MOUNTAIN RESORT COMMUNITY PLANNING CASE STUDY: LAKE ARROWHEAD, CALIFORNIA
SUZANNE BOTT MclNTYRE
MOUNTAIN RESORT COMMUNITY PLANNING OUSE STUDY: LAKE ARROWHEAD, CALIFORNIA
Suzanne Bott McIntyre
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Planning and Community Development University of Colorado at Denver Professor Herb Smith Thesis Advisor Summer 1984
In Memory of Karen Smith
Two and a half years ago as part of a PCD780 course requirement I interviewed Karen. I chose her as my professional "role model" partly because she was a mountain resort community planner, but mostly because she was a dynamic and outstanding individual. She was lively, interesting, and hard working, dedicated to the planning profession. The memory of Karen Smith will continue to offer encouragement and inspiration to all who knew her and treasured her friendship.
I would like to take this opportunity to thank certain individuals who
have contributed to this effort. Professor Herb Smith has been a superb
advisor and has been very supportive of my determination to do this rather unusual thesis. He refused to accept my initial discourses, but encouraged me to write and rewrite in order to develop analytical and communication
skills necessary for a planner. He has been eternally patient, and has
provided professional guidance as well as support. This was not the ideal way to write a thesis but Professor Smith was the ideal advisor. Special thanks also to Nancy Smith for putting up with Sunday morning phone conferences, held at that time, because long distance rates were cheapest.
Special thanks go to my husband, Curt McIntyre, who has been a great source of motivation. I am grateful for his editing (as my committee must also be) and for his continuous support of my scholastic and professional endeavors.
I would also like to thank my word processor, Lynne Geer, for a magnificent job. And finally, my gratitude goes out to everyone who supplied me with data, to Alpine Press for maps, and to the Mountain Shopper for publishing the questionnaire. This thesis exemplifies the
cooperative nature of community planning.
14 November 1984
The case study of Lake Arrowhead, California was designed to illustrate the process of mountain resort community planning. The purpose was to demonstrate the unique characteristics associated with resort areas and the role of planning in the development and management of these communities.
An analysis was made of Lake Arrowhead's history, political processes, governmental framework, economic status, infrastructure, site planning, and design. A major portion of the study focused on the redevelopment of the Lake Arrowhead Village, outlining the development process and evaluating the resulting mixed-use project. Based upon this analysis conclusions were drawn and recommendations made for the political, economic, physical, and social development of the community. The results of the study show the extreme importance of careful, comprehensive planning in resort communities where success is determined by the community's viability.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 PURPOSE AND INTRODUCTION 1-1
Climate, Vegetation, and Wildlife 1-2
CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND INFORMATION 2-1
Physical Character 2-5
Land Use 2-6
History of the Development of Lake Arrowhead Village 2-9
CHAPTER 3 THE POLITICAL FRAMEWORK 3-1
CHAPTER 4 ECONOMIC HEALTH AND INCORPORATION FEASIBILITY 4-1
CHAPTER 5 INFRASTRUCTURE AND PUBLIC SERVICES 5-1
1. Electricity 5-1
2. Natural Gas 5-2
3. Water Supply and Sewage System 5-2
4. Roads and Circulation 5-3
5. Solid Waste Collection and Disposal 5-6
6. Telephone 5-6
7. Television 5-7
Community and Public Facilities 5-7
8. United States Postal Service 5-7
9. Police Protection 5-8
10. Fire Protection 5-8
11. Health Care Services 5-9
12. Schools 5-10
13. Community Resources and Services 5-10
CHAPTER 6 SITE PLANNING AND DESIGN 6-1
Physical and Cultural Site Planning Considerations 6-2
Design Considerations 6-6
CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 7-1
LIST OF FIGURES Page
Figure 1 Lake Arrowhead Resorts Area Map 1-3
Figure 2 Primary Entrances Into the Community 2-8
Figure 3 Organization of the San Bernardino County Government 3-2
Figure 4 Proposed Boundaries of Incorporation 4-4
Figure 5 Proposed Organizational Structure of Town Council Government 4-5
Figure 6 Projected Revenues and Expenditures for Incorporated Municipality 4-7
Figure 7 Projected Revenues and Expenditures for Incorporated Municipality 4-8
Figure 8 Lake Arrowhead Village Site Plan 6-8
Figure 9 Lake Arrowhead Village and Lodge Directory 6-9
Figure 10 Village Bay Chalets Condominium Layout 6-12
Figure 11 Lake Arrowhead Logo 6-11
CHAPTER 1 PURPOSE AND INTRODUCTION
Climate, Vegetation, and Wildlife History
CHAPTER 1 PURPOSE AND INTRODUCTION
Whether as visitors or permanent residents, people come to the
mountains for a particular lifestyle. Reasons vary, but generally include a desire to "get away from it all," and to enjoy the fresh air and slower pace. Local planning shapes the community and may greatly affect the
quality of life, the essential ingredient in a resort community's attraction. Planning can maintain the positive aspects of the area while allowing for growth, or it can be the cause of random, haphazard growth.
The community of Lake Arrowhead is currently undergoing growth and
redevelopment. The purpose of this thesis is to show the changes a small mountain resort undergoes during those processes, and the effects they have upon various aspects of the community. To do so I will show the positive and negative impacts of the development upon various facets of the
community, including the economy, infrastructure, physical environment, and quality of life of its residents. Certain questions have been continuously addressed throughout the research period and the writing of this thesis to help evaluate the status of the different essential elements in the community. These questions include:
o Has this been a satisfactory and effective way to develop?
o At this point in the development, has it benefitted or been a
detriment to the community?
o What steps could have been taken to further maximize benefits, and/or minimize detriments?
o What areas of concern will need to be addressed in the future?
It is my hope that the results of this study will be helpful to other resort communities, mountain or otherwise, when faced with rapid growth or change, and the challenges of managing them successfully. Although the
community of Lake Arrowhead is unique, there are similarities it shares with other growing communities seeking to preserve the qualities its residents cherish and which drew them there initially. Resort communities in particular must work to not only maintain their attraction, but continuously improve their image in order to sustain their appeal.
The resort community of Lake Arrowhead is located in the San Bernardino mountains, approximately 85 miles from downtown Los Angeles. Lake Arrowhead Village, the center of commercial activities, is located on the southern shore of Lake Arrowhead (Figure 1). The area between Los
Angeles and the San Bernardino mountains is urbanized and is considered to be part of the Los Angeles Basin. The land north and east of the San Bernardino mountains is desert and sparsely populated. Other mountain communities in the vicinity of Lake Arrowhead include Twin Peaks, Agua Fria, Rimforest, Skyforest, Blue Jay, and Cedar Glen. The largest and closest urban center is San Bernardino, 25 miles away. Other nearby lakes in the San Bernardino mountains include Lake Gregory and Silverwood Lake to the west and northwest, and Big Bear Lake to the east.
Climate, Vegetation, and Wildlife
While areas of the San Bernardino Mountains rise to elevations over 14,000 feet, the elevation of the community of Lake Arrowhead averages 5000 feet above sea level. The climate is mild, with hot dry summers, and cool winters. Summer high temperatures are generally in the mid-80s; winter temperatures average in the high-40's. Precipitation varies greatly from year to year but is primarily in the form of measurable snow in winter, and moderate rainfall in spring.
PUeilSMCOBY AX PINE PRESS. RIME OREST All RIGMIS RFSERVFn
Lake Arrowhead Resorts Area Map
Vegetation at the 5000 feet level is mediterranean, with a wide variety of coniferous, and more limited deciduous trees. Predominant species include Ponderosa Pine, Sugar Pine, Cedar, Fir, and Alder. Flowering Dogwoods flourish in several of the canyons leading into the community, while other flowering tree species have a more tenuous existence due to frequent late-spring snows. Small plants and grasses are of the typical mediterranean varieties, and include water-dependent species along the lake's edge.
The number of animal species in the Lake Arrowhead area has been reduced by the extensive residential and commercial development. Some deer remain, as well as rattlesnakes, squirrels, bluejays, and other birds and small animals.
The area of the San Bernardino Mountains which is presently occupied by the community of Lake Arrowhead was originally used as a source of timber by early settlers. The early loggers, a large portion of whom where Mormon settlers, were joined by other settlers, and the population of the area gradually grew as the industry increased.
The interest in developing the natural resources of the area continued over the years and into the early 1890's when the Arrowhead Reservoir Company was founded. In 1904 construction of a dam was begun to form a lake for use as a reservoir to serve agricultural needs in the communities below the mountains. In 1921, the Lake Arrowhead Company was founded and took over the accumulated interests of its predecessors with the purpose of turning the area into a resort.
The popularity of the area as a resort rose in the 1920's and 1930's when it became a haven for wealthy socialites to gamble, dance, and drink
boot-leg liquor. Growth and development slowed during the Depression, but interest in the area never waned. Over the next several decades the form of the attractions at Lake Arrowhead varied with the changing hotels, restaurants, and entertainment. Land adjacent to the lake was subdivided for private residences and each of the small communities around the lake developed its own character. As early as 1923 strict development standards and land use controls were put into effect, many of which remain today. The number of full-time residents enjoying the benefits of the resort community continued to rise.
In 1946, the Los Angeles Turf Club purchased the lake and its properties as growth in the area continued. The property changed hands two more times until 1975, when the need for repairs on the dam prompted surrounding property owners to form the Arrowhead Lake Association. The Association purchased the lake from the Boise Cascade Company, and built a second dam, completed in 1978. At the same time Boise Cascade sold Arrowhead Village to Metropolitan Advertising. In 1978 a group of investors bought the Village and found the buildings too old and delapidated to be remodeled. It was decided to have the County fire departments hold a controlled burn of the old Village, except for the pavillion, and build anew. By early 1981 most of the new Alpine-style village was complete, with a major hotel, numerous restaurants, shops, a public beach, and a marina in operation.
Now, in mid-1984 the new Lake Arrowhead Village has been in existence long enough to have made measurable impacts upon the community of Lake Arrowhead. As the center of commercial activity for the area and the primary destination for tourists, the Lake Arrowhead Village serves as a focus for questions concerning planning practices in the community. The central themes which will be evaluated, from city planning and community
development standpoints, are whether the land in the Lake Arrowhead Village, and the community of Lake Arrowhead has been developed to its best possible use, and whether the greatest number of people are receiving the maximum benefits from it. In the following chapters planning issues and questions will by analyzed with these themes in mind, beginning with an analysis of community character, current demographics, and discussion of the Villages development. The subsequent chapters will dissect the planning background of the development of the area, looking specifically at the Village. Additional chapters will evaluate the local economic situation, status of the infrastructure and public services, and the site planning and design strategies employed in the development of the Village. The final chapter will relate residents' impressions of the quality of life in the Lake community of Arrowhead and include conclusions and recommendations.
CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Demographics Physical Character Land Use
History of the Development of Lake Arrowhead Village
CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Demographics, Physical Character, Land Use, and the History of the Lake Arrowhead Village
The community of Lake Arrowhead is similar to other communities which
have small permanent population bases. Resort communities invariably have
a fluctuating and constantly changing population. The amenities they
offer attract large numbers of tourists, and inevitably, a small number who
choose to remain and make the community their permanent home. However,
what seems sylvan and idyllic to a weekender, becomes less than attractive
when the problems of everyday life become apparent. The following
demographic data of the community of Lake Arrowhead reflect the transient
nature of the resort population, as well as the skewed nature of a
homogeneous society. Data are taken from the Population and Housing
Statistics of the United State Census, 1980, unless otherwise noted. They reflect the most significant characteristics of the population of Lake Arrowhead.
1. Total Population Full-Time Residents
Year 1960 Population 1,950
est. 1984 7,250
est. 2000 10,000
Approximately 250 residents are added to the population each year.
1 United States Census, 1980. Population and Housing Statistics
Census Tract and Regional Statistical Area.
3. Average household size: 2.82 individuals.
4. Total Dwelling Units 6,786
Year-round Occupied Dwelling Units 2,220
Seasonally Occupied Units 4,566
Vacancy rate 67.28%
5. Approximately 279 dwelling units are added to the area each year.
6. The area is comprised of about 20,000 pieces of land, about 1/3 of
which have been developed.
7. 87% of housing unit values are above $50,000.00.
55% of housing unit values are above $80,000.00.
8. The highest number of rental units is in the $300.00 to $399.00 per month range.
9. Racial Breakdown:
Caucasian 95% Hispanics 3% All others 2%
10. Male-Female Ratio :
11. Age Distribution:
Under 1 to 20 Years 21 to 44 Years 45 to 64 Years 65 to 84 Years 85 and older
12. Population has higher than
13. Rim of the World Unified
average levels of income and education. School District shows a 34% annual
San Bernardino County, Lake Arrowhead Communities Plan. p. F-7.
Steffens, Gary, Superintendent, Rim of the World Unified School District.
14. A large proportion of full-time residents commute to work outside the community.
As the data show, the community of Lake Arrowhead continues to grow at a rate of 4 percent per year. Between 1975 and the year 2000 the population is expected to double from 5,000 full-time residents to 10,000. This high growth rate will put a strain upon many aspects of the community.
One area in which the data indicate there will not be an excessive overload is upon housing. There is a very high vacancy rate of 67.28 percent, and the figures show with a yearly increase of approximately 280 new dwelling units the number of empty dwelling units will remain fairly constant. The data also show a low percentage of developed land. However, many of the 13,000 remaining pieces of land are substandard sized lots and will have to be combined with other substandard lots in order to be suitable for development. Additionally, the land surrounding the community is National Forest land and aside from a small portion made available to the public, is unavailable for development. Even so, the area is far from built out.
Other figures reflecting the nature of the resort community are the cost figures for housing. Over half the houses in the Lake Arrowhead area demand prices over $80 thousand, a not unusual phenomenon associated with resort communities. Land, building materials, and labor costs are higher than average for the region based upon the cost of living and the increased cost of transporting materials from the major urban centers. Most resort communities face similar price distortions due to their proximity to resources, but as is evidenced by the increasing population growth and development, residents are willing to pay the higher prices. Those conditions affect the types of residents able to make their homes in resort
communities. The data for the resort community of Lake Arrowhead disclose a well-educated population with higher than average incomes. This market is almost exclusively white, with a disproportionate number (74%) younger than age 45 and a balanced male-to-female ratio.
Another significant figure, presented by the school district, is the 34 percent annual population turnover. This very high turnover rate can possibly be attributed to the diminishing attractiveness of the area to new residents over time. Also, the high cost of living causes some to leave.
One factor which does not significantly alter the high yearly turnover is the seasonality of the ski industry. A town like Sun Valley may lose one-third of its population in May and regain a new population in November. In Lake Arrowhead, there is a slight weather related in- and out-migration in the spring and fall. Many residents travel to Palm Spring or Palm Beach for the winter, and return again in the spring to enjoy the remaining three seasons. Seasons are critical to resort communities; the community of Lake Arrowhead, and the Hilton Hotel in particular, are striving to expand the year-round attractions by increasing activity programs, especially for winter sports enthusiasts.
In summation of the demographic statistics, the key point to be made is that the community of Lake Arrowhead is representative of other resort communities in its population types, housing characteristics, and fluctuating numbers. The resort community draws a certain type of person seeking a particular existence different from the everyday urban setting. With these people come characteristics and needs which must be addressed and planned around in order to have a viable, vibrant community.
The community of Lake Arrowhead has within it a variety of forms of physical character. It is certain that attention to design and style have been dominant guiding forces in its development, and based upon the area's history and the diversity of its designers, there is a strong variety in form existing today. The physical character of the community is made up of two dominant design styles, various building ages, wide ranges of quality, and variations in compatibility with surroundings. Some of the differences work well with one another, some do not.
The architectural style of the community of Lake Arrowhead has traditionally been Alpine, with peaked roofs, half-timbers, A-frames, and subdued colors. (Many of the design standards for residential development which promote the Alpine tradition in the Arrowhead Woods Tracts have been in effect and enforced by the Arrowhead Woods Architectural Committee since 1923.) The other predominant architectural style is American Western, reminiscent of early mining and ranching days. Logs and stone masonry are the prevalent building materials. The differences in style and preferences have led to controversy but both styles of design continue to be used, with generally harmonious results.
The community also exhibits a wide range of building ages. There are numerous buildings in deteriorated states, as well as many new or newly renovated ones. The infrequent use of many homes has led to disrepair and lack of regard for overall aesthetics, a problem inherent in communities with high vacancy rates and population turnovers. Numerous buildings are occupied by renters only, and are not given adequate care. After even a short period of neglect deterioration becomes apparent, especially in those structures which were constructed of lower quality materials. In the community of Lake Arrowhead there is a wide range of quality levels which
becomes increasingly obvious with time. Even in a number of relatively new structures (5 to 10 years old) there are cracks in walls, peeling paint, separation in joints, etc..
Compatibility with the lake and mountain environments is another area which has not always received proper consideration. There are unfortunate instances of condominiums being placed along the lake's edge where the views from them are splendid, but their existence as such is an eyesore to the rest of the community. Additionally, there have been instances where structures have been placed on unstable or improperly graded sites leading to erosion; and instances of "over-improvement", where vegetation has been cut back to the point of near-total removal.
Part of the physical and related human character which many residents came to the area for is its neighborliness and and small-town atmosphere. This is a community where residents are active on school boards, in churches, clubs, and service organizations. There is a strong dedication to the community and both a sense of belonging and pride. While the scenic beauty of the area may be the primary draw to newcomers, the devoted resident population and deep sense of commitment to the community to keep them.
The land use patterns of the Lake Arrowhead area have developed around the lake, with residential areas radiating out from along the shoreline. Commercial and business activities are located primarily in the 34.6 acre Lake Arrowhead Village and smaller neighborhood centers in Blue Jay, Rim Forest, and Cedar Glen. The Village provides the widest array of goods and services; it includes a Stater Brothers (major grocery store), a drug store, dry cleaners, hardware store, several banks, real estate offices,
post office, Chamber of Commerce, and professional offices. The Village is also the primary destination for tourists and offers a number of restaurants, as well as a wide variety of shops. Commercial activity has been restricted to these areas by both the Lake Arrowhead Community Plan, and the San Bernardino County General Plan.
While residential development has been almost exclusively in the form of single-family units, there are some condominiums, P.U.D.s, and timesharing complexes. Again, all residential development has been designated to specific areas by the Community and General Plans.
The community is served by a circulation system of State, County, and Private roads which ring the lake. Access into the area is provided primarily through three canyons on two-lane roads (Figure 2). The
circulation system is currently at capacity and becomes severely overloaded
on peak weekends. The two-lane highway circling the lake is bordered by
bordered by development along much of its length making future expansion
difficult. The need for public transportation has not been adequately
addressed, and at present, no plans are underway for its development.
Associated with the problematic circulation system is the serious lack of parking in the mountains. Parking is at a premium, with one estimate placing a cost of $4,000 on each stall in a parking structure. Motorists often park alongside roads; and patrons of the commercial areas repeatedly find parking difficult, if not impossible. Additionally, the community faces other traffic associated problems: air and noise pollution, snarls
and tie-ups, and congestion during winter storms.
San Bernardino County. Lake Arrowhead Communities Plan.pp. A-7, A-8.
McGuckian, John P., Associate Planner. San Bernardino County Planning Department.
FIGURE 2 PRIMARY ENTRANCES INTO THE COMMUNITY
The recreational land use in the area is not optimal. There are no "city" parks, gardens, picnic areas, or public playgrounds in the immediate Area. The lake itself is privately owned by the property owners; the only
public use is at the small stretch of beach and at the marina located in the Village. Fees are charged to visitors for all lake activities. In the general vicinity of the community there are a small number of National Forest campgrounds, picnic areas, and playing fields; equestrian activities are offered by a few privately owned operations. There is a new world-class skating rink located in Blue Jay. The closest ski area is Snow Valley, 15 miles away, with several larger areas located at Big Bear, and additional 9 miles away. For a community being touted as a recreation resort community there is very, very little actually offered to the visitor.
Land set aside for industry or public use is quite limited in the Lake Arrowhead area. Since tourism is the primary industry, there is little manufacturing, and what little there is is generally cottage-type. Land utilized for the public includes government offices, water treatment
plant sites, fire stations, churches, and schools, all of which have been
carefully designed for maximum use. Agricultural land uses are similarly limited and include some farming and ranching in outlying areas;
traditional Forest Service land uses occupy those areas designated as
History of the Development of Lake Arrowhead Village
Since the Lake Arrowhead Village is the center of activities in the area its importance is high. An evaluation of its redevelopment is useful in presenting a picture of planning in the mountains, as well as giving a broader understanding of the changes which take place during a major redevelopment.
In May, 1978, a partnership of G.C. Properties of Irvine and the Lake
Arrowhead Village Limited, purchased the old Village area with the intent
of removing existing structures and redeveloping the site. Earliest
applications for development permits on file at the San Bernardino County
Planning Department are dated February, 1979. Initial intent was to
develop a major hotel, condominiums, and commercial space for approximately
68 businesses through a two-phased approach. The intention for the primary
phase was to get the commercial buildings up, and was accomplished with
occupancy beginning in mid-1981. The second phase was to develop the
residential units; development of which continues at present with expected
completion during late 1984. Estimated costs for development in 1979 were 7 8
$16 million; with an estimate of $1 million for landscaping. Current
development budget figures are unavailable. Firms instrumental in the
development of the new Village are listed in Appendix 1.
Three features of the development promoted during early stages of
planning, and carried through to completion are significant. The project
was designed with the first extensive use of parking structures in the San
Bernardino mountains. A three-story parking structure was built which has
commercial space along the sides and on the top level. This is especially
important because it allows for year-round use of commercial activities -and
consolidation of parking with the subsequent reduction of paved parking
area. Secondly, the complex was designed to accommodate the handicapped
by allowing access to all levels through the use of elevators and ramps.
San Bernardino County Planning Department. File/Index No: 78-000/
Rogers, Bill. "Lake Arrowhead Village Development Plans OK'd," San Bernardino Sun.
Simross, Lynne. "Day They Burned Old Arrowhead Down," Los Angeles
Thirdly, an estimated 437 people were to be employed by the complex. That
figure varies at present: approximately 350 people are currently employed
by the Lake Arrowhead Village, 328 of whom work at the Hilton Hotel.
Public sentiment for the redevelopment was generally positive; many
people seemed to feel the old Village was too decayed and unattractive to
be a draw to tourists. Concerns were expressed over traffic, access, lack
of parking, the increased need for security, the high number of mature
trees being removed, and by the general feeling that the quaint image of
the Village would be lost. There was also concern that the
Environmental Impact Report was inadequate.
In addition to public opinion, interdepartmental response was
solicited by the San Bernardino County Planning Department (Appendix 2),
from the agencies listed below. Comments and concerns were addressed, with
many becoming conditions for approval of development. Departments and Agencies Solicited for Response:
Building and Safety
Director Special Districts
Environmental Health Services
Flood Control Division California Regional Water Quality Board
Lake Arrowhead Architectural Committee
Lake Arrowhead Sanitation District
Rim of the World School District
Southern California Edison Company Southern California Gas Company U.S. Forest Service Lake Arrowhead Community Services District
Lake Arrowhead Municipal Advisory Committee
McKay, Audry, Administrator, Lake Arrowhead Village.
Rogers, Bill. Bernardino Sun.
"Lake Arrowhead Village Development Plans Ok'd,"
Energy Conservation Fire Protection Flood Protection Grading
Landscaping and Soil Protection
Lighting and Signage Project Phasing Road Improvements Seismic Conditions Solid Waste Disposal
A list of 62 conditions of approval was prepared by the
dealing primarily with:
Approval for development of the project would not be given until the
developer had agreed to comply with the conditions.
An Environmental Impact Report, required for most major projects, was
prepared and filed by WESTEC Services, Inc., of Tustin, California. The
Environmental Review Board found the project to have significant impacts
upon the environment, but not significant adverse impacts. The amenities would outweigh the disadvantages incurred. Planning requirements at the time of the redevelopment were basic, making the application and approval process relatively simple. The proposed development did not require a zone change from its C-2 zone (general commercial), although it did require approval for the condominiums, considered a large-scale housing project. The essential requirements included a building permit insuring compliance with the building code, a plot plan showing adherence to setback requirements, and approval from the Environmental Review Board. In this case, the developer chose to go before the Planning Commission in order to
San Bernardino County Planning Department. Environmental Improvement Agency. Subdivision Committee Recommended Conditions of Approval.
San Bernardino County Planning Department. Planning Staff Report
for Hearing Date 2-15-79.
work more closely with its members and with the staff of the Planning Department.
Findings for approval given by the Planning Staff included the
project's consistency with the San Bernardino County General Plan, and the
Lake Arrowhead Communities General Plan. It was stated that the
project implemented the goals and policies of the Scenic Routes, Public
Safety, and Open Space elements of the General Plan. The site was shown to
be adequate in size and shape for the proposed use, and included 21.2 out
of 38.5 acres set aside for open space. It was also demonstrated as having
adequate access, with three points of ingress and egress. An additional
finding stated the proposed use would not have adverse impacts on the
surroundings as it was located on a penninsula and surrounded primarily by
water on three sides, and by commercial development on the fourth. The
final findings showed the design and layout of the proposed use to be
suitable because it allowed for separation of residences and lodging from
the commercial enterprises, while maintaining adequate internal circulation
to allow the uses to compatibly coexist for their mutual benefits. It also
emphasized the intent to revegetate all open spaces in order to allow the
project to blend harmoniously with the forest environment.
Approval for the project was granted in mid-1979, and construction of the first phase of the project took approximately two years. Construction continues on the final group of condominiums.
The Lake Arrowhead Village is presently owned and operated by the Central Capital Development Company, a subsidary of Central Savings in San Diego. The main office of the Lake Arrowhead Village management is located
San Bernardino County Planning Department. Planning Staff Report
for Hearing Date 2-15-79.
in the Village. Maintenance and protection services are provided by
employees of the Lake Arrowhead Village. All architectural and design-
related functions are performed by an architect out of the San Diego
office. The status of long-term ownership and management of the Village is
unclear at this time. Based upon a conversation with the administrator of
the Lake Arrowhead Village, the general outlook for the commercial success
of the village is good. Compared to other shopping centers the turn over rate is very low, with most of the businesses doing very well. It was also noted that the development allowed for adequate parking, i.e., on only three weekends per year is additional parking needed. Casual observation would find otherwise, concerning the turn over, vacancy rates, and adequacy of existing parking. At any rate, the redevelopment of the Lake Arrowhead Village can be deemed a success from the developers' point-of-view. It provides improved services for tourists and locals; it did not radically change the land use (although community character has been significantly altered); it mixes land uses in a suitable fashion; and is aesthetically pleasing primarily because of its newness.
Critics of the redevelopment will point out many reasons why the redevelopment of the Village has not been an unqualified success. As mentioned earlier, parking in the Village is often less than optimal, causing locals to shy away from utilizing services provided. The more intensive land use has increased traffic in and around the area, and has resulted in the placement of the first traffic signal in the community. Aesthetically the new Village is pleasing in the same sense a new shopping mall is pleasing; not unappealing, but not necessarily appropriate for a small mountain town. And finally, the overall design is unimaginative and
McKay, Audrey. Administrator, Lake Arrowhead Village.
does not take adequate advantage of the scenic location. These will be examined further in the following chapters.
GOVERNMENTAL FRAMEWORK AND POLITICAL PROCESSES
THE POLITICAL FRAMEWORK
CHAPTER 3 THE POLITICAL FRAMEWORK
The foremost legislative body in the San Bernardino County is the Board of Supervisors. The county is divided into five districts apportioned by population rather than size. Supervisors are elected to four year terms. Figure 3 shows the organizational structure of the county government and the offices under the Board of Supervisors. The Supervisors also serve on a variety of regional, state, and federal committees, including the Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG), County Supervisors Association of Counties (CSAC), and the National Association of Counties (NACO). Their duties range from handling public health problems to governing the 70 Special Districts in the County. The Supervisors also serve as executive county representatives when local problems or proposed legislation on the state or federal levels may cause significant impacts affecting their constituents.
Another part of the Supervisors' duties includes meeting with local civic groups and community organizations. Field representatives do much of the legwork, serving as liaisons between citizens and the supervisors. The various departmental staffs ensure that before a project or proposal goes before the Board it has been thoroughly evaluated, and had recommendations made. One way in which the Board receives input from the Lake Arrowhead Community is through the Municipal Advisory Committee (MAC), a five member appointed committee. The MAC reviews planning projects, as well as other civic matters, and offers recommedations to the Board on a monthly basis. The Arrowhead Lake Association (ALA) provides input to the Board on those issues directly affecting the lake or property owners in the Arrowhead Woods Tracts.
The Planning Commission is a nine member committee made up of citizens appointed by the Board of Supervisors. It holds hearings and makes
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PUBLIC SOCIAL SERVICES
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ORGANIZATION OF SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY GOVERNMENT
recommendations to the Board on land development plans brought forward by
the Planning Department and regarding growth management. The Commission
also holds public hearings on private applications for land development
projects such as zone changes, subdivisions, deviations, special uses, and
amendments to the General Plan. The Board of Supervisors hears and takes
action on these matters only after receiving a recommendation from the
Planning Commission. The Planning Commission Subcommittee is comprised of
three members of the Planning Commission. It holds public hearings on site
approvals, and hears appeals of staff actions on minor subdivisions,
various development plans and other actions.
The mechanisms for guiding planning decisions and directing growth are
the San Bernardino County General Plan and the Lake Arrowhead Communities
Plan. Both arose from the need for clear direction, and are continually
evaluated and updated. The General Plan may be amended by a General Plan
Amendment. Changes to the Community Plan may be made through the use of
variances and deviations. The Community Plan contains desirable land uses
and development criteria for a 5- to 10-year time period. The Community
Plan implements the land use provisions of the General Plan which are most
important to the citizens of Lake Arrowhead. The various land uses
permitted by the Community Plan must be consistent with the objectives,
policies, general land uses, and programs described in the County General 17
The County Development Code is the basic guide for the Community Plan's Land Use Regulations. It is flexible and allows communities to select those land use directives appropriate for their community. This is done by amending the Base Land Use Districts section of the code to either 17
San Bernardino County, Lake Arrowhead Communities Plan, p. F-10.
exclude certain land uses or to apply special community development
standards to the Base Land Use Districts. In Lake Arrowhead high intensity
uses and high density housing have been restricted by the Development Code.
Citizen input into the development of the Community and General Plans
was considered crucial. Three methods were used to obtain information: A
Citizen Advisory Committee, survey questionnaires, and public meetings.
The Citizen Advisory Committee was appointed by the Board of Supervisors,
and assisted the Planning Department staff in identifying critical needs,
goals for development, and formulation of directives. The questionnaires,
distributed in a local newspaper, were used to solicit residents' views on
growth and development. The respondents agreed that "the need to preserve
the natural mountain character, while providing for a reasonable rate of
growth, is the most critical planning issue facing the Lake Arrowhead 18
Area." They also indicated that parking, public transportation, roads,
parks, and playgrounds were very inadequate. Additionally, monthly
community meetings were held by the Planning Department Staff for citizens
and organizations. As a result of community involvement the Planning
Department Staff set forth four parameters of long-range growth which would
influence development' and ultimately determine the shape of the 19
community. The are:
o The major growth controlling factor in the future will be the road system. Since new roads are unlikely and the existing roads have a very limited potential for expansion, an increasing number of roads will soon be over capacity. Thus, new development must be carefully monitored or prohibited to protect the carrying
Ibid., p. F-5.
San Bernardino County, Lake Arrowhead Communities Plan, p. F-10.
capacity of the mountain circulation system, o All privately owned land within the Plan is surrounded by
National Forest, thus making any increase in developable land limited, and subject to the availability of services, o Ultimate residential densities will be limited by the slope of
the land. Development will become more difficult as fewer and fewer flat or gently sloping parcels are available for development.
o The year-round occupancy rate is steadily increasing especially with the growing popularity of time-sharing. This will create a greater demand for services regardless of any new development, and require the constant monitoring of services through the Plan's annual review.
In conclusion, San Bernardino County has a governmental system which is progressive, allowing for growth and change. Legislators take an active role in the planning process, receiving input from trained professional staff as well as concerned citizens. Opportunities exist for citizen participation through civic and community organizations, attendance at public hearings, and by involvement in the plan development processes. Citizen participation has had definitive results in the forms of
restrictions on densities, erosion control measures, and land use
regulations. Citizen involvement in Lake Arrowhead has also led to a push for incorporation. The feasibility of incorporation and an overview of the community's economic health will be discussed in the following chapter.
ECONOMICS AND INCORPORATION FEASIBILITY
ECONOMIC HEALTH AND INCORPORATION FEASIBILITY
CHAPTER A ECONOMIC HEALTH AND INCORPORATION FEASIBILITY
An important component in a resort community's viability is its economic health. The cost of services, expenses incurred by new development, and the economic future of the community are important when measuring its financial soundness. Since most primary economic data are spread among various county and state agencies, a secondary source has provided the bulk of statistics used in this chapter. The "Lake Arrowhead Communities Incorporation Report" was completed in October, 1983. The study provides a compilation which would not otherwise be available, and includes budget projections for the next several years. The Incorporation Report also details political, social, and legal ramifications of incorporation of the Lake Arrowhead area.
The economic health of most resort communities is based upon their success as resorts. Unlike communities with economic bases in manufacturing and industry, resort communities are at the mercy of both weather and consumers. Thus resort communities with year-round attractions are more economically stable than one-season resorts. Diversification and sound management are the keys in expanding the resort's economic base and ensuring fiscal viability.
Lake Arrowhead is a diversified community relying only partly upon tourism for its financial well being. It is an identifiable/independent community with a mixture of commercial and residential uses. Lake Arrowhead is a suburb of the greater Los Angeles are but not all residents commute. A full range of commercial services is provided by local businesses. Seasonal fluctuations in the cost of living are reduced by the sizeable permanent population and by Lake Arrowhead's role as largely a weekend destination. Those businesses geared toward filling basic consumer needs have a secure hold on the consumer market. Businesses aimed at the
visitor market have not fared as well. Real estate, construction, and
development-related businesses have performed well reflecting the growth and expansion of the area.
The redevelopment of the Village has provided a boost to the local economy although the types of shops and goods offered do not have sustained drawing power. Future development and expansion will result in a more secure economic base. Greater economic diversity will also result in more job opportunities. There are few at present due to the small number of businesses which fulfill most of the consumer needs. Additional businesses will also result in competitive pricing, a boon to resident consumers.
The attitudes toward economic growth in the community are mixed. Greater growth would mean greater consumption and increased profits for businesses. It would also result in a more competitive market as noted
above, with consumers benefitting. But by keeping growth at a minimum, businesses may enjoy a monopoly and charge what they desire.
Economic growth also means increased physical growth. No-growth proponents feel the community is fine the way it is; any growth represents change, and change is "bad". In the Lake Arrowhead area there is a full-range of opinions regarding growth. On one end, any and all attractions should be maximized. On the other, the status quo should be maintained. Aside from those in the development-related industries a 'gang plank' mentality seems predominent, i.e., "I've made it on board, now pull in the gang plank and don't let anyone else on." A desire for greater local control over the physical development of the area has led to the formation of A.C.T.The Arrowhead Communities for Township. A.C.T. has been the coordinating force behind a move to incorporate the numerous small
communities into the "Lake Arrowhead Resort Communities A Municipal Corporation."
Reasons for incorporation are basically two-fold: a town council government would provide greater local control and representation; and revenues generated locally would remain in the community providing better levels of service than currently provided by the county. A municipal incorporation would join all the small communities in the area but allow each to maintain identity by retaining individual names. Figure 4 shows the proposed boundaries of the incorporation area.
The new government would be controlled by local voters with the ability to adjust levels of services annually. Proposed organization of the governing body would be a town council of five members, elected at large, with one member selected annually to serve as chairperson. The town council would be assisted by a planning commission, various advisory groups, and an attorney. A town manager and two assistant town managers would administer all fiscal affairs of the community as well as the community development and public service functions. Community development would include planning, building and safety, code enforcement, and community funding. Public service would involve road maintenance, general maintenance, police, and animal control. Implementation of new services would take place over a two-year period, with county and state services continued through the first year. Management functions would be established during the first year but the full organizational approach would not be completely operational until year two. Under California State law, the county is required to continue providing services during the first part of incorporation to help establish the new community's management and operational functions. Figure 5 illustrates the proposed organizational structure.
FIGURE 4 PROPOSED NEW BOUNDARIES FOR INCORPORATION/"BASIC AREA"
SOURCE: LAKE ARROWHEAD RESORT COMMUNITIES INCORPORATION REPORT *
FIGURE 5 SOURCE: LAKE ARROWHEAD RESORT COMMUNITIES INCORPORATION REPORT
The incorporation question certainly is feasible for the Lake
Arrowhead communities. Any unincorporated area in San Bernardino County
may consider a municipal incorporation if the following six conditions are 20
1. Boundaries can be defined as an "identifiable" community.
2. A balanced, "mixed" community is found.
3. Other service alternatives, such as annexation to an existing city or special district, are not considered feasible.
4. Financial self-sufficiency under current funding constraints is shown.
5. Strong community interest of the citizens is shown.
6. Sufficient population exists.
The study by Westward Projections has shown compliance with the six conditions. Most notably, incorporation is economically feasible. Funds now going to agencies in the county will be redirected to the municipal corporation. Projected expenditures under the new budget would provide an increased level of services. Essentially, the citizens would be paying the same amount of taxes but would receive greater returns in the form of better services. Figures 6 and 7 show projected revenues and expenditures for the municipality based upon the redirection of current revenues. Currently, state allocation of most funds to cities and municipalities is restricted (cigarette tax, motor vehicle tax, Business Inventory Tax, and grant funds have been suspended) but if the additional revenue is made available, it would be added to reserve funds. This would provide additional funding for capital improvements. Even without those funds incorporation is economically sound. Micheal Lord, a spokesman for
Lake Arrowhead Resort Communities Incorporation Report, p.3.
FIGURE 6 SOURCE: LAKE ARROWHEAD RESORT COMMUNITIES INCORPORATION REPORT
REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE PROJECTIONS YEAR 1 1984/85
SOURCE REVENUE EXPENDITURES FUNCTION
REVENUE SHARING $ 66,017 $ 33,600 TOWN COUNCIL
GRANT FUNDS -0- 301,810 ADMINISTRATION
51,020 PUBLIC SERVICES
STATE 205,040 COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
STATE AND USE TAX 505,082 266,000 GENERAL GOVERNMENT
CIGARETTE TAX -0- 857,470 TOTAL SERVICES
MOTOR VEHICLE IN LIEU FUNDS -0-
MOTOR COACH FUNDS 2,989
HOPTER/BITR FUNDS -0- $ 386,777 YEAR 1 RESERVE
GRANT FUNDS -0-
PROPERTY TAX -0-
FRANCHISE FEES 137,602
PROPERTY TRANSFER TAX 20,552
FINES AND FORFEITURES 41,229
GENERAL LICENSES 37,617
ANIMAL CONTROL LICENSES -0-
SERVICE CHARGES 10,000
INTEREST REVENUE 30,000
TRANSIENT OCCUPANCY TAX 209,601
TOTAL GENERAL 1,060,689
FEDERAL AID-URBAN -0-
SECTION 2106 56,617
SECTION 2107 123,937
SECTION 2107 SNOW REMOVAL -0-
SECTION 2107.5 3,000
TRANSPORTATION/SB 325 -0-
TOTAL RESTRICTED 183,554
TOTAL REVENUE $1,244,243
FIGURE 7 SOURCE: LAKE ARROWHEAD RESORT COMMUNITIES INCORPORATION REPORT
REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE PROJECTIONS YEAR 2 1985/86
SOURCE REVENUE EXPENDITURES FUNCTION
REVENUE SHARING $ 115,218 . $ 19,600 TOWN COUNCIL
GRANT FUNDS -0- 301,880 ADMINISTRATION
1,249,352 PUBLIC SERVICES
STATE 332,995 COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
STATE AND USE TAX 555,493 284,000 GENERAL GOVERNMENT
CIGARETTE TAX -0- 2,187,827 TOTAL SERVICES
MOTOR VEHICLE IN LIEU FUNDS -0-
MOTOR COACH FUNDS 3,109 $ 461,276 YEAR 2 RESERVE
HOPTER/BITR FUNDS -0-
GRANT FUNDS -0-
PROPERTY TAX 159,000
FRANCHISE FEES 157,943
PROPERTY TRANSFER TAX 21,374
FINES AND FORFEITURES 42,878
GENERAL LICENSES 39,121
ANIMAL CONTROL LICENSES 11,307
SERVICE CHARGES 106,080
INTEREST REVENUE 50,000
TRANSIENT OCCUPANCY TAX 410,561
TOTAL GENERAL 1,843,684
FEDERAL AID-URBAN 32,385
SECTION 2106 58,689
SECTION 2107 128,892
SECTION 2107 SNOW REMOVAL 45,000
SECTION 2107.5 3,000
TRANSPORTATION/SB 325 147,676
TOTAL RESTRICTED 415,642
TOTAL REVENUE 2,259,326
YEAR 1 RESERVE 386,777
TOTAL OPERATING $2,649,103
Westward Projections stated that "revenue estimates in the feasibility
study are very conservative, while estimates of expenditures are very 21
liberal." On federal, state, and county levels the most significant sources of income are revenue sharing, sales and use taxes, and the transient occupancy tax.
Federal Revenue Sharing provides federal rebates of funds which the
incorporated area may use for any reasonable and ordinary expense. A
formula based upon population, the general tax effort, and relative income
of the community, determines fund distribution. For the Incorporation
Study's projections, federal revenue sharing projections are based on the
average revenue from six comparable cities.
The sales and use tax is presently collected by the State and returned
to the County of San Bernardino. These funds would be returned to the
incorporated area on a quarterly basis. An annual percentage change of 8
percent for growth and inflation is estimated annually. The community
would receive the gross tax revenues, minus .82 percent for administrative 23
The local Transient Occupancy Tax (Bed Tax) is a 7 percent tax on all dwelling facilities rented on a daily or weekly basis. The revenue is presently collected by the County of San Bernardino. Collection on a quarterly or monthly basis would be transferred to the Lake Arrowhead Communities after incorporation. Under California State Law the
incorporated area has the option to increase or decrease the Transient Occupancy Tax. The purpose of the tax is to promote tourism primarily 21
"Town Meeting Draws Only 100", The Timberline Journal. January 30,
Lake Arrowhead Resort Communities Incorporation Report, p. 53.
Ibid., p. 54.
through the direction of funds to resort and visitor services.
Incorporation of the Lake Arrowhead area is fiscally and politically viable. There is strong population and economic growth, and renewed interest in the community evidenced by the redevelopment of the Lake Arrowhead Village. Local control and representative guarantees development in the direction chosen by residents. Currently San Bernardino County, the largest county in the United States, is governed by five supervisors. The five-member town council would represent citizens wishes and be held accountable locally. Incorporation would also bring a new civic pride and sense of community to the area.
In sum, the potential exists for strong economic growth. Incorporation would be the means for managing the economic growth and physical development on a local level. Currently there is little community input into management of the area, and development proceeds without strong direction. Incorporation would create a governing body able to protect and enhance the economic stability of the community, determine needs and develop strategies for greater long-range fiscal security. In the following chapter attention will turn to the infrastructure and public services, important fiscally in terms of capital improvements programming as well as in providing the social and physical framework of the community.
INFRASTRUCTURE AND PUBLIC SERVICES
INFRASTRUCTURE AND PUBLIC SERVICES
2. Natural Gas
3. Water Supply and Sewage System
A. Roads and Construction
5. Solid Waste Collection and Disposal
Community and Public Facilities
8. United States Postal Service
9. Police Protection
10. Fire Protection
11. Health Care Services
13. Community Resources and Services
CHAPTER 5 INFRASTRUCTURE AND PUBLIC SERVICES
Throughout the development of any community the infrastructure must be
constantly evaluated, with areas of future need assessed and programming
updated. A rundown of the infrastructure and public services in the
community of Lake Arrowhead is the simplest way to evaluate its
characteristics, capabilities, and needs. By pinpointing critical areas at
an early stage measures may be taken early on which may help avoid the
"band-aid" approach of problem solving. In Lake Arrowhead this approach
has been employed most notably over the years in handling problems with the
sewer system. A new sewer system is now in the works which will completely
replace the old one. Old facilities will be abandoned entirely, worthless
after years of neglect. The new system will run upwards of $40 million
between 1984 and 2005. Constant evaluation and programming for future
needs will help avoid costly revamping and diminishing levels of services.
While the rest of the infrastructure is in better shape than the sewer
system a review is beneficial in pinpointing problems and areas of greatest
need. The most beneficial sources of information for this chapter have
been the Lake Arrowhead Resort Communities Incorporation Report, the
Lake Arrowhead Communities Plan, and noted individuals.
The Lake Arrowhead community receives service from the Southern California Edison Company. System capacity is adequate and equipped to handle growth. The primary problems encountered with the electrical system are weather related. Frequent damage
Lake Arrowhead Resort Communities Incorporation Report.
San Bernardino County, Lake Arrowhead Communities Plan,
and outages result from winter snows and wind storms. The requirement of all new subdivisions to install electrical
utilities underground is one solution employed. Rates are
expected to rise steadily with the cost of living. Present system capacity is considered adequate.
2. Natural Gas
The Southern California Gas Company furnishes service to the
area and is in the process of updating its capacity. Pipelines
which are old and undersized are being replaced, and the main gas
line from San Bernardino has been recently replaced. System
capacity is adequate.
3. Water Supply and Sewage System
The Lake Arrowhead Community Services District (LACSD), a
special district set up in May, 1978, and consolidated with the
sewer district in July, 1978, provides the water and sewer
services for the community. The water source is Lake Arrowhead,
and water is treated at two nearby plants, both of which have
expansion plans ready to be put into effect as needed.
The water system recently went through a revisionary program
designed to update the facilities and capabilities. The California Regional Water Quality Control District put forth a Cease and Desist order limiting sewer connections in August, 1983. The order was not to be lifted until three specific conditions had been completed: a master plan, a financial plan, and an "Inflow and Infiltration Study." All were completed, and
Gonzales, A., Southern California Gas Company.
Mauk, Don, Director, Lake Arrowhead Community Services District.
in July, 1984, the moratorium was lifted. The master plan showed system capabilities through ultimate build-out of the area, including plans for treatment plant expansion. The financial plan called for the issuance of a $10.7 million bond, and showed the course of financing of $40 million between 1984 and 2005. Rates and hook-up fees increased in July, 1984, and will continue to increase until 2005. Additional financing is available through the ad valorem tax, a stand-by fee for unimproved parcels with sewer hook-up availability, and hook-up fees. With larger projects the developer is required to pay a specified fee per lot, just as homeowners pay for hook-up. Repairs to the system are financed through user fees which have been adequate since 1978. As insurance against the rising costs of growth, charges for new meters are raised in accordance with each four percent increase in the Engineering Construction Costs Index.
4. Roads and Circulation
The continuing growth of the Lake Arrowhead area has had the heaviest impacts upon the road system and circulation. Please refer back to Figure 1 for primary roads and the three main entrances into the community: Daley Canyon; Two-mile Canyon; and Kuffel Canyon. Causes for concern include the narrowness (20-24 feet wide), steep grades and sharp curves of many roads. Additionally there is a very little room for expansion due to development along large segments of the roads. While not all of the major roads are at capacity during the week, they all exceed
capacity on weekends. Daley Canyon, the primary entrance into
the Blue Jay area is over 500 percent of its capacity on peak 29
weekends. There are no other modes of transportation in the community (railroad, air, public transportation), and means for alternative forms of travel are virtually non-existent (sidewalks, paths, bikeways, horse trails,etc.). State highways are managed by the California Department of Transportation (CALTRANS) which receives its support from the State's General Fund. Operations are based in San Bernardino, and several service yards are located in the community area. County roads are maintained by the Environmental Public Works Agency's Transportation Department. Maintenance includes resurfacing, traffic control mechanisms, debris and snow removal. Goals and policies for maintaining roads and for future growth programming are outlined in the San Bernardino County General Plan. Some examples of
actions to be taken in the future, as directed by the Communities 30
o Allowing flexibility in terms of required right-of-way widths, and roadway widths when designing sections of major mountain roads.
o Limiting and controlling the location and extent of all land uses which generate increased levels of traffic beyond the designed capacity of the existing and planned highways.
San Bernardino County, Lake Arrowhead Communities Plan, pp. A-7,
Ibid., pp. A-7, A-8.
San Bernardino County, Lake Arrowhead Communities Plan, pp. D2-10 thru D2-14.
o Requiring two off-street parking spaces on the same site with the main building for each dwelling unit. Driveways shall be designed to minimize grade so that year round residential subdivisions and multi-family developments there must be direct access to a county- or state-maintained paved road.
o The requirement of a minimum 200 foot special treatment zone on each side of the right-of-way to protect trees and vegetation; and the requirement of visual screening of new development.
The road system may be further protected and
maintained, as stated in the Community Plan, by selectively
locating and clustering land uses, limiting access by carefully
locating curb-cuts, applying state-of-the-art traffic engineering
to fully utilize the limited vehicular design capacity of the
mountain roads, and encouraging the formation of cooperative
organizations or tax districts to acquire and develop off-street
parking areas within existing developed urban centers.
Private roads in specific areas such as Arrowhead Villas and Hamiltair subdivisions are managed and maintained by the property owners through association assessments. Benefits of ownership include: allowance for reduced road width, provisions
for gates and private security, and snow removal by contract.
It is difficult to maintain and improve the roads in Lake Arrowhead because of their intensive use. The steep terrain of winter weather also combine to hamper expansion efforts. 31
While the problems have been recognized and addressed by local planning agencies, solutions are not widely expected in the short term.
5. Solid Waste Collection and Disposal
Refuse removal in the areas is provided by the Lake
Arrowhead Disposal Company on a subscription basis for residences
and a contractual basis for commercial users. Service is not
mandatory; however, the other alternative is personal refuse
disposal at the Heaps Peak refuse transfer station. Refuse
collection in the community has been evaluated and deemed
adequate by Westward Projections in the Lake Arrowhead
Communities Incorporation Report. A need has been expressed for a public collection area along the Rim of the World Highway (State Highway 18) for weekend use. Refuse disposed at the Heaps Peak Transfer Station, formerly a landfill', is collected and trucked to other landfills in the San Bernardino Valley. The transfer station is funded by a charge placed upon all
The General Telephone Company provides local and long distance telephone service to the area and has expanded its services with the growing needs of the community. Service and
transmission quality vary, especially during peak periods. Toll-free dialing is extremely limited, and concerns have been expressed over the need to expand the local dialing area. Private long-distance calling services have recently started
Lake Arrowhead Resort Communities Incorporation Report, pp. 37-38.
operation in the area on a limited basis. Continued expansion is expected.
Cable television service is provided by the Warner Cable Company which is in the process of expanding its services. Some difficulties are being experienced in keeping up with demand and in providing uniformly high quality transmissions. Problems are expected to diminish with time.
Community and Public Facilities
8. United States Postal Service
The Lake Arrowhead Community is serviced by seven post offices. They are located in: Lake Arrowhead, Cedar Glen, Blue Jay, Twin Peaks, Rim Forest, Sky Forest, and Crest Park. There is no home delivery on the mountain by the U.S. Postal Service although a private company has recently started servicing for a $6.00/month fee. The heavy traffic associated with daily pick up at the Lake Arrowhead Office, located in the Lake Arrowhead Village, has become a major cause of concern among residents. The post office was recently moved to its present site, amid protests that its location is inconvenient and interferes with the already heavy flow of traffic in the Village. No action is being taken at this time to remedy the situation; the U.S. Postal service has contracted for the post office to remain in its present location for the next seven years. Additionally, the six five-minute parking stalls in front of the post office are not monitored by Village security and are consequently being used by patrons of shops and services other than the post office.
9. Police Protection
Police protection in the vicinity is provided by the County of San Bernardino Sheriff's Department, and the California Highway Patrol. The sheriff's substation, located in Twin Peaks is staffed by 27 employees, and service covers the entire area. Back-up service is provided by the central station at the County Courthouse in San Bernardino.
The California Highway Patrol's local station is in Running Springs and is staffed by 26 employees. This station provides traffic control on the highways and streets over a wide area, from Cedar Pines Park to Baldwin Lake near Big Bear. Comments regarding the two systems continually point out problems associated with providing protection to a resort area. During peak visitor periods a severe strain is placed upon services. While a small number of extra law units can be added under special circumstances there remains concern over the lengthy response time. The Lake Arrowhead Village has alleviated part of the burden by having its own security patrol on duty around the clock. Service provided by the Sheriff's Department and Highway Patrol is generally considered to be adequate, and there are no plans to enlarge either force at this time.
10. Fire Protection
Fire protection is provided by the Lake Arrowhead Fire Protection District, a special district. There are five stations in the Lake Arrowhead community, three of which are manned fulltime. Protection is provided by 30 full time officers and 6 firefighter/paramedics. There are an additional 35 officers on call. The Fire Protection District faces a wide variety of
demands as a result of the mountain locale, equipment for snow removal is necessary to reach areas not serviced by state or county road crews during winter; boats must be maintained for access to the lake; and seasonal brush fires require excessive amounts of overtime. Jim Lawrence, Lake Arrowhead Fire Protection District Chief, has stressed a definite need for more people and funding. As the assessed value growth rate rises at about 19 percent per year, the budget increases at approximately 3 percent. With 90 percent of the budget going into salaries there is little left for acquiring new or improving old equipment. Overall, service is considered good, with response time usually very short in most areas of the community.
11. Health Care Services
Hospital and medical emergency services are provided by the San Bernardino Mountains Community Hospital District, formed in 1967. The district provides for a hospital with a staff of 14 active physicians, and a small courtesy staff of physicians available during special circumstances. The Hospital District offers a wide range of services which include a cardiac rehabilitation unit, alcohol rehabilitation, and a home health care program. Thirty-seven beds are available for general care, 12 are reserved for alcohol rehabilitation patients. Funds are presently being raised for an Intensive Care Unit. A full-range of health care services is provided by physicians and mental health practitioners on a private basis. Patients seeking mental health care and social related help from the hospital are often
transferred to San Bernardino where more extensive services are
provided. Health care services are generally considered to be adequate, with optimism expressed for continued growth.
The Rim of the World Unified School District operates the
school system in the community of Lake Arrowhead. Serving the
immediate area are three schools: Lake Arrowhead Elementary (K-
5); Mary Putnam Henck Intermediate (6-8); and Rim of the World
High School (9-12). The elementary school is currently at
capacity with 824 students. MPH is over capacity by 250 students
at 1,107, and Rim High is under capacity by 400 students at 33
1,255. Need has been expressed for another elementary school to take the load off Lake Arrowhead Elementary and to reduce over-capacity at the middle school by putting the sixth grades back into the elementary school(s). There are no immediate plans for opening another elementary school at this time.
Rim of the World Unified School District also operates an alternative education program known as Mountain High School. This program is for students who may have dropped out of the regular high school, or who have needed a more flexible program in order to meet family or work demands. The program has been very successful; in 1984 there were 84 students participating in the alternative education program. Capacity is 125. Additionally, continuing education college courses are offered to residents as interest dictates.
13. Community Resources and Services
The community of Lake Arrowhead is unincorporated and as such 33
Steffens, Gary, Superintendent, Rim of the World Unified School District.
looks to the County of San Bernardino to provide most of its the local area devoted to health, welfare, cultural, or recreational programs. Special needs for specific populations such as the elderly, handicapped, disadvantaged, and youth, are handled on a limited basis with most of services provided in San Bernardino. Programs offered at the Senior Citizen's Center in Twin Peaks offer an outlet for the elderly, but are limited in number and scale by the Center's relative newness (late-1983). There is an extremely limited number of programs directed toward the young people in the community, most being offered through schools or churches. A teen center offering directed activity programs, as well as providing a place for kids to hang-out is needed. They currently gather at the local arcade, on dimly lit properties, and to a lesser extent at the private beaches for socializing.
Recreation programs for both youths and adults are also offered on a limited basis. Softball, soccer, and ice-hockey teams play through club-directed programs; figure skating classes are offered at the ice rink; and the schools sponsor team and intramural competitions.
Cultural activities are almost nonexistant. There is a definite need for additional cultural attractions in the area, although part of that need is filled by the community's proximity to the city of Redlands, 45 minutes away, and further away, Los Angeles and San Diego. Some relief will be provided in the near future for locals and tourists alike, when a theater complex (for movies) opens in Blue Jay.
Public and human services will all need to expand as the community continues to grow. Those programs which are especially critical will need to be readdressed on a continuing basis by public and private, local, county, state, and federal agencies. These programs may include social counselling and referral, programs for the elderly and handicapped, crime prevention services, alcoholism and drug abuse counselling services, and, welfare and housing programs.
The need for continual evaluation of the community's health and human services, as well as the infrastructure and its related utilities is clear. This brief overview is not intended to provide extensive data, but is an attempt to show the wide variety of agencies involved in supporting a community. This information is invaluable as it provides the basis from which comprehensive planning may proceed.
In the following chapter two facets of planning which are somewhat more static but no less critical to the overall functioning of a community will be explored. They are site planning criteria and design considerations.
SITE PLANNING AND DESIGN CONSIDER A TIONS
SITE PLANNING AND DESIGN
Physical and Cultural Site Planning Considerations Design Considerations
CHAPTER 6 SITE PLANNING AND DESIGN
"Site planning is the organization of the external physical environment to accommodate a variety of human behavior. It deals with the location and nature of structures, land, activities, and living things. It creates a possible pattern of these elements in space and time, which will be subject to continuous future management and change."
Site Planning 1971
In designing the Lake Arrowhead Village the architects, planners, landscape architects, and engineers dealt with the location and nature of structures, land, activities, and living things. Their ability to organize the physical environment is worth examining. This chapter will discuss two categories of site planning considerations: physical and cultural. The
areas of design considerations to be analyzed are architecture, layout, and streetscape.
In the initial stages of redesigning the Village the "problem" was defined by the developer: identify the users and their design needs.
Ideally the principal locational constraints and problems would have been identified, as well as basic potentialities. Redesigning a major shopping area with mixed uses was the intent of the developers. A physical and cultural evaluation was made of the factors which would determine siting of structures. The use was commercial at the time of initial interest so preliminary data concerning site suitability, market characteristics, and economic values would have been readily available and apparent. The developers were faced with the challenges of making the Village an
exciting destination for tourists, an attractive convenience center for residents, and a suitable gathering place for conventioneers. In addition to these challenges, they were faced with utilizing the natural environment to its greatest potential, retaining mature trees where possible,
optimizing vistas, employing appropriate building materials, and minimizing impervious surface area.
Physical and Cultural Site PLanning Considerations
In the early stages of planning, design, and engineering, the site's physical features must be analyzed. An appraisal of the geology and soils, water, topography, ecology, existing man-made structures, and improvements is necessary. The San Bernardino County Environmental Public Works Agency and its various departments monitor development in those areas. In the Department of Land Management, a subsidiary of the Public Works Agency, the offices of the County Surveyor, Building and Safety, and Planning serve in the primary roles of regulators.
When initial steps in the redevelopment of the Lake Arrowhead Village were taken county development codes and requirements were less stringent than at present. A Preliminary Environmental Description Form (PEDF) was filed in 1978, relating project and site descriptions. It included basic data necessary to begin the process of project approval. Included in the PEDF were: title reports, a soils report, a site plan, grading plans, a
slope analysis, contour and vicinity maps, a tree study, and building elevations. The Planning Department required the developer to submit plot plans, and an application for a major deviation to allow the 41-foOt high parking structure, and 49-foot high clock tower. The developer voluntarily submitted the project for site approval (now mandatory) and included soil erosion and sediment control plans. Conditions for approval were tentatively drafted in January, 1979. Sixty-two conditions served as guidelines for development, allowing the developer to work with members of the various departmental staffs. Categories covered by those conditions are listed in Chapter 2, page 2-12.
Zoning for the site was C-2 (General Commercial), a flexible zoning
classification allowing a variety of office and commercial uses. Approval
for the condominiums as a large-scale housing project was granted by the
Planning Commission. Today the site is zoned CC (Community Commercial), a
more restrictive designation. Similar revitalization projects may be
approved through the steps followed in 1979, or by going through a zone
change from CC to PUD (Planned United Development). This would encompass
the scope of the entire project.
Detailed analyses of the site were done for the Environmental Impact
Report in 1978. The findings along with explanatory maps and tables, were 35
reported therein. A geological report was prepared by G.A. Niccoll and
Associates, and is on file with the County of San Bernardino Environmental
Analysis Division. It included locations of soil and rock formations,
areas of fill, distances to bedrock, and the site's proximity to major
earthquake faults (e.g., The San Andreas Fault: 7 miles; the San Jacinto
Fault: 13 miles; the Whittier-Elsinore Fault System: 35 miles). Two of
the mitigation measures suggested in the soils report were: densification
of saturated soils to reduce liquefaction potential; and possible creation
of a "floating" foundation (structural slabs and grade beams which support
the structure in the event of liquefaction). Many of the mitigation measures suggested in the EIR were later conditions for approval required by the Planning Department.
Lewis, Dave, Associate Planner, San Bernardino County Planning Department.
Environmental Impact Report Lake Arrowhead Village, attachment.
Ibid., p. 13.
Environmental Impact Report Lake Arrowhead Village, pp. 43-44.
Concern over the site's hydrology was minor and primarily due to the
erosion and flooding potential. These would not be greatly affected by the
redevelopment as the previous use had maintained large areas of impervious
surface. During the grading and construction phases of development erosion
and the deposition of excessive silt into Lake Arrowhead were expected to
be high, but would be reduced to a minimum upon completion of the
landscaping and paving. Mitigation measures suggested include the
following: intercepting and conducting the off-site drainage flow around
or through the site, and ensurance of adequate structural setbacks.
Drainage easements, systems maintenance, and improvements scheduling were 38
also set forth.
Biological factors of the site evaluated in the EIR were expected to
be greatly affected by the redevelopment. The most notable impacts were
caused by the large number of mature trees removed by the extensive
grading. A significant amount of understory vegetation was also disturbed
or eliminated, resulting in the decrease of the area's value as a wildlife
habitat. Tree removal resulted in the loss of nesting sites for birds and
small mammals, along with the losses of pine seed and acorn food sources.
Mitigation measures called for replacement of removed vegetation with
native species. Also, that topsoil removed during grading be retained and
used to promote regrowth.
Air quality in the Lake Arrowhead area was analyzed in depth by WESTEC Services, Inc. as a separate but related document for the Environmental Impact Report. Impacts from the proposed redevelopment would be caused by the increased number of automobiles and effected only slightly by the
Ibid., pp. 44-47.
Environmental Impact Report Lake Arrowhead Village, pp. 47-51.
influence of the Los Angeles Basin. Emission levels were calculated for 1980 and 1985 for the following:
hydrocarbons (total and relative) oxides of nitrogen oxides of sulfer particulates
A computer program developed by the California Department of
Transportation was used, and the calculations showed all emissions to be
below significant levels. The pollution levels are expected to decrease or remain small as vehicular emission characteristics continue to improve. Suggested measures to aid in the overall air quality improvement include carpooling, modification of work schedules, and improvement of local traffic flow. Noise and water pollution are not significant in the area, and redevelopment has not brought notable changes.
When doing site planning from a cultural standpoint different factors become significant. It is important to evaluate the land value and determine the most suitable use. This may seem more the task of a
marketing or development firm than that of a site planner, but the sensitive and critical nature of a project's location deems it significant in the initial stage of reconnaissance. Location analysis has become an important tool in the evaluation of site suitability, often used before any other.
In this instance the developer had the advantage of existing development on the site. The Lake Arrowhead Village had been a successful focal point for the area and destination for visitors. There were no reasons to change the land use as its economic feasibility has been
Ibid., pp. 44-47.
demonstrated. By developing the site for mixed use the land values were maximized.
The Environmental Impact Report indicated the desired goal of the developer was for a destination resort with amenities for both residents and visitors. For residents there is a Stater Brothers Supermarket, Drug King drugstore, dry cleaners, interior design studio, hardware store, and several banks. Restaurants serve both groups. Presently under-utilized office space was also designed to serve the resident population. The hotel, leased by the Hilton Hotel chain, was designed to accommodate longterm convention activities as well as the short-term visitor. The boutiques and shops are attractive to visitors but have limited appeal to residents. Swimming, water-skiing, and boat rentals are other activities geared toward the visitor. The condominiums, intended to serve both markets are most popular with visitors as weekend/vacation homes.
Currently only 1 unit out of 46 is occupied full-time. The typical
condominium buyer is professional, upper-middle class, with no children at
home, and from the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The resort's location and unique setting make it a convenient and attractive weekend destination for most areas of Southern California.
After identifying the physical and cultural restrictions and attributes of the location the site planning may turn to three significant features of design. These are the architectural form, the layout, and the streetscape.
The new Village was designed in an alpine style traditionally associated with mountain locations. The design reflects the old Village
Preece, Susan. Agent, Village Bay Chalets.
through the use of architectural elementspeaked roofs, dormer windows, wood beams simulating half-timbers, and compatible building materials. The old pavilion building, the heart of the Village, was retained as a unifying theme. The most striking changes have been in the scale and layout. Four tiers of shopping and parking on the southern edge of the parcel and the protrusion of shops onto the peninsula accentuate the site's vertical and horizontal elements. The large expanse of parking and buildings has virtually eliminated the human scale. It remains only along the shopping promenades on the peninsula. There the buildings are smaller; benches, trees, and flowers punctuate the landscape; and the lake provides scenic relief. The undulating form of this part of the site adds visual interest and encourages pedestrian flow. There are curves, small hills, open stairways, and varying building setbacks. At other places in the development the sensuous form is uninspiring. Visitors entering the Village face long vistas of open parking, which they must later cross to reach shopping. The flow of traffic through the parking lots is impeded by short rows, narrow aisles, and pedestrians. Circulation between levels is difficult for pedestrians and vehicles. Parking dominates the layout of the site; shops and other activities ring the lots.
Figures 8 and 9 on the following pages show the architects' site plan and artists' design. Changes were made to the site plan but the layout remained in this basic form. There are three entrances into the development: one near the Hilton, the second into the upper level of community commercial shopping, and the third into the main shopping area. The clustering of uses in the Village has been successful in directing activity to a specific area, thus reducing traffic congestion. The location of the convenience shopping on the upper level has eased the
Apartments 60*1050*1 51.000
ckc support i20*> 10,000
74 at 1000*1 74.000
176 units Ml 400*1 70,400
support facMties 2 2 POO TOW
Lodge/'Cottages 357 car*
Commercial 705 _
total 1.182 car*
Typical Left Turn Lane
19 27 19 o>
tal at*la a
# f A
Typical Parking Bay
to no *o
WD KLAGES AND
SOURCE: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPO&]
WESTEC SERVICES, INC
LAKE ARROWHEAD VILLAGE and LODGE DIRECTORY
Up Your Alley
AMUSEMENT/RECREATION C Lake Arrowhead Marina-Boat Rentals-Tours C C Dux Fay Boileau s Sportswear C Wesley's
McKenzie Water Ski School 01 Leroy's Shoe & Clothing Co. ART GALLERIES
T Village Arcade T T's to Please S Richard Lowe Gallery
AHL Village Bay Club P The Carriage House C Southwest T rading Company
A-1 Village Beach P The Leather Shop E Sphynx Gallery
J Arrowhead Pacific Savings G Bank of America K Security Pacific National Bank
02 American Communications Network
F Chamber of Commerce
L Drug King
AHL Fountain Court Salon
F Red Cross
M Stater Brothers Market
02 U S Post Office
F Village Beauty Supply
N Village Cleaners
02 Village Hair Design
B Arrowhead Cove F Arrowhead Village Donuts
02 Bear 's Brown Bag of Cookies
AHL Beau Rivage E Belgian Waffle Works R Chantecler E Gourmet Cafe R Heidi's B JalapenoTree F LaTour French Bakery AHL Lobby Cafe D McDonalds AHL Rodney's
04 Romack's Arrowhead Delicatessen B The Village Nut House
Christian Bros. Construction Galliano, Robert J. Attorney Pacific Intermountain Homes Physical Fitness Research Shore, Stephen B. Attorney
03 Cokjwell Banker/Sky Ridge Realty Inc.
Mountain Resorts Realty F Leader Realty
V Village Bay Chalets
C Across the Alley
01 Bare in the Woods
C El Condor
E Elegant Giftsmyth
E Joey & Sissy's Toy & Kite Shop
F Just Browsing
C Lake Arrowhead Sporting Goods
S Miss Kitty's
K Mountain Haus Interiors
04 Mountain Hi Office Supply
N Mountain Photo Express 1 Hour New Lifestyles lor Longevity Odds and Ends Patty point The Cratt Company The Harvest
Upstairs/Downstairs Bed & Bath Video Network Village Jeweler
Ye Olde Tintype Photo & Antiques
LAKE ARROWHEAD VILLAGE ADMINISTRATIO
(AHL) Arrowhead Hilton Lodge (T) Telephone (R1 Restrooms
traffic flow through the main shopping area. The design goals for the main level are less clear. Shops and restaurants have been mixed with offices, banks, and the post office. All share the same parking, resulting in traffic tie-ups and congestion. Evidence of the impacts is the low office occupancy rate. Location of parking in the center of activity has made pedestrian movement difficult. The stores are spread out around the parking with no distinct destination to draw shoppers past other stores. The beach at the far end of the peninsula attracts swimmers not likely to shop and browse. As a result of these things shoppers move aimlessly and without direction.
Open space within the Village is lacking. There is a planted strip down the center of the peninsula shopping area, and some mature trees remain, but the site has been overdeveloped. The proximity to the lake and the scenic qualities of the site have been under-utilized. People strolling through the Village may catch occasional glimpses of the lake, and only along the eastern edge of the peninsula can they walk along the water's edge. One restaurant only, on the upper level, provides outdoor seating offering a panoramic view. Other restaurants sometimes set tables out but views are limited or blocked due to building orientation. Additionally, with open space at a minimum there is little room for growth. Should future need dictate expansion, development will have to move into other areas of the community, losing the benefits of clustered development.
One other feature of the layout worth noting is the inclusion of
residences in the development. There are 46 units priced from $199
thousand with sizes ranging from 800 to 1800 square feet. The central location and close proximity to goods and services are their primary
setting points. The "chalets" are divided into three groups, with the largest number (30) clustered around a courtyard containing a swimming pool and jacuzzi (Figure 10). This orientation provides privacy and quiet in an otherwise frenetic location. The other units are grouped together and face the lake. Large decks and windows on the lake side offer expansive views while small windows along the street maintain privacy and low noise levels. Most of the units have been sold indicating a need which is being successfully filled.
In addition to architecture and layout, the streetscape is a vital component in the development's design. The creative use of color, lighting, vegetation, and street furniture adds interest and excitement. These elements also signify pride, quality, and attention to detail on the part of the owner. A charming streetscape is critical in attracting customers to the development. One way this is accomplished in the Lake Arrowhead Village is through the use of a simple, easily recognizable logo The use of the logo at entry ways, on brochures, shopping bags, receipts, etc., lodges a visual image of the resort in the visitor's mind. The logo for the Lake Arrowhead Village is shown below (Figure 11). '
PC BOX 640
LAKE ARROWHEAD CA 92352 '14)337-2533
COURTESY: LAKE ARROWHEAD VILLAGE ADMINISTRATION
Another way is through the use of signs. Signs of uniform size, quality, and design complement the architecture, and promote the community character. They attract, identify, and create visual harmony. Storefronts serve a similar purpose. They provide a display area for merchandise, draw
hlUUHt 70*. CONDOMINIUM LAYOUT
, VILLAGE BAY CHALETS
customers inside, and create a pleasant pedestrian ambience. The importance of the storefront was overlooked by the designers of the Village. Visual access is limited by small windows and minimal display
areas. Neglecting the merchant's point-of-view has resulted in frequent business turnovers and a lifeless shopping environment.
Accent elements, street furnishings, and vegetation add character and vitality and are especially appropriate in resort areas where a sense of fun and adventure dominates. Used judiciously and tastefully they add zest and sparkle. Devices to enhance the setting are limitless; examples are listed below:
Lighting flood lights on buildings, plazas. Spotlights on signs, decorative street lamps, and ornamental lighting on trees add interest.
Benches decorative benches, especially along walkways and water's edge encourage "people watching."
Awnings and Canopies Provide shade on display windows with direct sun exposure, add brightness and color.
Banners and Flags hanging from buildings, poles and across thoroughfares add festivity.
Native Vegetation, Blooming Annuals, and Shade Trees provide living spaces, color, harmony with natural surroundings.
Outdoor Eating Areas umbrellas over tables on patio areas add color and activity.
Kiosks and Fountains add visual activity, interest.
Paving Materials variety of colors and textures provides sensual
An additional element crucial to the streetscape is maintenance. Any part of the streetscape in disrepair or needing tending drags the entire area down. Repairing structures, patching paint, weeding flower beds, replacing tattered flags, and keeping the area trash free are essential. The Village employs a staff of gardeners and repairmen whose duties include those above, and who keep the Village in good order. The Village management has recently acted to improve the streetscape by removing a small grassy knoll and replacing it with asphalt paving and fiberglass benches. A possible motive was to increase storefront visibility. The point demonstrated how maintenance and improvement are on-going responsibilities.
In conclusion, the site planning and design considerations are essential elements in a project's development. In this case the goal was to create a successful mixed-use center for two markets. The developer followed the proper steps in preparing an Environmental Impact Report and in working with the necessary governmental agencies. Unfortunately, while the developer was concerned about doing a good job, corners were cut. More time and money spent on design could have resulted in a better layout, higher quality materials being used, and greater attention to detail. The intent in writing this chapter has been to show the factors involved in the site planning and design phases, and how the processes affect the outcome. The last chapter will attempt to tie the previous six together, and offer conclusions on the redevelopment of the Lake Arrowhead Village and how it has affected the quality of life in the resort community.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDA TIONS
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
In concluding this case study it is important to review some basic
planning principles and to note the effectiveness of their application to
the unique circumstances of a mountain resort community. The clearest,
most concise definition of planning and its related functions comes from
Local Planning Administration as cited in The Citizen's Guide to 43
The broad object of planning is to further the welfare of the people in the community by helping to create an increasingly better, more healthful, convenient, efficient, and attractive community environment. The physical, as well as the social and economic community is a single organism, all features and activities of which are related and
interdependent. These facts must be supplemented by the application of
intelligent foresight and planned administrative and legal coordination if balance, harmony and order are to be insured. It is the task of planning to supply this foresight and this overall coordination.
A "planning attitude" exists when there is the desire to carry out those goals in such a way as to provide maximum benefits for the greatest number of people. Three groups of people stand to receive the products of what a handful of people determine to be "good" planning. They are the
residents, visitors, and industry.
The purposes of undertaking this study have been to report how the political, economic, social, and physical elements of a resort community operate seperately and as a whole, and determine whether or not a "planning attitude" has been employed throughout the course of Lake Arrowhead's development. Lake Arrowhead was chosen as the study area because of its mountain resort location and the unique set of accompanying circumstances. Recreation and resort community planning has taken on an increasingly important role as demands for dynamic, quality experiences have risen along
The Citizen's Guide to Planning. H.H. Smith, p. 27
with a growing national interest in health and well-being. Sophistication, based in part on past experience, as well as greater discretionary income are demanding excellence in all factors of resort community development. Deer Valley Ski Area in Utah comes to mind as the supreme example resulting from this demand for quality. If a resort community is to succeed it must carefully plan its short- and long-range goals, enforce regulations necessary to maintain those goals, and remain flexible for inevitable change.
After studying the development of the Lake Arrowhead Village and surrounding area a number of conclusions and recommendations may be drawn and made. The most striking impression is that while a "planning attitude" exists among many of the county governmental agencies, community leaders, and professionals, action is reactive rather than preactive. This is largely due to the existing governmental framework and limited local involvement in the planning process. Incorporation of the Lake Arrowhead communities into a municipal corporation as outlined in Chapter 4 would be a major step toward improving planning. The county government currently in operation serves the community well but is bound by constraints of time and distance. A municipal government would allow for much needed local control, and enable attention to shift from reactive planning to future, goal-oriented preactive planning. One instance of the time and distance problem experienced by the county government occured during the Village redevelopment. Several structures assigned for offices were changed to restaurants and shops, uses requiring additional parking. Parking ratios were not updated to reflect the change, and went unnoticed through the planning agency, resulting in a severe shortage of parking.
The economic health of the community would also receive a much needed "shot in the arm" from incorporation. Not only from increased revenues but from the new sense of direction given by the town council, town manager, and planning department. Management and guidance not presently provided are needed to create job opportunities, attract new businesses, and revitalize existing ones through careful management, diversification of the economic base, and development of year-round opportunities; costs and expenses can be balanced against the discretionary market and financial uncertainties. The causes and conditions for change in the resort community's economy are often beyond the realm of local control, making local management of economic resources that much more important.
Management of local resources is especially critical in the preactive process of capital improvements programming and planning for health and human services. Both are handled fairly well by the county, and locally by special districts. Service would be greatly improved by local management, and incorporation would provide additional revenues to further improve levels of services. Road maintenance and repair would profit most by the shift to local governmental control.
In addition to economic development and management, Lake Arrowhead needs a forum for the concerns of residents and business people regarding other community development-related subjects. The town council would provide that opportunity for communication and the resulting master plan, statutes, and ordinances would reflect the goals and desires of the local community. Enforcement of those laws and regulations would be a much simpler task as well.
Local control is especially important to communities located in environmentally sensitive areas. The enhancement and preservation of the scenic and natural characteristics are critical to the future success of
the area as a resort, as well as to residents and visitors. In the long run preservation measures will be worth the additional costs. The county has recognized the importance of sound environmental practices and has adopted numerous measures to help enforce them in the site planning process. For example, slope densities are highly restrictive, strict erosion control requirements are in effect, and trade-offs allow parking space credits for preservation of mature trees on-site. Again, incorporation would result in greater local control over those ordinances, and those governing the architectural and design elements so important to an appearance-conscious community.
A common complaint in the mountains is that legislators in the "flat lands" do no understand the "rules" of developing in the mountains, imposing unfair restrictions and regulations. A local government would rectify that. The Lake Arrowhead Village is an example of "flat land" design transplanted into a mountain location. The site planning and design of the Village are not award-winning but do have a few noteworthy items. A unifying theme was maintained throughout by the usage of pseudo-Swiss architectural elements. Clustering of uses in one location with several entrances, restricted traffic to one area of the community reducing overall traffic congestion. Development on both vertical and horizontal planes heightens spatial awareness for pedestrians. The "chalets" with their introspective orientation were well done although the judgment of placing $200 thousand townhomes in the middle of a commercial development is questionable.
Other curious design features include the mixture of office spaces with shops for tourists. Perhaps the developer expected a weekday/weekend trade-off of parking, but whatever the intentions the result is a parking
disaster. Additionally, the natural attributes of the site were misused. Outdoor restaurant seating is not utilized in a locale offering a perfect climate and spectacular views. The tip of the peninsula provides an ideal setting for a glass enclosed restaurant with a large patio. At present an empty building sits there with nothing enticing the pedestrian to continue around the peninsula.
Activities for visitors are also lacking and need to be developed, especially "free" activitiesa network of bike paths and walking trails around the lake, park and playground facilities, and picnic areas. One final recommendation for the community is to develop a mass-transit system or shuttle bus route, primarily for weekend and summer use to reduce traffic congestion.
In sum, the Lake Arrowhead community is a dynamic, evolving community with great potential for improvements. Because there is a "planning attitude" among its citizens improvements will continue to be made to the planning process, and to the social, economic, and physical aspects of the commmunity. Most of the fundamental planning principles can be successfully applied to resort communities as they are to cities and towns in general. Resort communities through, require that extra attention be given to those certain unique circumstances which make them special and which will ensure their continued success as resorts.
In order to evaluate my perception as a planner, I solicited residents' opinions through a brief, simple questionnaire printed in a local general-interest shopping guide (Appendix 3). The purpose was not one of scientific study but to determine whether my evaluation skills are
I was pleased to note my opinions on the general development and quality of life in Lake Arrowhead represented those of the majority. This provided reassurance that as a planner striving to provide the greatest good for the maximum number of people my views are (Â£ail^consistent with those of the general populace.
Developer: G.C. Properties, Inc. 2152 Dupont Drive Irvine, California 92715 (714) 752-8666
Architect/Planner: David Klages and Associates 2615 Villa Way Newport Beach, California 92663 (714) 675-8233
Engineer: CM Engineering 225 East Airport Road San Bernardino, California 92406 (714) 884-8804
Contractor: Emkay Development & Realty 1201 Dove Street, Suite 200 Newport Beach, California 92663 (714) 883-8660
Soils Engineer: G. A. Nicoll & Associates 2660 Walnut Avenue Tustin, California 92660 (714) 731-2680
Environmental Impact Report Prepared by: Westec Services, Inc. 180 East Main Street Suite 150 Tustin, California 92680 (714) 838-4644
APPENDIX 2: Methods Used To Obtain Organizational And Public Input
A PUBLIC HEARING HAS BEEN SCHEDULED BEFORE THE SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY PLANNING COMMISSION TO CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING DESCRIBED APPLICATION:
COMMUNITY (AREA): LAKE ARROWHEAD FILE/INDEX NO:78-0007/M215-3N PROPOSAL:PHSA/Rejuvenate existing
Neighborhood Shopping Center together/w Motor Lodge & Cottages LOCATICN: N/w intersection Lakes Edge Rd.
& State Hwy 173, Lake Arrowhead APPLICANT: Lake Arrowhead Village Ltd. ENGINEER/ARCHITECT:
# Units: 124 + 176 roctns/Acre(s) 38.5
PLACE OF HEARING: SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY PLANNING COMMISSION CHAMBERS
1111 E. MILL STREET, BLDG, U, (FIRST FLOOR)
SAN BERNARDINO, CA 92415
DATE AND TIME OF HEARING: February 15, 1979 at 1:30 P.M. or thereafter
ANY PERSON AFFECTED BY THIS APPLICATION MAY APPEAR AND BE HEARD IN SUPPORT OR OPPOSITION TO THE PROPOSAL AT THE TIME OF THE HEARING.
A NEGATIVE DECLARATION HAS BEEN ISSUED FOR THIS PROPOSED PROJECT WHICH MEANS THAT THE COUNTY FOUND THAT THE PROPOSED PROJECT WOULD HAVE NO POSSIBLE SIGNIFICANT ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS.
THE ENVIRONMENTAL FINDING ALONG WITH THE PROPOSED PROJECT APPLICATION MAY BE VIEWED AT THE PUBLIC INFORMATION COUNTER, (FIRST FLOOR), AT THE ABOVE ADDRESS FROM 8:00 A.M. UNTIL 5:00 P.M., February 4 14, 1979.
The meeting will be cancelled if a Stage 2 or Stage 3 smog episode is forecast this dace for che Central Valley Area. In Valley areas Hial 383-3401, - ; or 985-1693 THE DAY PRE-
CEEDING THE MEETING FOR SMOG FORECASTS. For Lake Arrowhead and Running Springs .Areas, dial
864-1300; - - !1- - - -----CANCELLED MEETINGS
WILL BE RESCHEDULED FOR THE FOLLOWING THURSDAY AS SHOWN: All 10:00 A.M. hearing items will be heard at 8:30 A.M.; all 2:00 P.M. hearing items will be heard at 4:00 P.M.
Questions regarding the above procedures should be directed to the Planning Department at (714) 383-1417 - . .
SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY PLANNING COMMISSION
DATE S'- 3.
-- <* Â£ ujm
Environmental Improvement Agency Planning Department
SUBJECT APPLICATION FOR
COMMUNITY (AREA) : LAKE ARROWHEAD FZLE/INDEX NO: 78-0007/M215-3N PROPOSAL:PHSA/Rejuvenate existing
Neighborhood Shopping Center together/w Motor Lodge & Cottages LOCATION: N/w intersection Lakes Edge Rd.
& State Hwy 173, Lake Arrowhead APPLICANT: Lake Arrowhead Village Ltd. ENGINEER/ARCHITECT:
# Units: 124 + 176 roans/Acre(s) 38.5
VARIANCE MINOR SUB. C^SITE & DEV. PLAN OTHER
The above referenced application-has been filed with the County Planning Department,
Any aavironmeptal or planning comment you may have should be received in this office no later than
/ "*/ n far Environmental Review and no later than _______for Planning
NOTE TO ADJACENT PROPERTY OWNERS: You may use this form or additional sheets for comments.
NOTE TO UTILITY COMPANIES: This is for your information only. No reply is necessary unless you have existing R/W or easements across the property proposed for development.
qv Environmental Improvement Agency
Planning-Department '.. \ i Attention: ;'v: '
;7i?;:111,1 East Mill Street, Bldg. 1f> ; : : San Bernardino, CA 92415Â£ ' A?'
Our opinions and/or recommendations are as follows regarding thepropqged
>ns and/or recommendatic
INDEX N0y(^Â£u2^iLaS-TYPE I
- ; O',V i ' /
PE OF APPLICATION.
f ?' >Â£. ;
J .***- .v7.
rr .. -t? >.: Department (Please Identify Agency)
l*.: r r, . . ...
(Phone Number or Extension)
v. 'v'-' rxSt}-\
(Title, If Applicable)
DISTRIBUTION: White Plenning Canary BAD
Lake Arrowhead Property Owners Association
Post Office Box 147 / Lake Arrowhead, California 92352 / Phone (714) 337-2461
San Bernardino County
Planning Department 1111 E. ill Street San Bernardino, Ca
The Executive Board of the Lake Arrowhead Property Owners Association would like to make the following statement in regards to the Lake Arrowhead Village project.
The statment is: "We are pleased with what the Lake Arrowhead Village people are trying to accomplish in the Village area. It is project that we need in our area now to satisfy our growing need for more services. We believe that the concept that the developer has come up with is very satisfactory."
Martin P.. P.ichelli, President
Patrick Hopkins, treasurer
anH nrntort tho interact*: of the nronertv owners of Arrowhead Woods"
STATE OF CALIFORNIARESOURCES AGENCY
CALIFORNIA REGIONAL WATER QUALITY CONTROL BOARD-LAHONTAN REGION
2092 LAKE TAHOE BOULEVARD P.O. BOX 14367
SOUTH LAKE TAHOE, CALIFORNIA 95702
EDMUND G. BROWN JR., Governor
September 26, 1978
Mr. Pat McGuckian
San Bernardino County Environmental Improvement Agency Planning Department 1111 E. Mill Street, Bldg. #1 San Bernardino, CA 92415
INDEX NO. 78-0007/M215-3N
Dear Mr. McGuckian:
Thank you for the opportunity to review the above-referenced proposed development in Lake Arrowhead. At this time we have no objections to approval of this project provided that stringent erosion control measures are adopted. It will also be necessary for the developer to file a report of waste discharge for this project. This report shall contain that supplemental information necessary to demonstrate the adequacy of short and long term erosion control measures.
In addition, we would like to review the environmental documents when they become available. Any environmental review of this project should include an investigation of sewage capacity to serve the development and a discussion of what measures are proposed to mitigate any potential erosion problems caused by land disturbance.
Should you have any questions regarding this matter, please contact Gerard J. Thibeault or Lenny Blackman in our Victorville office at (714) 245-6583.
Very truly yours,
ROY C. HAMPSON EXECUTIVE OFFICER
cc: Mountain Planning Team/San Bernardino County Planning Department
APPENDIX 3: Residents Perception Of'The Quality Of Life In Lake Arrowhead
SUZANNE McINTYRE has gotten enormous response from the survey we ran for her last issue, and she has 'sked us to do it againso, being the nice guys that we re, here it is! If you have lived here five years or longer, womplete the questionnaire and return to Suzanne as soon as possible. Her address is Box 25, Running Springs, ?2382. She is working on her Master's Thesis in Urban and Regional Planning and the mountain is her subject. We'll publish the results.. .hurry, Suzanne!
1. Much Worse 2. Slightly Worse 3. No Change 4. Slightly Better 5. Much Better
Anawer each question by circling a number.
. Do you feel the overall quality of life in the mountain area has changed in the last 5 years? 1 2 3 4 5
> Do you feel the level and quality of services has changed since new development has arrived? 1 2 3 4 5
Do you feel the flow of traffic has been altered for better or worse? 1 2 3 4 5
Have the environmental and scenic qualities of the area been affected? 1 2 3 4 5
i List any comments you havethings you love or HUHiw about the area; things we need or could use less of.
What community do you reside in?
Remember our survey?
On July 4 and again several issues later, the MOUNTAIN SHOPPER assisted SUZANNE McINTYRE in the circulation of a "reader response" from asking questions of residents (5 years or more) regarding their feelings about the development of our mountain area. Suzanne was working on her Master's Thesis and Urban and Regional Planning was her subject.
The response was excellent and we now have the results of the survey, which we promised to share with our readers.
Some good... some bad. Progress is afoot in the mountains, as we ail know, and a lot of us are being dragged yelling and screaming into the 21st Century. Others, realizing the inevitability of it all, are continuing to enjoy the amenities we have here. When it's 104 to 112 degrees in the valley and they are having smog alerts almost daily (even sending people home from work), we must admit, it's pretty wonderful at our elevationabove it all.
Thirty-four percent of us feel that the quality of life has improved during the past five years.. .but 51.5 percent consider that quality to have declined. Fourteen percent feel there has really been no change.
Level and quality of services? Fifty-one percent believe our services have improved... while 25 percent disagree and think they have declined. Twenty-two percent say no change.
Flow of traffic and road conditions? Overwhelming response that we're not doing so great.. .87 percent felt things could be better, but five percent think improvement has taken place. Seven percent are of the opinion there has been no change.
And what about the environmental and scenic qualities? Again, overwhelming response on the negative side. Eighty-two percent feel we are losing much of our beautiful scenery, while 4 percent see an improvement and 12 percent can see no change:
Suzanne said there were many comments accompanying the questionnaire.
On the negative side (and gosh, we hate to be negative!)... Developers are going overboard, the traffic signal at the entrance to LA Village is awful, prices are too high, no parking, too many condos and too many trees coming down.
However, the positive comments reflect the spirit of the mountain... we have the nicest folks anywhere, the Ice Castle is fabulous, the best climate in the world is all ours. The Sheriff and Fire Departments have improved their services and the air is wonderful. Most of us love the country atmosphere and small town living. All of us love our lakes and mountain scenery.
That's it, folks. That's how many of us feel.
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The Timberline Journal. Lake Arrowhead, California. (Various issues of this community newspaper provided data and general information.)
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Planning. July, 1976.
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Bangert, Ronald L., Field Representative to John Joyner, Supervisor, First District. San Bernardino County, California 5 November 1984.
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Gonzalez A., Southern California Gas Company, 27 June 1984.
Lawrence, Jim, Chief. Lake Arrowhead Fire District, 26 June 1984.
Lewis, Dave, Associate Planner. San Bernardino County Planning Department.
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Mauk, Don, Director. Lake Arrowhead Community Services District, 26 June 1984.
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