that all piers will
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bottom in the materials suitable to support the design pressures recommended
.... ...........
We.recommend founding the building upon straight shaft drilled piers
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bottomed in, the underlying bedrock. The drilled piers should be designed
. ... and constructed in accordance with the following criteria:
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1. Drilled piers should be designed for a maximum allowable end pressure of 25,000 pounds per square foot.


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2. The piers can be designed for a skin friction value of 2,500 pounds per square foot from the top of the bedrock down to very hard sandstone bedrock.
3. Piers should also be designed for a minimum dead load pressure of at least 10,000 pounds per square foot.
4. We recommend drilled piers penetrate at least 4 feet into un-
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weathered bedrock with a minimum pier length of at least 12 feet.
5. Drilled piers should be reinforced their full length with re-inforcing steel. The amount of steel-reinforcing should be
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determined by the structural engineer.
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. Most of, the upper' soils exhibit low to moderate expansion '
potential. We recommend void forming material be placed be-




neath grade beams between piers to assure concentration of the dead load and reduce the risk of sol 1 movement affecting the
grade beams. Werecommend at least 4;inch void forming material.
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7. The bedrock~is very hard. We believe large pier drilling rigs
will be required in order to penetrate the bedrock. A Williams

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LDH rig or equivalent may be needed depending upon the pier sizes,
.
8. Some of the piers may be difficult to drill because of the very hard sandstone. The entire pier load may be carried in endbearing alone, only if a soils engineer can confirm the adequacy of the drilling equipment.
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9. Ground water was encountered at the time of drilling. We
believe most of the drilled peirs will not have to be cased.
A drill-and-pour procedure may limit the need for casing and casing may not be required. Ground water was encountered within the bedrock. A drill-and-pour procedure will be required i.n order to reduce the amount of water in the drilled holes prior to pouring concrete.
10. We recommend roughening the side of the piers in the lower 10 feet or within the bedrock zone to assure skin friction. The rougnemng should consist of a side tooth cutter on the auger.
Grooves in the pier side walls should penetrate at least 2
.
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inches into the side wall of the pier and be located approxi-mately 12 to 18 inches.
11. We recommend full time inspection of the drilled piers at this
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site by the soils engineer to make certain of adequate penetration
: FLOOR SLABS

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The upper clays exhibit low potential for future movement under changes in moisture content. In our opinion, there will be little floor slab movement for tne slabs-on-grade supported by the upper materials. The lower level slabs-on-qrade may be supported by expansive claystone bed-rock. Portions of these soils are very dry and therefore, susceptible to


increases in moisture content. Our experience has been where buildings
are placed above expansive soils that invariably these soils increase in moisture content and heave occurs. Only slight moisture content increases can result in slab heave.
There are two additional methods or treatments for the floor system which will eliminate or reduce the risk of floor system movement.. The

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only positive treatment would be the use of structural floor system
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supported by the walls with an air space beneath. This system would
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only be applicable if the system could be tied to the building columns ;y .; '>
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which would be heavily loaded. The structural floor should be supported
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upon caissons which would have high minimum dead load
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large building such as this, structural floor framing

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into the main structural-columns for the structure which would be heavily loaded and reduce the risk of upward movement of lightly loaded caissons
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for floor support.
The second method involves removal of the claystone bedrock; to a ;
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depth of three to five feet below finished grade and filling with non-
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;ive granular fill' up 'to the bottom of the slab elevation.; This pro-
expansive
cpdurp is expensive but should significantly reduce the risk of slab heave

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and the magnitudeof'heavy-'Me believe such a procedure will reduce floor
s.iahjiovpaph"fs ta. nn n,,nnpi.nrb,,,t^lf^.T,.,u^MfU^U.bP.^e..u.nr1lf?rllrt0inPfL3..J

increases in moisture content. Excessive flooding of the soils .from any -U-". source could result in substantially greater movements.


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If the over-excavation and replacement process is chosen, then the granular fill should be placed after removal of the claystone to a minimum of 3 feet below the bottom of floor slab elevation. After the excavation is made to 3 feet below the proposed floor elevation, the bottom of the excavation should then be scar^J|ed, moisture conditioned to within 1 percent of optimum moisture content and be compacted to at least 95 percent of maximum standard Proctor density (ASTM D698-70). The
granular fill can then be placed in the excavation. The non-expansive
. .. ..
granular fill should consist of sands and gravels with at least 15 per-
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cent minus .200 sieve size particles (fines). The non-expansive granular
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fill should have a maximum grain, size not to exceed 3 inches. Also, the.
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imum liquid
;e .soiTs are readily .
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thicknesses on the order of 8 to 10 inches. Each layer should be adjusted
'
to within 2 percent of optimum moisture content and each layer should be

compacted?to at least 95 percent of maximum standard Proctor density before placing additional lifts. The soils engineer should continuously
inspect the placement of fill beneath the floor slabs to make certain of
proper materials, adequate moisture content and proper compaction. At
the minimum, the non-expansive granular fill thickness should be at least
3 feet below the bottom of slabs where claystone bedrock is exposed. As
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mentioned above, even utilizing these procedures, we believe there is still risk of some slab-on-grade heave. For this reason, we recommend, the following details to-reduce damages in the event of slab heave:
1. Slabs should be constructed directly on.the non-expansive
granular fill
2. Slab-bearing partitions, where needed, should be constructed ~ T """ ....................
with a positive slip joint. Slip joints should be designed and constructed to allow a minimum of at least 1 inch of vertical
.. ._p...JIPP ... . .. . . ... ^..
~ movement: utilizing the non-expansive granular fill. Movement
.
of the slab must not be transmitted directly through slab-
.
aPmbearingVpartitAons_,to the remainder of the.buUdiM,

3.'.Plumbinq and utilities should be isolated from, the slab so
*>>:---------........ .......................................... ...... -.
rtiVal nn unfhntif .
.............^
thatrthe slab can.move freely in the vertical direction without .
. .............................................'
causinq excessive draq^on these utilities.
.. ..a..... ........--
4. Slabsshould be separated from all exterior wallsand interior

* .1^ .
. ;
bearing-members with a joint which will allow free vertical - ,
l|f
SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEM
f \ . i, V v'-'-
-The basement floor levels should be established as high as practical *
to minimize pumping of ground water. The level of the water table;was / '
'

-
y
measured at 21.5 to, 24.0 feet-below the ground surface 24 hours after drilling. This is within two feet of our assumed lower basement floor level, at the.time of this investigation. See Test Hole Nos. 2, 3, 4, and 5
. -
v- v Wk.




"¥¥'.>4-r
: v
'
,z*1u-
m


12
on Figure 2. During wetter seasons or wetter years, the water table may rise as much as five feet. The foundation walls should be waterproofed and
and peripheral subsurface drainage system provided. The drainage system
should consist of four-inch diameter perforated or open-joint tile and washed,
plus one-half inch gravel placed around the perimeter of, the basement area a
minimum of one foot below the top of the floor slab. The tile should be
uniformly sloped to drain to a sump-pump. At least four, inches of free
draining gravel- should be placed below the basement floor level to mini
moisture transfer through the floor slabs and to assist in the collection-of
ground water. A.suggested drainageVsystem^: attached
SWIMMING
;v. - -
We assume the swimming pool will consist.of gunite-or concrete walls.
be in the order of 10 to 12 feet
The maximum depth.'of the pool
The subsoils in'this-area consist of'loose to medium deris'^^ clayey sand" underlain by very hard sandstone bedrock located at 14.1
- "-"'-f
below the'ground surface. Ground water, was observed at a depthro|j| feet in Test Hole No
1 24 hours after drilling.
(Test Hole'No. 1) exhibit zero swelling potential
;
Suitabl
foundation systems for the proposed swimming pool would be
drilling piers using the criteria given under "Foundation Recommendations
a reinforced gunite concrete shell or conventional" spread" footings'bearing
on the natural, undisturbed soils below frost depth. The footings should



13
be designed for a soil pressure not to exceed 2,000 pounds per square- foot.
The following design criteria should also be observed:
1. Steel reinforcement in the foundation walls should consist
of that required for a simply supported span of 10 feet
The excavation should be inspected by a soils engineer to confirm
these recommendations because of the erratic subsoil conditions
The-natural, undisturbed, inorganic, soils will adequately support
slabs-on-grade construction. No special: precautions are necessary for slabs
, ' . : - "7 T~ --
placed directly on the natural, undisturbed soils or on properly.controlled
structural fill
Positive*drainage of.the decking away,from .the pool
i s recommended

A water collection system consisting*of gravel "and tile-should beVConsidered
- .
in*the deep end of the pool as a precautionary-measure.. The tile.should be
connected to a sump and pump outside of. the'pool area
SURFACE.. DRAINAGE
v*\ \ Z",-: .-}rx*u Uf* ' '7" * 'll1! f MMli um|Ml
Surface drainage is very important to protection of the
....'.....m
soils from'.ihcreases'in moisture content.
good slopes-down
and away from thebuilding immediately adjacent to the building walls.
.I .. I i i II mii.i H Landscaping should be held away from' the bui1diHg:lSa that there is 1 ittle%
risk of moisture:content increases to the soils caused by watering of
Parking lots should slope so that immediate removal of water.
vegetation
/is obtained. Backfill around the building should be.carefully done with backfill compacted to at least 95% of maximum standard .Proctor density.



-14-
Any backfill settlement adjacent to foundation elements should be immediately repaired to avoid ponding of water against foundation elements. Wetting
and drying of the open foundation excavations
during and after construction-
as much as possible
should be avoided
EARTH RETAINING WALLS
We understand that all walls of the lower level of the building will
'* "" 1 1 1 |iiib^*wiim nil
be.fbelow-grade walls.;. Such wall $ should be designed to resist the. lateral
The lateral earth pressure on such a wall
^ load imposed by the soils
upon the type'.of soi^ backfill, the depth-or height of the wall
and the allowable movement;of.the wal1. Where!a'wall,isattached to the
full soil
'
She^wal1 is not free to move sufficiently to mobilize
structure
_ . , * . , .I . , j, . t
For.this .reason, the "at rest" soil pressure esign. Assuming the sandy soils as backfill, we
recommend using an
pounds per cubic
at rest" soil pressure
increased
s equivalent fluid pressure
equivalent fluid'
.
appropriate!y for hydrostatic-pressures and surcharge pressures.

sSi
PAVED PARKING AREAS'
Portions of the area will involve paved parking and driveways
The soils at subgrade will be the natural sands and the.natural sand
;,* .v-T^A- ' - - ' *\ i ,v;§''v' :"
recompacted. All fill placed beneath paved areas should be compacted to -
at least 95% of maximum standard Proctor density as discussed above under "Site Grading". Compaction of both fill and cut areas should be obtained


vr
-15-
prior to placement of base course to make certain that the soils are properly moisture conditioned and compacted. Often during the construction sequence, site grading is accomplished as the first phase of construction, then building construction is undertaken with the paving occurring late in the construction sequence. As a, result, much of the site grading com-
m
paction is disturbed particularly in the upper 6 inches. Therefore, immediately ^ --------

and moisture and
isture conditioned to,within 2 percent of optimum moisture content be compacted if drying of the subgrade has occurred. In addition, we -
recommend'the entire .subgrade be. proof-rolled with a 50-ton roller or twin
:
rear axle loaded dump;truck. : Any soft spots which are observed during the
^ ^ JfflSIm&i LL. WMm


Ov
vr
operating, we recommend the base course be increased to 8 inches in
thickness and the asphaltic concrete surfacing be increased to 3
inches
in thickness
The asphaltic concrete surfacing should be laid in lifts not to
exceed 2 inches per pass. Each lift should be compacted to at least 93%
of maximum laboratory Marshall .density. The,.asphaltic' concrete should : consist of aggregates in accordance with Class C D, or EX grading.
Installation or placement of the'asphaltic concrete surfacing is
iwefr~ecommend a closed fine graded sur
important to minimum maintenance
against.penetration.of moisture. The asphaltic n at-least 6,percent asphalt,to provide maximum
doncret#shouldl:ontaii>^tXVeasmS resistance to penetration of moisture. Placement;is important
''^vaaRS
You may
t -Kitr...
pads have been
mm
and therjointsTbetween 1 ay down
dpenetration-of moisture.
. .
;SII
. . - .. . .. m
fe>:iQThei borings were -spaced' to-provide-an indication of
7 ' , : m -
conditions-atrthe site. ^Variations between borings are always .possible
A 7 - ' ' ' '
e-subsurface
conditionsatfthe'Site^Variations between borings are always possible
\ 7'
and- are 1 ikely atrvthis< site.-: We .should inspect- the completed excavations
7 >mmm
7 7 7'
if soil conditions are encountered which vary from the boring logs. We should inspect the compaction of fill and installation of drilled piers


Assumed by This Office
COURT
AREA


m m
ISM
Wmm'.



;?Y*v
SOUTH VAUGHN WAY
§JIS
!* 1

-<* : v**.1 nPWsrw|5*.
LOCATION 'OF EXPLORATORY BORINGS
Site-Plan
tttSHSH* c t rj jorr^- ..*..


NO. O
NU. O
NU. I
6/12
14/12
14/12
to
£ v.' -
gi§§|
ffeMl
50/4

f|l|
-.
ASSUMED MAXIMUM POOL DEPTH (PER THIS OFFICE)
-


LEGEND.
SAND. LOOSE, SILTY, CLEAN TO SLIGHTLY CLAYEY, MOIST, BROWN TO LIGHT BROWN (SM, SC) '
SAND, MEDIUM DENSE, SILTY, CLAYEY TO VERY CLAYEY, WITH OCCASIONAL SANDY CLAY LENSES,. CALCAREOUS, MOIST, BROWN TO LIGHT BROWN (SC, CL)
SAND, MEDIUM DENSE TO DENSE, SILTY, CLEAN TO SLIGHTLY CLAYEY, MOIST BROWN TO LIGHT BROWN (SM, SC)
CLAYSTQNE-SANDSTONE (BEDROCK).MEDIUM,HARD MOTTLED. OLIVE. BROWN TO GOLD BROWN
3ILTY, CLEAN TO CLAYEY. WI LY TO MODERATELY CEMENTED
-
HARD TO VERY; HARD, INTERBJ
I gg&k
SANDSTONE, (BEDROCK)
HARD TO'VERY HARD, I THIN SILTSTONE AND CLAYSTONE LENSES$ WE BROWN TO GOLD BROWN
CLAYSTONE-SILTSTONE-SANDSTONE:(BEDROCK)
. LENSES, WEAKLY CEMENTED, MOIST, BROWN
MOIST
.SANDSTONE (BEDROCK)
M31 ST, BROWN.
mm
INDICATES THAT 13 BLOWS;OF A 140 POUND HAMNER FALLING 30
;$s|^POTraE^|OT_ "
DRIVE A.14-INCH DIAMETER SAMPLER 12 flNCHES^^^
;;MM: ... : ."

SUREMENT WAS TAKEN
HOURS AFTER DRILLING THAT
ii
;--S -
NffiE


980 WITH A 4-INCH DI
EFER TO THE BENCH MARKSHOW! ARE-SUBJECT TO THE LIMITATK THE REPORT.

mm
LOGS OF EXPLORATORY BORINGS LEGEND AND NOTES
FIGURES
- Tjf. ^-rr. >. ttS .. ^%r;A i ^ . J*. '.. -..'-L r"~' ''
i&gl



NOTES*
DRAIN MUST LEAD TO A POSITIVE GRAVITY OUTLET OR TO A SUMP WHERE WATER CAN BE REMOVED BY PUMPING.
GRAVEL SPECIFICATION. 100% PASSING 2 INCH STANDARD SIEVE MAXIMUM 40% PASSING NO. 4 SIEVE MAXIMUM 5X PASSING NO. 200 SI.EV:
mmmmi
i Sill
H MS

MEMBRANE BETWEEN SLAB AND GRAVEL
H fc:
ppi
19K


vrv-'^
4 INCH DIAMETER OPEN..
---JOINT TILE OR PERFORATED
. PIPE
MININUM
TYPICAt/ PrPTPHFRAl DRAIN OTTATf


STORM DRAINAGE REPORT
The Storm Drainage Report, of which portions follow, is taken from a report made by Mile-Hi Engineering, Inc., 1777 So. Harrison St., Denver, Colorado 80218. It was prepared for Wickliff & Co.
5975 So. Syracuse St., Suite 101, Englewood, CO 80111 in March 1982.


OBJECTIVE OF DRAINAGE STUDY:
The objective of this study is to identify and solve the storm drainage problems coincident with the development of Lot 3, Block 1 Cherry Creek Place Subdivision Filing No. 2 and to satisfy the storm drainage requirements of the City of Aurora, County of Arapahoe, State of Colorado.
LOCATION OF PROJECT:
The site is located within Lot 3, Block 1 Cherry Creek Place Subdivision Filing No. 2 which is a 1.69 acre parcel of land located within Section 36, T.4S., R.67W. of the 6th Principal Meridian. More particularly the site is bounded by: an unplatted parcel along the Western boundary, the entrance drive to the Aurora Plaza Hotel and Conference Center along the Northern boundary, S. Vaughn Way along the Eastern boundary, and Parker Road along the Southern boundary.
BASIN CHARACTERISTICS:
The City of Aurora has on file an approved final storm drainage report for Cherry Creek Place Subdivision Filing No. 2. The existing report had been prepared in conjunction with design drawings prepared for site development of the Hotel-Conference Center. The storm sewer system that exists is a result of these design drawings. Provisions in this design were made to provide for future development of Lot 3, Block 1.
The existing report identified and quantified all drainage affecting the proposed site. Historic release rates and detention volumes for the 10 yr. and 100 yr. storm were computed and tabulated. The drainage basin as identified in that report is identified as Basin IV and comprises the entire site and a portion of the unpaved rights-of-way of $. Vaughn Way and Parker Road, (refer to Cherry Creek.PI ace Subdivision Filing No. 2 Site Drainage Plan included at rear of this report).
The drainage analysis for the proposed site will be limited to Basin IV only. No external areas will have any drainage affecting the site.
- 1 -

*r-''AT-*?


STORM RUNOFF ANALYSIS:
The analysis of the storm runoff affecting and including the site (Basin IV) has been determined in accordance with the criteria presented in the Urban Storm Drainage Criteria Manual. For the purpose of sizing the proposed detention pond outlet structure, 10 year and 100 year return frequency storms were analyzed.
The storm runoff has been analyzed by the Rational Method. Triangular runoff hydrographs for Sub-Basin N-A were made. Each hydrograph was developed as follows:
1) The "peak discharge" equals the peak discharge as determined by the Rational Formula.
2) The "time to peak" equals the time of concentration.
3) The shape of the hydrograph is represented by three lines.
Line "A" Beginning at zero discharge and time zero to the "peak discharge" at "time to peak". Line "B" From the "peak discharge" at "time to peak" to zero discharge at twice "time to peak". Line "C" which intersects Line "B" at Point "D" to zero discharge at time equals 180 minutes total area under the hydrograph equals the total runoff of the basin for 180 minute rainfall duration.
FIGURE A
C:
- 2 -


TIME
(MINI


(*} DESIGN PARAMETERS:
The magnitude of the runoff values in the analysis of storm runoff is highly sensitive to the values of the parameters used.
In this regard, realistic and yet conservative values of the parameters have been used.
The Rational Method is based on the Rational Formula:
Q = CIACF
Where:
Q = maximum rate of runoff in cfs.
I = average intensity of rainfall in inches per hour for a duration equal to the time of concentration.
A = area in acres.
C = a runoff coefficient being the ratio between the C 4 maximum rate of runoff from the area and the.average
rate of rainfall intensity.
^F= runoff coefficient frequency factor.
^F = 1.0 for 10 yr. storm CF = 1.25 for 100 yr. storm
The maximum rate of runoff "Q" is directly proportional to the runoff coefficient "C", the average intensity of rainfall "I", and the areas "A". Both values of the parameters "A" and "I" can be well defined.
The value of the parameter "C" is more subjectively determined. The determination of the values "C" used in the analysis has been carefully considered. Refer to Basin Criteria and ensuing calculations.
IMPROVED SITE CONDITIONS:
Lot 3, Block 1 of Cherry Creek Place Subdivision Filing No. 2 will be developed into a recreational-physical fitness center having a main floor area containing approximately 21,300 sq. ft. and an exterior ( swimming pool and sun deck area containing approximately 8,400 sq. ft.
The remaining portion of the site will consist of a paved parking area, landscaped areas, sidewalks and paved driveways.
- 3 -
75TT tt.V?*:" '-




Basin IV has been divided into two Sub-Basins -"A" and "B". Sub-Basin "A" will utilize a parking lot detention pond to intercept, store and release storm runoff at a controlled rate. A grated inlet with a predetermined restrictor plate will be utilized to control the flow. Refer to Detention Ponding Calculations within Appendix section of this report. A small storm drain will collect storm water and casual landscape water
--- - .. -| y t-i m.j n.in. i hi i i ii ii i in-ini -rnff-tr t-i rwrr f HUMMwf
from area drains and deck drains and route it to the proposed detention
....... i i i i mi i i i i ihmii inoivniai (i iihhi m wtmvMnmnwwai nw'iii v,\-
pond. Refer to Final Site Grading Plan for location of area drains and deck drains.
Sub-Basin IV-B will consist of a portion of the building area and adjoining landscaped buffer areas lying between the building and S. Vaughn Way and the hotel entrance drive. Rooftop detention has been provided for that portion of the building lying within Sub-Basin IV-B. The roof drains have been sized in accordance with the National Plumbing Code and roof drains will consist of 4" dia. std. Josam Type 28604 and 4" dia. overflow Josam (-16) Option Internal Water Guard. The std. 4" dia. roof drain will meter the outflow of roof drainage to a depth of 3 inches and the 4" dia. overflow drains will begin to function. The combined flow will exit the roof via the roof downspout drains and downspout onto adjacent building landscape areas and flow to the S. Vaughn Way street curb and gutter and the entrance drive curb and gutter. Gutter flow interception will direct stormwater to the existing Type R (L=5 ft) inlet located offsite near the Northwest corner of the site.
The combined runoff flows from Sub-Basins "A" and "B" will very nearly equal the historic peak runoff rate for the historic condition. The existing drainage facilities will adequately intercept the storm runoff from the site.
This report is submitted for approval.




THE PROGRAM
(
The program for the International Athletic Club was fairly well spelled out in a Program-Area Analysis document I obtained from KDC Architects. However the program which follows includes adjustments as were recommended by the architect and club business manager. The only significant changes between the existing facility and the one given here is the addition of square footage for areas such as the gym, nautilus room and circulation space -all of which have been found to be too small.
This section includes: Spatial Characteristics of Club Facilities
Programmatic Space Requirements Spatial Flow Diagram Proximity Matrix
r
c


SPATIAL CHARACTERISTICS
Administrative Facilities
CHECK-IN DESK/PRO SHOP: Optional Shape, 250 sq. ft.
Every member and guest using the club (but not necessarily the restaurant) will stop here to sign in, pick up a towel and lock, check valuables, purchase goods from the pro shop, pick up schedules, ask questions, leave messages and so on. It is a regulation point. It must be clearly visible and accessible as well as have a visible connection with as many club functions as possible. It must physically be close to the administrative areas for ease of club management. It should have a maximum amount of counter space with cabinets for display and storage below. Wall space is needed for posting information and a clothing display stand or rod, which may be fixed to a wall or be a movable freestanding rack,is needed for athletic wear such as leotards and T-shirts. A staff member is on duty at all times, so some form of seating should be provided for their comfort. An intercom and P/A system are operated from the desk and the club's incoming phone calls are answered here.
The telephone equipment room may well be located nearby, as well as a storage closet/room for supplies of club brochures, schedules and retail merchandise such as racquet and squash balls and athletic wear. Natural lighting (direct or indirect) may be used here.
MEMBERSHIP OFFICE: Optional Shape, 300 sq. ft.
This space will best be located next to or across from the Check-in desk and also to the Administrative offices. It may be directly connected to these spaces. Every new member will be photographed for an I.D. card in this area when they join the club. This space is primarily used for secretarial purposes and for files of club records. Direct natural lighting is desirable for this office.
ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES: 3 offices, lO'-O" x 15'-0" = 450 sq. ft.
The Club Manager, Business Manager, and Program Director will occupy these offices. They should have easy access to the Check-In Desk and Membership Office, but do not need to be directly accessible to the members. Each office should have at least one operable window.
COMPUTER ROOM: lO'-O" x 15'-0" = 150 sq. ft.
The Computer Room should be adjacent to the Membership and/or Administrative Offices. The room needs to have individual temperature control so it does not have to have natural lighting.


Athletic Facilities
RACQUETBALL COURTS; 12 courts, 20'-0" x 40'-0" x 20'-0" high
Courts are usually oriented on a North/South axis and stacked two levels high (for economy of space and construction). Rear walls shall be of transparent material (doors included) for purposes of viewing game activity. Wall surface material must be flush and easily cleaned. Floors will be of hardwood. Any natural light reaching the courts should be indirect as glare would cause players considerable difficulty. Bleachers or lounge seating will be provided outside the courts. It may be fixed or movable; both will be considered. Water fountains will be located in the immediate court vacinity.
SQUASH COURTS; 2 courts, 18'-6" x 32'-0" x 20'-0" high Information for squash courts is similar to racquetball courts.
GYMNASIUM AND RUNNING TRACK; 70'-0" x 114-0" x 35'-0" high
1/16 mile (330' or 110 yds.) 7' wide
The gym is a multipurpose space used for basketball, volleyball, exercise classes, and occassional social gatherings. Court playing area is 50'-0" x 94'-0" (regulation AAU size). This yields a 10' wide strip around the court. An elevated running track with flat straight ways and banked curves will be over this border with a minimum height of 12'-0" above the finished floor. The gym will have hardwood floors and impact resistant wall surface material that can be cleaned easily. Although mirrors are normally on the walls of rooms used for exercise and aerobic classes, it will not be possible in the gym where mirrors would be hit and broken by impact from balls and bodies. A sound system is required in the gym for aerobic classes. There must be a secured storage cabinet to house this and accessories such as records and tapes. Storage is also needed for exercise mats and game equipment. A water fountain for both the gym and track will be located within the space or immediately outside in the corridor. Natural lighting should be considered for this space as well as a window wall for visual connection with other athletic spaces and the restaurant.
WEIGHT ROOM: Optional Shape, 2500 sq. ft. (9'-0" min. ceiling height)
The Weight Room contains Nautilus equipment, free weights, hydrogyms, and exercycles. Walls are traditionally mirror lined for observation of body placement. Floors will be carpeted to help control the noise created from use of the equipment. There is opportunity for natural lighting and ventilation in this space.
A window wall may be considered in this space also.


LAP POOL: 24'-0" x 85'-0" (4, 6'W lap lanes) = 2040 sq. ft.
3*-6" deep at ends, 5'-0" deep in center
The pool is deeper in the middle so it can be used for water volleyball. A minimum 10'W deck will surround the Pool (Total Area:
44'-0" x 105'-0" = 4,400 sq. ft.) which does not include an outdoor patio for sunbathing, which should abut the Pool area. Needless to say, the pool and Patio must be located on the South side of the Athletic Club, affording it of maximum sun exposure. The pool will be used year round and should be designed as an indoor/ outdoor space. A movable skylit roof may be considered for this purpose. This area may serve as a focus of the outdoor social gathering area, in conjunction with the Patio and/or the Restaurant. It is desirable to have the pool located very close to the Locker Rooms so the swimmers do not drip water over much of the club floor when leaving the pool on their way to the Locker Room. This will also prevent the swimmers from getting too cold on their way to change clothes.
A wall or fence will be used around the Pool and Patio area to provide security. A space within the club or a separate building with approximately 100 sq. ft. will be needed to house pool equipment. Outdoor furniture is needed for sunbathers on the patio.


Men's and Women's Spa Facilities
LOCKER ROOMS; Optional Shape, Men's 1440 sq. ft.,
Women's 960 sq. ft.
The locker room is the first place most members will go after checking in and the place from which they will emerge ready to use the athletic facilities. Therefore it should be easily accessed from the Check-In Desk and located central to the courts, Weight Room, Gym and Pool.
The Locker Rooms will be located on ground level or partially below grade in order to avoid water leakage problems from the spa areas to any other club facility that might have been planned below. Privacy is required in the Locker Rooms and Spa Areas from other club functions, circulation space and the outdoors. Therefore, there can be no traditional windows and the entrances to the space must be designed with a visual barrier in mind (either by a wall blocking the view ahead when the Locker Room door is opened or by the use of double doors). If there is opportunity for indirect lighting and openings for natural ventilation, they should be used in the Locker Room/Spa Area to help alleviate the high temperature and humidity problems generated by these facilities.
The Men's and Women's Lockers Rooms should be located back to back or side to side to economize on the mechanical equipment serving these spaces. The Mechanical Room should be located between or next to the Locker Rooms.
The lockers, per se, are stacked double high and measure 36'H x 12"W x 18"D and are raised 7" off the floor. Benches will be centered between rows of lockers. Aisles will be 6' wide. Full length wall mounted mirrors should be hung at the end of each aisle.
SPA AREA: Optional Shape, Men's 1264 sq. ft.
Women's 1134 sq. ft.
The Steam Room, Whirlpool, Cold Plunge, Showers, Drying Area, Restrooms and Lavatories which comprise the Spa Facilities are integrally combined with the Locker Rooms and may be considered as one space. Except for the Sauna, which has wood finishes, all spa areas must be constructed from water resistant materials that are easily cleaned. Ceilings will have a slope to allow a flow of water from condensation to the floor drains. Floor materials must resist slipping
LOUNGE: Optional Shape, Men's and Women's 250 sq. ft. each
The Lounge serves as a place to rest or wait in conjunction with the Locker Room. It will be furnished with living room type furniture, a television and a phone. A coat rack will be provided.
The Lounge should be directly connected to the hall and Locker Room.


STEAM ROOM: Optional Shape, Men's 150 sq. ft., Women's 96 sq. ft.
All materials in this enclosed space must be water resistant. Wall construction will consist of metal studs, plaster on metal lath, and large wall tiles (the larger the better). Ceiling slope should be V'/foot and run away from seating. The floor will slope to a drain and one hose bib shall be included in this space.
WHIRLPOOL: Optional Shape, Men's and Women's 130 sq. ft. each
The floor surrounding this open pool will slope away from the pool to a floor drain. One hose bib should be located directly over the tube for filling.
SAUNA; Optional Shape, Men's 54 sq. ft., Women's 88 sq. ft.
An enclosed room of redwood finishes.
COLD PLUNGE: Men's area only, Optional Shape 120 sq. ft.
Same as Whirlpool.
SHOWERS: Optional Shape, Men's and Women's 250 sq. ft. each
Both the men's and women's showers will have 14, 3' x 3' shower stalls. Water resistant finishes, slip resistant floors, and a ceiling slope of V'/foot (minimum) are necessary. Floors will have a similar slope to drain water.
DRYING AREA: Optional Shape, Men's 200 sq. ft., Women's 220 sq. ft.
This space must be adjacent to the showers and may double as a circulation space between spa facilities. A few wall mounted hair dryers will be located here. Water resistant finishing materials are also needed here.
LAVATORY/GROOMING: Optional Shape, Men's 200 sq. ft. (10 Lavs)
Women's 190 sq. ft. (10 Lavs)
The Lavatory/Counter space will have stools for sitting, hand held hair dryers and electric outlets to service them, wall mounted mirrors and good lighting. Male club members will be able to shave with club furnished shaving materials. Women may use the counter area for putting on make up. The club will furnish deodorant and other amenities. These supplies will reguire a storage space nearby (part of the space under the counter may be used as cabinets for this purpose. Counters will be 24" deep and will have a wet and dry end. Sinks will be at one side and electric outlets at the other.
RESTROOMS: Men's and Women's 10'-0" x 16'-0" = 160 sq. ft. each
The Men's Room will have 4 urinals and 4 waterclosets. The Women's
Room will have 4 waterclosets and 1 lavatory. Restrooms should
have a direct link to the Locker Room and the hall for quick pit stops.


Ancillary/ Equipment & Storage Facilities
ENTRANCE/FOYER: Optional Shape, 80 sq. ft.
The square footage alloted is for an airlock entry to the building. But the entry sequence should be regarded as a much larger space.
To help with that feeling the doors on the foyer should be glass. Once inside the entry the member should be exposed to the main circulation space and have a view of the club from the restaurant to the athletic facilities. The way to the Check-In Desk should be obvious and direct. From the outside the entrance/circulation space may be denoted by an architectural element which is identify-able from a distance. The entry should not be on the north side of the building.
RESTAURANT: Optional Shape, Seating for 140 people @ 18 sq. ft./
person = 2,520 sq. ft. (Included in this area is the square footage for public restrooms,
Men 120 sq. ft., Women 140 sq. ft.)
BAR/LOUNGE: Optional Shape, 480 sq. ft.
The Restaurant and Bar/Lounge are open to the public and therefore must be designed for handicap accessibility. To avoid the expense of an elevator, the restaurant will be located on grade. It is desireable to place the restaurant so the club members pass it on their way in and out of the building thus making the restaurant and integral part of the club. However the public should not have to or be able to pass the Check-In Desk in order to use the Restaurant. This space should have windows and open onto the patio with a view of the swimming pool outside and a view of the athletic club on the inside edge.
This space may be considered for indoor/outdoor use along with the pool. The atmosphere required in the Restaurant is one of leisure and a balance of informality and elegance. Beside serving a regular lunch menu and being open thru the dinner hour for drinks and light meals, the Restaurant space must be adaptable for use by large groups of club members for social occassions. Floors will be carpeted. The Bar will have 12 14 stools. The Lounge will have sofas,easy chairs, and low tables for cocktail group seating. This area should have the same views of the club as the Restaurant has.


KITCHEN: Optional Shape, 1500 sq. ft.
The Kitchen serves as a food storage and preparation place with facilities for dishwashing and a connection to the service entry where the trash will be put.
Spaces in the kitchen will be needed for ovens, stoves & grills, salad preparation, refrigerators, freezers, pantry, beverage counter, food preparation counters, wash bassins for food, dishwashing equipment and storage for dishes and cooking pots, restaurant manager's office, closet for employee belongings, cleaning equipment, linen storage, ice machine and desert/bake shop.
Employees should have a back entrance to the Kitchen which leads to the public restrooms where they can change clothes and clean up.
CHILD CARE: Optional Shape, 729 sq. ft. (Includes toilet room with 1 W.C. and 1 Lav.)
The Nursery will care for 15 25 infants and children at a time, whose ages are from 6 months to 8 years, while their parents use the club. In order to be convenient for the parents, the nursery should be located near the Check-In Desk; perhaps on the way to the Locker Rooms.
The Nursery needs to be a flexible space because of the varying activities of the children. The furnishings will include cribs, carpeted floors, shelves for storing toys and games, a television, coat hooks, small tables and chairs, a closet for employee storage, a couple of adult size chairs for the staff, wall display surfaces, play apparatus and open floor space for games. A counter or table for changing babies' diapers and to place baby bags as well as a hot plate to heat baby food and bottles is needed.
The Nursery should have exterior windows for light and ventilation. It should have a few interior windows also for an interconnection between the children and adults.
LOUNGE/VIEWING AREA: Optional Shape, 640 sq. ft.
Moveable or permanent seating will be considered for this space located behind the racquetball and squash courts. If the courts are stacked, the lounge will only view one level or courts -probably the lower level.


STORAGE; Optional Shape, 300 sq. ft. total (distributed)
Shelves and closets are needed throughout the club for storage of offices supplies and records, cleaning supplies and equipment, maintenance tools and supplies, pro shop stock merchandise, laundry products and linen and for the items already mentioned for the gym and locker rooms.
LAUNDRY: Optional Shape, 350 sq. ft.
The club provides members with towels which are distributed and collected at the Check-In Desk. For convenience the laundry will be located nearby. The laundry should be located on grade or below grade for the same reasons that the locker rooms are located on the lower level.
MECHANICAL: Optional Shape, 156 sq. ft.
Boilers and pumps are the main equipment to be housed in the mechanical room. These serve the spa areas. (Note: the HVAC system will be housed in rooftop units so no building floor area is alloted for this purpose.) The mechanical room should be between or adjacent to the Locker Rooms/Spa Areas.
TELEPHONE & ELECTRIC ROOM: 80 sq. ft., 114 sq. ft.
These spaces may be combined or separate and do not require natural lighting.
CORRIDOR/CIRCULATION SPACE:
Major halls must be 8' wide minimum.


PROGRAM SPACE REQUIREMENTS
Administrative Facilities
Space General Information Size/Shape Total .
Registration/ Pro-Shop - Optional Shape 250
Membership Office - Optional Shape 300
Administrative Offices - 10' x 15' = 150 s.f. 450
Computer Room Optional Shape 150
Subtotal 1,150 s.f


PROGRAM SPACE REQUIREMENTS
Athletic Facilities
Space General Information Size/Shape Total Area
Racquetball 12 courts 20' x 40' = 800 s.f. 9600
Squash 2 courts 18.5' x 32' = 592 s.f. 1184
Gymnasium Includes 10' border 70' x 114' = 7980 s.f. 7980 around 50' x 94' playing area.
Jogging Track 61+61+104+104=330' 330' x 7' = 2310 2310 or 110 yds., 1/16 ml. (Continuous)
Nautilus, Weight Room - Optional Shape 2500
Lap Pool Indoor/Outdoor 45' x 95' = 4275 Includes 10' border.
Subtotal 23,574 s.f


PROGRAM SPACE REQUIREMENTS
Women1s Spa Facilities
Space General Information Size/Shape Total Area
Locker Room 240 (§> 4 s.f./locker Optional Shape 960
Steam Room - Optional Shape 96
Whirlpool - Optional Shape 130
Sauna - Optional Shape 88
Shower 14, 3' x 3' stalls Optional Shape 250
Drying Area - Optional Shape 220
Lavatory/ Vanity 8 Lavatories Optional Shape 190
Restroom 5 waterclosets, 1 Lav Optional Shape 160
Lounge Optional Shape 250
Subtotal 2,344 s.f


PROGRAM SPACE REQUIREMENTS
Men's Spa Facilities
Space General Information Size/Shape Total Area
Locker Room 360 @ 4 s.f./ locker Optional Shape 1440
Steam Room - Optional Shape 150
Whirlpool - Optional Shape 130
Sauna - Optional Shape 54
Cold Plunge - Optional Shape 120
Shower 14, 3' x 3' stalls Optional Shape 250
Drying Area - Optional Shape 200
Lavatory/ Grooming 10 Lavatories Optional Shape 200
Restroom 4 Ur., 4 W.C., 1 Lav. Optional Shape 160
Lounge - Optional Shape 250
Subtotal 2,954 s.f


PROGRAM SPACE REQUIREMENTS
Ancillary, Equipment & Storage Facilities
Space General Information Size/Shape Total Area
Restaurant Includes Restroom women - Public Optional (men 120 s.f. 140 s.f.) Shape 2520
Patio Outdoors Optional Approx. S Shape -1,000 s.f. -
Kitchen - Optional Shape 1500
Bar/Lounge - Optional Shape 480
Entrance - Optional Shape 80
Lounge Court viewing area Optional Shape 640
Child Care Includes 1 Lav.,1 W.C.Optional Shape 729
Storage - Optional Shape 300
Telephone Room - Optional Shape 80
Electric Room - Optional Shape 114
Laundry - Optional Shape 350
Mechanical Room Optional Shape 156
Subtotal 6,949 s.f


SUMMARY OF SPACE REQUIREMENTS
Space Area
Administrative Facilities 1,150
Athletic Facilities 23,574
Men's Spa Facilities 2,954
Women's Spa Facilities 2,344
Ancillary, Equipment & Storage Facilities 6,949
NET TOTAL 36,971 15% CIRCULATION 5,546
42,517
10% NET TO GROSS 4,212 TOTAL BLDG. AREA 46,729 S.F.
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PARKING REQUIREMENTS
(
Total Parking Required equals 119.
Total Parking Provided equals 53 plus 2 handicap. (66 spaces provided in lot north of site).
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r
PROXIMITY MATRIX
f
R & S Courts Gym, Track Weight Rm.
Lap Pool Patio
Reg./Pro Shop Locker Rm./Spa Nursery Adm. Offices Restaurant Public Restrooms Kitchen Mechanical Exterior Vision Natural Light
LEGEND
1 -Freguent Connection
2 -Average Connection
3 -Occasional Connection X -Should Not Meet
V -Visual Connection
(


SPATIAL FLOW DIAGRAM
Spa Facilities Athletic Facilities Ancillary Facilities Regulation or Key Node Visual Connection


CODES
Occupancy Classification: A-3, Any building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of less than 300 without a stage.
Fire Resistance of Exterior Wall: 2 hours less than 5 feet,
1 hour elsewhere
Openings in Exterior Wall: Not permitted less than 5 feet,
Protected less than 10 feet
Construction Type: II, one hour fire resistive construction.
Maximum Height of Building: 40 '
Types of Construction Fire-Resistive Reguirements: 1 hour for:
Exterior Bearing Walls, Interior Bearing Walls, Exterior Non-Bearing Walls, Structural Frame, Partitions-Permanent, Shaft Enclosures, Floors, Roofs, Exterior Doors and Windows.
This is a survey of the U.B.C. Chapters 5, 6 and 17.
Refer to the following chapters for further information as design decisions are being made.
Chapter 19 Type II buildings
Chapter 24 Masonry Structures
Chapter 26 Concrete Structures
Chapter 27 Steel Structures
Chapter 33 Exit Requirements
Chapter 34 Skylights
Chapter 54 Glass
Section 5301 Energy Conservation Chapter 70 Excavation and Grading
The Aurora Building Code works in conjunction with the U.B.C. to set standards for the construction of buildings in Aurora. The following pages are copies of a few portions of the Aurora Code which further supplement the information available in the U.B.C.


Obc 1
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§ 9-01
AURORA CODE
Art. IX. Contractor Licensing
Sec. 9-192. Scope and definition Sec. 9-193. Authority
Sec. 9-194. Licenses and registration certificates required Sec. 9-195. Supervisor required Sec. 9-196. Exceptions
Sec. 9-197. Licensee and registrant responsibility Sec. 9-198. License or registration certificate changes Sec. 9-199. Certificate of qualification
Sec. 9-200. Renewal and reissuance of certificates of qualification Sec. 9-201. Certificate holder responsibility Sec. 9-202. Suspension or revocation Sec. 9-203. First administrative review Sec. 9-204. Classification of licenses Sec. 9-205. Classification of registration certificates Sec. 9-206. Classification of supervisor certificate of qualification Sec. 9-207. Transitional provisions Art. X. Excavation and Grading
Sec. 9-208. Purpose and scope Sec. 9-209. Definitions Sec. 9-210. Administrative requirements Sec. 9-211. Inspection requirement Sec. 9-212. Other ordinances Sec. 9-213. Owners responsibility Sec. 9-214. Temporary erosion control Sec. 9-215. Rough and final grading Sec. 9-216. Technical requirements
ARTICLE I. IN GENERAL
Secs. 9-019-09. Reserved.
ARTICLE n. BUILDING CODE*
Sec. 9-1. Adoption of Uniform Building Code and Uniform Building Code Standards.
The Uniform Building Code of the International Conference of Building Officials, Whittier, California, 1982 edition, appendHTClTapters 7, 11, 32, 49, 55 and 57 thereto, and the Uniform Building Code Standards, 1982 edition, in their entirety are hereby adopted with the amendments as noted in^this afficle, and as yiftv be made from time to time. The Uniform Building Code is dedicated to the development of better building construction and greater safety to the public by uniformity in building laws, and not less than three (3) copies of such
Editors noteOrd. No. 83-14, § 1, adopted Feb. 7, 1983, repealed Art. I (containing no substantive provisions) and, Art. II, relative to the building code, §§ 9-219-30, 9-339-43, 9-48, 9-519-58 and, in lieu thereof, § 2 added new §§ 9-19-46, to read as herein set out. At the discretion of the editor, and pursuant to advice of the city, said provisions have been classified as Art. II in order to maintain Code format. Formerly, Art. II derived from Code 1963, §§ 7-6-1, 7-6-2, 7-6-4-7-6-9, 7-6-16-7-6-25, 7-6-30, 7-6-33 and 7-6-34; Ord. No. 79-135, §§ 17, 1012, adopted Nov. 5, 1979 and Ord. No. 81-182, §§ 212, adopted Oct. 19, 1981.
Supp. No. 12
766


§ 9-24
AURORA CODE
Exception: Exterior vents may be omitted when the crawl space opens into a basement. Such opening shall have a minimum area of nine hundred (900) square inches with fifty (50) per cent open, and shall be provided with a permanently attached louvre or screen. (Ord. No. 83-14, § 2, 2-7-83)
Sec. 9-25. Footings, general.
Section 2907(a) of the U.B.C. is hereby amended to read as follows:
(a) Footings and foundations, unless otherwise specifically provided, shall be constructed of masonry, or concrete or treated wood in conformance with U.B.C. Standard No. 29-3 and in all cases shall extend below the frost line which, for design purposes, shall be thirtv-five (35) inches below finished grade. Footings and foundations of concrete and masonry shall be of solid material. Foundations supporting wood shall extend at least six (6) inches above the adjacent grade. (Ord. No. 83-14, § 2, 2-7-83)
Sec. 9-26. Footings under bearing walls.
Section 2907(b) of the U.B.C. is hereby amended to read as follows:
(b) Bearing walls shall be supported on solid masonry or concrete footings or piles of sufficient size to support all loads. Where a design is not provided, the minimum foundation requirements for stud bearing walls shall be as set forth in Table No. 29-A and such foundation walls more than thirty-six (36) inches in height shall contain not less than .4 square inches in a cross sectional area of reinforcing bars near the top and near the bottom of the wall. Additional steel may be required around openings. Deviation may be allowed if designed by a registered engineer and approved by the building official.
Exceptions:
(1) A one-story wood or metal frame building not used for human occupancy and not over four hundred (400) square feet in floor area may be constructed with walls supported on a wood foundation plate which is properly anchored to the ground.
(2) The support of buildings by posts embedded in earth shall be designed as specified in Section 2907(f). Wood posts or poles embedded in earth shall be pressure treated with an approved preservative. Steel posts or poles shall be protected as specified in Section 2908(h).
(3) Detached buildings classed in group M, division 1 occupancy may be supported on concrete foundations poured monolithically with a concrete floor. Such foundations shall be on undisturbed soil, extending a minimum of twelve (12) inches below finished grade, shall be not less than twelve (12) inches in width and shall be provided with six (6) by six (6), ten (10) by ten (10) welded wire mesh throughout the floor and extending into the foundation, or equal reinforcing approved by the building official.
(4) Unenclosed patios, carports, porches and similar structures may be supported on concrete piers with a cross-sectional area not less than one hundred forty-four (144) square inches extending to undisturbed soil but no less than eighteen (18) inches below finished grade, or on concrete slabs not less than three and one-half (3Vi) inches in thickness, reinforced with six (6) by six (6), ten (10) by ten (10) welded wire mesh (or an equal approved by the building department) throughout and with edges extending not less than eight (8) inches below finished grade and twelve (12) inches in width. (Ord. No. 83-14, § 2, 2-7-83)
Supp. No. 12
778


BUILDINGS AND BUILDING REGULATIONS
§ 9-38
(2) Masonry chimneys and similar roof structures shall have crickets installed on the upper side, and shall have flashing and counter flashing of not less than twenty-six (26) gauge corrosion-resistant metal installed in an approved manner.
(3) Provide permanent flashed-in structural platforms a minimum of nine (9) inches above flat roofs for the support of roof top appliances which have ducts that penetrate the roof. Combustible platforms shall be covered with twenty-six (26) gauge galvanized sheet metal. (Ord. No. 83-14, § 2, 2-7-83)
Sec. 9-34. Exits.
Section 3303(a) of the U.B.C. is hereby amended by the addition of the following paragraph:
Exiting from the upper floors of individual dwelling units may be through the exit on the main floor. Regardless of other requirements of the section, when the main floor exit opens directly to the exit stair, then two (2) exits from the upper floors are not required. (Ord. No. 83-14, § 2, 2-7-83)
Sec. 9-35. Floor level at doors.
Section 3304(h) of the U.B.C., the first paragraph, is hereby amended to read as follows:
. Regardlessjifflanpant. ln.ad.liher,&.shalLhR^..flnfltiirJand>ngnQn.eadLside oCa.dQ.orJIhfc-. floor or landing shall be not more than one inch lower on either side of the door. When e ^o9r§-ORejL9^Ll9Ja4i'Oe^.lrhs,I^iog^alIiiaYLsither a kiigih-QC-wijdth..Qf.C.ye. (SUeet ____and the other dimension shall be a minimum of three (3) feet. (Ord. No. 83-14, § 2, 2-7-83)
Sec. 9-36. Stairway to roof.
Section 3306(o) of the U.B.C. is hereby amended to read as follows:
(o) Stairway to roof. In every building, four (4) or more stories in height, one stairway shall extend to the roof unless the roof has a slope greater than four (4) in twelve (12). See Section 3306(m) for roof hatch requirements.
Access to rooftop appliances shall be provided in accordance with the uniform mechanical code, Section 710(g) or (h). (Ord. No. 83-14, § 2, 2-7-83)
Sec. 9-37. Hand rails.
Section 3306(j) of the U.B.C., the third paragraph, is hereby amended to read sis follows:
The hand grip portion of hand rails shall be not less than one and one-quarter (1V4) inr.hpjj,nnr..mor^thaixJt^o.l2)iudhfiaJ^ccoaa^fictifliifijiioafiflaion>.ortb.e.shape shall prfl.vide an_£quivalent gripping surface. The hand grip portion of hand rails shall have a smooth surface with no sharp corners.
Exception: Two-inch nominal dimension lumber on edge, or two (2) by four (4) flat, are acceptable. (Ord. No. 83-14, § 2, 2-7-83)
Sec. 9-38. Smokeproof enclosures.
Section 3310(b) of the U.B.C. is hereby amended to read as follows:
(b) Where required. In buildings having a roof or parapet which is more than seventy-five (75) feet above the lowest point of fire department vehicle access, at least one of the required exits shall be a smokeproof enclosure. (Ord. No. 83-14, § 2, 2-7-83)
8upp. No. 12
781


§ 34-21
AURORA CODE
(12) Minimum thickness of asphaltic surfacing and base course:
a. Streets shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the standard specifications for the design and construction of streets as issued by the city engineer, and the city engineer is hereby authorized to promulgate regulations, specifications, design and construction standards to supplement the street specifications set forth herein.
b. The specifications for right-of-way width and construction may be modified by city council upon recommendation of the city engineer. The city council and city engineer shall be guided by the following considerations:
1. Volume and characteristics of present and future traffic;
2. Population density and character of land use within the neighborhood;
3. Effect on traffic circulation and congestion of ultimate development of adjacent zone districts;
4. Drainage and soil conditions;
5. Surface and sub-surface utilities.
(13) Dead-end streets: Dead-end streets shall have a turn-around at the end within a minimum property line radius of fifty-five (55) feet and a minimum flow line radius of forty-five (45) feet, unless two (2 or more curb cuts with surfaced driveways are provided, in which event the minimum property line radius shall be forty-five (45) feet and the minimum flow line radius shall be thirty-five (35) feet. Hammerhead turn-arounds, where permitted, shall be posted at all times for No ParkingFire Lane and shall not be utilized for any purpose other than emergency vehicle access.
(14) Minimum curb return radii:
a. Major or minor arterial intersections: twenty-five (25) feet.
b. Major or minor arterial intersected by either a collector or residential street: twenty-five (25) feet.
c. Collector street intersected either by a residential or a collector street: twenty (20) feet.
d. Residential street intersections: fifteen (15) feet.
(15) Sidewalk and bicycle path requirements along state highways:
a. A four and one-half (AVi) foot detached sidewalk one foot from property line shall be required along the south or west side of all state highways.
b. An eight (8) foot attached bicycle path shall be required along the north or east side of all state highways. (Code 1963, § 4-7-8; Ord. No. 81-156, §§1,2,10-5-81)
Sec. 34-22. Adoption of state law applicable to special improvement districts.
The provisions of the Colorado Special Improvement Districts in Municipalities Law, appearing in Title XXXI, Article 25, Part 5, Colorado Revised Statutes 1975, and as they may from time to time be amended, are hereby adopted by this reference, except as they may differ from or conflict with provisions contained in the Charter or Supp. No. S
2416


SWIMMING POOLS
§ 35-9
l

(c) All plumbing work shall be done in accordance with article IV of chapter 9.
(d) All mechanical work shall be done in accordance with article V of chapter 9.
(e) No swimming pool shall be located so that the waters edge is less than six (6) feet from any property line or within any reguijred front or side yard as defmed by the zoning ordinance of the city; provided that swimming pools may be placed within required front yards in R-3 through R-5 Residential Districts and B-3 Business Districts. (Code 1963, § 7-10-5)
Sec. 35-6. Diving boards.
The dimensions of the swimming pool in the diving area shall conform to the following table:
Minimum Water Depth Minimum Pool Width
Height of Board at End of Board and 12 at End of Board and 12
(Meters) Beyond (Feet) Beyond (Feet)
0.01.0 1.12.0
2.1 3.0
3.1 5.0
9
10.75
11.75
12.75
20
20
30
30
At least fifteen (15) feet free and unobstructed head room shall be provided above diving boards, horizontal separation of1 ten (10)'feet shall be provided befween divTnff"' hoards and spde walls except this may be reduced to eight (8) feet for surfaceDoaras
pool shall he three (3) feet except for special purpose swimming pools, or for restricted or recessed areas which are designed primarily for the use of small children. SucJT areas when included as part of the swimming pool shall be separated from the swimming pool proper by means of a safety fence or buoy attached to the side walls. (Code 1963, § 7-10-6)
Sec. 35-7. Fencing.
Swimming pool areas shall be completely enclosed bv a well constructed fence or wall not less than four (4) feet in height with openings of not more than four (4) inches and of a type not readily climbed upon bvcnildren. All gates shall be equipped with self-latching, self-closing devices on the inside top of the gate, not readily accessible to children. (Code 1963, § 7-10-7)
State law referenceSimilar provisions, § 41-706.
Sec. 35-8. Water supply.
Water in swimming pools shall meet the state health departments requirements for safe drinking water. (Code 1963, § 7-10-8)
Cross referenceWater generally, § 39-68 et seq.
Sec. 35-9. Violations.
Section 1.7 of the U.S.P.C. is hereby amended to read as follows:
Section 1.7: Any person, firm or corporation violating any of the provisions of the Uniform Swimming Pool Code shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished as
2457


CLIMATE
C
The Climatological data gathered in this section is taken from a publication called "Climatological Data Annual Summary", Colorado, 1982, Vol. 87, No. 13, an official publication of The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Graphs if this section pertain to weather information for Denver, which has the weather station with the closest proximity to Aurora, where my site is located.
General information for Denver, Colorado.
Latitude: 39 45' North
Longitude: 104 52' West
Elevation: 5,283 Feet
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LUUdS VslilllcUUlu^lCdl Utf Id
Annual Summary With Comparative Data
f 1978
DENVER, COLORADO
Narrative Climatological Summary
Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration.
Air masses from at lqast four different sources influence Denver's weather: arctic air from Canada and Alaska; warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico; warm dry air from Mexico and the southwest; and Pacific air modified by its passage over coastal ranges and other mountains to the west.
The good climate results largely from Denver's location at the foot of the east slope of the Rocky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. During most summer afternoons cumuliform clouds so shade the City that temperatures of 90 or over are reached on an average of only thirty-two days of the year, and in only one year in five does the mercury very briefly reach the 100 mark.
f
In the cold season the high altitude and the location of the mountains to the west combine to moderate temperatures. Invasions of cold air from the north, intensified by the high altitude, can be abrupt and severe. On the other hand, many of the cold air masses that spread southward out of Canada over the plains never reach Denver's altitude and move off over the lower plains to the east. Surges of 'old air from the west are usually moderated in their descent down the east face of the mountains, and Mnooks resulting from some of these westerly flows often raise the temperature far above that rmally to be expected at this latitude in the cold season. These conditions result in a tempering or winter cold to an average temperature above that of other cities situated at the same latitude.
In spring when outbreaks of polar air are waning, they are often met by moist currents from the Gulf of Mexico. The juxtaposition of these two currents produces the rainy season in Denver, which reaches its peak in May.
Situated a long distance from any moisture source, and separated from the Pacific source by several high mountain barriers, Denver enjoys a low relative humidity, low average precipitation, and considerable sunshine.
Spring is the wettest, cloudiest, and windiest season. Much of the 37 percent of the annual total precipitation that occurs in spring falls as snow during the colder, earlier period of that season. Stormy periods are often interspersed by stretches of mild sunny weather that remove previous snow cover.
Summer precipitation^about 32 percent of the annual total), particularly in July and August, usually falls mainly from scattered local thundershowers during the afternoon and evening. Mornings are usually clear and sunny. Clouds often form during early afternoon and cut off the sunshine at what would otherwise be the hottest part of the day. Many afternoons have a cooling shower.
Autumn is the most pleasant season. Local summer thunderstorms are mostly over and invasions of cold
air and severe weather are infrequent, so that there i3 less cloudiness and a greater percent of______
possible sunshine than at any other time of the year. Periods of unpleasant weather are generally brief. Precipitation amounts to about 20 percent of the annual total.
Winter has least precipitation accumulation, only about 11 percent of the annual total, and almost all of it snow. Precipitation frequency, however,*' is higher than in autumnT There is also more cloudi-ss and the relative humidity averages higher than in the autumn. Weather can be quite severe, but a general rule the severity doesn't last long.
noaa
NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION
/ ENVIRONMENTAL DATA AND / NATIONAL CLIMATIC CENTER / INFORMATION SERVICE / ASHEVILLE. N.C.


CircifM i c. £ I i mahc.


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'3
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GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS LIMITED CIRCUIATION
ISSN 0145-050S
CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA ANNUAL SUMMARY
COLORADO
1982
VOLUME 87 NUMBER
tovemmw! Oivision
JUL > 7 83
University m ui;........... 13
r
TES
I CERTIFY THAT THIS IS AN OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF THE NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION AND IS COMPILED FROM INFORMATION RECEIVED AT THE NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER. ASHEVILLE NORTH CAROLINA"
28801
ACTING DIRECTOR
NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER
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NATIONAL NATIONAL NATIONAL
OCEANIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE, DATA CLIMATIC OATA CENTER
ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION AND INFORMATION SERVICE ASHEVILLE NORTH CAROLINA
UUuuCilUj ivJ


TOTAL PRECIPITATION AND DEPARTURE ^OM NORMAL (INCHES) ----c*
STATION JAN FEB MAR APR M A V U N
PREC1P. DEPARTURE PRECIP DEPARTURE PRECIP. DEPARTURE PRECIP DEPARTURE 1 PRECIP DEPARTURE PRECIP. DEPARTURE
PARADOX 1 W 1 5 2 o 1 2 . 0 2 1 4 1 . C 0 3
PITKIN 2 4 4 . 7 8 8 3 -.34 2 4 9 . 8 9 b 6 -.79 i . 2 b . C 3 1 o 1 3
PLACER V 1 L L E 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 . 3 7 5 3 2 8 7 7 T
PYRAMID M a 4 2 9 3 2 1 7 2 . _ b i
R A N G E L Y 1 E . b 3 . 1 b 1 0 8 . 3 2 1 2 t M
REDSTONE 4 w M 4 4 & M 7 1 M 5 . 3 1 M & 4 1 . 0 9 4 3
RICO 3 8 2 1.28 2 0 b . 1 1 4 . 4 4 1.94 . 9 9 -1.28 2 . 2 2 . b 4 3 S - 9 0
R I 0 G u A Y M 7 b
rifle 1 4 b . S 4 . 3 5 -.41 1 . 2 b . 3 9 . 0 3 -.85 1 . 1 2 3 i 5 5 - 3 7
SARGENTS 2 4 8 S 1 1 . 2 0 . 7 3 1 5 2 3 5
SmOShONE 2 S 3 . b 5 . 5 7 -1.12 2 . 7 8 1.17 M & 5 2 . 2 . 7 0 1 . 3 9 0 2
steamboat spr I N G S 3 1 b . 7 0 1 1 9 -.95 M 2 . 9 1 1 5 7 -.77 1 . b G -.47 5 7 - 1 2 7
TACOMA 2 4 3 1 1 5 3 . 0 1 . 7 1 3 . 2 7 2 b
TAYLOR PARK 2 3 0 . 8 8 . 5 0 - b 8 2 . 8 5 1.29 1 2 0 -.19 9 5 -.2b 1 0 0 - 0 4
TELLUR 1 DE 2 3 2 . b 5 1 7 8 . 1 3 2 . 2 9 . 1 7 . 5 4 -1.85 3 . 1 8 1.47 4 9 - S 1
TROUT LAKE 4 8 4 2 3 0 4 . b b 1 4 1 2 . 2 1 5 b
U R A V A N M . S 3 2 7 1 2 9 2 3 3 9 4
vallecito dam / / 2 8 4 1 8 2 2 . 8 8 . 9 e 2 0 5 1 4
WILLIAMS FORK DAM 1 . 0 7
WINTER park / / 3 0 0 . 7 2 1 . b 0 2 b i 4 . 4 7 i 2 J
Y A M P A 1 4 8 . 3 4 . 9 7 3 4 2 9 2 1 . 2 Q
t E l L 0 H JACKET 2 w 1 0 4 1 1 7 3 . 1 7 . 0 0 9 2 T G 0
--DIVISIONAL D A T A > 1 b 7 . 3 4 . 9 1 -.32 1 . 8 3 . 4 7 . b c -.79 1 . 5 7 4 0 J 7 - b 2
KANSAS 0 R A : N A o E
BASIN 0 3
AKRON 4 E / / . 1 8 . 1 8 . 4 3 . 3 6 4 . 4 4 3 . 0 b
AKRON F A A AP . 1 b -.27 . 1 0 -.24 . 2 b - b 1 . 4 7 - 7 b 4 . 4 0 31 3 . 7 2 3 8
BONNY LAKE . 1 b . 4 0 . C 8 . 7 9 4 . b 9 5 . 5 7
Burlington . 2 0 -.20 3 5 -.03 . 0 5 -.84 . 7 8 -.31 4 . 4 2 i 5 e 5 . 1 7 2 o b
cmEtEnne mEll S . 2 S -.08 . 4 8 . 2 1 . 3 b -.35 . 9 5 -.3b 4 . 2 4 1 5 b 4 3 5 2 0 0
flaglER 2 nw . 0 2 2 7 . 1 9 . 3 2 3 . 2 1 3 . 3
flehing i s . 1 8 -.27 . 0 S -.40 1 . 3 0 . 2 7 7 8 -.92 2 . 7 2 . b 7 5 . 8 ' 2 2 4
GENOA l w . 1 1 -.24 . 2 1 -.08 . 0 b -.78 . 2 b -1.14 3 8 3 1.27 3 0 3 8 b
HOLYOKE M . 3 1 . 3 2 . 0 3 1 . 1 2 2 b . 7 8 -.75 5 . 0 4 1.75 p 2 2 4 3 9
I O A L I A 5 N N E M M
LEROt E. nSu . 0 8 -.51 . 1 0 -.42 1 . 0 9 -.20 9 0 - 1 : 3 4 6 . 3 1 M
OTIS 11 ME M M M . 3 7 -.04 3 . 4 7 . 9 b 5 . 9 0 2 b 7
STRATTON M . 1 S . 3 9 -.03 T . 0 0 9 5 9 0 -.71 4 . 1 0 1.58 3 . e 1 i 3 1
V 0 N A . 1 7 -.25 . 3 1 -.09 . 1 2 -.78 . 8 2 -.74 4 . 7 9 2.00 3 b 9 1 3 9
WRAY . 2 b -.15 2 8 -.07 . 1 8 - b 9 1 3 3 -,5b 8 . 2 b 5.10 7 i c 4 0 2
YUMA . 0 8 -.38 . 1 1 -.26 2 1 -.91 . 8 3 - b 7 4 4 8 1 b 3 7 o 2 3 9 7
-DIVISIONAL 0 A T A > . 1 ; -.22 . 2 6 -.07 3 b -.51 . 7 b -.74 4 b 2 1.74 5 . 4 2 b
platte drain A G E
basin 0 4
ALLENSPARK 1 2 1 M 3 5 1 1 5 2 7 3 5 . 7 1 M
anTERO RESERv 0 I R . 2 8 . 0 c 4 0 . 1 b 1 . 9 3 1 . s b
bailey . 4 1 . C i . 2 3 -.29 2 b -.81 . 4 5 - 1 b 0 3 . 0 4 . 9 3 2 . 1 b 4 b
B 0 U L 0 E R . 0 2 -.75 2 8 - 4 i . b 1 -1.12 . 3 3 -1.99 4 . b 5 1.44 1 . 7 * 5 9
BRIGGSOALE . 0 4 . C 4 . 1 9 . 1 3 3 . 1 b M
BRIGHTON 1 n E / / . 1 8 . 1 0 2 2 . 3 2 2 7 2 3 2
BTERS 5 ENE M . 3 1 . 1 7 -.27 . 1 3 -.79 . 3 2 -1.25 4 . 7 1.43 2 . 9 5 7 6
CABIN CREEK 2 0 7 . 4 5 5 4 1 b 5 3 . 7 9 2 0 1
CASTLE ROCK M . 2 7 . 4 5 M . 5 0 . 4 2 4 i 5 2 . 4 8
ChEESman . 3 b -.13 2 2 -.39 . 4 4 - b 2 . 3 9 - 1 .39 3 . c b b 5 4 . 4 3 3 0 7
ChERRt CREEk 0 A M . 4 2 . 2 4 . 5 2 . 4 4 4 . 0 9 2 5 5
OENVER wSFO a p / / R . 3 2 -.28 . 0 9 -.58 . 1 8 -1.03 . 3 4 - i .58 3 4 a e.<. 3 2 Jn _JL3
m T 8 N 'ill lT r N N W :t Tl T 4 m 1 7 b 3 . b 0 4 . 3 4
SEE REFERENCE NOTES FOi. LOWING STATION INUEx


V. *
.i&k
TOTAL PRECIPITATION AND DEPARTURES FROM NORMAL (INCHES)
STATI ON J U L AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC annual
PRECIP. DEPARTURE PRECIP. DEPARTURE PRECIP. DEPARTURE PRECIP. DEPARTURE PRECIP. DEPARTURE PRECIP. DEPARTURE PRECIP. DEPARTURE
P A R A 0 0 k 1 w 3 G 8 i . 6 1 3 . 8 8 1.45 1 . 8 8 1 . 3 1 18.80
PITkIn 1.21 7 8 3 . 2 e 1 1 5 2 . 8 4 1 8 1 . 4 0 -.75 8 0 -.5 3 7 4 -.04 16.05 ? 0
PLACERVILLE 2.81 a 4 5 7 . 6 7 . 5 7 8 8 8 2 2 7 4 2
PTflAMl 0 2.38 i . 4 0 2 . 3 8 2.28 1 . 8 0 ' . 4 8
RANGELT 1 E 2.04 i . 2 8 4 . 1 8 18 8 7 8 5 0
REDSTONE 4 w 1. 8 <3 i . 2 8 8 . 1 3 2.85 3 . 4 4 1 . 5 5 M
RICO 2 5 2 0 8 7 . 7 7 4 8 7 5 . 2 0 2 7 8 1.18 -1.30 3 . 0 8 lie 1 . 8 8 .84 3 5 5 8 9 7 1
RIOGMir 18 5 3 . 8 4 3 . 4 4 1.28 8 3 1 . 0 5
RIFLE . 4 r 3 8 7 2 - 5 3 2 . 8 3 2 0 1 1.22 - 0 2 1 . 5 8 7 1 3 2 -.80 12.04 6 0
SARGENTS . 8 i 3 . 0 5 2 . 5 1 1.58 5 4 8 7 18.08
SHOSHONE . 8 0 2 2 1 . 1 0 - 8 1 4 . 3 8 2 8 4 2.28 4 8 2 . 4 2 . 3 3 7 8 -1.08 M 2 1.0
steamboat springs ,87 5 4 1 . 3 7 - 2 4 2 . 8 3 1 0 4 M 2.04 2 . 0 8 . 1 2 . 0 4 -.58 M 2 3.li
TACOMA 2 2 4 4 . 8 0 4 . 0 0 1.05 3 . 3 2 8 1 26 25
TAYLOR PARK 1.25 5 4 2 . 5 0 8 4 2 . 8 5 1 8 5 . 5 0 -.42 1 . 3 0 . 1 7 8 0 -.76 18.20 1 7 2
T E L L U R I 0 E 1.32 - 1 1 0 8 . 2 7 3 2 8 4 . 5 4 2 5 5 1.08 -1.14 1 . 8 2 . 3 4 1 . 4 3 -.24 2 8.87 2 4 8
TROU* L*k£ 3.87 8 . 2 4 4 . 8 4 1.23 M 2 . 3 8 1 . 8 8 M 3 8.54
U R A V A N 1.58 2 . 2 8 4 . 1 1 1.85 i . 4 8 i . 2 4 M 15.20
V A L l E C I T 0 0AM // 1.88 8 . 2 2 5 . 2 8 1.28 5 . 1 8 3 . 4 2 3 4.14
WILLIAMS FORK DAM 1.88 1 . 8 0 2 . 2 3 . 8 0 7 2 7 4
WINTER PRk ' 5 1 3 . 0 8 1 . 8 8 . 8 8 1 . 0 8 3 . 1 8 2 5 4 fc
TAMPA . 8 0 1 . 0 5 1 . 8 3 1.07 1 . 0 2 8 8 14.70
YELLOW JACKET 2 W . 8 2 2 . 8 8 4 . 0 0 . 7 8 3 . 8 2 M 1 . 5 8 M 2 C 3 8
--DIVISIONAL data > 1.25 - i 3 2 . 3 8 5 8 3 . 0 7 i 7 7 1.22 . 4 1 . 7 0 . 8 3 1 0 8 -.22 17.72 8 6
KANSAS DRAINAGE
BASIN 03
AKRON 4 E II 2.20 3 . 5 8 8 4 . 8 0 7 3 1 . 2 7 16.17
AKRON F A A AP 2.81 - 2 2 M 0 0 - 3 5 . 8 3 -.24 8 1 . 0 3 2 . 7 9 2.38
BONNT LAKE 1.48 1 . 3 2 3 . 8 2 . 8 1 3 3 1 . 5 1 2 0 9 5
BURLINGIOn 2.88 3 7 8 8 - 1 3 5 3 1 0 2 . 8 2 -.48 3 0 -.22 l . 3 2 8 4 18.45 1 3
ChEtEnnE hells ..78 - 1 0 7 8 2 - 1 8 0 8 3 4 8 . 8 3 -.17 3 1 -.18 2 4 . C 4 18.75 4 9
flagler 2 nw 2.87 7 8 4 3 . 5 1 S 1 8 4 * 4 b 4
Fleming i s M 2 . 5 4 7 7 0 5 - 1 2 . 0 7 -.88 8 0 -.09 7 e . 3 2
GENOA 1 w 3.08 1 4 2 . 8 8 1 8 4 0 2 1 . 2 4 -.53 2 7 -.28 M C 0 M 1 5 0
HOLYOKE 2.28 5 3 3 . 3 3 1 4 5 7 0 0 8 . 3 4 -.78 8 8 . 2 0 1 . 1 8 . S 3 M 2 5. ? 0
IOALIA 5 NNE M 8 8 - 1 4 8 8 4 3 3 . 0 1 -1.11 5 1 -.01 i . 4 6 1 i 8
LEROY 5 wSw 5.45 2 7 8 2 . 7 4 7 7 3 1 0 7 . 1 3 -1.08 8 0 -.18 8 8 . 3 0
OTIS 11 N E . 8 2 - 2 1 3 M 5 8 4 0 . 3 7 -.88 5 0 . 0 2 7 3 . 4 b
STRATTON 3.58 8 4 1 . 4 7 - 1 0 0 2 . 0 4 5 0 . 4 8 -.84 2 5 -.44 M
V 0 N A 5.33 2 8 0 8 4 - 1 2 8 2 . 1 5 7 4 . 7 8 -.31 M M
. 5 1 - 2 4 0 3 . 2 8 8 8 2 . 3 3 8 8 . 4 5 -.58 7 3 . 2 4 1 . 4 3 1.05 2 8 2 1 7 7 0
YUMA 1.87 - l 1 5 2 . 3 7 4 8 1 . 3 0 - 2 2 . 5 8 -.83 2 8 -.28 8 8 . 2 8 18.82 1 8 4
--DIVISIONAL CATa 2.54 - 3 3 2 . 0 7 - 1 8 1 . 7 5 3 1 . 5 7 -.55 5 1 -.03 1 2 3 . 8 8 2 0 0 C 2 5 9
Platte drainage
BASIN 04
ALLENSPARK M M M M M M 8 5
anTERO RESERVOIR 2.52 2 . 7 8 2 . 8 7 . 2 1 2 4 3 2 13.34
e a i l e v 2.83 - 2 2 2 . 8 0 2 8 2 . 1 4 8 7 1.20 . 0 8 2 5 -.38 1 8 5 1.18 17.22 0
BOULDER 3.45 1 7 0 2 . 7 2 1 0 4 4 . 3 8 3 0 5 1.43 -.07 M 1 5 2 . 8 3
BRIGGSOAlE 5.28 2 . 0 3 2 . 2 1 . 8 5 3 0 0 7
BRIGHTON 1 NE II 1.57 1 . 3 1 1 . 2 8 . 8 3 4 1 7 2 15.52
BYERS 5 E NE 1.17 - 1 0 8 2 2 0 5 4 1 . 8 0 5 8 . 7 8 -.18 8 8 3 3 1 3 0 . 8 2 M
CABIN CREEK 2.23 3 . 2 7 2 . 5 8 . 5 8 2 2 l . 2 4 2 0 b 2
castle rock 2.71 2 . 2 3 2 . 3 7 2.18 2 7 M 5 i 18.54
ChEESman 3.08 5 2 4 . 4 7 2 1 3 2 . 8 2 1 8 4 . 8 8 -.14 2 1 -.52 2 . 5 3 2.10 2 3.81 8 3
Cherry CREEk dam 3.51 3 . 0 8 1 . 8 7 2.12 M
DENVER w S F 0 A P //R . 8 2 - 8 8 1 . 1 8 - 1 3 1 . 3 8 2 5 1.51 . 3 8 4 7 -.28 2 . 3 4 1.81 14.45 0 8
EASTONVlLLE 1 NNW r. i i 7~ 4 t, 3 5 1 01 . 4 3 2.2 b
SEE REFERENCE NOTES FOLLOWING STATION INDEX
7


> AVERAGE TEMPERATURES AN D riRTURES FROM NORMAL 1 :) C 0 W V - wO 392
STATION JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC annual
3 OC 3 a. a ac K IX IX cx E 3 CX o ac 3 E X CX a s> E ae cx o s IX A. E a. E - => IX e> 3 a. 3 CX 13 E ac a. a a: cx E CX 3 cx a cx 3 a E cx CX a cx Z3 ac cx 3 cx C3 ac => ac cx E ac => cx CX o
KANSAS OB 1 N i
8 A s 1 N 0 3
A K R 0 N 4 C / / 2 5.7 28 6 3 8.1 4 5.3 55.1 6 2.3 7 3.5 7 2.8 6 2.3 4 6 6 3 4.5 30.0 4 3.1
AKRON f A A AP 2 b 0 2 29.8 - 1 3 0.1 3 5 45.1 -1.3 56.2 1 6 2.0 -4.0 7 3.2 . o M 62.2 . 1 4 9.3 - 1 6 3 4.6 -2.2 30.0 : i N
0ONNT LAKE 25.i. 29.2 N 4 6.9 5 7.6 6 3.2 7 3.3 7 4 1 6 3.5 50.0 *35.3 29.8 M
Burlington 2 7 -2.3 30.2 -3.3 4 1.9 3 6 4 8.1 -1.7 5 7.9 -1.2 6 4 5 -4.3 7 4.7 - 3 7 4 7 1 5 6 4 7 . 1 52.1 6 3 7.5 -2.5 3 2" 3 50.6 -1 s
CmEtEnnE nEllS 2 8 4 - 8 2 7.7 -5.2 4 1.9 4 1 4 8.6 -1.2 58.7 - 8 65.0 -4.1 7 4.i - 9 7 4.2 . 8 65.3 . 7 52.2 -1.2 3 7.3 -2.4 3 1.4 . 1 5 0.4 a
Flagler 2 NH 2 T 4 28.5 4 0.2 4 5.3 55.6 6 2.3 7 3.1 7 3.9 6 2.4 50.2 3 4.3 2 9.9 4 0.6
HCL OK E 2 4 6 -3.0 30.4 *1.2 39.9 3 4 4 8.1 - 6 58.2 - 4 6 3.7 -4.5 7 2.0 -2.2 7 2.4 -1.2 6 1.0 - 2 - J9.1 -4.4 32.9 -5.7 29.3 - 9 4 8.5 -1.9
LEROT s MSN H 2 6 6 28.7 3 7.5 4 4.9 5 3.8 N 7 1.9 7 1.9 6 1.5 4 8.6 3 3.6 2 9.7 *
STRATTON 30.7 1 0 32.6 - 5 4 3 5 6 0 4 9.0 - 3 5 8.8 - 2 6 6.0 -2.6 7 7.5 2 6 7 7.6 4 0 6 7.1 2 4 55.1 1 4 38.7 -1.0 M r*
H R A T h 36 5 8 i 39.8 6 8 4 7.3 9 3 H M N * M N M H N *i
TUNA 2 7.4 - 8 29.9 -2.6 4 0.7 3 5 4 7.2 -2.1 58.3 - 7 6 4.9 -3.6 7 3.9 -1.1 7 4.0 . 6 6 4.2 . 1 5 0.4 -2.4 3 4.3 -4.1 3 1.6 1 i 4 9 7 -1.0
--DIVISIONAL OATA 2 7.8 - 5 30.8 - 1 4 4 0.9 4 0 4 6.9 -1.9 5 7.0 -1.5 6 3.8 -4.4 7 3.8 - 8 7 4.0 . 9 6 3.4 - 5 50.5 -2.4 35.3 -3.5 30.5 - 3 4 9.6 - 9
PLATTE ORA I NICE
BASIN 0 4
allEnspark 2b 0 2 6.2 32.4 3 9.1 50.1 n H N M N M H M
anTERO RESERVOIR 1 7 <9 18.5 29.3 3 3.5 4 2.1 50.7 5 6.9 5 7.6 4 9.4 35.6 2 4.7 17.0 36 1
Ba I lE t 2 2.8 -2.3 22.8 -4.5 3 1.8 1 3 3 6 4 -3.2 4 3.5 -4.8 50.5 -6.1 5 9.0 -3.3 60.5 . 0 50.6 -3.3 3 7.7 -7.0 2 8.9 -4.4 2 3.7 -3.5 39.0 -3.4
BOULDER 33.7 . 7 35.5 . 0 4 3.9 5 0 50.1 . 9 55.9 -2.4 6 2.3 -4.9 7 1.8 -2.1 7 2.7 . 3 6 1.4 -2.6 50.5 -3.5 N 35.5 - 3 M
8 R 1 GGSDAl E M N 37.4 4 4.7 5 4.8 n 7 1.6 7 1.9 M 4 7.9 * 32 5 M2 7 9 M
BRIGHTON 1 Mi / / 29.2 32.3 4 1.9 4 8.4 56.3 6 3.3 7 1.5 72.5 6 1.7 19.7 35.7 29.9 4 9.4
BTERS 5 ENE 2 8.8 . 1 29.6 -2.7 39.8 3 3 4 6.3 - 9 55.3 -1.7 62.4 -3.9 72.3 - 6 72.6 1 2 6 2.3 - 5 4 8.6 -3.2 3 3.9 -4.7 30.4 -1.0 4 8.5 -1.2
CABIN CREEK 18.7 2 1.6 27.3 3 1.0 4 0.2 4 8.1 55.2 55.6 4 7.8 36.7 2 7.2 22.0 36.0
castle rock 29.8 29.2 4 0.4 4 5.4 5 3.0 60.1 6 9.9 69.3 6 1.1 4 6.8 36.1 3 1.6 4 7.7
CmEESmAn 29.0 1 2 2 7.5 -2.3 3 8.4 4 6 4 2.6 - 6 4 9.6 -2.4 5 7.6 -3.2 66.7 . 3 6 6.7 1 8 5 7.4 - 9 4 5.2 -3.2 36.7 - 7 30.9 - 3 4 5.7 - 5
ChERRT CREEK dan 29.4 30.3 4 0.6 4 5.8 5 3.0 6 1.6 7 2.8 7 1.8 6 2.2 4 7.8 M M M
DENVER h ST 0 AP / / R 30.3 4 32.0 - 8 4 1.1 4 1 4 7.4 - 1 55.1 -1.9 6 3.1 -2.9 7 2.7 - 3 7 3.1 1 5 6i.7 -1.1 4 9.0 -3.0 35.7 -3.7 30.9 -1.7 4 9.3 - 6
ESTES PARK 25.8 -1.3 2 5.6 -2.7 i*. i 3 0 38 : -1.5 45.7 - 2 f 52 9 - i. 3 6 1.2 -1.0 6 3.1 2 2 5 3.7 - 1 4 2.9 -2.6 3 1.5 -3.6 2 8.3 -1.2 4 1.9 -1.2
EVERGREEN 28.5 29.4 36 * 4 1.2 4 7.9 54.5 M 6 1 7 6 3.9 5 3.4 4 1.1 30.3 26.5 *42.8
FORT COLL I NS 2 8.2 1 4 3 1.6 . 9 4 0.9 5 5 4 7.2 . 0 55.2 - 4 6 1.8 -2.5 7 1.0 . 2 7 1.8 2 9 59.5 4 8.3 -1.3 3 3.9 -3.3 30.0 - 3 8.3 3
PORT NORGAN 2 6.7 2 A 29.7 - 1 4 1.1 5 1 4 7.6 - 6 57.4 - 6 6 4.7 -2.8 75 1 1 1 7 5.0 3 1 6 3.6 1 4 8.9 - 2 1 9 4.9 -1.9 30.1 1 9 4 9.6 6
GRANT 19.0 2 2.2 29.5 35.3 4 2.9 50.6 5 7.8 58.2 4 9.0 3 / 2 2 7.0 2 1.5 3 7.5
GREELEv UNC 2 7.3 2 8 3 1.3 1 7 4 1.4 5 8 4 8.0 . 6 56.3 -1.0 6 3.4 -3.2 72.1 -1.2 7 3.1 2 1 6 1.1 . 4 4 9.8 - 2 35.2 - 8 30.1 2 1 4 9' . 7
K A SSL E R 30.1 -2.4 30.5 -4.4 4 0.9 2 2 4 6.7 -2.5 51.6 -4.6 6 1.4 -5.6 7 2.0 -1.4 7 2.4 . 3 6 1.9 -2.4 4 9.7 -4.5 3 6.6 -5.1 3 2.8 -2.3 4 9.1 2 "
KAuFfHAN 4 SSE 2 4 6 -2.0 2 9 8 - 8 3 7.3 3 9 4 3.6 -1.3 5 4.0 - 4 6 0.0 3.2 7.8 t 7 7 1.0 ? 1 59.4 . 0 4 6.9 -2.1 3 2 4 -9.9 29.9 . 4 4 6.6 - 5
lake GEORGE 9 Sn 17.9 17.7 30 1 35 5 4 3.6 5 1.6 59.4 60.4 5 1.6 3 7.6 28 2 19 0 3 7 7
2 9.0 -2.9 3 2.0 -2.9 4 0 9 2 4 4 6.1 -2.6 52.2 -5.5 6 0.2 6.5 7 1.5 -1.6 7 0.1 -1.3 6 0.7 -2.2 4 6.2 b 5 3 4,9 -5.8 32 2 -2.3 4 8.0 - 3
LITTLETON 3 1.1 3 2.0 4 2.3 4 8.8 55.7 6 2.3 6 9.9 7 1.0 59.5 4 6.9 3 3.5 23.9 4 9.5
LONGNONT 2 ESE 2 7 .6 . 8 30.7 - 3 4 1.2 5 3 4 3.5 1 4 56.1 - 5 6 3.0 -2.0 7 1.9 . 3 7 3 1 3 2 6 i 2 . 2 4 0.2 2.2 35 i -2.3 29 e . 5 4 6.9 *
NEDERLAND 2 nnE 2 2.4 *23.4 3 1.4 36.2 4 2.7 4 9.3 5 8.8 60.5 5 C 9 39.8 30.9 25.4 *39.3
n[n RAynER 2 3.9 2 8.2 3 7.7 4 4.4 5 3.6 60.7 7 2.0 / 1 8 6 0.6 4 7.2 32 5 28.2 4 6 7
24.2 26.8 3 7.3 4 3.6 5 3.6 60.1 7 0.1 7 2.2 59.8 4 5.7 3 2.3 2 e 2 4 6 2
PARKER (> E 29.9 2 4 30.6 . 2 39.3 5 1 4 6.4 1 5 5 3.2 - 9 6 0.3 -3.0 7 0.9 . 6 7 0.5 1 9 6 1.7 i 3 4 8.4 - 1 4 36.4 - 6 32.2 i 5 4 8.3 . 7
RAmhIDE RESERVOIR N N *69 7 5 7.4 4 6.6 *32.5 2 7 6 M
REO FEATmER LAKES 2 SE 2 1.7 22.8 29.3 3 3.6 4 3.3 50.1 5 9.7 60.6 50 5 39.1 2 7.3 24.2 38.5
SEDGM1Ck 5 S 2 3.8 30.7 3 8.4 4 6.8 56.2 N 7 3.5 7 4.0 6 3 4 50.9 3 4.3 30.6 N
SPICER 16.1 17.4 26 5 3 1.0 4 1.0 4 9.4 56.4 58.6 4 9.3 36 4 2 3.2 18,3 35.5
sterling 2 2.3 -2.4 26 7 -3.1 38.1 3 0 4 5.0 -2.6 55.3 -2.1 6 2.7 -3.9 7*3 3 - 2 7 3.4 i e 62.2 1 0 4 7.7 2.5 3 3 8 -29 29.3 1 4 4 7.5 -i.O
mAlDEN 19.2 3 8 19.6 1 5 28.8 5 1 32.8 -2.5 4 2.2 -2.6 5 1.0 -1.9 58.2 5 6 C 2 3 9 4 9.1 . 4 36.6 -2.5 2 3 S -2.9 19.1 . 5 36 7 . 2
ma TEROAlE 2 7.1 -1.7 2 9.3 -2.5 39.3 3 4 45.9 - 4 5 3.8 -1.2 60.0 -3.1 6 6.8 -1.2 7 1.1 2 6 59.7 - 3 4 8.0 -2.2 35 i -2.9 3i.0 3 4 7 4 - 8
hhEAT RIDGE 2 3 3.4 3 3.8 4 3.3 4 9.8 56.1 6 3.2 7 2.2 7 3.0 62.1 4 9.7 3 7.0 3 3.8 5 C 6
-DIVISIONAL DAT*-- 25.8 - 7 2 7 6 -1.8 3 6.8 3 2 4 2.7 -1.5 50.9 -2.5 5 7.9 -4.2 6 7.3 -1.3 6 8.1 1 . 5 7.6 1.0 4 5.0 3.5 3 2.2 39 1 2 7 8 1 1 4 4 6.0 -1.4
Sff REFERENCE NOUS EOUOnING SU1ION INDEX
mourn



1 I 1PE RATURE EXTREMES D FREEZE 1 DA Tl A 1 !F ) IOC 1 982
LAST SPRING MINIMUM OF F I RST fall M N I M U M G F NUMBER OF OATS BETWEEN OATES
ctAT T DN 1E* OR 20* OR 24 OR 2 8* OR 3 2 OR 3 2* OR e 28 OR 24 OR 2 O' OR 0 1 b OR 5 3 O o 3 O
J 1 n 1 1 UIN i/> Ul in BELOW BELOW BELOW BELOW BELOW BELOW BELOW BELOW BELOW BELOW £ £ OD
I Ui UJ UJ *
a. O a o
O cl * 2 ~ K K k K o o a
I a J n o O a a o a o o Cl a Ei
KANSAS DRAINAGE
BASIN 0 3
AKRON 4 E - / 1 0 3 7/23 - 2 b 2 / 5 4/21 1 b 4/22 2 0 4/22 2 0 4 / 3 0 2 6 5 / b 2 8 1 0 / b 3 0 1 0 / i i 2 b 10/20 2 i 11/ 3 1 6 1 1 / 4 1 4 1 9 7 1 8 5 1 e i 1 b 4 1 5 3
AKRON f A A AP 9 8 7 t 22 - 2 t 2 / 5 4 / 8 1 4 4/21 1 8 4/21 1 8 4 / 2 2 25 5 / b 2 8 1 0 / b 3 0 1 0 / i i 2 7 1 C 1 8 2 3 1 / 3 1 7 1 1 / 1 4 1 2 2 2 0 1 8 b 1 8 i 1 7 2 1 5 3
BONNT LAKE l 0 1 7 t 22 2/12 5 4/22 1 8 4/23 2 2 4 / 2 3 2 2 5 / 7 3 0 1 0 / 1 i 2 7 1 0 / i 1 2 7 10-20 1 8 10-20 1 8 1 1 / 3 i 2 2 b 4 1 8 i 1 8 0 1 7 1 1 5 7
BURL INGTON 1 0 0 7 1 1 b - 2 3 2 / 5 3/21 1 2 4/21 1 8 4/23 2 4 4 / 2 3 2 4 5 / b 3 2 1 0 / i i 3 0 1 0 / 1 8 2 7 7 0-20 2 0 * 0 2 0 2 0 1 1 / 1 4 1 2 2 3 0 l B 2 1 8 0 1 7 9 i 5 3
CmEtEnnE hELLS 1 00 7/15 - 1 7 2 / 5 3/20 1 b 4 / 8 1 8 4/21 2 1 4 / 2 i 2 l 5 / 5 3 1 0 / 1 0 3 i 1 0 / 1 8 2 2 1 0 1 8 2 2 11/ 2 1 b 1 1 / 2 1 b 2 2 7 20 7 i 6 i i 8 1 1 5 8
El aglER 2 nr 1 0 1 7/21 - 25 2 . 5 A / 2 1 1 0 4/22 1 7 4/22 1 7 5 / b 25 5 / 6 2 5 1 0 / b 3 2 1 0 / l 0 2 0 10/12 2 2 11/ 2 1 7 1 1 / 3 1 b 1 8 b 1 9 4 1 7 3 1 5 7 1 5 3
m 0 L t 0 k E 8 8 8 / 1 - 2 4 2 / 5 3/25 1 4 4/21 1 7 4/22 2 1 4 / 3 0 2 7 5 / b 3 1 1 0 / b 3 1 1 o / 7 2 8 10/20 1 8 10-20 1 9 1 1 / 3 1 4 2 2 3 1 8 2 1 6 l 1 b C 1 5 3
LEROT 5 wSM - 2 5 2 / 5 4 / 8 ' b 4/21 1 8 4/21 1 8 4 / 3 0 2 7 5 / b 3 0 1 0 / b j 1 1 0 / 1 1 2 4 10/11 2 4 10-20 20 1 1 / 3 1 4 209 i e 2 i 7 3 1 b 4 5 3
STRATTON 1 0 2 7/24 3/21 1 b 4 / 8 1 8 4/21 2 1 4 / 2 3 2 5 5 / b 3 0 1 o / 1 2 3 1 1 o / 2 0 2 2 10/20 2 2 11/ 3 20 1 1 / 1 4 i 5 2 75 2 0 8 1 8 2 1 8 0 1 59
M R A T * 1 B 2 / 5 3/25 1 3 4/22 2 0 4/22 2 0 4 / 2 2 2 0 5 / b 3 1 1 0 / 1 1 2 7 1 0 / 1 1 2 7 10/20 1 8 10/20 1 8 1 1 / 3 1 2 22 3 1 8 1 1 8 1 1 7 2 1 5 8
T U M A 1 0 0 7/23 - 2 2 2 / 5 4/21 1 b 4/21 1 b 4/22 2 1 4 / 2 3 2 5 5 / b 2 8 1 0 / b 3 1 1 o / 1 1 2b 10/20 1 8 10/20 i 8 1 1 / 3 8 1 8 b 1 8 2 1 B 1 1 7 1 1 5 3
platte drainage
BASIN 0 4
ALtENSPARK 4/20 1 b 4/22 2 0 4/22 2 0 4 / 2 2 20 5 / 2 5 3 0 NONE NONE NONE NONE NON r
ANTERO RESERVOIR 8 5 7/23 - 4 0 2 / 5 5 / b e 5 / b 8 b / 8 2 4 b / 8 25 b / 1 8 3 0 7 / 2 4 2 8 / 2 3 2 8 10' 2 1 8 10/ 2 1 9 l o / 8 1 3 1 5 fc 1 4 9 1 i t 1 Ob 1 3
B A | L E T 8 b 7/24 * 3 2 2 / 5 5 / b 1 3 5 / b 1 3 5 / 1 b 2 4 b / 8 2 9 b / 2 0 3 1 7 / 1 b 3 2 8 / 1 4 2 7 8 3 0 2 4 1 0 7 2 C 1 o / l 0 i b i 5 7 1 5 A 1 3 7 9 8 2 b
BOULDER 8 e 7/23 3/25 1 b 4/21 i 8 4/21 1 8 5 / b 2 6 5 / b 2 8 1 0 / 8 3 2 1 0 / 1 1 2 7 12/ 3 2 4 12/ 7 2 0 1 2 / P 1 4 2 5 e 2 3 0 2 2b 1 5 6 i 5 b
SRIGGSOALE - 2 8 2 / 5 4/22 1 b 5 / b 2 0 5 / b 2 0 5 / 7 2 5 5 / 7 2 5 1 0 / 2 3 2 1 0 / 7 2 7 10/11 2 3 0-20 2 0 1 0 / 2 8 1 b 1 8 0 1 b 7 1 58 1 5 3 1 4 3
BRIGHTON 1 NE / / i 0 0 7/23 - 1 8 2 / 5 4/21 1 5 4/21 5 4/22 2 2 5 / b 2 8 5 / b 2 0 1 0 / b 3 0 1 o / 7 2 8 1 C / 1 1 2 4 11- 3 1 6 i l < 4 1 b 1 8 7 1 9 b 1 7 2 1 5 1 5 3
B T E R S 5 ENE 1 0 1 7/22 * 2 7 2 / 5 4/22 1 4 4/22 1 4 5 / b 22 5 / b 2 2 5 / b 2 2 1 0 / b 2 8 1 0 / b 2 8 10 / 2 2 3 11/ 3 1 8 i i / 1 4 3 2 0b i 85 1 5 9 1 5 3 * 5 3
CABIN CREE* 7 8 7/22 - 2 2 2 / 4 4/22 1 4 5/15 2 0 5/25 2 4 b / 1 8 2 8 b / 1 8 2 8 8 / 1 2 3 2 8 / 1 4 2 7 10/ b 1 8 10/ b 1 8 l 0 / 9 1 4 1 7 0 1 4 4 1 3 4 8 7 85
CASTlE rock 8 7 7/22 - 2 8 2 / 4 4/21 1 4 4/22 i e 5 / b 2 3 5 / 7 2 7 b / 7 3 2 1 0 / 1 3 1 1 0 / 8 2 ' 10/ 8 2 4 10/12 8 1 / 3 1 0 1 8 b 1 7 3 1 5 o 55 1 b
CmECSHAn 8 b 7/24 2 b 2 / 5 4/21 1 2 5 / b 1 8 5 / 7 2 3 5 / 7 2 3 5/21 3 2 1 0 / 2 3 2 1 0 / 8 2 2 10/ 8 2 2 10-28 2 0 1 I / 3 1 2 1 8 b 1 7 t 1 5 5 55 1 3 4
CmERRT CREEK OAM 1 0 4 7/23 4/21 1 3 4/22 2 0 5 / b 2 4 5 / b 2 4 5 / 1 3 3 2 1 0 / b 2 8 1 o / 1 0 2 6 10/12 2 2 NONE NONE i 5 9 1 5 7 4 b
DENVER MSrO AP / / R 8 8 7/23 - 1 5 2 / 5 2/11 1 1 4/21 2 0 4/21 20 4 / 2 2 2 8 5 / b 3 2 1 o / 7 3 1 1 0 / 1 1 2 7 11/ 2 2 3 11/13 2 0 1 1 / 1 4 1 2 2 7b 20b 1 95 1 7 2 1 5 4
ESTES PAR. 8 8 7/22 - 3 0 2 / 5 5 / 7 1 4 5 / 7 1 4 5 / 7 1 4 5 / 2 7 2 b b / 1 8 3 1 1 0 / 1 3 1 1 0 / 3 2 5 10/11 1 3 10/11 1 3 1 0 / 1 I 1 3 1 5 7 i 5 7 1 5 1 2 9 1 o 4
EVERGREEN 8 0 7/23 - 2 9 2 / 5 4/21 5 5 / b 2 0 5 / b 2 0 5 / 2 8 2 8 b / 7 3 2 8 / 2 8 3 1 I 0 / 3 2 7 : 2 1 8 2 3 1 c i : 2 0 1 / 2 i b i 8 5 1 58 1 5 b 1 2 8 1 1 4
TORT COLLINS 8 8 7/23 * 1 7 2 / 5 b 0 4/21 1 8 4/22 2 4 5 / b 2 8 5 / b 2 8 1 0 / 7 3 0 1 0 / 1 1 2 0 10/11 2 0 10/11 2 0 1 1 / J i 5 2 4 2 1 7 3 1 7 2 l 5 8 1 5 4
FORT MORGAN 1 05 7/23 - 2 5 2 / 8 3/22 1 b 4/21 1 9 4/22 2 1 4 / 2 2 2 1 5 / b 3 1 1 0 / 7 3 2 1 0 / 1 1 25 10/20 2 4 11/ 3 1 8 1 1 / 1 4 8 2 3 7 1 9 b 1 8 1 1 7 2 1 5 4
GRANT 8 4 7 / 2 * 3 0 2 / 5 5 / b 0 5 / b e 5/10 2 2 b / 8 2 7 b / 2 0 3 0 8 / 1 3 3 2 8 / 1 4 2 b 8/28 2 3 10/10 1 8 I 0 / 1 1 1 1 i 5 8 1 5 7 l 4 2 9 7 8 5
GREElEt UN c 1 0 2 7/23 - 1 8 2 / 5 3/25 1 b 4/21 1 8 4/22 2 3 5 / b 2 7 5 / b 2 7 1 0 / b 3 2 1 0 / 1 1 2 5 1 i 2 8 2 3 11/ 3 1 b 1 1 / 3 1 b 2 2 3 1 8 b 1 9 C 1 5 8 1 5 3
K A SSL E B 8 e 7/24 - 25 2 / 5 3/22 1 1 4/21 1 7 4/21 1 7 4 / 2 2 2 B 5 / 1 3 3 2 1 0 / b 3 2 1 o / 1 1 25 1 j 9 11/ 3 8 1 1 / 3 6 2 2b 1 9 b 1 9 b 1 7 2 1 4 L
KAUFFHAN 4 SSE 1 0 0 7/22 - 2 4 2 / 5 4/23 1 b 4/23 i b 5 / b 2 1 5 / 7 25 5 / 8 3 2 8 / 2 0 3 2 1 0 / 3 2 7 10/10 2 0 10/10 2 0 1 / 3 1 4 1 8 4 1 7 0 1 5 1 4 9 i 35
LAKE GEORGE 8 S m 8 4 7/24 - 3 2 2 / 5 5 / 7 1 2 5 / 7 1 2 5 / 7 1 2 5 / 2 1 2 8 b / 2 0 3 2 8 / l 4 2 8 1 0 / 3 2 7 10/ 7 2 4 10/ 8 1 9 1 o / 1 2 1 5 1 5 9 l 55 1 5 i 3 5 8 b
lakemooo 8 8 7 /2b - 1 7 2 / 5 4/21 1 4 4/21 1 4 4/21 1 4 5 / b 2 8 5 / 1 4 3 1 1 0 / 8 3 0 1 0 / i 0 2 b 10/1? 2 3 11/ 3 i 3 1 1 / 3 i 3 1 9 b i 9 b 1 7 5 1 r. i 4 e
LITTLETON 8 b 7/23 - 2 2 2 / 8 3/71 1 5 4/21 2 0 4/21 2 0 4 ' 2 2 2 b 5 / b 3 1 1 0 / 3 3 2 l 0 / 1 0 2 fc li/ 2 2 1 11/ 3 1 4 1 1 / 3 1 4 2 2 7 1 9 b 1 9 5 1 7 1 i 5 0
LONGMONT 2 E CE 1 0 2 7/23 - i b 2 ' b 4/21 1 b 4/21 1 b 4/22 2 4 5 / b 2 b 5 / 7 2 8 8 / 1 4 3 2 1 0 / l 1 2 b : / 2 8 2 4 11/ 3 1 b J 1 b l 8 b 1 9 b 1 8 0 1 5 9 i 3 0
NEOERLANO 2 N'iE 8 b 7 / 2 2 8 2 / 5 5 / b 1 5 5 / b 1 5 5 / b 1 5 b / 7 2 b b / 1 8 2 8 8 / 1 2 3 2 8 / 2 8 2 7 10/ 3 2 3 10/10 1 7 i 0 / 1 1 1 1 1 5 8 i 5 i 5 C 1 1 4 8 5
nEm RAtmER 1 0 3 7/22 - 2 8 2 / 5 4/21 8 4/22 1 7 5 / b 2 3 5 / 7 25 5 / 2 5 3 2 8 / 2 8 3 0 1 0 / b 2 7 10/ 8 2 C 10/ 8 2 0 1 0 / 2 8 i 3 1 8 1 1 7 0 1 5 b i 5 2 1 2 7
NUNN 1 0 1 7/25 25 2 / b 4/21 8 4/23 2 0 5 / b 2 2 5 / b 2 2 5 / 7 2 8 1 0 / 3 3 1 1 0 / i 1 2 0 iO/i 2 0 1 0 i 2 0 3 ' 4 i 8 b 1 7 1 i 5 3 i 5 8 1 4 9
PARKER b E 85 7/24 - 2 2 2 / 5 4/21 1 b 4/21 1 b 5 / b 2 4 5 / b 2 4 5 / 1 3 3 2 1 0 / b 30 1 0 / 8 2 7 10/18 2 3 11/ 3 1 8 1 2 1 4 205 1 9 b l b b i 5 b 1 4 b
RAhhIOE RESERVOIR NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE 1 1 / 1 25 1 1 / 1 25 1i* 2 4 11/ 2 1 4 1 1 / 2 * 4
RED FEAThER l* SEOGMICK 5 S - 2 1 2 / 5 3/25 1 5 4/21 1 8 4/21 1 8 4 / 2 2 2 7 5 / b 3 2 1 0 / 8 3 1 1 0 / 1 1 2 7 10/20 2 0 10/20 20 1 1 / 3 1 b 2 2 3 1 8 2 1 8 2 1 7 2 1 5b
SPICER 8 5 7/22 3 b 2 / 5 5 / b 8 b / 8 20 b / 1 8 2 4 b / 1 8 2 4 b / 2 b 3 1 7 / 5 3 2 8 / 3 0 2 1 8/30 2 i 10/ 8 1 0 1 o / 8 i 0 1 5b 1 2 2 1 0 1 0 9
sterling 1 05 7/24 - 3 0 2 / 5 4/21 1 b 4/22 1 8 4/23 2 4 5 / 1 2 8 5 / 0 1 2 8 / 2 8 3 2 1 0 / 7 2 b 10/ 8 2 3 10/20 1 9 1 1 / 3 1 0 1 8 b 1 8 l 1 fc 1 5 9 1 4 4
MAlOEN 8 1 7/21 - 3 e 2 / 5 5 / b 1 0 5 / 7 20 b / 8 2 3 b / 1 8 25 b / 2 0 3 1 7 / 7 3 1 8 / 1 8 2 6 8 3 0 2 i 10/ 3 1 8 1 0 / 1 0 i 5 7 4 9 1 1 9 2 1 7
materdalE 1 0 0 7/24 - 25 2 / 5 4/21 1 4 4/21 1 4 4/23 2 3 4 / 2 3 2 3 5 / 7 3 0 1 o / 7 3 0 1 0 1 1 22 10/11 2 2 11/ 3 1 b 11 / 3 1 b i 8 b 9b 1 7 1 7 1 i 5 3
mhEAT RIDGE 2 1 0 1 7/23 - 1 8 2 ' 8 4/21 1 5 4/21 1 5 4/22 2 3 5 / b 2 5 5 / 7 3 0 1 0 / 3 3 1 1 0 / 1 0 2b 10/12 2 4 11/ 3 1 3 1 1 - 3 1 3 1 8b l 9 b 1 7 1 5 7 1 4 9
RIO GRANDE DRAINAGE
BASIN 05
ALAMOSA M s 0 AP R 8 8 7/21 2 5 2 / b 4/20 1 1 4 / 2 2 2 0 5 / 7 2 3 b / 2 2 8 b / 7 3 0 8 / 2 8 3 2 1 0 / 2 2 0 10' 2 2 0 10/ 2 20 1 0 ' 1 l b 1 7 0 i b 1 4 8 1 2 2 1 1 4
Blanca 8 0 7 > 2 2 - 1 8 2 / b 4/20 8 4/20 8 5 / 7 2 2 5 / 1 7 2 8 b 1 8 3 2 8 / 2 8 3 1 1 0 / 1 2 7 10' 8 2 0 10/ 9 20 1 0 / 2 P i r i 8 1 1 7 1 1 5 4 1 3 7 l C 1
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C E S T 0 N c 1 SC 8 0 7/22 NONE NONE NONE NON r N 0 N C 1 1 1 3 0 l / 2 2 2 11/ 2 2 SCf RtrtRtNCf notes rOltOMlHG STATION 1NOE*
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STATION INDEX


DEFINITIONS
REEERE
MONTHLY DEGREE OAT T0TALS: One heating Icoolingl degree day is accumulated for each degree that the daily mean temperature is below labovel b5 deg. F
MI NO: I As shown in "Evaporation and Hind" table) The total wind movement in miles over the evaporation pan 3s determined by an anemometer recorder located b-8 inches above the pan.
NORMALS: The average value of the meteorological element over the time period 1841-1870. The normals for National Heather Service localities have been adjusted so 3s to be representative for the current observation site
DIVISIONS: Areas within a state of similar climatological characteristics.
STATION NAMES: Name of the city, town or locality. Figures 3nd letters following the station names indicate the distance in miles and direction from the post office or town community center.
letters ano symbols used in the oata tables
- No record. Data not recorded, determined unreliable by quality control checks, or not received in time for publication.
* Gage not read. Precipitation is included in the amount following the asterisks. Time distribution not known.
V Includes total for previous monthls). iSee above!
II Gdge equipped with 3 windshield.
A Amount of precipitation is the total of observer's entries for the current month. It may include precipitation that occurred during the previous month. Refer to monthly bulletins to Heteimine date of last reading. (HAWAII stations!
B Estimated total monthly value for wind, evaporation, or cooling degree days.
M Insufficient or partial data. M is appended to average and/or total values computed with 1-8 daily values missing. M appears alone if 10 or more daily values are missing.
R Amounts from recording gage.
T Trace. An amount too small to measure.
Z Same as M but the Z has overprinted a Negative sign or leading digit leg. Z14.b = M-14 .B, Z08.2 = M108.2 I.
NOIES
LETTERS AND SYMBOLS USED IN THE STATION INOEX TABLE
C Station is equipped with recording rain gage IRl but values in this bulletin are from a non-recording gage unless indicated by an R.
G Observations appear in Soil Temperatures" table.
J Station also published 3s 3 "Local Cl matologlcal Oata" publication. H Observations appear in 'Snowfall and Snow on Ground" table in Monthly Climatological Data publicStions. f Thermometers located in 3 rooftop shelter.
Additional Information regarding the climate of this state m3y be obtained by writing to the National Climatic Data Center, Federal Building, Asheville, N. C. 28801, or to 3ny Heather Service Office near you. Additional precipitation data are contained in the "Hourly Precipitation Oata" bulletin for each state, evcept Alaska.
Seasonal Tabies: Monthly and seasonal snowfall and heating degree days for the 12 months ending with the June data will be carried in the July issue of this bulletin. Cooling degree days for the calendar year will be published in the "Climatological Data Annual Summary".
Information concerning the history of changes in locations, exposure, etc. of substations through 1855 is available in the "Substation History" publication. Subsequent historical information is kept on file at the National Climatic Data Center. Similiar information for regular National Heather Service Offices m3y be obtained from the "Local Climatological Oata" annual publication.
SUBSCRIPTION, PRICE ANO ORDERING INFORMATION AVAILABLE FROM: THE NATIONAL CLIMATIC OATA CENTER, FEDERAL BUILDING, ASHEVILLE, N. C. 28801. ATTN: PUBLICATIONS.


Meteorological D /'or The Current Year
Sutton- OfNV£A, C*iniU0O STAPlfTON 1nT£*NATfONAl Ap S lend ad time used: MOUNTAIN latitude: >* *5* N longitude: 10* 52 W ENvetion (pound) : feel y*. |4T|
____ > 210*2_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Morin Temper tvwe P Degree flii Bra 65 *F Precipitation In Inchet Relative humidity, pet. Wind i I j| i I |s li Number o1 deyt Average nation pressure mb
Extreme* Water etjulvelent Snow, Ice pellet* 1 05 1 11 (local ) 17 time J 23 R etui I art 1 i* U Feitrvt mile Surwiae to auntet ,! 11 If li j 5 Si it Temperature
Meilmum Minirny*
i! ll f l X e o ! 1 1 1 I H U <5x 1 j £ jf <5* 1 o It It S l a J IS 1 (b) hi hi hi li (lev. 9332 Net evil.
J*N 37.5 14.i 21.5 33 4 0 1 1206 0 0.27 o;i3 13-16 5.3 2.3 23-2* 04 53 34 66 04 1.0 3.4 24 NW 25 6 V 0.4 4 9 16 6 3 0 2 0 4 31 l 13*.7
Ml *2.2 20.1 31.* 23 7 17 436 0 0.27 0.13 11-12 0.2 3.1 15-10 70 5* . 5* 73 0* 1.1 7.2 )S N| 20 73 6.6 4 11 13 6 2 0 8 0 7 28 0 t 33.*
Ml 37.0 24.0 *3.3 77 31 -3 4 663 0 1.07 O 6 7 22-23 .6 *.3 2-3 00 34 33 53 3* 0.6 a.i 27 W 16 6* 6.4 9 0 l* * 2 l 0 1 13 l 3*.*
AAA 6).* JO.* 30.3 2 7 27 10 433 0 l.* 0.6 4 4.6 4.2 4 6* 38 35 51 2* 1.7 10.3 41 W 17 70 6.4 5 14 ll 6 1 3 2 0 0 * 0 31.7
nar 07.1 *1.7 3*.* 17 15 23 7 335 12 3. *0 1.12 30-1' 13.3 a.4 5-0 09 43 40 61 17 1.7 4.1 54 S* 16 45 4.1 9 l* 12 3 5 l 0 0 2 0 33.*
JUM 0.0 53.1 66.4 43 24 *1 1 7 152 i.p O'. *5 4-J 0.0 0.0 3 39 3* 54 10 2.0 7.9 30 N 7 67 3.7 10 4 11 7 0 7 0 u 0 0 0 S37.5
JUl 25 50 23 0 301 0.54 0.21 29 o.o 0.0 62 30 26 43 1A 1.4 1.3 34 NW 16 73 4.3 12 14 3 3 0 11 1 22 0 0 0 83 0 .1
AUC 13.3 33.7 64.6 1 7 40 13 20 171 0.20 0.11 2-3 0.0 0.0 63 31 30 32 14 1.3 0.2 *2 N 1 73 4.7 10 14 7 7 0 6 0 12 0 0 9 138.8
S*P 1.2 * 7 63.0 4* 6 32 21 46 103 0.01 0,07 14-20 T T 20 51 25 20 *0 IT 2.4 0.1 30 s 7 03 2.5 21 7 2 2 0 1 0 7 0 1 0 137.1
CCT 6 S 2 37.4 33.1 1 21 23 366 2 l.* 1.2* 21-22 2.7 1.7 22 5* 31 20 *9 10 0.9 7.2 20 NE 4 7* 4.0 19 3 7 3 2 0 0 0 0 s C 34.3
NP V *9.1 21.7 37. 27 811 0 0.50 O'. 3 3 23-26 0.4 4.1 23-20 06 43 *6 63 04 0.3 7.2 20 NW 20 16 o.o 11 6 13 5 2 0 4 0 5 2* 0 133.1
OK 36. 12.3 2*.6 57 4 -10 1245 0 0.12 0,31 3-6 14.2 7.3 5-0 63 50 56 62 1* 0.4 9.4 35 NE 3 72 5.3 10 10 ll 7 * 0 1 0 4 31 a 032 .*
OfC OCT NAT NAY
ms 3.3 34.1 44.7 41 25 -10 0202 741 11.70 r. 21-22 2.2 1.4 3-0 64 40 30 50 14 0.6 9.0 54 SE 16 72 5.4 126 113 12* 7* 21 33 20 52 31 1*6 7 631.6
Normals, Means, And Extremes
Maen* and ixtriMi above are froM existing and coaparabla exposures. Annual axtraaaa ha to baan axcaadad at othar altaa in tha locality aa follow*t Highest teaparatura 105 in August H7I maximuM Monthly pracipltation 1.57 in May 11761 alniaua Monthly pracipltation 0.00 in December lltli maxlaum pracipltation in 24 houra 4.53 in May 1I7I| Maxlaum Monthly snowfall 57.4 in Dacca-
bar 1913i naxiBua snowfall in 24 hours 23.0 in April 1II5| fastest Mila of wind 65 froa Mast in May 1933k ^
(a) length of record, yean, through tha Current ytir unless otherwise noted, based on January data.
(b) 70* and above at Alaskan stations.
less than on* half.
T Tract.
N0WALS lesed on record for the 1941-1970 period.
DATE Of AM EXTREBC The moSt recent in casts of Multiple occurrence.
PREVAILING VINO DIRECTION Record through 1963.
WIND DIRECTION Ruaerals indicate tens of degrees clockwise froa true north. 00 Indicates cala.
FASTEST NILE WIND Speed 1s fastest observed 1-1nvte value when the direction Is In tens of degrees.
<


Average Temperature Heating Degree Days
Year [iTT Apr r***y June f'n Seaton | July Aug Sept Dec Jan Feb Apr May iune Total


I'M In. 21.9 4 0.(1 o.t *7.1 74. 71.9 6*,d 31.9 41.1 14.(1 31.1 1944-38 l 4 4 10* 1*7 77* S4S ioi * *1 77 211 23 3*4*
}S0 71.* II.' l.f 47. 34. * *9 J 73.1 70.1 *4.1 34.* 19.1 II.1 90.1 t 9**-*0 0 6 191 31' 13 676 Ul U34 27 *1* 2*3 > *7*0
19.1 19.5 4* 1 39.9 *.9 72.1 71.1 *1C 4*.* *9.4 31.4 90.* 1*60-41 7 19 *0 944 749 11*7 1026 2 04 9*0 244 *3 *014
1**2 211 19.1 30. 33.9 72.8 71.2 *1.4 31. r 42.* 1*.* *.> 19*1-42 14 0 271 *3* 9*52 1130 Ull 976 414 *17 173 71 *03
190 I",* )3.i 39.9 32.'= 63. < 73.4 74.2 *9.3 33, c 40.1 1*.1 31.9 19*2-69 0 14 112 .701 461 1*17 1* 4 1 442 13* 30 S2
1S* 12,' 19.9 47.1 5 C 67.C 71.1 72.9 *1.0 34i 40,1 10.1 **.7 1963-6* * 7 22* *40 1123 1039 1062 2 9*3 210 72 603*
l* It#' >1.' *1.9 41.C 3*. 1 *1.' 72.4 71.S 19,1 J1.1 *1.1 10>4 .* 1*64-63 0 l* 123 37* 741 9*1 921 104* no *11 2*3 6) 0)0
lo >1.' l.l *9. 39.1 31.* 44.; 74,4 71.1 *9.4 4*.I 19. 17.4 91.2 1963-66 ft 7 29* 902 *43 926 1H2 ii *91 *0* 204 2 3900
ai4*T ?.' >*.* 49.8 33.9. 4.C 72.5 72.1 64. J 19. * 19.' 11.1 **.* 1*66-67 0 * *1 644 1014 434 12 67* til Ml 1)3 366s
190 2*0 2*.* 210 31.* 1M **.- 72. 72.1 64.1 3l.i 1 4 29.' *9.2 19*7-6* 4 1* 10* 774 1146 10** 3 731 633 14) ) 140
190 10, J'.v O.J 37. f 6*.t 72.4 71.' *1.1 49.5 41. ( 12.5 *.* l*A*-* 10 99 143 11 111* 423 21 1011 >71 204 1*4 *031
1*90 2*0 1*0 1*. 1| *7.1 S>.( *4.' *.4 *.< *0.1 39.4 19.1 3*. 1 90.* 1*69-70 2 0 3* 01 769 44* 10*1 T>* 4*4 *12 200 7* *100
lll 2*.' 11.' JO. 49.1 37. i 60.' 73, j 70.1 *1.2 *3.2 J*.li 29.( *3.1 1*70-71 0 0 19* 3*4 770 477 loi* 3* 17 90* 324 23 *13*
i* 92 190 11.' 19. 41. 34. 72.C 71.I 72.1 63.1 39.1 12.1 >2' 30.1 1971-72 0 2 7 J 47* 771 1014 1061 >2 *21 416 246 4 )!
19JI 190 12,1 93,9 47.9 31.41 *9.1 74,0 71.2 66. t 34,1 *1.1 31.' 51.1 1972-71 *2 19 107 3*7 460 lt>4 1162 20 ?n 646 240 3* *303
193* 3*. 1 91.1 39,1 59.a 57.2 *9.3 7*. 72.1 63.1 32.5 44. 1 >.2 11.) 1913-7* 1 0 I** 321 743 10J4 1277 31 dl 07 117 *7 3172
1933 27.j 27.1 3*. 5 30.1 39.( **.J 13.1 71.1 *3.1 J*.f 3*.2 33.' 10.2 1914-73 0 4 H 941 0) 1041 1024 37 32 21 1)2 33 *10*
27.1 9",i 49.1 0,' 72.2 **. *9.2 33.1 T.J 13.* 91.9 1*73-7* 0 * 193 1*4 40 49 loo* 7*0 94 46* 234 *4 3*>7
1937 90,1 19.1 41.9 31.9 *3.9 71.1 72.8 *1.' 31.4 14.' >.* 90.2 1*74-77 0 7 142 304 74* *07 1103 1*4 77| 41* 1)7 0 3100
19 3 S 12.' 17. 37.1 4*.* *1.1 **.l 70.1 71.* *4,' 3.4 40. i 19.< 31.* 1*77-73 2 14 1* 737 20 120* J* 4*3 4>9 >13 87 37)9
1939 10.C 10, 17.9 49.* 3*. 70.9 72.* 71.0 *1.1 4,l 17.* 1*. 30.0 1473-7* 0 20 11 1249
1**0 270 2*. l*.l 30.9 37.2 *.1 71.2 73.9 *9.0 32. fl 19.1 2*.l *9.7
19*1 19*2 M.1 19.5 ll.l 2*.9 1* .9 1*.*J 4*,t 30.1 33.1 3,* **. *1.3 71,5 72.1 72.1 72.J J*.l *2.9 30. 39.4 1*.1 *1.1 17.1 33.1 *3.0 *9.7 Cooling Degree Days
*3.9 *2.1 37.* 32.1 1.1 *o.a 23.9 33*1 90.* 9.7
19*9 19*3 loo 11.c 27.9 27.9 19.n 4*.* )> 37.1 *fi(l Till 72. -9 O O 1 fa a - Year E Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Total
2*.e *3.9 19*4 0 0 0 e 93 ** 312 21* ** 0 0 0 721

19** 2*0 2*. **.* 4*.* 3.7 *4.* 7*.' TO 1 *9.0 32.1 41 . 31.* 40.9 1*70 0 0 0 e 16 93 222 132 *0 0 0 0 *39
19*7 l9.r U.l 42.9 44. 32.4 *0.4 *9.1 *.: *t.l 32.1 *0,9 2*.9 *9.4
I*** 24.1 19.^ 40.91 49,0 33.9 *7.1 71,1 *.1 *0.* 31.4 39.1 2*. **.* 1*71 0 0 0 0 0 1*4 201 >4* 39 0 0 0 *39
19* 9 11.f 13.9 37.r 37. 39.1 *1.1 74.7 71.* *4.1 l*.c 19.1 12.9 *9.4 1*72 0 0 0 o 6 110 210 20T 21 1 0 0 9*2
1970 1*. 39.3 99.1 3. *9.; 72.C 71.* 39.5 *9.* >9.1 >9.1 *.9 1*73 0 0 u 0 2 134 19 270 21 1 0 o 4)1
1*7* 0 0 0 0 16 17* 307 137 >4 0 0 0 719
1971 It.I 10, 3*. 4T. 3*.2 *9.0 70.* 72.1 37,1 *9.* J9.1 >1.9 *9.f 1*79 0 0 0 0 3 *9 2** 192 19 1 0 0 934
1972 10. 5 *.l 99,8 49.1 37.0 *. 70.3 71.C 42.1 32.1 32.9 2*.9 *
1971 27. 13.* 19, 49. 33.4 *7.1 71.0 71.! 19,9 34.9 1*.! 11.9 *9.* 1*7* 0 0 u e 1 112 >2* 17* 32 0 0 0 4*7
1*79 23.7 13. 49.r 47.9 *1.4 *3.4 74.1 **.2 39.* 32.* ).< >1.1 90.9 1*77 0 0 0 2 11 21* 297 112 3 0 0 0 19*
1973 11.1 10.* 37,| 4.l 94.1 *4.1 7t. r 70.1 99.3 31.2 3*. 37.1 ** 1*7* 0 0 w e 12 132 JOS 171 103 2 0 0 743
197* lt.1 19,1 37.1 4* . 34.1 **.l Tl.l 70.2 81.8 *, 39.1 39.1 91.0 #
1977 29.1 Mi" 39.9 31.! 40.7 71. 7*.: 70.1 **.* 39.1 *0.1 39.1 92.9
17* 21.) 11.9 49,1 30.1 3*.4 **.9 7*.i *.* *9.0 99,1 37.9 2*.* *.7
MCOC nf sh lo. V 12. 3*. 7 47.1 34.1 **.1 72.1 71.1 *1.1 91. 39.9 32.1 30.2
Mil 92.9 *3,' 31.1 *o,; 4. 30.4 *.! 3.< 7*1 *3,9 52.6 **9 *9.4
MIN 17.^ 20,1 2*. 1 14, 43.9 33.1 3. 7.4 *1 37,* 2*. 1*. 17.0
Precipitation
Y.ar J.n F.b Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Annual
1H o.at 1.1*1 1.0* 1.0* 1.23] l.o*| 0.17 0.19 0.2* 0.97) 0.04 0. >7 3.*9
1*40 1.01 0. *7 2.2* 1.4* !.* 0.10 1.2* 0.29 4.03 0.39 0.7* 0.3* 14.90
19*1 t.U 0.2* 1.23 1. * 3.71 2.91 1.2* 1.3* 2.** 2.4* 0.*2 0.3* 22.09
194* 0.4* 0.41 o.* 4.17 l.l* ).0 1.02 0.71 0.31 2.9* 0.2 O.M 14.9*
194) 0.2) 0.12 0.41 1.0* 2.4* 1.22 0.72 1.28 0.07 0.27 0.*l 0. >7 4.12
1944 l.o* 0.29 2. 1.42 l.7> 0.42 J.34 0.4* T o.o* 0.92 0. >7 14.3*
19*9 0.70 0. *4 0.19 2.39 2.32 2.02 2.19 2.39 1.17 0.79 O.*0 o.o* 19.14
194* 0 4 0.27 0.32 2.0 1.43 0.32 1.40 1.3> l.l* 0. 2.97 0.04 l*. 3*
19*7 0. )7 0. *7 1.04 1.10 **1 2.7* 1.32 1.27 0.41 J.*l 0.71 0.27 14.0*
19** 1.44 0.44 1.71 2.32 l.M 1.** o.o 0.41 0.*9 0.1* 0.43 0.2* 12.42
1944 1.17 0.U1 2.2* 1.** I.ll *.27 1.3) 0.9* 0.21 1.)* 0.01 0. > 14.76
1450 0.47 0.2* 0.31 2.41 2.10 3.32 0.3* 0.27 l.M 0.12 1.00 0. >2 18.43
1931 0.0 o.r* l.*7 2.01 1.79 2.27 0.39 4.47 0.47 2.1* 1.17 0.*4 14.49
1992 0.01 0.** 2.12 2.T) 1.0* 0.12 1.0* 1.41 0.34 O.M 1.31 O.M 13.49
193) 0.14 1.3* 1.19 1.1* 2.** l.** 1.9* 1.29 0.20 0.** 1.00 1.02 16.23
19)4 0.2) 0.U4 0.44 O.M o.*o 0.** 1.44 0.31 0.77 o.o* 0.37 0.71 7.91
1939 0.21 0. *9 1.14 0.** 2.*1 1.3* 2.*4 2.41 2.72 0.** 0.9* 0.19 14.09
1996 0.34 0.77 0.14 0.71 2.3* 0.** *.IT 1.39 0.01 0.27 1.29 o.*i 19.72
1997 0.12 0.71 1.04 *. 1 T.n 1.0*1 1.24 2.09 0.42 2.62 0 * o.o* 21. )
ID 0.7) 1.00 1.41 1.79 4.4* i.*T 1.50 1.17 l.M 0.17 0.7* 0.*4 13.90
19)4 1.24 l.M 2.* 1.39 >.)> 0.** 0.1) 0.29 l.M 2.** 0.40 0.2* M.3*
i960 0.77 1.** 0.8* 2.3* 2.2) o.ftl 1.31 0.0* 0.3* 2.** 0.*4 1.30 !*.
1961 0.07 0.** 2.91 1.0* .12 1.11 l.*0 1.21 4.*7 0.77 0.49 o.)o 14.01
19*2 1.11 1.09 0.91 1.19 O.M 1.32 0.34 0.4* 0.1* 0.01 0.** 0.17 .*9
19*1 0.7l 0.21 1.42 0.09 0. 1.3* 0.31 2.92 1.2) 0.31 0.49 0.31 12.29
19*4 0.24 1.04 1.1* 1.21 2.3 0.32 0.72 0.27 0.*1 O.M 0.6* 0.40 10.14
19*3 1.00 1.27 1.20 1.0* 1.31 ! *.*l 1.0* l.M o.*i 0.3* 0.31 21.IT
19*4 0. lo 1.2* 0.)t l 0.1* l.*l 1.0* z.o* 1.19 0.4* 0.32 O.M 10.11
1**7 0 4 0.14 0.74 3.91 4.77 *. * 3.2) O.M o.*o l.M 1.01 i.* 29.91
19** 0.3 l 0.74 O.M 2.3* 0.71 0.30 1.34 2.39 0.3* 0.7) 0.71 O.JI 12.19
19*4 0.17 0.41 1.10 1.39 4.12 2.4* 1.31 0.74 l.*7 *.17 0.42 0.)2 21,92
1470 0. 10 0.01 1 >4 0.*7 0.4* >.> l.et 0.9* 2.*7 0.H l.M 0.09 14.79
1971 0.19 0.7 0.99 1.99 l.l* 0.2* 1.20 0.*) 2. 0.** 0.1* 0.29 10.9*
1972 0.1* 0.44 0.30 9.91 o.** 2.4* O.ftl 2.71 2.07 0.*2 1.44 0.70 l 7
197) 1 11 0.1* 1.74 9.79 3.0* 0.20 2.47 1.2* 2. 9 0.*7 0.3) 2.4 22.4*
174 1.01 0. 2 l.lf 2.< 0.0* 2.01 2.34 0,1* 0.4* 1.4* 1.06 0.24 14.03
1979 0.21 0.37 l.l* l.l* 2.30 2.11 2.71 2*00 0.2* 0.30 l.M 0.*T 19.91
1*7* 0.14 0.34 1.3* 1.17 1.3* 0.*) 2.11 J.30 l.M 0.99 0.32 0.1* 13.*1
1977 0.14 0.27 1.24 2.D 0.3* 1.02 2.9* 1.00 0.10 0.** 0.3* 0.01 10.14
197* 0.27 0.27 1.07 1.02 1.** 1.1) 0.94 0.2* 0.07 1.49 0.30 0.*2 11.70
RIC0R0
NUN 0.47 0.94 1.10 2.01 1.J3 I.** l.to l.M 1.12 1.00 0.46 0.*l M.90
Snowfall
S.ton | July [ Am |spt| Oct | Nov | Dc | Jn | Fb | Mr| Apr | My|j une|Total~
10)9-40 0.0 o.o 0.0 ** 0.9 4,0 19.T 0.1 11.T T 0.0 0,0 *4,9
1440-41 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.o 7.0 o.o 4.0 1.4 10.2 8.9 0.0 0,0 *2.4
|4*l-*2 0.0 0.0 T T 2.2 8.4 8.0 11.9 7.4 8.9 i.T 0,0 *3,1
14*2-41 0.0 0.0 0.4 4,4 4.1 *.9 9.0 l.o 7.3 7 .J 0.0 94.3
10*9-44 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 2.3 9.0 12.1 9.9 28.1 29.4 ).) 0,0 M.I
1044.49 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.o 9.9 9.4 12.2 0.2 9.0 29.0 T 0,0 19.8
1049-4* 0.0 0.0 7 2.4 1.3 0.8 10.2 *.0 9.2 T Os* 0,0 21.7
1944.47 0.0 0.0 0.* 1.3 34.1 0.7 7.3 11.3 12.0 *.) 1.3 T 1.4
1047-48 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.1 *.* *.* 23.7 ). 22.0 9.9 T 0,0 )*. *
1040-40 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,4 *.7 * 10.9 0.* 14.2 12.T T 0,0 40.1
1040-90 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.2 0.0 4.0 3.1 t. 9.4 4.0 19.4 0.0 92.4
1090-fl 0.0 0.0 0.0 O.P 11.4 9.4 19.7 10.9 17.* 12.4 o.o 0.3 74.8
1091-92 0.0 0.0 *.2 7.7 1*. 9 11.2 0.3 10.2 29.2 11.2 T 0,0 8ft.9
1012-99 0.0 0.0 o.o 1.2 U.9 3.1 7.4 1**9 11.8 12.0 l.T 0,0 48.2
1499-9* 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 7.2 1*.* 1.) 0.* *.) 7.* 2.4 0,0 1.8
l*9*-99 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,* 8.4 *.* 3.9 11.2 14.9 *. 0.0 0,0 93.0
1*59-9* 0.0 0.0 o.u sl 7.3 1.4 e.l 10.9 13.0 1.) T 0,0 07.8
1494-91 0.0 0.0 o.u 0.4 21.3 *.3 9.9 1.0 8.4 21.9 8.8 0,0 )8.3
1497-9* 0.0 0.0 T 3.* 1.0 0.3 8.4 12.0 14.4 14.1 0.0 0,0 97.1
1418-94 0.0 0.0 T 2.* 4.7 ).* 17.0 17.3 10.8 14.0 T o.o 4*.9
1494-40 0.0 0.0 12.* 11.8 9.1 t .7 lo.T 10.3 4.0 *. T o.o 80.0
1440-41 0.0 0.0 o.o 4,6 9.1 1*.0 1.0 *.* >4.2 8.0 *,o 0,0 30.4
14*1-41 0.0 0.0 9.6 *.t 11.4 3.3 17.2 11.* 8.8 10.0 0.0 0,0 Tl.9
1442-ftl 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.0 9.0 1.2 4.1 2.1 18.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 34.9
1*43-4* 0.0 0.0 0.0 l.l 9.9 9.4 2.0 M.7 18.4 12.1 1.0 0,0 97.3
10*4-09 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 4.0 ** 13.2 D.l 14.4 0.9 T 0.0 99.4
10*9-4* 0.0 0.0 9.9 O.P 9.9 1.6 9.0 M.O 2.8 0.* 2.4 0,0 *4.4
104*-*1 0.0 0.0 T * 9.0 1.4 4.4 *.* *.* 3.* 3.0 o.o 0.7
1047.** 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 .* 1>.1 9.0 7. 9 4.2 13.1 T 0,0 93.3
1*43-44 o.o 0.0 0.0 0.* S. 4.4 2.3 *.2 12.2 T 0.0 0,0 >3.8
10*0-70 0.0 0.0 0.0 31. 3.1 3.1 0.4 0.9 10.5 *.) T 0,0 49.8
1070-71 0.0 0.0 *.* 9,4 4.2 0.4 1.0 11.* 4.4 4.0 T 0,0 94.7
1071-72 0.0 0.0 17.2 3,1 1.* 8.* 10.4 4.1 7.1 17.2 0.0 0,0 74.4
1072-73 0.0 0.0 0.0 4,7 1*.* 4.1 12.1 3.0 19.1 24.* 1.0 0.0 44.4
1*79-7* 0.0 o.o 0.0 2*9 e.9 >0.3 0.2 10. 12.8 17.4 0.0 T 41.9
1074-79 0.0 0.0 l.o 11.4 2.1 9.0 *.0 14.9 10.4 4.1 0,0 *9.7
1079-7* 0.0 0.0 O.U 2.4 19.2 4.3 9.2 *.* 18.7 1.2 0.0 0,0 94.7
1074-77 0.0 0.0 0,0 7.2 4.9 3.1 1.0 3.1 4.4 4.) 0.0 0,0 3*.*
1077-7* 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.9 4.1 0.7 9.9 4.2 8.* 4.0 19.9 0,0 44.9
107870 0.0 o.o T 2.4 *.4 M.I
ceo*o
mc 4a 0.0 0.0 1.) 3.* 7.7 ** 7.4 ).* 12.4 .4 l'.i T 94,0
# Indtcates a station bov or relocation of Instruments. Sea Station Location table.
Record Mean value* above are Mini through the current year for the period beginning In 1872 for temperature and precipitation, 1935 for snowfall. Temperature and precipitation are from City Office locations through 1934. Keating degree days are fro* City Office locations through Jine 1939. Snowfall If froai City Office locations through June 1934. Otherwise the data are from Airport locatlona.





283
altitude angles


ADDENDUM
The information which appears on the following pages is taken from Time-Saver Standards for Building Types (referenced in Bibliography) and gives reference information for specific functions within the Athletic Club as follows:
Basketball
Volleyball
Racguetball & Sguash Courts
Running Track
Swimming pool
Locker Rooms
Gymnasium
Nursery
Restaurant
Kitchen


Recreation anu cmenairimem
BASKETBALL (NCAA)
Fig. 3 NCAA basketball. Th* color of tho lano space marks and noufral zono marks shall contrast with tho color of tho bounding linos. Tho midcourt marks shall bo tho samo color as tho bounding linos. All linos shall bo 2 In wide (neutral zone excluded). All dlmonslons are to Inside edge of linos except as notod. Backboard shaft* bo of any rigid weather-resistant material, flie front surface shall bo Haf and paintod whito unloss It Is transparent. If tho backboard Is transparent, It shall bo marked with a 3-In wldo whito lino around tho border and an 18 X 24-in target area. If tho backboard is transparent, It shall bo marked with a 3-in wide white lino around tho border and an 18 X 24-In target area bounded with a 2-In wide white lino.
Recommended Area High School: ground space is 5040 sq ft nvnimum to 7280 sq ft maximum. Collegiate: ground space is 5600 sq ft minimum to 7980 sq ft maximum.
Size and Dimension High school recommended court is 84 X 50 ft with a 10-ft unobstructed space on all sides (3 ft minimum)^Collegiaterec-Pffimexided.£Qurt is 94 X 50 ft witnc^HJTtunoE^ tr^|(j|ed space on all sides (3 tt minimum).
Orientation Preferred orientation is for the long axis to be north-south.
Surfaco and Drainage Surface is to be concrete or bituminous material with optional protective colorcoating. (See Figs. 59 and 61.) Drainage is to be end to end, side to side, or comer to corner diagonally at a minimum slope of 1 in. in 10 ft.
Special Considerations SafetyBackboard and goal support should have a minimum 32-in overhang and post may be padded if desired. Bottom edge and lower sides of rectangular backboard must be padded.


Recreation and Entertainment
'/4-MILE running track
CONCRETE CURB, EDGES TO BE ROUNOED
1" TO 1V4" RESILIENT TRACK SURFACE, MOT PLANT CUSHION COURSE MIX. (APPLICATION AND SPECIFICATION IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE MANUFACTURER'S RECOMMENDATIONS.)
220 YARD DASH 220 YARD HURDLES
1 Vi" BIT. CONC. BINDER COURSE PRIME COAT
MINIMUM 6" COMPACTED AGGREGATE BASE OR 4" BITUMINOUS AGGREGATE MATERIAL IBAMI
Fig. 41 (a) Plan-layout of a Vi-ml running track; (b) typical taction of track. All distances in lana ona ihall ba maaturad upon o line 12 in outward from tha innar adga of tha track. For ovantt run In lanat around a turn, all lanat except lana ona thall ba maaturad upon a lino 8 in outward from tha innar lina of tha lana.
Racommandad Araa Ground space is approximately 4.3 acres.
Siia and Dimantion Inside radius to face of curb is 106'-0". Track width is 32'-0" for eight 4-ft-wide lanes. Overall width is 276'-0*\ Overall length is 600.02 ft.
Orientation The track should be oriented so that the long axis falls in a sector from north-south to northwest-southeast with the Finish line at the northerly end.
Surface and Drainage Track surface is to be preferably bituminous material with a hot plant cushion course mix and optional protective colorcoat-
ing. Maximum slopes for the running track ore 2 percent (1 :50) inward in the center of curves, 1 percent (1 : 100) inward in the straightways ond 0.1 percent (1:1000) in the running direction.
Special Considerations Drainage must be provided for the track surface and optional football field, but will be dependent upon site grading.
1103


SWIMMING POOLS
f
r
r
Minimum standards prepared by the National Swimming Pool Institute
PUBLIC SWIMMING POOLS
DEFINITION AND POOL TYPES
1. All artificially constructed swimming pools other than residential pools shall be deemed to be public swimming pools. This shall not be applicable to residential pools as defined or wading or spray pools, which shall be covered under separate sections.
(a) Private pools which are excepted herein shall be defined as follows: "Residential swimming pools include all constructed pools which are used or intended to be used as a swimming pool in connection yrith a single-family residence and available only to the family of the householder and private guests."
(b) Classifications of Pools: For purposes of minimum standards, public swimming pools shall be defined as listed in the following categories, based upon specific characteristics of sire, usage and other factors:
Type "A"Any municipal pool, community pool, public school pool, athletic or swimming club pool.
Type "B" Institutional pool (such as Girl Scout, Boy Scout, YMCA & YWCA, Campfire Girls and Boys' and Girls' Camps).
Type "C"Country Club, large hotels of more than 100 units, with pools having a water surface area in excess of 1600 sq ft. Type "D"Motels and apartments, multiple housing units, small hotels of less than 100 units, not open to the general public and with pools having a water surface area not larger than 1600 sq ft.
Type "E"Treatment pools, therapeutic pools and special pools for water therapy. Type "F"Indoor pools.
Exceptions: The above categories shall be the basis for certain specific variations from the Minimum Standards for public swimming pools as a whole.*
NOTE: plans and specifications with supporting data, prepared by a professional
engineer or arcHitect holding registration in the state where pool is to be constructed, shall be, as a prerequisite, submitted to and approval obtained from stiid state regulator agency prior to award of any contract for equipment purchase or construction.
STRUCTURAL FEATURES,
MATERIALS, MARKINGS
2. Structural Stability: All public pools shall be constructed of an inert and enduring material, designed to withstand all anticipated loading for both pool empty and pool full conditions. Working stresses shall be based upon predetermined ultimate strengths of materials used, with a factor of safety of not less than 2!6.
Provision shall be made for the relief of pressures which might occur as a result of unbalanced exterior hydrostatic pressures, or means shall be provided for positive and continuous drainage from under the pool floor or around the pool walls, whether
ground water is present, or might occur at some future time.
Special provisions shall be mode to protect the pool structures from both internal and external stresses which may develop due to freezing in cold climates.
3. Obstructions: There shall be no obstruction extending from the wall or the floor, extending into the clear area of the diving portion of the pool. There shall be a completely unobstructed clear distance of 13 ft above the diving board.
4. Wall & Floor Finish: Wall and floor finish shall be of masonry, tile or other inert and impervious material and shall be reasonably enduring. Finish shall be moderately smooth and of a white or light color.
5. Depth Markers: Depth of water shall be plainly marked at or above the water surface on the vertical pool wall and on the edge of the deck or walk next to the pool, at maximum and minimum points
The technical data presented here (rives basic requirements for public and semi-public pool design, systems and equipment. It is intended by the NSPI to serve as recommended minimum standards, and not as a model code.
STANDS A BOARDS D-l DepthFeet 1 D-2 D-3 Inches D-4 D-3 Length of SectionFeet A Inches A B C D E F
Min. 5-0 4-6 too 9-9 8 6 5-0 *6-0 *9-0 20 0 1-0 8-0
3-Meter Beard
Max. 5-6 6-0 too
Min. 5-0 4-6 8-6 8 3 7-6 5-0 *6-0 *9 0 15-0 1-0 8 0
1-Meter Board
Max. 5-6 6-0 too
Min. 5-0 4-6 8-0 7-6 2-6 |6-0 t6-0 12-0 1-0 8-0
Deck level Board
Max. 5-6 4-0 too
B4C May vary to attain 15'0" Min. f B A C May vary to oitam total 12'0" Min.
1138
As D-2 varies between min. and max., D may vary, but slope of D may not exceed 1 ft vert, to 4 ft horiz. D-1 shall be at end wall of diving area, or not more than 12 in. from it


70-0 ^ | | 1 24-0
N >
Fig. 1 Gymnasium plan and soction. From Dofinitivo Dotignt for Naval Shoro Facilitiet, Department of tho Navy, Washington, D.C, 1972.
o
-c
2
z
>
in
C
2
Kecreation ana entertainment


THREE- AND FOUR-WALL HANDBALL
Fig. 9 Handball court layoutFour-wall. All court markings to bo V/i in wido and painted white, red, or yellow. For surfacing details see Fig. 59.
Fig. 10 Handball court layoutThree-wall. All court markings to be 1V4 In wide and painted white, red, or yellow. For surfacing details see Fig. 59.
Recommended Area Ground space for four-wall handball is 800 sq ft, plus walls and footing. Allow on additional 200 sq ft for three-wall handball.
Sixe and Dimension Playing court is 20'-0" wide by 40'-0" long plus a minimum 10'-0" to the rear of the three-wall court. Overhead clearance required is 20'-0" minimum.
Orientation Preferred orientation is for the long axis to be north-south with the front wall at north end.
Surface and Drainage Surface is to be smooth concrete preferably with a minimum slope of 1 in. in 10 ft from front to rear of the court.
Special Considerations Alternate four-wall courtLayout is the same as for three-wall with the exception of a minimum 12'-0" high back wall at the rear of the court (long line) and necessary wall footings. Special provisions for drainage must be made and access provided through the back wall for four-wall courts. FencingAn optional 10-ft-high chain link fence may be provided at the rear of the pavement for three-wall courts.


recreation ana entertainment
LOCKER ROOMS
Based on information from "A Guide for Planning Facilities for Recreation, Physical & Health Education," published by The Athletic Institute, Inc., for the National Facilities Conference.
LOCKER ROOMS
DESIGN NOTES
Dratting-Lockar Room. An average of 14 aq. ft. per pupil in the designed peak load should be provided exclusive of the locker space so there will he adequate dressing area. Check list: sufficient mirrors, built-in drinking fountain and cuspidor in boys' dressing room, tack hoard.
Sforaga Lockart. Each pupil enrolled should have a storage locker, with an additional 10 per cent to allow for expansion. Recommended sizes, in order of preference are: by 12 by
24 in., 6 by 12 by 36 in., 7Yi by 12 by 8 in. These were selected as being the minimum size lockers to store ordi-nary gym costumes and allow free hanging for ventilation.
Drafting Lockart. Lockers large enough to accommodate street clothes should he provided. The number should equal the peak load plus 10
Thsss plant thow three dreising.locker room arrangements, each with ill own particular advantages. Dressing lockers ore marked with X*s. Plan 1: storage lackers are grouped in small space for economy in drying uniforms with forced warm air; some congestion may result from dressing lockers being next to one another. Plan 2: distributing dressing lockers over entire area gives each participant ample dressing space. Plan 3: dressing lockers distributed over entire suite; units can be installed in any number desired and lend themselves to group dressing method for girls. By constructing walls A, B, C and D, putting a grille to ceiling above locker tiers and installing grille sliding doors at E, each unit becomes o complete dressing room for community use. Walls A, B, C and D can be omitted and gates F added to get same use and permit towel service ond toilet units to be installed at points A ond D
per cent. Lockers 12 by 12 by 72 in. are recommended for secondary schools and 13 by 12 by 54 in. or 12 by 12 by 48 in. for elementary schools.
Showar Room. In the group or gang type shower, the girls should have a number of shower heads equal to
40 per cent of the designed peak load; for boys 30 per cent.
Shower heads should be at least 4 ft. apart, of a non-clogging type; height of spray should he adjustable by use of a lock. If stationary heads are installed, they should be placed
1153


LOCKER ROOMS
(
r
Suggested locker and bench jnstallation
When locker height is kept down to 54 in., entire room con he supervised. Sloping locker top cannot be used, but 4 in. ventilating space should be louvered.
so that the top of thr spray will hr. shoulder height (usually \\-i to 5 ft.).
One to three individual shower booths, .1 by 3J/£ ft., should be provided additionally for girls.
For boys, if walk-way or walk-around shower system is desired, the number of show er heads in the show er room can be reduced by one-third. In the walk-way, sprav outlets attached to the water pipe must be focused to provide coverage from shoulder height to feet. There must be a continuous spray the length of the walkway arranged so that there will be warm, tepid and cool water as one progresses along the walk-way. The walk-way should be arranged in Li shape with a total length at least 35 ft. and from 3 to 4 ft. in width. An entrance from the group shower soaping space and egress to the toweling room and swimming pool should he provided.
Uotli individual and master control should he provided for all groups or gang showers. The booth showers should have individual control; the walk-way only master control.
Toweling Room. The toweling room should have the same total area as the shower room and be immediately accessible to both showers and dressing room.
A ledge 18 in. high and 8 in. wide coved at wall and base, with hull nose edge, as foot drying aid is desirable.
If towel distribution is such that hanging of towels in drying room is necessary, a I-in., non-corrosive towel bar 4 ft. from the floor and 1 to 1J^ in. from the wall is recommended.
A non-shalterablc, transparent panel for supervision of toweling between the toweling and dressing room may be desired.
Towel Service and Storage Room.
Adjustable shelves in sufficient number to accommodate the load are
required. A check-out window should open into or be immediately adjacent to the toweling room. If uniforms are distributed from here, a dutch door or check-out w indow, w ith counter, should open into the dressing room.
Toilet Room. Facilities should be provided in proportion to the peak load on the following basis:
Toilets (I iris 1-30 Min. 3
Toilets Itovs 1-50 Min. 2
Urinals Hoys 1-25 Min. 2
Lavatories Girls and Rovs 1-20 Min. 3
Typical combined storage-dressing locker arrangements
Area of the dressing-locker room suite required for different types of storage and dressing lockers in a typical unit for 21,0 girls or boys. Proportionate adjustments to be made for varying school enrollments.
Numbered in order of Preference
1154


cuuuauunai
NURSERY SCHOOLS
f
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
Typically, Ilia miraory clastt consists of t 5 to 20 children, 1 toochor, mul 1 assistant tunchor."*l^or this we recommend a minimum of 700 sq ft of instructional space excluding observation and office orea. The optimal area wouTcP&sq ft. This discussion focuses on a classroom for a single group, but, through croative planning, a nursery classroom or unconventional shape could be designed to accommodate two or threo nursery class groups (30 to GO children).
The classroom environment should foster a climate conducive to the educational objectives of the program. For example, children may have difficulty learning to be relatively quiet and attentive in a noisy environment or sitting in uncomfortable positions. Children may be inhibited in the development of self-reliance if the environment forces the teacher to supervise their every move.
The classroom's arrangement should contribute to the child's concepts of order and space. A perceptually clear and distinct room environment, achieved through uncluttered equipment and furniture arranged in an orderly fashion, helps the child focus his attention on the cur-riculum instead of distracting him with irrelevant stimuli. Daily contact with an uncluttered, structurally simple environment helps to teach time and space organization. Tidiness is a secondary benefit.
The nursery classroom should consist of a series of well-defined, interrelated oreas, including a general area for group activities, a reading corner, a doll corner and housekeeping area, an area for blocks and another for manip-ulative toys, an art corner, and storage cubicles where the children hang their hats and coats snd^ keep^their possessions. Rest rooms and storage areas are also essential. A separate tutoring booth Vs desirable because it provides a special environment for individualization of instruction and for teacher-child interaction. (See Fig. 1.)
The smaller the total space available, the more careful must be the selection of what to include. Regardless of the room's size, it is imperative to maintain neatness, orderliness, and general attractiveness, with adequate space around objects and areas in the room. Empty space around objects is necessary: when a chlld^s atteiTtiori rs' directed to a group of rubber animals, for example, he must be able to see them unobscurod by adjacent objects.
Teachers who have taught only in square or rectangular rooms seem to prefer large, open spaces which make visual supervision of an entire room possible from any vantage point. If more than one adult is in the room at all times, there is less need for such supervision. Further-mo r eJj^re£ta£jgje-c>f_1J0^_juiJtJ}08jiome_d^^ vantages. Such a room appears extremely large to small children. ITmaEes it difftculfTo cr'eate corngrj. for reading and other quiet activities.
Facilities for Early Childhood Education, Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY.
And it almost eliminates the possibility for a child to be alone with an adult.
A rectangular room is by no means ideal, and, if it is necessary to use one, it should be broken down into specific oreas with freestanding dividers and cabinets.
Acoustical control is a fundamental concern in designing nursery schoolrooms. Children's voices are high-pitched, and many activities, both noisy and quiet, take place at the same time. Because disadvantaged children need special help in discriminating sounds, the classroom itself should be as free as possible of acoustical distractions.
A carpeted floor is recommended for acoustic purposes and for its other advantages. It
it attractive,iftia.6yAQHLa_iQta_i_rL..ftm3 gfoy.'deti ,
warm, comfortable surface on which the children work and play. Using carpets of different colors and textures.
areas of the school. Only the art corner^ because it is cleaned with water, requires a hard surface.
The size of the children must be kept in mind in planning display areas. Any display higher than 4 ft6 in. is beyond the small childs usual range of awareness. Most children can select their own books or puzzles if the top shelves are not higher than 3 ft-6 in.
In planning the number and placement of ..wiudftW-&..-fcft.Q-Sidefgtion qught Jo_be i ven to the view outside the window. Where the school $etting ftffprds a pleasant, changing view, win-dows might be included as integral parts of the classroom. Windows should be low enough for -tf)jE ..children to see through. When windows -wouId.expose, only the fppnotony^ of a ^brick wall, the space,traditionally given them might better be used as space for classroom displays.
In the second case, skylights and translucent wall materials are affective ways of prov>?mg naturul light in the classroom without losing valuoble wall spoce.
THE GENERAL AREA FOR GROUP ACTIVITIES
As already mentioned, a nursery schoolroom comprises a general area and several specific corners or alcoves for special activities. The general area should be an open space of at least 150 sq ft for group activities like' sing mgr*"*
dancing, ana \isternng1,tqa^8lgry-"^'
It is frequently advisable to seat all the children and adults around tables. The same tables can be used in the art area, the reading area, or the manipulative toy area as long as they can be pulled together easily in the larger area for group activities.
Music activities can take place in the general area. Carts are needed here for a record player and a tape recorder, and closed shelving for items such as rhythm instruments, autoharp, guitar, and drums.
The general area should have a central place containing shelves, fo^ disjplays that change wary law dBV8. .Xtl^_dilLala^jhal(_hp_ul4< ba about 4 ft long, with a bulletin board above it and ona shall below. Ibfljihajf
cages, cannedI vegetables, and the like. A sliding bulletin board over a fixed one would allow various displays to be exposed or covered at the teacher's will.
Where there is no opportunity to grow things out of doors, a planter for raising flowers, plants, or vegetables is essential. Other useful
Fig. 1
163


cuuuauuiiai
NURSERY SCHOOLS
A Summary of Space Requirements
Activity Space, sg It Min. Opt. Storage Display Other
General area . . 150 200 Carts, closed shelves for music eguipment 2 centrally located shelves 4 ft long, 15-20 in. apart; bulletin board Planter; hot plate and refrigerator (or in additional storage, below); tables lean be tables from other areas if easily movable)
Block alcove . . 50 75 (Can be 24-30 it play can expand to general area) Shelving 16 ft long, 11 in. deep, at least 10 in. high, plus supplementary shelving in movable cabinets to be added through school year
Manipulative toy area 100 150 2 or 3 two-shelf open cabinets; sloping shelves for puzzles; cabinet for toys not in use Open and sloping shelves (see Storage, left) Table for 4-5 children; should be guiet area
Reading and listening area (Combined with manipulative toy areal Closed case for duplicate books out of children's reach 32 ft of low, open shelving lor 20-25 books showing front covers; shelf and bulletin board for special exhibits Table or low shelf for tape recorder, accommodating up to 6 children
Ooll and housekeeping area 100 150 (Possibly to be increased or decreased progressively) Drawers and open shelving for dress-up clothes; dolls; open shelves and peg-board in cookino area Full-length mirroi; 2 telephones; sink lean be shared with art); table and chairs in cooking area
Art area . 100 150 Open shelves for newsprint and construction paper; shelves accessible only to teacher for paints, scissors Sufficient to hang 6 16 x 24 inch paintings Easels; sinks lone for children may be shared with housekeeping area; one for teachers-may be in additional storage area); table 18 in. high with area of 15 sg ft; space for paintings to dry
Tutoring boothlsl 45 50 (each) (each) Enclosed for privacy; if only one teacher is available, partitions should be glass
Cubicles 60 90 For pupils' clothes and other belongings; should be 4% ft high, 1 ft wide. 1 ft deep
Toilets 40 50
Additional storage 30 100 Refrigerator, hot plate (see General Area, above) May serve as teacher's utility area
Total 675 1015
Observation space Can be combined with additional storage area
Outdoor play area
equipment. This epece might also serve es a testing area or simply as a place where a child can be alone with an adult. These activities are important and such a space should be pro* vided even if, as a consequence, the size of the main room is reduced.
In some instances, it might be feasible to
create a room within a room by enclosing an area large enough to accommodate a small group of five or six who could work away from the distractions of the rest of the class. If only one teacher is to be present in the class, the walls should be transparent to allow the teacher visual control.
INDIVIDUAL CUBICLES FOR STORAGE
Each child should have a place of his own in
_.w.tueJxjio4iajmiujiJUJj!uisa2jl;eLh| rubbSFk
or overshoes, and store things that belong to tji/n...These.cubJcleT. or cubbies, sKouVd be ..aboiii. 1.ft .dff.qih 1 ft wide, and 4 ft-6 in. high._ The child should be able to sit down in or near his cubicle tojput on his shoes. (See Fig. 4.)
TOILETS
Where rest rooms for the children are not adjacent to the classroom, inordinate time is wasted in moving children to and from the rest room. If rest rooms are integral parts of the classroom, children can use them independently and develop self-reliance.
The theory that the fixtures should resemble those in the children's homes has merit, but the overriding considerations are convenience and utility. The wash basin and toilets should be appropriately sized for children.
STORAGE SPACE
To ensure an orderly and neat room and reduce the number of stimuli present at any one time, storage spnco outside the classroom is important. It can also serve as a utility area for the teacher and should contain a large sink for preparation of paints and for cleaning up.
If a sink is provided here for the teacher, only ono sink, placed betwnen tho art and housokooping arons, is necessary in tho classroom. The hot plate usod in the classroom and a refrigerator for keeping milk and juice belong in the outside storage room if possible.
OUTDOOR PLAY AREA
The outdoor play area could include a planting area, a sandbox, an open area for play with balls, hoops, inner tubes, boxes, and boards. Ideally, some part of this area would be sheltered to allow the children to spend some time outdoors during inclement weather.
A storage space is needed for the outdoor equipment.
OBSERVATION SPACE
An observation orea is desirable for programs that encourage parents to observe classes and to become more involved with the school and the education of the child. A combination of one-way glass, microphones, and earphones will ensure separation of pupils and observers; one-way glass with a louvered panel would suffice. (See Fig. 5.)
Ideally, the observation area should bo 1 or 2 ft highor than tho regular classroom. That would give the observer a good view over the low room dividers and would leave the wall space below the observation windows free for cabinet and display space.
An alternative to on observation room is a closed-circuit television setup that provides viewing at a location removed from the classroom.
Acoustical control in the classroom is essential. Without this control it is virtually impossible to hear or to transmit the speech of the children. Sound-absorbing ceiling and wall tile, draperies, and carpet all merit consideration for inclusion in the classroom.
The observation area should open directly on the corridor or outside, allowing observers to come and go without interfering with the children and the teachers.
166


Commercial
RESTAURANTS AND EATING PLACES
By LENDAL H. KOTSCHEVAR and MARGARET E. TERRELL
SPACE REQUIREMENTS
Adequacy of apace will influence building and operating coats and efficiency. When apace ia too small, labor time and effort are likely to increase and the volume and quality of output decrease. When it is too large, building and maintenance costa are excessive.
Decisions pertaining to space allowance may be strongly affected by the limitations of investment funds and evsilabls space Ample pace is sometimes provided by means of low cost materials and equipment of such inferior quality that they have short and unsatisfactory service life. In other instances, space is restricted to a point where it prohibits profit* able volume or the best utilization of labor. Space allowances in relation to investment should be balanced in terms of (t) proposed permanence of the facility, (2) acuteness of need for the specific operation, (3) essentials lot operating efficiency, (4) desirable standards in terms of appearance, sanitation, and good quality of production and service, and (5) immediate and future costs, depreciation, upkeep, and maintenance.
Facts peculiar to the particular establishment should be used as the basis for determining S' 'pace needs. Requirements will vary for jcilities of a given type and volume. Location; ype of operation; clientele; frequency of deliveries of supplies; kind of food used, such as fresh, frozen, or canned; and the complete* ness of processing to be done will couse variation in production and storage require* ments. The policies of those in charge will have an influence. Certain general information, such as numbers to be served, turnover, arrival rate, and type of service, will be helpful in dociding dining area needs.
Study is required to clarify immediate and future needs in food production. Choices should be made between meat cutting or portion-ready meats, a baking section or use of commercially baked products, and the use of unprocessed versus processed foods. If enlargement is probable, studies made before the building is planned as to how space may be added and how the initial plan should be designed to minimize ultimate cost, will be helpful.
It is well to block out space allowances according to functions that the facility is to perform. Calculate area requirements in terms of: (1) volume and type of service, (2) amount and size of equipment to be used, (3) number of workers required, (4) space for needed supplies, and (5) suitable traffic area. The dining area location and space allowance are usually determined first, the production areas next in terms of specific relationship to the dining area, and the other sections as required to these. Planners should be careful in accepting general space recommendations. There are many variations.
Food Sorvico Planning, John Wiley & Sons. New York. 1 967
Dining Area
Space for dining areas is usually based on the number of square feet per person seated times the number of persons seated at one time.
Space Requirements The patron's size and the type and quality of service should be considered. Small children may require only 8 sq ft for a type of service in which an adult would need 1 2 sq ft for comfort. A banquet seating allowance might be as little as 10 sq ft per seat and that for a deluxe restaurant as much as 20 sq ft. The amount of serving equipment in the dining area and lineup space will influence needs. Lost space must be considered.
The diners comfort should govern allowance. Crowding is distasteful to many people. It is likely to be tolerated more readily by youngsters than by adults. It is more acceptable in low-cost, quick-service units than in those featuring leisurely dining. Both young and old enjoy having sufficient elbow room and enough space so that dishes of food and beverage are not crowded. Place settings for adults usually allow 24 in. and for children 18 to 20 in. (Table 1).
TABLE 1 Square Feet per Seat Used for Various Types of Food Operations
Type of operation Square feet per seat
Cafeteria, commercial 18-18
Cafeteria, college and
industrial 12-15
Cafeteria, school lunchroom. . 9-12
College residence,
table service 12-15
Counter service 18-20
Table service, hotel,
club restaurant. 15-18
Table service.
minimum eating 11-14
Banquet, minimum 10-11
All of the areas in a dining room used for purposes other than seating are a part of the square footage allowed for seating. This does not include waiting areas, guest facilities, cloakrooms, and other similar areas. Excessive loss or use of space for other than seating in the dining area will, however, increase needs. Structural features of .t.hs.rp.QflLAhOMld ba smuirtaouL Width and length of the room, table and chair sizes, and seating arrangements jilS£l_£2£S£!ik.-.-
Service stations may be estimated in the PI?portion of pne small one for every 20 seats or a large central one Pjaces-
The advisability of having a central serving station will be influenced by the distance of the dining area from the serving area. It is of special value when production and dining are on different floors. Plumbing and wiring and whether supplies are delivered mechanically will influence location of the stations. Small substations for silver, dishes, napery, bever-
ages, ice, butter, and condiments may measure 20 to 24 in. square and 36 to 38 in high*. V he" size of central stations varies from' tlia't for'is small enclosed room to that of a screened section measuring approximately 8 to 10 ft long by 27 to 30 in. wide by 6 to 7 ft high.
Table size will influence patron comfort and efficient utilization of space. In a cafeteria, for example, where patrons may dine on their trays, it is important that the table be of adequate size to accommodate the number of trays likely to be there. Four trays 14 by 18 in. fit better on a table 48 in. square than on a table 36 or 42 in. square. Small tables, such as 24 or 30 in. square, are economical for seating but are uncomfortable for large people. They are only suitable in crowded areas for fast turnover and light meals. Tables having common width and height allowing them to be fitted together wiirgive flexibility in' seating arrangements. These are particularly goocf Tor b a nq u etteT'or cocktail-type bench seating along a wall. Tables for booths are difficult for waitresses to serve if they are longer than 4 ft. The width of booths including seats and table is commonly 5% ft. A lunch counter will have a minimum width of 16 in. and a maximum width olHS^Tto 30 m. Yhe "fin ear" feet are calculate3~or> the Basis1 of 2(no"2A "Mr'pfrr seat. The maximum area best serve^ By 'oniT' waitress U generally 16 ft of counter. This will give eight to ten seats. U-shaped counters make maximum use of space and reduce travel. Space in depth of 8% to 11 ft will be required for every linear foot of counter. This will provide 3 to 4 ft of public aisle, 2% ft for aisle space for employees. A width of 4ft is-desirable where employees must pass.
Calculate aisle space between tables and chairs to include passage area and that occupied by the person seated at the table. A minimum_passfrga area is 18 in. between chairs and, including jshai^area, tables should ba ,j|pqced_4.jQ..5.Jt_apart. Aisles on which bus carts or other mobile equipment is to be moved should be sized according to the width of such equipment.
The best utilization of space can often be arrived at through the use of templates or scaled models. Diagonal arrangement of square tables utilizes space better than square arrangement and yields a more trouble-free traffic lane. Lanes that pass between backs of chairs are likely to be blocked when guests arise or are being seated.
Table heights in schools should be chosen for the comfort of children. In units patronized by many grades a compromise height will be needed between the 30 in. normally used for adults and the 24 in. suitable for children, or two sizes may be used in different sections of the room. A table length to seat four, six, or eight is preferable to longer ones.
Number of Persons Allowance The number of persons to be seated at one time is the second point of information needed for calculation of the dining room size. The total number of seats required at one time, multiplied by the pace required for each seat, will give the total number of square feet needed in the


RESTAURANTS AND EATING PLACES
Fig. 1 Flow diigiam allowing functional relationship!.
in. are preferred. Wider aielee may be required if truck* are used. A 3-ft skid on a hydraulic jack needs maneuvering room. If rolling bins or garbage cans on dollies are used for storage, plan location for these. If cans or bins are under shelves, adjust height of bottom shelf to clear and allow for work space for removing food from these containers. Fixed shelving will be best when planned to suit the sizes of items stored. Consider both interspace and depth suitable. Condiment bottles, cereal pack* ages, and canned goods differ in package sizes and in stacking quality. The depth of a shelf should accommodate either the width or length of the case, and the Inter space should be ade* quate for the number to be stacked one on top of another. Allow 1% to 2 in. as free space for ease of positioning. Add thickness of shelv* ing to interspace when stating measurements between centers.
Position heavy items to reduce lifting and facilitate dispensing. Drums of oil and vinegar should have spigots and be equipped with pumps or located on cradles. Table surface and scales should be located for convenient issuing of dry stores. Plan to have all products at least 6 in. above the floor or movable to facil-itats cleaning of storage area. Limit height of top shelf for easy reach without aid of stool or stepladder. Th* average vertical reach of
men is 84% in. and of women 81 in. Use of the top shelf for light, bulky packages, such as cereal, is recommended.
Refrigerated and Low-Temperature Storage There are many factors affecting space needs for refrigerated and low-temperature foods. Across-the-board figures generally should be used only in preliminary estimates. The quantity stored at one time will dictate the storage needs. Variation in the type of storage also will be indicated by the types of items to be stored. Allocation in preliminary planning may be as follows: 20 to 35 percent for meat (portion-iniidy meats require % to '/, loss space then carcass or wholesale cuts); 30 to 35 percent for fruits and vegetables; 20 to 25 percent for dairy products, including those in serving areas; 10 to 25 percent for frozen foods; and 5 to 10 percent for carry-over foods, salads, sandwich material, and bakery products. A requirement of 1 5 to 20 cu ft of refrigeration per 100 complete meals has also been used by some planners. Others state 1 to 1 % cu ft of usable refrigerator space should be provided for every three meals served. Analysis of a number of award-winning installations indicated that approximately 0.25 to 0.50 cu ft of refrigerated walk-in space was provided per meal served, and frozen walk-in space approxi-
mated 0.1 to 0.3 cu ft per meal served. Additional low-temperature or refrigerated space in terms of reach-ins was not calculated. In some climates, refrigorated space must be provided for dried fruits, nuts, cereals, and other foods to prevent weevil and insect infestation.
A walk-in becomes feasible for an operation serving 300 to 400 meals per day, and refrigerated pass-throughs can be added when from 400 to 500 meals are served per day. A walk-in 5 to 6 ft wide does not permit storage on both sides with adequate aisle space. Storage space of 1 % to 2 ft should be allowed on either side of the aisle. If crates or cases are stored, this may have to be increased. Aisles of 30 in. are usually too narrow; 42 in. are desirable. If mobile equipment is moved in and out, aisles may have to be wider. Walk-ins that are 8 to 9 ft wide and about 10 ft long are minimum size. This allows for two storage areas 30 in. wide with a 3 to 4 ft aisle. If added width is desired for storage space in the center, allowance for storage oreas of about 3 ft wide and 42 in. minimum aisles should be provided. Large walk-ins may be designed for lift truck operation, with doors opening from the receiving dock on one side and into the kitchen opposite. If this is done and lift trucks are used, space must be provided in storage aisles for their working and turning around. Doors should be a minimum of 42 in. wide to admit large crates and containers or be sized to suit mobile equipment. Doors to low-temperature areas are most often planned to open into a refrigerated ares. If this is not done a heating device may have to be installed on a door opening into a warm area to prevent its freezing tight from condensation. About 12 to 1 5 sq ft must be kept free for every door opening. About 45 lb of frozen food, if stacked in cases, can be stored per cubic foot. About 30 to 35 lb of refrigersted food can be stored per cubic foot.
Sanitation Areas
Dishwashing Area The space required for the dishwashing operation depends on the methods and equipment used. In all instances there must be adequate room to receive the volume of soiled dishes likely to arrive at any one time, plus space for scraping, stacking, and placing in baskets on a conveyor of a machine or into a prerinsing operation. The dimensions may be only 30 to 36 in. for a single tank machine, 60 to 72 in. for sinks, or 7 to over 30 ft for a conveyor-type machine. The requirements in the clean dish area will vary. It is important that there be enough apace for dishes to be exposed to air for sufficient time to air-dry before stacking. For a basket-type machine, it is well to allow space equal to that required for three baskets, a stack of trays, and three or four stacks of dishes. For basket machines, it is usually recommended that the clean dish area occupy 66 percent of the total table space and tha nulled dinh area, 40 percent.
Methods used tor transporting and storing dishes will influence space needs. Where mobilo storage equipment is used, more space is needed for the several units than where one cart is used for transporting and is repeatedly loaded and unloaded. A table surface is desirable for sorting, treating, or inspecting silver and other tableware. The installation of a domestic washer and drier in the dishroom may require space.
Pot and Pan Sectios Provide a soiled utensil collection area adequate for the largest volume that normally arrivea in th* section at on* time. The busiest periods are likely to occur when preperation containers are emptied for service
758


RESTAURANTS AND EATING PLACES
Liquor Bari
(
(
WALL-^
BACKBAR x4 r : . 1 r
BARTENDERS AISLE >

f? N r BAR K
10
U u u u u ,B^ccr :
Cl < :
STRAIGHT TYPEwith or without stools
Abs. Min. Du. Min. Comfort- able
Ap Public aisle 3-6 to 4-6 4-0 to 5-0 4-6 to 6-0
1 Stool to wall 1-0 to 1-6 1-2 to 1-6 1-4 to 1-6
cc Stool, cent, to cent. 1-9 to 2-0 .20 2-2 to 2-6
E Stool to bar 9 to 1-0 1-0 l-l to 1-2
X Back bar 1-6 to 1-8 1-8 to 2-0 20 to 2-3
Y Bartender's aisle 2-0 to 2-2 2-6 30
Z Bar 2-3 to 2-6 2-S to 2-6 2-8 to 2-9

CURVED TYPES: Radius R should be at least
2 ft.; other dimensions as for straight types.
Bar length: Allow from I ft. 8 in. to I ft. 10 in. per person for standup bars: 2 ft. for each stool.
Bar depth: No increase in depth is needed for more than I bartender, as each man should be provided with his own set-up" space in the worlc counter and back-bar.
Service bars: These are usually from 6 to 6 ft. long, for l-man service- from 10 to 12 ft. iong if 2 bartenders are needed for peak service periods. No footrail. counter overhanq or stools are required. Location is often adjacent to kitchen and concealed from patrons; however, advertising va'ues sometimes cause 't to be set in public view. In the latter case, a rope rail or similar device, to discouraae patrons from standing at the bar. is often advisable.
BAR HEIGHTS
Rg. liquor bort.
dimensions in feet and inches
RAIL OR STEP
Usual Min. Usual Max.
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BB 3-6 3-9
Cab 3 0 to 3-10 SO to 5-7
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Rettauranl Seating


INTERVIEWS
Questions asked of Roland Grote of KDC Architects on 9/12/83.
1. How did KDC get the job?
2. Who was the designer?
3. Who is the developer?
4. How did they pick the site?
5. Who made up the program?
6. What was the budget and/or cost?
7. Is this a high, medium or low cost/sq. ft. for such a building
8. How big is the job?
9. How many members can the club accomodate?
10. What were the design determinates?
11. Were there many restrictions on the building design? What were they?
12. How long did the design development and construction take?
13. Who was the contractor on the job?
14. Was the building constructed as expected?
15. When did the facility open?
16. What kind of feedback do the owners get about the building?
17. What kind of structure is the club and why is glass used
everywhere?
18. What kind of research was done before designing this project?
19. What kind of flooring was considered for the gym?
20. Why are the corridors so narrow?
21. Why is the gym located in such a way as to seem indirectly accessible?
22. Why is the pool unenclosed?
Notes from Interview.
1. KDC has designed other athletic facilities.
2. Roland Grote is the project designer and the engineering (structural and mechanical was done by in house engineers) at KDC.
3. The developers were 1) Whitcliff Co. 2) Bill Walters CM Co.
3) Rick Schlevy (Club's Director and ex-Bronco).
5. The program is a result of the developers plans for the club and the architects planning.
6. The budget for the job is based on fees and costs for the building shell and finishes and was $67.00/sq. ft. The total cost was approximately $2.7 million (excluding equipment cost) and is a medium budget for such a building.
8. Building is approximately 40,000 sq. ft. on a 1.6 acres site zoned was part of a Planned Building Group.
12. The design for the building was developed over a two month period and the construction documents were worked on from November 1, 1980 March 15, 1981 (4% months). The project construction was finished around March 1, 1982 when the club opened for business.
13. Palmer enterprises was the contractor for the job and was selected by Whitcliff.
16. The building has been getting good response.
17. The building has a steel structure and glass was used because of the precedent set in the commercial/business vicinity.


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18. Research per se was not done for this design. KDC had alredy designed two athletic clubs: The Montbello Sporting Club (1-70 and Peoria) and The Rocky Mountain Sporting Club (in Loveland).
19. Hardwood floors were used in the gym because they seemed the best surface for basketball.
20. Corridors are narrow because in the planning it was felt that the was the structure was laid out that there was not any additional room to give to the hallway. However they have become one of the major problems with the building and in hindsight it seems there could have been adjustments made for this to allow adequate circulation space. The nautilus room and gym should also be bigger.
21. The gym is located so that there is no direct way for nonclub members to gain access to it as is true with other club facilities. The management wants everyone to pass the registration desk before gaining access to any club area other than the restaurant.
22. The pool in unenclosed because of lack of funds to build it as an indoor pool. However this would be desireable for energy purposes since the pool is used all year round.
Additional Questions:
Is there a need for all Spa Area functions to be separate according r to sex? Isn't there a large group of people who would like uni-
sex spa facilities? Are the lounges really necessary in the locker rooms? or would the place be better used and enjoyed somewhere in the open where both men and woman can use it?
Answers:
Unisex spa facilities were slightly considered and it was felt most people do not want to mix with the opposite sex when using these features as they often want to use them in the nude. The lounges are used and serve as a resting point for people as well as a waiting place.


Questions asked of Roland Grote on 11/7/83.
1. What zone is the site in?
2. What building code covers the city of Aurora? Are there design covenants that restrict the design?
3. What can I get a soils test report and topographic map of the site
4. Discuss mechanical reguirements of the building and energy options Is the building energy consuming or energy producing? Skin or load dominated?
5. What consideration was given to making the facility accessible to the handicapped?
6. Who are the club owners and managers? Are they different from the developers?
7. What building materials were used in this building because of humidity problems?
8. What acoustical modifications were made in the building to control noise?
9. What were the color selections based on?
10. Is there a height limit for a building of this kind?
11. Is a loading dock or storage area needed for supplies such as are needed by the restaurant?
12. Where can the fire code information be found for this kind of building?
13. Do you recommend following the program literally or making adjustments to improve the design such as enclosing the pool?
14. What features or what kind of appeal does the club need to draw people to it and to keep them?
15. Why are fences used around parts of the site?
16. Is there any interesting or significant history about the site which could influence the design?
17. Is there a Floor Area Ratio for this building? Is the plumbing electrical, and mechanical code all in the general code?
18. What kind of climatic data or consideration was looked at for this building?
Notes from Interview
1. The site in part of a P.B.G. and not a traditional zone.
2. The City of Aurora has their own Building Code that goes along
with the U.B.C.
5. The Restaurant and Bar are accessible to the handicapped in
that they are designed on an entry grade level. The building has no elevator so the rest of the facility is not accessible.
6. The Club owners and developers are one and the same. They are
1) Rick Schliebe the manager, an ex-Bronco who has helped develope and run several athletic clubs. 3) Whitcliff Co. (contact Jim Harpool fop information) 3) Bill Walters (a silent partner. (Contact John Skogg or Rick Herbert with the Club
to ask managerial questions.)
7. The club is constructed partly below grade and has a sloping site to the south that runs towards the building so there are water table problems so the building is surrounded with perforated pipe to collect water and feed it to a sump pump.


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8. The R & S Courts are noisey so a hard acoustical tile is used on the ceiling as in the gym. Carpeting is used in the halls, restaurant, nursery and weight room partly because of acoustics. A design of having a dead air space between the walls of each court was considered but it was found that they were no less noisey than if the wall were a standard construction with insulation used in the stud wall.
10. There is no direct height limit.
11. There is a loading dock and trash space in the front of the building (Parker Rd. side) which services the Kitchen.
It's slightly below road grade and is hidden by shrubbery.
12. Fire code is in the Aurora Building Code.
13. Adjust the program to make the best architecture.
14. The club's program requires that the building encourage social interaction. A window into the gym was a part ofthe original design.
15. Fences are for visual and sound screening or for a psychological barrier to intruders.
16. The site has never been built on before now. The area at one time was nothing but farm or range land. But Parker Road was there for a long time and served as the major road between Denver and Colorado Springs before 1-25.
The building's brick base is to give it a pedestrian scale.
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