Citation
An analysis of landscape architects' consciousness of acid rain issues, risks, and options in the Rocky Mountain West

Material Information

Title:
An analysis of landscape architects' consciousness of acid rain issues, risks, and options in the Rocky Mountain West
Alternate title:
Acid rain
Creator:
McCraney, Bruce A
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
109 leaves in various foliations : illustrations (some color), charts (some color), map ; 28 cm

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of Landscape Architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Archatecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Landscape Architecture
Committee Chair:
Flores, Phillip

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Acid rain -- Rocky Mountains ( lcsh )
Landscape architecture -- Environmental aspects -- Rocky Mountains ( lcsh )
Acid rain ( fast )
Landscape architecture -- Environmental aspects ( fast )
Rocky Mountains ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Cover title: Acid rain.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Landscape Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Bruce A. McCraney.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
15563944 ( OCLC )
ocm15563944
Classification:
LD1190.A77 1985 .M27 ( lcc )

Full Text
DENVER, CO MAY 1985
BRUCE MCCRANEY M.L.A. THESIS
DEPARTMENT of LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
AN ANALYSIS OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS' CONSCIOUSNESS OF ACID RAIN ISSUES, RISKS, & OPTIONS IN THE ROCKY MTN. WEST


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THIS THESIS IS SUBMITTED AS PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR A MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DEGREE AT THE
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING GRADUATE PROGRAM OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
ACCEPTED:
(Comm
Name & 'Title)
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(Committee Member's Name & Title)
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s Name' & Title) '
DATE
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AN ANALYSIS OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS' CONSCIOUSNESS OF ACID RAIN ISSUES, RISKS, AND OPTIONS IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN WEST
Bruce A. McCraney University of Colorado at Denver
May 17, 1985


TABLE OF CONTENTS
o
FOREWARD
INTRODUCTION ........................................... 1
THE QUESTION ........................................... 4
FACT GATHERING ......................................... 4
PERTINENT ACID RAIN ISSUES
A. Nature of Arid Rain:
1) Chemical Make-up ........................ 6
2) How it Occurs ........................... 7
3) Where it Has Impacted ................... 9
4) Its Effects to Natural and Cultural
Resources .............................. 11
B. Monitoring ................................. 13
C. Mitigation ................................. 16
D. Relevance to Landscape Architecture ........ 18
HYPOTHESIS ............................................ 28
DEVELOP TEST METHODOLOGY AND IDENTIFY CASE STUDY ...... 28
EXECUTE CASE STUDY AND PERFORM EVALUATION .......... ... 30
RECOMMENDATIONS ....................................... 33
BIBLIOGRAPHY .......................................... 37


o
FOREWARD
It is desired the following objectives will be achieved as a result of this thesis. First, a clear explanation of how acid rain effects landscape architecture should become apparent. Second, a useful product ought to be the documented survey concluding Rocky Mountain region landscape architects' knowledge base and attitudes regarding acid rain. From this survey a subsequent effect, ideally, should have been to raise awareness and provide an opportunity to look at the kinds of issues that came out of this process. Third, some previously attempted methods to mitigate the effects of acid rain will be presented as well as an unproven but research-based mitigation method designed by the thesis candidate. Last, a proposed course of action will be submitted for Rocky Mountain region landscape architects to initiate abatement of acid rain threats to resources with which the profession is concerned.


INTRODUCTION
Doubtlessly, the phenomenon of acid rain has been of increasing concern for the past decade to the citizenry of the eastern United States, eastern Canada, and Europe while, concurrently, this has not been the case in most of the western United States with the exception of some parts of California. This perception of a less severe acid rain threat in the west seems to be based upon the existence of much higher concentrations of emission sources such as power plants, automobiles, and industry, in the three geographic areas first mentioned. Nevertheless, many air quality specialists in the United States are now concerned acid rain is lowering the pH level of acidifying thousands of Rocky Mountain region lakes to the extent that aquatic habitats may soon be unable to support normally occurring plant and animal species.
Although the effected high elevation Rocky Mountain lakes are not receiving rain which is as acidic as that monitored in eastern North America and Europe, an extenuating circumstance often exists. Unlike the streams and lakes of many parts of the eastern U.S., eastern Canada, and Europe, high elevation lakes of the Rockies are frequently surrounded by barren rock (i.e., granite, gneiss, schists, or other slow-to-weather units) with very little soil and vegetation to buffer or neutralize acid rain


runoff before entering lakes and streams. This state-of-being for lakes means they are highly sensitive or vulnerable to additional acidity. In June 1984, Jill Baron, acid rain specialist for the National Park Service Water Resources Field Support Laboratory in Ft. Collins, Colorado, made the following comments concerning Rocky Mountain National Park's highly sensitive lakes and streams. "What have we found out? Well, there's good news and bad news. The good news is that the rain and snow are not yet to a point where they would be acid rain. Our lakes and their fish populations are not yet in jeopardy. The bad news is truly bad news. Lakes and streams in the park are so sensitive that it will not take very much additional acidity to have a harmful effect." This statement, seemingly, typifies the status of what most National Park Service and U.S. Forest Service air quality specialists feel is the case for the Rocky Mountain region.
The area of focus for this thesis encompasses the Rocky Mountain region states as demarcated by the National Park Service. This area is comprised of Colorado, North Dakota, Montana, South Dakota, Utah, Wyoming, and the northern-most areas of Arizona and New Mexico. Figures 1 2, and 3 are submitted to exemplify regional media coverage relating acid rain impacts in the Rocky Mountain west as recently as 1985.
2


Acid rain threatens West, study shows
By ANN McFEATTERS
Scripps-Howard News Service ---------------
WASHINGTON Yellowstone, Yosemite, Glacier, Sequoia, Mount Rainier and Rocky Mountain national parks are some of the Western scenic vistas being threatened by acid rain, according to a study that concludes the West is as susceptible to the environmental phenomenon as thq East.
We no longer have only suspicions; for the first time we have a reasonably complete picture of the scientific facts. We now see that acid rain is a national issue, hitting both East and West, said Gus Speth. "president of World Resources Institute which did, the study.
Speth was chairman of the White House Council on Environmental Quality under President
Carter.
Speths argument was immediately disputed by the public power and coal industries and the Reagan adminstration.
All three said the study still is not the proof needed before a national plan of action to^ combat acid rain is undertakenr Spokesmen for the three said it still is not clear that acid rain is the major culprit, pointing out that other factors such as drought and gaseous forms of air pollution also seem to be involved.
- Acid rain, the term for vehicle and power plant pollution carried by wind, fog, rain and snow for hundreds of miles, is thought by many scientists to be damaging forests, crops, monuments and fish. A poll taken earlier this month by Louis Harris found that 76 percent of Americans believe acid rain is a serious environmental threat.
The World Resources Institute is a 3-year-old public policy re-
search institution which tapped John Harte and Philip Roth, energy experts from the University of California at Berkeley, and Mohammed El-Ashry, former director of environmental quality at the Tennessee Valley Authority, to coordinate the study.
Institute officials said theirs is the first comprehensive study to examine acid rain in the West although others have been published on the subject.
Among the conclusions of the 18-month study;
Soil and lakes in the Colorado Rockies are more vulnerable to lower levels of acid rain than are found in the East because they poorly neutralize acid^
The fog observed in the Los Angeles Basin and Californias Central Valley has acidic levels comparable to vinegar.
Drinking water supplies in mountain areas may be.threatened by aluminum, lead, mercury and cadmium leached by acid rain from rock formations. Cisterns and wells in the East have been found to contain high concentrations of heavy metals apparently because of acid rain.
Western acid rain apparently differs from that in the East because it consists mainly of nitrogen oxides from cars and trucks while in the East most acid rain seems to come from sulfur dioxide emissions from power plants. Also, in the West the term acid rain tends to be misleading because much of the pollution is dry, not wet.
The World Resources Institute says its study means more attention should be put on solving transportation pollution in the West, that smelters should not be exempted, as planned, from Clean Air Act emission reduction standards and that cohesive research in the West is needed.
I68'*. I


Remote lake turned acidic briefly
_ By SANDY GRAHAM
Rocky Mountain News Science/Energy Writer
A remote mountain lake near Crested Butte turned acidic temporarily last summer, the first time such a troubling transformation has been discovered in Colorado, according to a study released last week.
The finding may mean Colorado is just a step from irreversible acid-rain damage, experts said, because other research has charted similar temporary' changes before lakes died of acid overloads.
"Its like bending a paper clip, said John Harte, a University of California-Berkeley professor monitor-> ing a handful of unnamed Colorado lakes for acidity. "Eventually they lose the ability to recover.
So few lakes in Colorado are under intensive study that its impossible to tell if Hartes discovery is a fluke. But Robert Yuhnke, Boulder-based attorney and acid-rain expert for the Environmental Defense Fund, said many Colorado lakes might have similar problems.
Theres nothing particularly unique at Hartes lakes, Yuhnke said. What hes seeing I would suspect probably is happening at hundreds of other lakes.
Hartes Colorado finding is included in the World Resources Institutes report, "The American Wests Acid Rain Test, released last week. The report, which Harte helped write, concludes that acid rain is threatening lakes and forests throughout the West. It also reports that a second temporarily acidified lake
was found in Sequoia National Park in California.
Acid rain is the generic term for a complex, poorly understood environmental problem thats been linked to man-made sulfur and nitrogen pollution. Fish and other lake-dwellers die when water becomes too acidic. And acid rain and snow, as well as dry, acid particles, may be the reason Eastern U.S. and-European forests have been damaged.
^The West is considered at great risk of acid-rain damage7 because its lakes dont have much natural capacity to buffer, or neutralize, acid.
For the past five years, Harte has monitored the water quality and the salamander population in lakes that lie in alpine meadows near the Rocky Mountain Biological Lab, 11 miles north of Crested Butte. The number of salamanders, known to be very sensitive to acid, has plummeted-in the past two years.
Harte suspects acid may be the reason.
Researchers have long known that precipitation is becoming more acidic in the West. And Harte was one of the first to note acid pulses into lakes during the Rocky Mountain spring runoff.
But last summer was the first time that any of his lakes lost all of its natural ability to neutralize acid. During the July runoff, one lakes alkalinity dropped to zero, and acidity zoomed 70-fold. The lake returned to normal in four weeks, Harte said.
Yuhnke said the Colorado lake change seems to be the second of three steps that Scandinavian and American researchers have found in lake acidification: the natural buffering capacity is used up, lakes temporarily turn acidic, then permanently change.
i
F>6<. 2-


Acid rain transforms j
remote Colorado lake
- :
_ "V ' > i
CRESTED BUTTE (AP) A remote lake* near Crested Butte turned acidic last summer, the first time such a transformation has been discovered in Colorado, a. California researcher says.
A second temporarily acidificed lake was found in Sequoia National Park in California, said John Harte, a University of Califomia-Berkeley professor. He is monitoring a handful of unnamed Colorado lakes for acidity.
Other research has charted similar temporary changes before lakes gj died of add overload, Harte noted. C, .* The results of Hartes are induded m the World Resources Institutes report, The American Wests Acid " _ Rain Test, released last week.
Of the lakess addity, which has since been neutralized, Harte said, its like bending a paper clip. Eventually, they lose the ability .to recover.
While few Colorado lakes are under intensive study, Robert Yuhnke, Boulder-based attorney for the Environmental Defense Fund, said many Colorado lakes might have similar problems.
What hes seeing, I would suspect probably is happening at hundreds of other lakes, Yuhnke said.
Fish and other lake-dwellers die when water becomes too addic. Many researchers believe add rain, linked to
man-made sulfur and nitrogen pollution, also is the cause of damage to forests in the northeastern U.S. and in Europe. >
Because it does not have the industrial development of those areas, the American Wests exposure to add rain has been limited. The West is considered at great risk of acid-rain damage, however, because its lakes, dont have much natural capadty to buffer, or neutralize, acid.
For the past five years, Harte has monitored the water quality and the salamander population in lakes that lie in alpine meadows near the Rocky Mountain Biological Lab, 11 miles north of Crested Butte. The number of salamanders, known to be very sensitive to add, has plummeted in the last two years, he said.
Last summer was the first time that any of his lakes lost all of its natural ability to neutralize add. During the July runoff, one lakes alkalinity dropped to zero, and addity soared 70-fold. The lake returned to normal in four weeks, Harte said.
Other American and Scandinavian researches studying the phenomenon of acid rain for, in some cases, more than 30 years, have come up with three steps in lake addification: the natural buffering capadty is used up, lakes temporarily turn addic, then permanently change.
i


From the outset of the thesis process, this candidate, being a graduate student of landscape architecture intuited that, due to a lack of knowledge, acid rain is a phenomenon which has not been accepted by the majority of landscape architects in the Rocky Mountain region as within the realm of the profession's responsibility or control. Before accepting this supposition, however, it became necessary to document that, in fact, a lack of knowledge existed with regard to "pertinent acid rain issues^" a^Smong Rocky Mountain region landscape archi-tects^.'fhis needed documentation became a logical starting point for the thesis process and, subsequently, became the basis from which the hypothesis would be derived. Stating the hypothesis, it is as follows:
The knowledge level among the majority of landscape architects in the Rocky Mountain region with regard to pertinent acid rain issues is low.
To recount the steps which comprised this thesis' methodology, they entailed the sequence shown in Figure 4.
Adhering to this thesis methodology format, detailed elaboration will proceed throughout the remainder of the thesis.
3


Bruce McCraney
Thesis Methodology Acid Rain
QUESTION
FACT GATHERING
Literature
Search
Identify Major Problem and Sub Problems
. *
HYPOTHESIS

DEVELOP TEST METHODOLOGY
<
IDENTIFY CASE STUDY

EXECUTE CASE STUDY
_ ^ ^ ,
PERFORM EVALUATION
^ .
DOCUMENTATION
Fid, 4.


THE QUESTION
What is acid rain and what implications does this have for the landscape architecture profession in the Rocky Mountain region?
FACT GATHERING
This step involved a literature search and multiple interviews with regional landscape architects and acid rain specialists from the Department of Agriculture, the Department of the Interior, and the Enviromental Protection Agency. From this fact gathering process was deduced a major problem and associated subproblems.
The major problem seemed to be that no information regarding acid rain was being produced, or at least published, by landscape architects in the Rocky Mountain region which could address "THE QUESTION" of what implications acid rain has for the landscape architecture profession.
Synthesizing the base data which emerged from the fact gathering process, a number of subproblems or pertinent issues became associated with the major problem of no information being produced by the profession locally. These issues or subproblems, according to the thesis
4


candidate's analysis, must be explored and understood in order to form a logical sequence of conclusions which can, then, provide insight as to why there appeared to be a lack of knowledge of acid rain issues, risks, and options in the Rocky Mountain west. The following issues are referred to by this thesis candidate as "pertinent acid rain issues" (see Figure 5) because it is his research findings that suggest these issues are key when attempting to build a case for the existence of a threat to resources of direct interest to the landscape architecture profession in the Rocky Mountain region.
It is, perhaps, no coincidence that, as will later be demonstrated in the forthcoming documented survey, landscape architects were not publishing or producing acid rain related data and they were not knowledgeable of "pertinent acid rain issues." Presently, however, the intent will be to specify what is significant about each of the "pertinent acid rain issues."
5


pEgTU4Et4T kcAP gAI*l
Issues
A) MATURE Of= AOIP KAlM
i)cuemioal make-up
Z)HOkl IT ooolIps
3) UIHEPE IT HAS /MFAOTER
4) EFFEoTS
- MATUKAL REf£>UjLOES CULTURAL RESOURCES F)MoMlT<9RlMOi
E)Mrri4ATlOKl TK.lEp
t?)PELE VAKlOET TO LA.
f) RESOURCES AT RISK i) MATURE OF threat STEAMS TO OFFSET THE THREAT
Ei-O,. S


A-1) Nature of Acid Rain: Chemical Make-Up
Before discussing the chemical composition of acid rain, it may prove helpful to present some preliminary information, briefly. The pH scale is a term which has been and will continue being used in this thesis. The pH scale ("potential hydrogen") is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration and is measured from 0 to 14. The value 7 is neutral with all values lower than 7 being acidic and all values greater than 7 being alkaline. The lower the pH value, the higher the acid content. Each full pH unit drop represents a tenfold increase in acidity. It should be pointed out that "pure" rain has a pH value of 5.6 and thus is slightly acidic in its unpolluted form (see Figure 6) .
Within the present-day atmosphere are found various air pollutants. Of these, the two which are of greatest significance when considering the chemical make-up of acid rain are sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide (see Figure 7). sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide undergo an atmospheric transformation through oxidation along with such things as water, smog, ammonia, and others to become sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Either acid is considered to partially comprise acid rain (see Figure 8).
6








A-2) Nature of Acid Rain: How It Occurs
After the atmospheric transformation of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide, acid rain will deposit its contents of sulfuric acid and/or nitric acid upon the earth. Once there, acid rain's impacts are varied. Forthwith, these effects will be discussed at length, however, before doing so, consideration will focus upon how acid rain occurs. Starting with the sources of what many specialists believe cause emissions high in sulfur dioxide, attention should be directed to coal burning power plants throughout the Rocky Mountain region (Figure 9) and copper smelters found in southern Arizona and northern Mexico (Figure 10). Furthermore, evidence supports the concern that prevailing southwesterly air currents carry nitric oxide emissions of southern California automobiles throughout the Rocky Mountain region where they undergo atmospheric transformation and are deposited in various forms of acid precipitation such as rain, snow, and ice. Likewise, the power plant and copper smelter sulfur dioxide emissions are transported with the same consequences. (See Figure 11.)
Of particular interest in the Rocky Mountains are the impacts being documented to high elevation lakes and streams. In most cases, these aquatic ecosystems have little ability to buffer or neutralize acid rain runoff
7





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m




due to a lack of soil at these rocky settings which are without significant ground cover vegetation. These environments become increasingly vulnerable during spring snow and ice melting because it is at this time these fragile lakes and streams receive acidified runoff in quantities greatly exceeding levels experienced during other seasons. This phenomenon is referred to as acid shock. (See Figures 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17).
8
















17


A-3) Nature of Acid Rain: Where it Has Impacted
Sweden drew the world's attention to acid rain in the early 1970s when extensive acidification of lakes was reported. To date, estimates suggest 4,000 lakes in Sweden have been seriously acidified with another 14,000 having a lesser level of acidification. Nine thousand Swedish lakes have had their fish populations affected and 25,000 miles of streams have been altered. Sweden and the rest of Scandanavia, merit particular interest from the Rocky Mountain region because similar conditions exist for both areas. Lakes at altitudes with little or no vegetation are common and, like lakes of the Rockies, have a deficiency in buffering capacity.
Elsewhere in Europe, other dramatic effects have been observed. In West Germany, a 1983 survey disclosed 34 percent of the country's total was damaged by air pollution associated with acid rain. Included in this figure is approximately half of the Black Forest. 2,162 square miles have been designated a "total damage area" in West Germany. This means a complete loss of productivity will probably result. Overall, the country, is currently facing an economic loss of $1.2 billion a year as a result of their depleting forests.
Although the large scale visual effects seen in Europe have not been matched in North America, increasing data reveals serious ecological damage, nevertheless.
9


Dr. Hubert Vogelmann, professor of botany at the University of Vermont, is known for describing alarmingly significant tree damage on a peak called Camels Hump in the Green Mountains of Vermont. Vogelmann reports that since 1 965, the spruce and fir have lost 41 percent of their productivity among mature trees. His data regarding the reproductive potential for younger trees is even more astonishing. For example, red spruce dropped from 6,0C0 trees in 1965 to 3,000 in 1979 to 1,000 in 1983. "That's an eighty percent decline," says Vogelmann. "It has lost the capacity to reproduce. You don't find any cones and very few small trees. The red spruce is virtually not regenerating at all." To consider other species, Vogelmann's studies reveal beech decreased 63 percent in number and sugar maple declined 84 percent since 1965. Such examples of acid rain damage are reported with growing frequency in the eastern United States and Canada.
Acid rain damage is an international concern. Major damage has been observed in Europe, Canada, southeast Asia, and coastal regions of the eastern and western United States (see Figure 18). Other areas of reported disturbance include Brazil, South Africa, and the Artie.
10




A-4) Nature of Acid Rain: Its Effects to Natural and
Cultural Resources
Acid rain is acknowledged as having destructive effects to natural resources such as vegetation, soil, and aquatic systems (see Figure 19). As for cultural resources, in the Rocky Mountain region, ancient cliff dwellings and petroglyphs of the Anasazi Indians are of special concern since acid rain has a corrosive effect upon them (see Figures 20, 21 , 22). Other cultural
resources susceptible to damage are modern (19th and 20th century) art and architectural works exposed to the weather (see Figures 23 and 24).
When considering natural resources more closely, the ensuing effects might be expected if an ecosystem (such as the one portrayed in Figure 25) was exposed to acid rain over a prolonged period of time, say, 5 to 20 years. In the initial stage of acidification, the thin soil is filled with vital decomposers and nutrients calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and magnesium (Mg). Ca acts as a buffer against acidification; lost minerals are replaced by bedrock. Secondly, when the soil's buffering capacity is exhausted, acid accumulates in the soil. Acid leaches nutrients from the soil and removes the protective surface layer from leaves. Lastly, trees' fine-root systems are destroyed as are decomposers when aluminum and sulfate combine to form a poison which also kills fish by damaging


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Prevailing Winds
Â¥H\d
tThrooghfaU
Utter Layer
Effects on Vegetation
Leaching of
Nutrients
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their gills when it becomes washed into aquatic habitats (see Figures 26 and 27).
Other organisms which are extremely sensitive to lowered pH conditions include zooplankton and phytoplankton (see Figure 28) These are essential to healthy aquatic systems because they are an integral part of the food chain upon which innumerable other life forms depend directly or indirectly. As documented in studies, the results of which were provided by the United States Forest Service, the number of zooplankton and phytoplankton species became reduced the more acidification increased (see Figures 29 and 30). This same phenomenon was observed in the case of three species of small animal life associated with Norwegian lakes (see Figure 31).
As previously discussed, acid rain is attributed with having caused extensive damage to forests worldwide. Dr. Hubert Vogelmann maintains conifers are the most affected species partially because, unlike deciduous trees, their needles are bathed in acid throughout the year. Deciduous trees lose their leaves for several months and hence have a reprieve from acid rain injury.
Figures 32, 33, 34, 35, and 36 reveal conifer damage observed throughout the eastern United States while Figure 37 is of destruction in the Soviet Union.
12








Number of species
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Number of zooplankton species are reduced
16-




Number of species
_, m*mm
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HBHRMH

Number of phytoplankton species are reduced



Individuals por rn?
1000-1 .

500i
Acid lakes southern Norway pH 4,6 Lakes southern Norway pH 5.8 Acid lakes western Norway pH 4,8 Lakes western Norway pH 61 6.2
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B) Monitoring
In October 1981, the United states government established the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program which is lead by a three chair council consisting of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Within this program are ten task groups or coordinating agencies assigned various responsibilities, one of which is to monitor acid rain. The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) is the agency responsible for monitoring, therefore, it primarily delegated this task to the U.S. Forest Service of the Department of Agriculture and the National Park Service of the Department of the Interior. This monitoring agency is referred to as the Task Group on Deposition Monitoring by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program. Planning and coordinating atmospheric-deposition monitoring under the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) is the responsibility of the Task Group on Deposition Monitoring. The goals of NADP's monitoring activities are:
1 Determine the spatial and temporal variations in the composition of atmospheric deposition within the United States through a National Trends Network (NTN).
2. Develop methods for the reliable measurement of dry deposition.
13


3. Continue and increase research on methods for deposition monitoring.
4. Support a Global Trends Network (GTN) through operating monitoring sites at remote locations throughout the world.
With respect to some specific monitoring techniques, one commonly used device is known as a standard wet-dry catchment container for collecting acidic wet and dry deposition (see Figure 38). Such devices, of which there are over one hundred, are sited throughout the United States and wet samplings are taken weekly. Data from these samplings is recorded and used to determine changes in long term pH averages. Another monitoring apparatus has been developed which samples lake water at varying depths to detect, ultimately, if lakes are becoming acidified (see Figure 39). Early in 1 985, the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program requested a concentrated monitoring effort be conducted at several high elevation lakes in designated wilderness areas throughout the Rocky Mountain region (see Figure 40). The results of this effort are still being determined as of this date.
Because of the shortness of time monitoring has been reliably conducted in the United States, it is difficult to quantify, with complete certainty, recent trends in the chemistry of wet and dry deposition with the exception,
perhaps, of the nitrate percentage in wet deposition. In








general, results indicate that the amount of nitrates in rain increase with an increase in emission sources high in nitric oxides such as automobiles.
Figures 41 and 42 are diagrams from the National Park Service's Water Resources Field Support Laboratory representing a logical sequence of steps necessary to evaluate if cultural or natural resources are receiving acid rain. Within these steps, monitoring data becomes critical if an accurate assessment of acid rain's potential threat is to be made. Monitoring, therefore, is needed to determine if cultural and natural resources are potentially at risk.


CULTURAL RESOURCE AREAS
A. Resources are structures
1. What are structures made of
???
B. Resources are works of art
Resources are structures
1. Structures are made of masonry marble, concrete, mortar, stucco other limestones ???
and/or
Resources are works of art
1. Pieces one of a kind; cannot be replaced.
yes
2.
-yes
Is pH of rainfall averaging less than 5.6?
???
3 pieces expensive and time-consuming to replace
noacid rain not a problem
4.
Is pH of rainfall averaging less than 5.6?
???
yes
Work potentially at risk. Monitoring needed.
no acid rain not a problem
yes noacid rain not a problem
this area potentially receives acid rain.
Further inquiry needed.
F/£.4(


NATURAL RESOURCE AREAS
l.
What is the bedrock, are there sections of granite, gneiss, schists, or other slow-to-weather units?
???
acid rain not a problem
2.
is the bedrock exposed ???
acid rain not a problem
4. are there lakes and streams in this area with slow-to-weather bedrock and thin soils ???
yesthis area is no
potentially sensitive to acid rain
is pH of rainfall averaging less than 5.6 ???
vegetation and soils might be at risk--warrants further study
yes no
this area potentially receives acid rain. Further inquiry is needed.
acid rain not a problem


C) Mitigation
In using the term mitigation, the assumption is made that mitigation measures begin after emissions have been dispersed. Doubtlessly, it would be advantageous to control the levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (N0X) in fossil-fuel emissions through engineering technologies before they are released from industrial smokestacks, automobiles, etc. Indeed, engineering technologies have and are continuing to be developed such as retrofitted stack scrubbers which remove SO2 and N0X from coal-fired power plants, however, this thesis shall consider mitigation as it has, historically, been applicable during and after acid rainfall.
One practice employed to counter acidification of streams, ponds, and lakes, is that of adding calcium carbonate or calcium oxide to acidified waters. This measure is popularly referred to as "liming" and was pioneered in Scandanavia (see Figure 43). Liming experiments in Norway indicate this technique is only practical for small water bodies and streams. Lime application can employ trucks, boats, aircraft, sediment injection systems, and limestone substrate fish hatching boxes. When implementing liming applications for moving water, techniques include aircraft, diversion wells, silos, stream barriers, and rotary drums. Trucks with compressed air blowers have been used




to cast pulverized limestone onto the soil of watersheds. Some of these methods emerged, originally, to mitigate acid drainage from coal mines which were abandoned.
A management alternative to, also, reduce the effects of acid rain is stocking water bodies which have been acidified with hatchery fish. The concept behind this approach is to replace lost fish and hence maintain the aquatic habitat's ecological balance.
Neither of these historically employed mitigation methods is perfected to the extent it can be applied with complete confidence in avoiding undesirable ecological or economic repercussions. For this reason more research is needed with regard to mitigation techniques.
17


D) Relevance to Landscape Architecture
Having explored the nature of acid rain, monitoring, and mitigation, perhaps it is now appropriate to return to "THE QUESTION" of what is acid rain and what implications does this have for the landscape architecture profession in the Rocky Mountain region. The preceding several pages have addressed the nature of acid rain and, therefore, answer -- "What is acid rain?". Now, it seems appropriate to attempt an answer to the second part of "THE QUESTION" "What implications does acid rain have for the landscape architecture profession in the Rocky Mountain region?". To establish the implications or relevance of this threat to landscape architecture, perhaps three issues must be addressed:
1) The resources at risk which are of direct concern to the profession.
2) The nature of the threat
3) The means to offset the threat
In addition to addressing these three previously stated issues, it seems appropriate to reflect upon an acceptable definition of landscape architecture and in so doing maybe a more direct relationship or relevancy can be delineated between the concerns or responsibilities of the profession and the potential threat of acid rain. One
popular definiton of landscape architecture maintains it is, "the art of design, planning or management of the
18


land, arrangement of natural and man-made elements thereon through application of cultural and scientific knowledge, with concern for resource conservation and stewardship, to the end that the resultant environment serves a useful and enjoyable purpose."
If one accepts this definition, it seems significant to underscore that the profession is concerned with resource conservation. Furthermore, landscape architecture plans and manages as well as designs. This implies the profession participates in long range decision making, hence, Figures 44A and 44B are offered to support the concept that of all the disciplines involved in modern planning, landscape architecture assumes a significant responsibility for decision making as well as design. Upon inspecting Figure 44B, one observes urban planning assumes the largest responsibility for decision making; however, regarding landscape planning for all other lands outside the urban setting, this thesis candidate submits landscape architecture should assume a primary leadership role of addressing pertinent acid rain issues. This is not to imply landscape architecture should not be rigorously involved with acid rain issues of concern to the urban environment, but rather, landscape architecture is justified in exploring its potential professional contribution toward abating risks or threats posed by acid rain to resources which are of direct concern to the
profession.


DECISIONS, GOALS, AMD CRITERIA
QUESTIONS AMD TASKS
DECISION-
MAKING
fa
INFORMATION AND DATA
DETAILED QUESTIONS V EVALUATIONS
DATA
L_ TEST RESULTS
assessments
SOLUTIONIS
FIG. 44A THE INTERACTIONS AMONG THE DECISION-MAKING, TECHNICAL, AND DESIGN ASPECTS OF
MODERN planning,
LANDSCAPE
ARCHITECTURE
URBAN
PLANNING
architecture
geography
DECISIONMAKING TECHNICAL DESIGN
FIG-446 THE RELATIVE PROPORTIONS OF RESPONSIBILITY ASSUMED FOR THE THREE ASPECTS OF MODERN PLANNING BY LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE, URBAN PLANNING, ARCHITECTURE, 4 GEOGRAPHY.
* reference: marsh, wuluam M..LANDSCAPE PLANNING ~ ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS REAPING MA: APPISOkHNESLEY publishing CO. m3, P.ZS
.44-


At this point, it seems logical to reflect upon resources which are of direct concern to landscape architecture. Of the natural and cultural resources discussed previously (i.e., aquatic habitats, fish, vegetation, art, and architecture), all are of direct concern to, at least, some significant number of landscape architects professionally. For example, landscape architects of the National Park Service are usually involved in design and planning endeavors which require them to integrate natural and cultural resource protection as a major program factor in addition to aesthetic considerations. The Water Resources Field Support Laboratory of the National Park Service has proposed models for assessing the degree of risk to which given natural or cultural resource areas are being subjected to acid rain damage. (See Figures 45 and 46.) Private sector landscape architects, to cite another case, often scrutinize plant materials and building materials for vulnerabilities to adverse conditions a given environment may pose.
Perhaps, after reflecting upon these resources at risk, the nature of the threat becomes more evident. This thesis candidate submits that acid rain threatens resources of direct concern to the profession in a major capacity and that planners and designers should consider this potential threat in their pre-design programs. Obviously, if natural and cultural resources are severely
20


NATURAL RESOURCE AREAS
l.
What is the bedrock, are there sections of granite, gneiss, schists, or other slow-to-weather units?
???
acid rain not a problem
2. is the bedrock exposed ???
4. are there lakes and streams in this area with slow-to-weather bedrock and thin soils ???
acid rain not a problem
yes--this area is no
potentially sensitive to acid rain
is pH of rainfall averaging less than 5.6 ???
vegetation and soils might be at riskwarrants further study
yes no
this area potentially receives acid rain. Further inquiry is needed.
acid rain not a problem



CULTURAL RESOURCE AREAS
A. Resources are structures
1. What are structures made of
???
8. Resources are works of art
Resources are structures
1. Structures are made of masonry marble, concrete, mortar, stucco other limestones ???
and/or
Resources are works of art
1. Pieces one of a kind; cannot be replaced.
yes
2.
averaging less than 5.6?
???
4.
Is pH of rainfall averaging less than 5.6?
yes
Work potentially at risk. Monitoring needed.
no acid rain not a problem
yes noacid rain not a problem
this area potentially receives acid rain.
Further inquiry needed.


damaged, ecological consequences result; however, in addition, aesthetic deterioration becomes emminent in such ways as changes to a given landscape's color, form, contrast, texture, and overall visual character.
Finally, the means to offset the threat must be addressed. Presented next, is a hypothetical scenario which serves to illustrate the means in which a landscape architect might attempt to mitigate adverse effects of acid rain to a high elevation lake ecosystem. Although untried and unproven in its entirety, some of the mitiga-tive techniques have been employed with a noteworthy degree of success in Sweden. Obviously, high elevation lakes are not the only enviroments potentially impacted by acid rain. More research and design exploration, in great measure, could prove helpful for other ecological situations. This scenario was selected because it addresses what many scientists, currently, fear typifies one of the more serious threats to the Rocky Mountain region states.
Consider a high elevation lake such as might be found at Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado. Initially, industrial emissions high in S0Z and NO undergo atmospheric transformation, producing acid rain which is deposited on this lake as well as its surrounding watershed. (See Figures 47 and 48.)
From the lake's watershed, tributaries of runoff flow to three major drainage swales which flow into the high elevation lake. (See Figure 49.)
21


INDUSTRIAL EMISSIONS
FI6. A7


SECTION
PLAN VIEW


DRAINAGE


Consider the basic components of this watershed system. the rain falls on the surrounding slopes, flows to the drainage swales which, in turn, flow into the lake that releases water into a stream. (See Figure 50) It is assumed in this case, as is typical, there is little or no vegetation or soil found on the slopes. Instead, the watershed is lined with granite rock or some other slow-to-weather rock type. At any rate, neither rock type affords much (if any) buffering or neutralization of the acid runoff as it flows into the lake and stream. This being the case, a concept for mitigation can be developed which attempts to establish man-made neutralizing buffers between each of the watershed components. In so doing, it is intended that runoff entering and leaving the lake will have an acceptable pH level. (See Figure 51)
Focusing on specifics, perhaps it is reasonable to begin this neutralizing strategy by using the drain to buffer the lake from acid runoff. (See Figure 52) This approach is selected first because some success has been realized in other countries lining drainage swales with limestone which has a neutralizing effect on acid runoff. The design assumption of this thesis candidate is that if the length of the drainage swale can be lengthened, the acid runoff flowing through it will be exposed to the drain surface area longer and, hence, an opportunity is provided to neutralize the runoff longer and minimize the runoff's acidity. For example, by undulating the shape of
22


c?S
Z
>
m
73
CP
X
m
a
o
o
-o
o
z
cn
Z
H
CP


BEFORE
ACID I
RUNOFF Aj
tW
ACID
RUNOFF
LAKE
ACID
RUNOFF

AFTER
I
2L
-5TKEAVE
I
CONCEPT FOR MITIGATION
F(6. SI




a drainage swale through, say, grading, it might be
possible to triple the length water would flow before
entering the lake. Furthermore, this undulating path
would serve to reduce the velocity of the runoff.
Reduction of the runoff 's velocity may be desirable to
lessen its potential to dislodge and wash away the chunks of limestone that would be placed in rip-rap lining fashion throughout the drain. (See Figures 53 and 54.) To further reduce the runoff's velocity, retention ponds could be placed at the end of each run of the undulating drains' zig-zag paths. (See Figures 55 and 56.) When runoff reaches a retention pond, the concept's intent is to set up a swirling or whirlpool action wherein water is constantly being exchanged between the drainage swale and the retention pond. In other words, acidified runoff is exchanged into a retention pond where it is retained, swirled, and "washed" within the limestone lined container until it is soon flushed out by more incoming water which will have its acidity reduced in like fashion. So on, the runoff continues its way down the drainage swale, repeating this process numerous times before being deposited into the fragile lake which contains life very sensitive to acidification. (See Figure 57.)
The next part of this overall neutralizing strategy occurs in a process whereby the stream is buffered from the lake with the use of a device called a diversion well invented in Sweden. Water flowing from the lake is
23


INCREASE DRAINAGE LENGTH AND REDUCE RUNOFF VELOCITY
60'
------------------$

Fi<£. 93


CHANGED BY GRADING
DRAINAGE CONFIGURATION
Fi6*. t=>Ar


REDUCTION OF RUNOFF
CONCEPT FOR VELOCITY
Fi£. 55


RETENTION POMPS FOR SLOPING AND NEUTRAL-IZING ACID RUNOFF


DRAINAGE
SWALE
RETENTION
POND
Mo SOPIUMI LAUR-YL SULFATE IW RUBBEE.IZ.EP PELLETS BY B.F. CjOCPK ICH SOIL SUBSTITUTE WHICH IS AM EKPER.IMEMTAL PROPUCT ( L. A. MA&AZIWE may V8B ~)
EXCHANGE OF RUNOFF
FUS. £7


channeled through a pipe which enters the limestone filled diversion well where the water is filtered and neutralized to a degree. Some experiments have yielded a pH increase of 1 (from 4.4 to 5.4). (See Figures 58 and 59.)
The last part of this overall buffering concept focuses on buffering the drains from the slopes with the use of vegetation which has a neutralizing or pH raising effect on acid rain falling upon and dripping through its foliage. Further research would be helpful to identify specific species of vegetation which have this ability and at the same instant are able to withstand harsh high altitude conditions. U.S. Forest Service specialists, contacted, suspect such species exist but at this time are unable to identify what they are. (See Figures 60 and 61 .)
This hypothetical scenario has been offered to stimulate further exploratory means landscape architects might employ to offset the threat acid rain poses to resources of direct concern to the profession. Before concluding this scenario discussion, it seems appropriate to say if such mitigative technologies could be further refined and perfected, other issues would still remain for additional consideration. Two such issues would be costs and aesthetics.
It seems prudent to suggest that the financial costs of construction and maintenance of such mitigative systems may be prohibitive in certain instances. Specific
24


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\ /
11
STREAM K J
TMIS
PROCESS
f=l£. 5g>


DIVERSION WELL UTILIZED TO NEUTRALIZE. STREAM
Fl£..


V v w ^
THIS
PROCESS
FI6. ^


/


prohibitive factors might include difficulty of access to the site, volume and availability of neutralizing materials required, maintenance of neutralization devices for operating efficiency, and the size of the scientific staff required to monitor the effects of the mitigative devices upon the ecosystem of concern. Some national specialists suggest that mitigative measures may only be feasible for small scale applications, that is, say, a small pond or lake as opposed to thousands of high elevation mountain lakes in rugged wilderness areas.
The second issue aesthetics, could raise a myriad of challenges for landscape architects. It may not be a simple matter to introduce acid runoff buffering swales, retention ponds, diversion wells, and vegetation without dramatically changing a given site's natural visual character. The thesis candidate suggests that landscape architecture design issues would need to be considered. These design issues could include a need to sensitively manipulate visual and other sensual changes to the landscape's color, landform, visual and tactile character, contrast, and texture. Furthermore, aethetic considerations might encompass aquatic ecosystems as well as other aspects of the landscape. (See Figure 62.)
Recall this discussion began earlier stating means to offset the threat of acid rain must be addressed by landscape architects. Since then, mitigative means discussed have been technologies which would be applied on a given
25


LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DESIGN ISSUES
MUST SENSITIVELY MANIPULATE
changes to:
COLOR
LANDFORM
VISUAL CHARACTER
CONTRAST
TEXTURE
AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS
AESTHETIC DECISIONS AS WELL AS TECHWICAL DECISIONS ARE REQUIRED .
f~l


site at risk. The thesis candidate submits there are more desirable strategies worthy of the landscape architecture profession's consideration. These options assume an approach which is more political and educational in nature than the previously discussed technological approaches. The technological approaches seem to be costly, be somewhat uncertain, and assume acid rain has and will continue to occur. Furthermore, the technological approaches cannot guarantee total abatement of acid rain damage nor can they be employed without risking detrimental side effects upon the ecosystems to which they would be applied. The political and educational strategies, on the other hand, may be more desirable for obvious reasons. Simply stated, if such pressures could be applied effectively in the Rocky Mountain west before the acid rain threat reaches disastrous proportions, perhaps man-made sources which cause the acid rain threat can be cleansed if not totally eliminated before the problem worsens. In such event, it would be hoped the already impacted ecosystems in the Rocky Mountain region would be able to recover to their more pristine condition.
The specifics of such educational and political strategies will be discussed later, however before so doing it seems proper to begin this topic with an analysis of the current attitudes and knowledge level among landscape architects in the Rocky Mountain region. A survey was
26


conducted of a 10 percent random sampling of members of the American Society of Landscape Architects (A.S.L.A.) in Colorado and Wyoming. Forthcoming will be additional data from the same survey being conducted among A.S.L.A. members in Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, northern Arizona and New Mexico. The thesis candidate, at the thesis committee's recommendation, conducted this survey to document the knowledge level and attitudes of Rocky Mountain region landscape architects; however, it was hoped that other beneficial byproducts might result from it. For example, the survey was intended to raise issues, questions, and suggestions from the profession at an elementary or "grassroots" level which could make forthcoming proposals for mitigative actions more relevant to the concerns of Rocky Mountain region landscape architects. Furthermore, it was hoped this survey process might stimulate landscape architects to think more about the potential threat of acid rain and as a result realize an increased consciousness of acid rain issues, risks, and options in the Rocky Mountain west.
27


HYPOTHESIS
To once more state the hypothesis, it is:
The knowledge level among the majority of landscape architects in the Rocky Mountain region with regard to pertinent acid rain issues is low.
DEVELOP TEST METHODOLOGY AND IDENTIFY CASE STUDY
With the assistance of a research specialist from the Center for Community Design and Development in Denver, Colorado, a survey was developed to test the hypothesis by assessing knowledge levels and attitudes regarding pertinent acid rain issues among Rocky Mountain region landscape architects. A random sampling of A.S.L.A. members from Colorado and Wyoming comprising 10 percent of the total membership was taken along with a 20 percent sampling of landscape architects directly involved in planning and design projects for the Rocky Mountain region of the National Park Service. At the present, identical surveys are being administered throughout Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and those northern parts of Arizona and New Mexico which are considered in the National Park Service's Rocky Mountain region. When those responses are received and evaluated, a supplemental
28


report of the findings will become available. For the present, however, the complete survey results from Colorado and Wyoming will be presented. The profiles of the 58 respondents are as follows:
o Average number of years practicing in the Rocky Mountain region 12 years, o Average number of years practicing outside the Rocky Mountain region 5 years, o Percent of respondents practicing in the private sector only 43%.
o Precent of respondents practicing in the public sector only 40%.
o Percent of respondents practicing in both private and public sectors 17%. o Schools from which respondents graduated:
- Harvard University
- Iowa State University
- Kansas State University
- Lawthorpe School of Landscape Architecture for Women
- Louisiana State University
- Michigan State University
- Mississippi State University
- Ohio State University
- Pennsylvania State University
- Syracuse University
29


- Temple University
o
o
- University of British Columbia at Vancouver
- University of California at Berkeley
- University of Colorado at Denver
- University of Georgia
- University of Illinois
- University of Massachusetts
- University of Michigan
- University of Minnesota
- University of Missouri
- University of Orgeon
- University of Pennsylvania
- University of West Virginia
- University of Wyoming
- Utah State University
- Virginia Polytechnic Institute Average graduation year 1969.
Average age 40 years.
EXECUTE CASE STUDY AND PERFORM EVALUATION
The following survey questions were asked and these were the responses from the landscape architects previously profiled:
1) What do you believe to be the degree acid rain threatens to damage natural and cultural resources in the
30


Rocky Mountain region? 80% major or moderate, 20% little
or none
2) What do you believe would be the extent to which landscape architecture could generate responsive policies and design guidelines which would help it protect and recover natural and cultural resources from acid rain damage? 65% major or moderate, 35% little or none
3) Do you think the profession should encourage pertinent acid rain research with the intent of developing and disseminating useful technical information related to planning and design? 82% yes, 18% no
4) What do you believe to be the extent to which the A.S.L.A. should support lobbying efforts at state and national legislative levels advocating the reduction of pollutants to be causing acid rain? 89% major or moderate, 11% little or none
5) What do you believe would be your level of receptiveness to receiving more information on acid rain issues related to landscape architecture? 91% very receptive or moderately receptive, 9% not receptive
6) Do you use acid rain as a program factor in design and planning? 6% yes, 94% no (They indicated "no" because they lacked sufficient knowledge of pertinent acid rain issues which would be applicable to their projects.)
(See Figures 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, and 68.)
A summarization of this survey reveals there are no Rocky Mountain region landscape architects who consider
31


i) UIhat po you believe to
BE THE VE6tK.EE A<^ID RAiU
threaten to damage Matural a Kip cultural
RESOURCES iKl THE MOUMTAIU ReGiIOM ?
80% Major or. Moderate
^16,. t,s


2) UJhat do you believe
WOULD BE THE EXTEWT TO WHICH LAKJDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE COULD GENERATE RESPOMSlVE POLICIES, AMD DESIGW GUIPELIWES WHICH IWOULD HELP IT PROTECT AMD RECOVER XiATURAL AMD CULTURAL REeoURCEE> FROM AC.ID RAlW DAMACtE ?
65% Major or Moderate
FI6. 64