ARCHIVES LD 1190 A75 1982 M3176
Bonny J. McLoud-Smith
Masters Thesis in Interior Design College of Design and Planning University of Colorado at Denver
Interior Design Program and Solution for a City Center Luxury Hotel and Restaurant Facility
A special THANKS to my advisors David Ballast, Jay Jacobson, and Mark McPherson and to Chris Nims, Interim Director of Interiors, for their assistance during the research and design development of this project. My appreciation is also extended to
HERITAGE FINANCIAL CORPORATION for allowing me to use their proposed development as a thesis proj ect.
Bonny J. McLoud-Smith Denver, Co lor ado December, 1982
The following Master Program is intended to be the basis for the design and implementation of the interiors of the Mercantile Hotel. My Masters Thesis design presentation will deal with the space planning and overall design development of the entire hotel facility (except kitchen and retail space), while only addressing the specific design criteria in selected areas of the hotel, such as guest-rooms, lobby and res taurants.
There are necessary specific criteria outlined in this program (such as detailed architectural, lighting and mechanical) which will not be able to be dealt with at the level of my design development presentat ion.
Denver's Re-emerging Business Center (Exhibits A <5c B)
Issues and Goals Phys i ca1 Human Time
Economi e MARKET ANALYSIS Overv iew
Denver Office Space Absorbtion (Exhibit C) Lodging Market
Projections of Room/Night Demand (Exhibit D)
Faci 1 i t ies
Guest-room Supply (Exh i bi t E)
Projected Future Lodging Demand (Exhibit F) RENOVATION AND ADAPTIVE REUSE Renovation Costs (Exh i bi t G)
Standards for Rehabiltati (Exhibit H)
Transfer of Development Rights Renovat ion Zones (Exh i bi t I)
Projected Annual Occupancy Projected Cash Flow (Exh i bi t J)
Projected Construction Costs
4 6 6
10* TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXISTING FACILITY Context
Map of Downtown Denver (Exhibit K)
Surrounding Amenities Immediate Area Union Arcade The Mercantile Hotel
Existing Architectural Conditions (Exhibit N) As built Base Plans (Exhibit O)
User Prof i les User/Act i v i t ies Activity/Need Charts PHYSICAL FACTORS Over v i ew
Recommended Square Footage (Exhibit P) Individual Areas of Hotel CODES, ZONING AND REGULATIONS DESIGN CRITERIA Ove r a 11
Adjacency Chart(Exhibit Ind i v i dua1 Areas Linkage Diagram REFERENCES APPENDIX
39 42 42
51 66 67
moved eastward, away from t he river
confluence, to the is known today. center of Denver as i t
In 1982, another partnership, known as
Lower Downtown Denver , Limited (a
subsidiary of Her i t a g e F i n a n c i a 1
Corporation, best known for their development of The Charter at Beaver Creek) has chosen to purchase the Brown Mercantile Building and convert it into the "five star" luxury, Mercantile Hotel. This 79,000 square foot hotel and restaurant facility is to offer richness and service known previously in Denver only to those of a by gone era. The two phase venture taken on by Lower Downtown Denver Limited (LDDL) will be a small part in the growing movement towards the revitalization of "Old Downtown Denver".
This revitalization began in Downtown Denver in the 1960's when Dana Crawford, an enterprising business woman, defied the Skyline Urban Renewal Authority (bulldoze and rebuild) with her two block renovation and conversion of historic downtown buildings into commercial retai 1/office space. The success of this project "awakened Denver resident's interest in their own history" and "as a result, the historic preservation movement (in Denver) began". (12 )
The Mercantile Hotel will not stand alone in it's reuse/renovation, as lower downtown Denver becomes more and more a re-emerging business center, with structures
The scope of the Mercantile Hotel project is to design a hotel and restaurant facility in a renovated 6 level 79,000 square foot building (currently used as a furniture warehouse) to serve Denver's overnight business/convention and local daily business markets (these two groups will later be refered to as "hotel guests" and "daily patrons"). The Hotel, on the southeast corner of the intersection of 18th and Wynkoop Streets, would actually be only the first phase of a two phase development process, but will be the only project dealt with at this time.
The criteria called out by the developer, Lower Downtown Denver Limited, for the project is as follows:
- to be an upper end, exclusive,
- 60 to 64 guest-rooms/suites
- two restaurant facilities, an 82 seat 24 hour cafe, and a 72 seat fine dining area (lunch and
- a 110 seat lounge/bar
- a sense of continuity with the
adjacent "Union Arcade"
- an atrium covered street front
- coneierge va 1 et and 24 hour room
- private dining/executive meeting
- a $13,000,000 constructon budget
to address the needs of each of these areas specifically and i nd i v i dua1 1 y.
Because the hote1/restaurant will be serving many functions and carrying on many activities simultaneously, proper adjacencies and traffic flow become a primary cons i derat ion.
Because the restaurant areas will serve others besides hotel guests, they in particular must be easily recognizable, identifiable, and accessible to the public.
Because The Mercantile Hotel is a potential two phase project, this first phase must be developed in such a way that the two phases could combine to function as a unitary complex.
Since the hotel is a city center hotel, with off site parking, ease of and access in and out of the hotel must be addressed.
To address each area individually in terms of what needs are to be provided to maintain the degree service requested by the developer.
To provide proper adjacencies to all of the facilities in the hotel comp lex.
To maximize the efficiency of the traffic flow, keeping operational and public paths from crossing whenever possible.
To make the contained public restaurant facilities easily noticed from the exterior of the hotel.
To make the public and the restaurant facilities as easily accessible to walk-in guests as they are to overnight guests.
To design the first phase of the hotel with the ability to function on it's own, yet with the flexibility to become a segment of a larger faci 1 i ty.
To provide services and facilities that will make transportation easily accessible for all users.
To provide an easy means of entrance and egress for all users of the facility.
Because the hotel is located in downtown Denver, across the street from the proposed Union Station Hote1/Convention Complex, the major markets in proximity, will be the business and convention travelers.
Since there are certain environmental needs of each and every user in a physical hotel environment, and inherent activities, these needs will have to be addressed.
Because service to the customer is essential to guaranty return business, the convenience and aid to the patrons must be maximized.
To design accommodations to meet the physical and human needs of the business/convention traveler.
To design the hotel to attract the business/convention traveler.
To analyse what the needs are for each user/activity and design the facility to meet those needs in the best possible manner.
To provide a space such that ease of providing service to all guests, is at it's most efficient level.
Since the structure of the hotel was built in 1902, 80 years of charm and character have remained and developed, and should be recogn i zed.
Since phasing is a possibility, the second phase should be addressed in terms of the effect on the first phase f ac i 1 i t y.
Since the 1981 "Tax Credit Act" is recognized over a two year period, and depreciation for fifteen years thereafter, time must be a cons i derat ion.
Pa ge 9
To enhance the character and historic value of the 80 year old structure, with the quality of the interior design.
To show how the design could be adapted to a second phase.
To recognize the factor that "time" plays, both in the construction of the project, but also in the ability to remain a "timeless" design.
Eeonom i e
Because a budget to renovate and convert the building has already been established at $165/sq. ft., it will be necessary to attempt to work within the budget.
Since the developer is going to try and gain a 25% maximum tax credit, based on the "Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981" the interiors should be in keeping with Historic Preservations guidelines to guaranty the maximum credit.
Since there is a trade off between amount of revenue gained in a hotel facility from public facilities and guest-rooms verses operational areas, an optimum mix must be reached.
To minimize cost, yet maximize efficiency, needs met, and overall design quality ("luxurious") of the hote 1/restaurant.
To follow guidelines established by the Secretary of the Interior for rehabilitation of 40 year old structures, as they pertain to inter iors.
To analyse the best use of the space, such that revenue brought in from the facility will be maximized and balanced with services and user needs met, therefore guarantying return bus i ness.
The lodging market for a city center hotel is generally based on two factors, the strength for the local economy, and the proximity of business that would have a high demand for accommodations. Denver's Central Business District (the site of the Mercantile is in the northern sector of the CBD), has in spite of the national economy, experienced both economic growth and expansion in office and retail space.
An analytical study of economic indicators, done by the accounting firm of Laventhol/Horwath(9 ), states that such areas as retail sales, effective buying income, employment and population have all pointed towards continued economic growth for the Denver area, in particular, the Central Business District. As the State Capitol, and also as a centrally located national city, Denver is the headquarters and regional office location for many large corporations, particualrly in the energy field. Exhibit C shows that the Central Business District contained 42% of the Denver Metro office space in January of 1982. In addition, BOMA and Denver Chamber of Commerce report 25 new buildings under construction in the Central Business District, providing approximately eight and one half million additional square feet of office space.
A recent flood of vacant office space in Denver (the Denver Post state a record 15%, Friday, October 1, 1982) due to this surge
in recent construction, should only
OFFICE SPACE ABSORPTION DENVER METROPOLITAN AND NORTHEAST AREAS
METROPOLITAN AREA DOWNTOWN CORE AREA
Date Occupied Square Feet Vacancy Rate Square Feet Absorption over Previous Year bccupled Square Feet Vacancy Rate Square Feet Absorbed Over Previous Year
January 1978 18,998,400 12.98 - 7,632,800 8.48 -
January 1979 19,007,400 12.8 2,051,000 8,389,700 9.8 756,900
January 1980 22,404,100 8.9 1,198,700 9,158,100 6.1 768,500
January 1981 25,128,200 7.1 2,924,100 11,105,100 2.4 1,946,900
January 1982 1982 Occupied 10,201,800 7.7 4,875,800 12,894,900 .7 1,589,700
square footage aa a percentage of the total Metropolitan
area 100% 42.0%
Average Annual Absorption
1978-1982 3,311,850 1,285,525
Sourcest Denver Building Owners and Managers Association Denver Chamber of Commerce
represent a long term benefit, as it allows space for more major business operations to move to the Denver area in the future. Consequently, there are and should continue to be a large number of commercial business travelers to the Denver area.
Denver's lodging market is made up of four types of travelers:
Commerc i a 1 Meet ing/Conference Tourist Airline Crew
Exhibit D shows Laventho1/Horwath s projections of estimated room/night demand based on past area lodging patterns.
Estimated Rocnn-Wlqht Demand
Market Seqment Number of room-nighta Percent
Commerclel 101,(00 45t
Group 290,500 44
Tourlet 55,100 8
Airline Crew 22,200 1_
Total (69,(00 100%
Courtesy Laventhol and Horwath
The two primary lodging users are thus:
Comme r c i a 1 travel for business, and generally Monday through Thursday. These travelers are not particularly price conscious. They desire service, quality and and active environment.(9)(pg. V-7)
Meet ing/Conference- convention, conference, meeting and/or training are the primary reasons for this clientle. They require a substantial amount of meeting
hospitality space. These users generally request double occupancy guest rooms.
Currently in the Central Business District there are eight hotels comprising 3,737 guest-rooms, averaging 63% occupancy, which make up the Mercantile's potential competitive market in Denver. Based on projected openings and closures of proposed and existing hotels the 1984 supply total should be 4,681 guest-rooms, (exhibit E)
At the present time, the average nightly rate is at $61.50.
1881 1982 1983 1984
Existing supply 2,925
Chenqe to Supply)
Msrriott-City Center 812
Governor's Court Perk Suites 200 372
Oxford Hotel Tsbor Center-West in Hotel Proposed Merchentile 82 428
Hotel Plaza Cosmopolitan 64
Annuel Chsnge to
Supply 12 454 94
Totel 2,925 3,717 4,191 4,681
198S and beyond
Courtesy Laventhol and Horwath Reference 9
Based on research, interviews and tours, the following is an outline of the existing hotel facilities in Denver's Central Business District:
The Brown Palace built in 1892, has between 480 and 520 guestrooms (some are multi-room suites), 5,800 square foot ballroom, several meeting rooms, 3 restaurants, and various other facilities ranging from an in-house bakery and furniture manufacturing, to a print shop, featuring personalized stationary for guests.
The Brown has always been a leader in the Denver lodging market, emphasizing quality, a service orientation, and keeping the staff to guest ratio at approximately 1.5.
The Fairmont part of a chain that includes hotels in Dallas, San Francisco and New Orleans has 540 guest-rooms and approximately 32,000 square feet of ballroom and meeting room space, is one of the newcomers and forerunners in the Denver hotel market. The amenities included for Denver's highest average room rates are, outdoor pool, tennis, jogging and five restaurant/lounges The Fairmont prides itself on it's service ("no special service floors; everyone gets special service"), catering, and it's ability to draw the convention market.
Executive Tower Inn located near Currigan Hall, is part of a mixed use complex. There are 338 guest-rooms, 20,000 square feet of small meeting rooms. Other amenities include, health club, restaurants, lounge and sundry shop.
Hilton Hotel part of the large chain of Hilton's, this fairly modern facility has been a leader in Denver's convention market for several years. Centrally located in Denver's upper downtown, the 775 room hotel has several meeting facilities, restaurants, lounges and an adjoining office complex.
Marriott City Center the new facility has 612 rooms which occupy the first 20 floors of the Arco Tower office complex. The hotel has extensive public facilities, several restaurants and hales the city's largest ballroom.
Holiday Inn Downtown markets it's 396 rooms to the more rate conscious traveler, and also attracts some tourists due to it's chain affiliation. It does contain several thousand feet of meeting space, pool, restaurant/lounge and retail arcade.
Plaza Cosmopolitan which is projected to close in January of 1983, currently features 396
guest-rooms, restaurant/lounge and a VIP Club leve 1.
Future hotels in the Denver lodging market include the Tabor Center/Westin Hoel, 426 rooms; Governor's Court Hotel, 200 suites (previously the Raddisson); and the recently renovated Oxford Hotel, 82 rooms.
The Oxford Hotel one block southeast oT The Mercant ile Hotel site, directly across form Union Station, probably represents the most immediately competitive lodging facility in Denver's marketplace. The restored and renovated hotel will offer "European style service" in the facility restored primarily to a "deco" era, featuring rooms which are unique in size, shape and classic furnishings. The facility will offer virtually no meeting facilities itself, but will utilize those in the adjacent restored office building. Amenities offered besides high level service will be several restaurants, a lounge and a private dinner club.
With the construction of the Union Station Convention Complex and large amount of new office space in the Denver area, both the Commercial and the Convention/Meeting lodging markets will most likely grow at an even faster rate that their projected 10 to 11%.(9) (Laventho1/Horwath, pg.V-10 Exhibit F). Based on market analysis by Laventhol/Horwath, the Mercantile Hotel
should capture 111% of the fair market share of the Commercial market in 1984, and 96% of the fair market share of the Convention market by 1987.
Because of the small size of the Mercantile, smaller than any of the current or future hotels, the Commercial and Convention market it attracts, will most likely be very select, expecting a high degree of quality and individual service, not obtained at any of Denver's larger hotels. Also due to the size limitation, there will be no facilities to accommodate large convention meetings, only those of a smaller nature.
PROJ ECTEI) FUTURE 1.0DC I NG DEMAND
Market Estimated 1981 Compounded annual growth Projected Demand
segment area demand rate 1981-1988 m3 T936 1987 1988
Commercial 101,600 10* - 392,100 422,300 452,400 482,600 512,800
Group 290,600 11 - 386,400 418,400 450,400 482,300 514,300
Tourist 55,300 6 65,300 68,600 71,900 75,200 78,600
Airline Crew 22,200 6 26,200 27,500 28.900 30,200 31,500
Total 669,700 870,000 936,800 1,003,600 1, 070,300 1,137,200
Courtesy of Laventhol and Horwath Reference 9
There are many advantages to reusing existing buildings for intended or new uses, and the success of such ventures has been shown in such thriving projects as The Raddisson/Chicago (a 1928 health club), Ghirride11i Square in San Francisco, and of course both Larimar Square and Market Center are representative of Denver's prosperity in adaptive reuse projects. Although preserving local heritage and upgrading a district are factors, the primary benefits involved in reusing an existing structure are generally financial.
There are some who say new and adaptive reuse construction is equal in cost (benefits being only location and character) (12, pg. 59), a 1976 comparative analysis by Herbert MeLaugh1in,FAIA, of San Francisco shows a 43% savings in reuse vs. new construction, with an even greater savings in operation costs.(12) (pg.87) (Exh i b i t G).
Other considerations which Lower Downtown Denver Limited intends to take advantage of in terms of The Mercantile Hotel are the "Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981" and the potential transfer of development rights, with the B-7 Zoning District. Because the Mercantile is over 40 years old, an automatic 20% tax credit will be allowed on any expenditure to rehabilitate the structure, as long as the amount spent exceeds the purchase price, over a 24 month period. An additional 5% credit is allowed, (as well as the tax credit not deducted from the depreciable basis) if the structure is a "certified historic
RENOVATION & ADAPTIVE REUSE
Costs of New Construction for 15 to 20-Story Downtown Building
cost per gross square foot
Property acquisition $ 3.00
Basic building 38.00
Tenant improvements 8 00
Subtotal (hard costs) $49 15
Interim operation (3 years) 2.70
Architectural and legal fees 2.60
Interim cash flow
Marketing and financing real
estate fees 2.70
Developer overhead 100
Interim financing 6.60
Developer profit 6 00
Subtotal (soft costs) $21.60
note An average $70.75 cost per gross square foot converts to $77.80 per net square foot An 11 percent loan and/or profit factor yields a base rent of $8.56 before operating expenses.
Typical Patterns of Renovation Costs
Major renovation Minor renovation
gross cost/ gross cost/
sq. ft. sq. ft.
Acquisition $ 9.00 $14.00
Front-end renovation 2.50 1 50
Basic building renovation 10.00 7.00
Tenant finishes 8.50 8.05
Subtotal (hard costs) $30 00 $30.55
Vacant buildings cost (interim operating costs, taxes, insurance, etc., for 1.6 years) $ .80 $ 1.30
Architectural, engineering and legal fees 1.60 1 20
Net interim income (100) (2.00)
Marketing costs, leasing and financing fees 2.50 2.80
Developer's overhead .50 .50
Interim financing 2.50 3.00
Developer's profit 3.00 300
Subtotal (soft costs) $10.90 $ 9.80
Total $39.90 $40.35
notes: Figures for major renovation cover project with no significant stair or structural work.
An average $40.35 cost per gross square foot converts to $44.40 per net square foot. An 11 percent loan and/or profit factor yields a base rent of $4.90.
Rehabilitation operating costs tend to be low, principally because of taxes, but also frequently because of energy costs. An operating cost of $3.90 was used for new construction; a comparable rehabilitation figure would be$2.85, yielding rents at the$7.55 level fora straightforward job and full-floor tenants.
Exhibit G Reference 20
Operating Costs Comparisons for New and Renovated Space
Range for single-tenant floors, in net costs/sq. ft.
Renovated space New space
Energy (air-conditioned) $ .70 $ 90
Janitorial costs .55 .55
Building operating costs, reserve, maintenance .75 .95
Vacancy allowance .25 .40
Taxes .60 1.10
Total $2.85 $3.90
s t r uct ure" , as determi ned by the Nat i ona 1
Pa r k Ser v i ce Division 0 f the U.S.
Dep art men t of the Inter ior . There are
gui del i nes and standards f or rehabi 1 i ta t ion
wh i ch must be met, (exh i b i t H) as we 1 1 as
h i s tor i ca 1 s i gn i f i cance wh i ch must be
pro ven . (U.S. Depar tmen t of the Inte r ior
H i s tor i c P res e i vat ion Cert if i cation and The
Nat ion a 1 Regi ster of H i s tor i c PI aces
Nom i na t ion form). Further r e qu i remen t s and
gui de 1 i nes are called out i n i the comp lete
198 1 Tax Act. The fo1lowi n g tables show
some of the which can be
savings over recogni zed.
new cons t r uct ion
NEW BUILDING COSTING *1,000,000 15 YEAR RECOVERY PERIOD STRAIGHT-LINE DEPRECIATION
Year Deduction @ 50%
1 $ 66.667 $ 33,333
2 66,667 33.333
3 66.667 33,333
4 66,667 33.333
5 66,667 33,333
6 66.667 33333
7 66,667 33333
8 66,667 33333
9 66.667 33,333
10 66,667 33333
11 66,667 33333
12 66,667 33,333
13 66,667 33.333
14 66.667 33333
15 66.662 33338
Tax Saving Accumulated
@ 12% Present Value
$ 29.762 $ 29,762
$1,000,000 (227,028) $ 772.972
Present Value oI Total Tax Savings Cost of Building
Present Value of Total Tax Savings
Net Present Value After Tax Cost of Building
40 YEAR OLD BUILDING COSTING $400,000 20/o CREDIT ON $600,000 REHABILITATION EXPENDITURES
15 YEAR RECOVERY PERIOD WITH STRAIGHT-LINE DEPRECIATION
Depreciation Tax Saving Present Value of Tax Saving Preaent Value ol Tax Credit Accumulated
Deduction @ 50% @ 12/o Tax Credit & 12/o Present Value
$ 58,667 $ 29.333 $ 26,190 $120,000 $107,143 $ 133,333
58,667 29,333 23,384 156,717
58,667 29,333 20,879 177,596
58,667 29,333 18,642 _ 196,238
58,667 29,333 16,644 212,882
58,667 29,333 14,861 227,743
58,667 29,333 13.269 _ 241,012
58,667 29,333 11,847 252,859
58,667 29,333 10,578 * 263,437
58,667 29.333 9,444 _ 272,881
58,667 29,333 8,433 281,314
58,667 29,333 7,529 288,843
58,667 29,333 6,722 295,565
58,667 29,333 6,002 _ 301,567
58,662 29,338 5,359 - 306,926
$ 880,000 $440,000 $199,783 $120,000 $107,143
. Value ol Total Tax Savings Building L Value ol Total Tax Savings !senl Value After Tax Cost of Building $1,000,000 (306,926) $ 693,074 $ 306,926
CERTIFIED HISTORIC STRUCTURE COSTING 4400,000 25*/s CREDIT ON $600,000 REHABILITATION EXPENOITIIRFS
CERTIFIED HISTORIC STRUCTURE COSTING 1400,000 25V. CREDIT ON $600,000 REHABILITATION EXPENDITURES 15 YEAR RECOVERY PERIOD WITH STRAIGHT-LINE DEPRECIATION
Tax Present Value Present Value
Depreciation Saving ol Tax Saving of Tax Credit Accumulated
Deduction 50 V. & 12V. Tax Credit 12V. Present Value
$ 66,667 $ 33,333 $ 29,762 $160,000 $133,929 $ 163,691
66,667 33,333 26,573 190,264
66,667 33,333 23,726 213,990
66.667 33,333 21,184 235,174
66,667 33,333 18,914 254,088
66,667 33,333 16,888 270,976
66,667 33,333 15,078 286,054
66,667 33,333 13,463 299,517
66,667 33,333 12,020 311,537
66,667 33,333 10,732 322,269
66,667 33,333 9,582 331,851
66,667 33,333 6.556 340,407
66,667 33,333 7,639 348,046
66,667 33,333 6,821 354,867
66,662 33,338 6,090 - 360,957
$1,000,000 $500,000 $227,028 $150,000 $133,929
Present Value o( Total Tax Savings 5 360,957
Cost of Building $1,000,000
Present Value of Total Tax Savings 1360,957)
Net Present Value After Tax Cost of Building $ 639,043
III. Secretary of the Interiors Standards for Rehabilitation
1. Every reasonable effort shall be made to provide a compatible use for a property which requires minimal alteration of the building, structure, or site and its environment, or to use a property for its originally intended purpose.
2. The distinguishing original qualities or character of a building, structure, or site and its environment shall not be destroyed. The removal or alteration of any historic material or distinctive architectural features should be avoided when possible.
3. All buildings, structures, and sites shall be recognized as products of their own time. Alterations that have no historical basis and which seek to create an earlier appearance shall be discouraged.
4. Changes which may have taken place in the course of time are evidence of the history and development of a building, structure, or site and its environment. These changes may have acquired significance in their own right, and this significance shall be recognized and respected.
5. Distinctive stylistic features or examples of skilled craftsmanship which characterize a building, structure, or site shall be treated with sensitivity.
6. Deteriorated architectural features shall be repaired rather than replaced, wherever possible. In the event replacement is necessary, the new material should match the material being replaced in composition, design, color, texture, and other visual qualities. Repair or replacement of missing architectural features should be based on accurate duplications of features, substantiated by historic, physical, or pictorial evidence rather than on conjectural designs or the availability of different architectural elements from other buildings or structures.
7. The surface cleaning of structures shall be undertaken with the gentlest means possible. Sandblasting and other cleaning methods that will damage the historic building materials shall not be undertaken.
8. Every reasonable effort shall be made to protect and preserve archeological resources affected by, or adjacent to any project.
9. Contemporary design for alterations and additions to existing properties shall not be discouraged when such alterations and additions do not destroy significant historical, architectural or cultural material, and such design is compatible with the size, scale, color, material, and character of the property, neighborhood or environment.
10. Wherever possible, new additions or alterations to structures shall be done in such a manner that if such additions or alterations were to be removed in the future, the essential form and integrity of the structure would be unimpaired.
Exhibit H Reference 14
The "transfer of development rights", comes into view if the Mercantile is certified as a "Historic Structure" (or designated a Denver Landmark, a potential short cut to Historic certification by the National Park Service) and therefore restricted to it's existing size. The amount of square footage of "rights", if any that can be transferee!, has yet to be determined until the design is complete and the amount of "premiums" gained under B-7 Zoning regulations can be determined (See Appendix A).
The non-financia 1 considerations involved with preserving a structure primarily have to do with the exterior of the building. A diagram (Exhibit I) by Richard Frank shows typically the zones to be considered in a 19th century building. (12) (pg. 87).
The interior, on the other hand, is left
fairly open. The shell, floorplates, and
existing partitons and systems (if still in good order) should be put to good use by any means possible to arrive at an expedient, desirable and exciting end design product.
Since The Mercantile's first and only use has been that of warehouse space, and the
systems (plumbing, mechanical,and electrical) all need replacement to meet code, there will be little restoration in the interior of the structure, but rather new construction to work with and enhance the restored Victorian exterior of the
Exhibit I Reference 12
Based on the previous marketing projections, the level of quality of the hotel, and the high end surrounding market, The Mercantile should be able to demand a higher than average nightly room rate for their guest-rooms. The following occupancy room rate projections was done for The Mercantile Hotel based on 64 guest-rooms by La vent ho1/Horwath.
Projected Average Annual Occupancy
Projected Average Rate Per Occupied Room
Projected Cash Flow from Operations Before Management Fees, Fixed Charges, Replacement of Fixed Assets, Debt Service and Income Taxes_____
131.00 155.50 183.25
$ 280,000 826,000
Entire facility income projections done by Laventho 1/Horwath based on a 64 room hotel complex, show the following income percentages:(9) (Exhibit J)
PROPOSED 4 4 ROOM HFflC ANT I LC HOTEL DENVER. COLORADO
ITATCMCNT OF TROJECTCn CASH TLOW FIIOH OPERATIONS DEFORC MANAGEMENT rCCl. FIXED CHARGES REP L AC EHENT Of F11 ED ASSETS.
nrBT SERVICE AND INCOME TAXES < F X PH EGGED IN THOUSANDS Of CURRENT DOLLARS)
REVENUES AMOUNT PERCENT AMOUNT PERCENT AMOUNT PERCENT AMOUNT PERCENT AMOUNT PERCENT
ROOMS 1 34* 27 73 l V l 3 119 2330 3 2 3 4 3170 3149 2 423 3 3 4 0
FOOD AND BEVERACE 3191 4 7 4 7 4 2 2 3 44 13 3 0 4 4 4 4 4 2 40 19 413 9 4 3 12 4 170
TELEPHONE 4 4 132 4 3 1 44 1 2 0 1 33 130 1 s
MINOR OPERATED DEPARTMENTS 3 2 0 4 4 4 1 0 73 4 3 0 40 77 Oil 0 1
RENTALS ANO OTHER INCOME 20 0 41 2 9 0 43 34 0 30 49 32 33 0 32
TOTAL 4141 100 00 4214 1 00 00 7014 1 00 00 9441 1 00 00 1 0233 100.00
World Wide Operating Expenses of the Hotel Industry, published in "Annual Reviews of Trends in Hote1/Mote 1 Business", show:
INCOME FROM: PERCENT
Room Sales 44.0
Food 30. 0
Minor Dept. 7.0
Store Rental 2. 0
Ot he r 3. 0
Due to the limited size of the Mercantile Hotel, it must be assumed that it is only logical for a greater percentage of it's income would come from food and beverage sales.
To apply for tax credit, the cost of
rehabilitation of course must exceed the
aqu i s i t ion cos t of the building. Lower
Downtown Denver Limited, has a 1loted the
following breakdown in p r o j e c t e d
construction costs for The Mercant i le
Hotel, as of July of 1982.
CONSTRUCTION COST IN $1,000. %
Acqu i s i t ion cos t 3,750.
Hard construction 2,925. 64.0
Interior finish 1,600.
Kitchen/Prep areas 400. 3. 0
Inter ior rooms 1,152. 13. 0
Interior common areas 500.
Mi see 1 laneous 50.
Overhead/Admi n. 250. 20. 0
Points, Fees Lega1 750.
Interest reserve 1,125.
TOTAL $1 3 002. 100. 0
Interior Finish includes a million dollars each for Restaurant and Lobby area. Room cost breaks down to approximately $17,000 a piece, based on 64 rooms. A rule of thumb of 1000 x nightly room rate = cost of room* (pg. 36), would make this figure appropriate. The following is a percentage break down of potential construction costs as laid out by noted hotel designer William B. Tabler (Stadler Hotel) in an article "Planning Hotels That Pay" (18) (pg. 34-36 ):
Furn i shings 15.
Operat ing Equ ip. 1.5
Inven tory 1.5
Working Cap i t a 1 1.5
A comparison of Tabler's percentages and LDDL's budget guidelines (taking into consideration the Mercantile was existing and is to be rehabilitated) show that in terms of construction costs, the Mercantile is taking measures to insure profitability.
The site for The Mercantile Hotel is at the north west end of Denver's Central Business District, in the "lower downtown, Union Station district". Access to this area is direct from 17th and 18th Streets, leading from upper downtown Denver's business district. The site is also just a few blocks from RTD's 16th Street Mall Terminal. There is serious discussion of extending The Mall transit system to Union Station, which will take public transportation directly to the Mercantile site. Major arteries which feed into downtown Denver from Stapleton International Airport and outsde the city are 1-25 and 1-70. (Exhibit K). Union Station train terminal directly across the street .serves passenger traffic.
16th Street Mall new pedestrian retail mall, with shuttle buses, begins only 2 blocks from the site.
Lar imer Square retail office development which spurred all of Denver's historic re-development, is just a few blocks south of the Me r c a n t i 1 e.
Market Center another renovated oTT ice retail complex is very near the site.
The Tabor Center proposed multiuse project which is currently beginning construction, will include retail, office space, and restaurant facilities.
Denver Center for the Performing Arts theatre and concert hall which provide cultural entertainment to the Denver area patrons, also provide meeting and special function rooms. The structure is on 14th Street at Curtis Street.
Denver Convention Complex which includes 53,000 square feet Currigan Exhibition Hall and the Denver Arena. This complex is adjacent to and can work in conjunction with the Denver Center for Performing Arts. Currently this is the only convention complex directly with the downtown area.
Both McN i cho1s Arena and The Denver Colluseum are just outside the Central Business District, but still serve the convention market.
THE IMMEDIATE AREA
Oxford Hotel and Office Complex -one block south of the Mercantile, will have offices, a hotel, restaurants, and a parking garage.
The Wynkoop Atrium a proposed retail re-development directly across the street.
Courtesy of Heritage Financial Corporation Reference 20
Blake Street Terrace a proposed renovation of the National Bisquit Company into a retail office comp lex.
Union Station Convention Complex -a recently awarded project directly across Wynkoop Street from The Mercantile Hotel, which will include several hundred thousand square feet of retai 1 ,office parking and convention facilities. The project is to replace the current Denver Convention Center with a complex 3 times as large on the new site. The hotel, which will be an integral part of the complex, will be leased out or sold to a major chain, according to a representative for the developer.
It is also projected that the area between Union Station and the block that the Mercantile is on, would become a "grand plaza", and possible RTD Mall turn-around.
The Union Arcade of which the Mercantile Hotel is a part, is a mixed use re-development of an entire block from 17th Street to 18th Street between Wazee and Wynkoop Streets. The Ardade will contain : (see also Exhibit L)
sq.ft. Residential Re t a i 1 Office Hote 1
The project consists of the rehabilitation of the existing buildings on the block and to restore and maintain the character of this portion of lower downtown Denver. The alley-way between these buildings will then be converted into an arcade, with store-fronts on either side of the glass covered walk-way. (Exhibit M). The retail area will be made up of high end, exclusive specialty and boutique shops. The residential site will be either luxury rental or condominiums.
Courtesy Heritage Financial Corporation Reference 20
The Victorian steel and glass archway (somewhat reminiscent of the "Crystal Palace") will act as the tying focal point to the entire Union Arcade project. Each of the several uses within the project should support one another, as well as the entire project becoming a magnet from other areas of the Central Business District and the Union Station Convention Complex.
THE MERCANTILE HOTEL
The 80 year old structure currently sits on the northern corner of the block. The 5 story romanesque revival Victorian building is made up of red brick bearing walls with Type III heavy timber, on column construction. Each floor has a 12,500
square foot floor plate, with the basement being just slightly larger. (Exhibit N)
There is currently a service elevator that is in operational order in the building. The other systems, mechanical, plumbing and electrical, will need extensive work to bring them "up to code" in the new hotel. A cooler/vault area exists in the basement and first floor. There are loading docks on two sides of the building at this time. (Exhibit O). Because of the loading docks, curb level on the first floor sits several feet above street level.
The vistas of any significance are to the west, the plaza in front of the hotel and Union Station; and to the east, into the Union Arcade.
BROWN MERCANTILE BUILDING Existing Architectural Conditions
PLAN DIMENSIONS: (NW-SE X NE-SW) 100 X 125 (12,500 GSF/Floor)
(Not including docks or basement under SE Side of Building; basement is 115' X 125' or 14,375 GSF)
HEIGHTH: Five Stories Above East Building Corner (18th Street)
With Full Basement
CONSTRUCTION : Type 111 Heavy Timber With Brick Bearing Walls;
Basement 1 2 3 4 5
Elevation : 89*-2" lOO'-O" 114'-6" 127'-11i" 140'-2i" 151'-5i"
Finished Floor To Underside of Beam; 7'-111" 11*84" 10'-6i" LD 1 00 8'-8" varies
Beam Depth: r-8" 1'-5" 1*-7" l*-4i"(-5") r-5" T-i"
Joist Depth: V-l" 1 -1" 1'-1" 111" 111" ir
Finished Floor to Underside of Sub-Floor: 10-8i" 14'-2i" 13'-2i" 12'-0i" ir-oi" 15'-3" - 11'-21"
Column Size at Floor: 19 X 17" 17 X 17" 15 X 15" 13 X 13" 11i X 11i" 71 X 71 II
Window Types; a ,b c,d e,f g.h i.k
Exterior Masonry Opening Width: 7>-0" 3'-6" 3'-6" 3'-6" 3'-6"
Interior Masonry Opening Width: 4'-0" 4'-0" 4-0" 4' 0"
Finished Floor To Brick Rough Sill (Interior) 2'8 3/4" 2*-4i" 2'-3" 231-26" (varies)
Basement = N/A 1 2 3 4 5
INT - EXT INT EXT INT EXT INT - EXT INT - EXT
Sill to Spring Line: N/A 5'-7" 7l-5" 7'-8" 6'-9" 6'-10" 5>-7j " 5'-10" varies 6'-6i"
Sill to Top of Arched Head: N/A 9'-11" 7'11" 8'-1" 7-3" 7,-3" 6* 2 i .. 6' 3" varies 4' -8"
Even though the Mercantile Hotel is small by comparison, the number of different users, their activities, and the needs of those different users are just as numerous and certainly as critical as they would be for any major hotel facility. The users of the Mercantile for analytical purposes will be placed into the following groupings:
Administrative Staff Operat iona1 Staff Hotel Guests Walk-in Patrons
Based on industry guidelines as well as comparisons with other Denver hotels, a high end city center hotel should average about 1.5 staff members for every hotel room (10) to guaranty ample service. Depending on the management policy of the restaurant manager, this figure could increase.
Administrative Staff handle the day to day office work of a hotel/restaurant operation. Privacy to do work away from public areas of the hotel and personal space to do required tasks must be considered. This group includes those people in supervisory positions such as managers.
Operational Staff carry on the "behind the scenes" service
oriented tasks that are so essential to a luxury hotel. The needs of the staff include privacy to complete their tasks with minimal intrusion into the public areas of the hotel. Personal space, territory, freedom from crowding, and personal comfort all work to lessen stress of employee. Visual supervision from administration will also increase efficiency of the operational staff.
Hotel Guests are primarily business or convent ion / group travelers. Needs consist of interaction, privacy accomodations, territoriality, lack of crowding, individual attention, service, and physical comf o r t.
Daily Patrons using public facilities, but not staying overnight, are made up of business people, shoppers, travelers from other hotels, conventioners and area residents. Their needs range from social interaction, physical comfort, privacy (possibly for small groups), personal space, visual stimulation, a feeling of luxury, and realization of service.
The following charts show more graphicly different environmental and behavioral needs which should be considered for each different user during a particular activity within the Mercantile.
Admin i s t rat i on
Office f unct ions Supervision
Check-in and Check out Operational Staff Housekeep i ng
Food-service preparation and
Breaks and Staff Dining Li nen service Loading dock
Sleeping and Relaxing
Dining Socializing Mee t i ng
Office Functions Supervision
Cashier T elecommuni cations
Travel/Accomodati on Arrangements
Operational Staff Privacy Personal Space Territoriality Personal Comfort Interaction a m :r > Communication 2 o TO Identification p. TZ m Lack of Crowding g i/> Security Stimulation Choice Visual Audio 2 < Color Â§ 3 m Light ^ r Tactile 3 > TO Cirrculation ^ -H m TO Access ~ i Variety Â£
Housekeeping Foodservice Prep. Food & Beverage Serving Maintenance Inspect Linen Lounge/Break Receiving Luggage Handling Valet
Receiving Luggage Handling Valet
The scope of physical considerations in designing a hote 1 /restaurant such as The Mercantile are emmense. The following design guidelines will be broken down into a general set of requirements for typical facilities to handle the user/activities previously outlined. The standards have been determined by an assimilation of several sets of hotel criterium, from several different sources, (see References)
The following chart indicates the typical space allocations per room/guest-room in a city center hotel (square feet x no. of guest-rooms = square foot recommedation). This particular chart (10, pg. 65) is based on a 100 to 200 guest-room hotel. Some increases in the amount of square footage recommended for each of the public facilities in the Mercantile will need to be made, since a lesser number of guest rooms will more than likely be implemented.
Public areas ft2
Main lobby and front desk (15% of area) 10
Administration (manager, reservation, accounting and cashier's offices, telephone, switchboard and restroom) 10
Rented space (variable: depends on location) 2
function rooms and entrance foyer (50% of area)
for banqueting (1 place) or conventions
(1-5 places)* 24
Restaurant (0 5 places) and coffee shop (0 5 places]18
Cocktail bar and lounge (0-5 places)* 7
Public circulation spaces, corridors** 10
Public cloakrooms, toilets, restrooms 4
Boiler room, mechanical plantrooms, electrical switchboard, telephone equipment, emergency plant engineers offices, etc 14
Storage areas: general, furniture, baggage, stationery and records (excluding fuel storage) 10
Workshops and maintenance areas
Receiving area, checking office, garbage store
and freight elevator 7
Main kitchen and servery 12
Function room pantry, servery and staf f circulation 6
Food stores, cold rooms, beverage stores, table
linen, china, and cutlery stores 10
Housekeeping office, uniform store, linen room
and valet facilities 10
Employee facilities, locker rooms and toilets,
canteen, restroom, personnel, timekeeping,
pay offices 12
Circulation within service areas** 10
Guestrooms, individual bathrooms and entrance
Circulation space, elevators and stairs,
corridors, linen cupboards and service rooms
Total per room
INDIVIDUAL AREAS OF HOTEL
A closer look at each of the individual areas listed above, their physical requirements, and the square footage that would be alloted each, based upon 64 gues t- rooms.
Main Lobby and Registration Desk ... 640 square feet
The registration desk (96 sq. ft.)
recent trends have tended to lessen the degree of focus on the registration desk as part of the lobby area. It should be visible and accessible, but not the focal point. There should be areas for check-in/check-out, cashier functions, information messages, keys, and possible telecommunication equipment. It obviously must be adjacent to the main entrance, the lobby, and the concierge and/or be 11-captain who must also be stationed in this ar ea.
The Lobby in general, is the hub of circulation for the hotel, and acts as an assembly or rendezvous point, therefore seating ad lounge furniture would likely be advisable. It should be visibly attractive from the exterior of the hotel, and should be near the reception desk and elevators.
There will be continous traffic in this area, so the ability to keep maintenance to a minimum is a must. As stated by Lawson in Hotels, Motels and Condominiums, the "aim (of the lobby) must be to create an impression of spaciousness while enabling the whole area to be used as fully as possible for various functional purposes" (10) A lobby lounge in the Mercantile would probably be
about 800 square feet, and could
be a poss i bi 1 i ty to give this
space dual functionality.
Entrance must be well lit ,
e x t r e m e 1 y vis u a 1 from the
exterior, and allow for guests carrying luggage to pass through the doors. A possible transition or vestibule space should be considered. A door person/valet will likely be stationed at this entrances for each staff and restaurant/meeting facilities should be looked at as a poss i b i1i ty.
Admin i strat ion ... 640 square feet
should be adjacent to the reception desk, particularly in a hotel the size of The Mercantile, to act as back up during peak times.
This area includes such facilities as manager's office, phone operators, reservation clerks, cashier, accountant switch board, and staff restrooms. These areas should be out of public circulation, and should functions as an office, facilitating task work flow requirements. Ample lighting, freedom from crowding, and lack of noise should be provided, to assure proper work output.
Private Dining/Executive Meeting .... 1500 square feet The minimal amount of space suggested, will only facxilitate small meeting groups. These areas need ample seating (1.5 seats per guest-room), tables for dining/meeting, visual aid compatibilities, flexibility (to vary group size), access from kitchen preparation area, easy access from street entrance and a lobby/foyer area for gathering and entering. These facilities should be near public restrooms and cloak-rooms, be audibly private, and have flexible levels of li ght ing.
Restaurant/Coffeeshop ... 1150 square feet Each should allow space for .5 people per guest-room. Since Lower Downtown Denver, Limited is planning on recouping a greater percentage of their profits from these public facilites, a greater capacity in each of these areas should probably be alloted for. The 82 seat cafe and 72 seat fine diningfacility, are fairly reasonable considering the market for walk-in traffic at The Mercantile. Each of the dining areas should be near the kitchen preparation facility and wine/liquor storage. Service
traffic should be secluded from public view, but ample corridor space should be allowed to provide adequate traffic flow. The restaurants (or sinage indicating them) should have a prominant location from the exterior of the hotel. Access form the street should be easy, and a separate entrance than that used by hotel guests would be suggested. The cloak room, restrooms and telephones should all be near the entrance to the restaurants.
There should be a variety of seating accommodations in each of the restaurants, and grouping arrangements, such that a more private intimate feeling of personal territory and space is given to the customer. There should be a trade-off between the amount of space allocated for comfortable seating for the customers, and the amount of space alloted for aisle-ways to assure adequate service to all of those customers. Views should be taken into consideration, and focused upon if possible. Crowding,
particularly at the entrance and cashier should be avoided by allowing ample space if possible.
The cafe, 24 hour service facility should always appear open, inviting, and a place where interaction can easily take place (as a choice of the customer).
The fine dining facility, should provide an elegant, more intimate dining experience, providing all the services and ammenities such as increased staff, less turnover per table, more luxurious accommodations, lower light level etc., normally associated with an elegant, upper price range dining fac i 1 i ty.
Cocktail lounge/Bar ...550 square feet
Again, at .5 people per room, 32 seats, this number is probably a bit low for the Mercantile, but the number requested by the developer 110 may be more
reasonable. This area gains a large amount of revnue for the hotel (an estimated 64% by 1988 according to Laventhol and Horwath) and should hold a fairly prominant position, not only to the restaurant facilities, but
possibly even to the main
entrance. Lobby lounges can sometimes help provide an activity area and help the lobby serve a dual function as a meeting
place/lounge and a drinking es tab i1i shmen t.
The seating space per person in the bar/lounge area, does not need to be as ample as provided in the restaurant. There needs to be plenty of aisle space so the waiters can obtain and serve drinks easily. The bar itself
needs to be large enough to accommodate the various liquor, glassware, mixers, coolers, washing and draining area,and cash register. Ample aisle space behind the bar (2,-6"> and a non-slip floor to accommodate spillage should also be viewed as poss i bi1i ty.
If the bar itself is in an unenclosed area, provisions for locking up the liquor during hours of the day when it is illegal to dispense it, must be provided for.
The ability for the customers to interact should be promoted, and a degree of sound retention should probably considered, but not so much as to lose vocal privacy. Lighting should be a medium to low level.
Pub lie Circulation ...640 square feet
Should be planned such that it accommodates peak user periods. Crowding in front of elevators and registration desk should be avoided. A minimum of 2 public elevators should be provided for public access and one service elevator for operational access to each floor (10). Public and service corridors and traffic flow, should be kept separate whenever possible. Corridors as a whole should be minimized, both in quanity and length (fire safety regulations also come in here, 150 foot maximum distance traveled in a totally sprinkled corridor).
Accommodations should be made for "barrier free" handicap circulation. Outside traffic should be separated from incoming guest traffic, and an easily accessible entrance path provided.
Public Cloakrooms, Toilets and Rest rooms ...250 square feet
Should be central, and easily accessible from all meeting and dining facilities. Materials used should be easily cleaned. The minimum number of fixtures, is determined by code.
Boi1er/MeehanicaI Rooms ...900 square feet
Should be in a non-public part of the hotel, easily accessible for maintenance. Hot water capacity averages about 10 gallons per guest/day. The most convient H.V.A.C. is a centralized, 4 pipe system, that allows individual control in each of the guestrooms .
...640 square feet (through out) Luggage storage should be near and easily accessed by bell captain from main entrance/lobby area, both for ease of guest, as well as to provide proper supervision.
This area should be concealed from public view. Storage for other items should be kept in operational areas, easily accessible to and from loading dock and service elevator. Ample corridor space, in and around storage areas should be allowed, for the movement of contents.
Workshop/Ma intenance ...250 square feet
Space for tools and work area should be provided for. Proper ventilation (fumes from paint etc. )
and lighting should be good to ensure maximum efficiency of tasks.
Receiving/Trash/Freight Elevator ...450 square feet
This area must be accessible form the street, yet as secluded as possible from public view. These areas must be open and visible to operational supervision, away from staff traffic (except for freight elevator), yet accessible from all service areas. In particular, an adjacentcy to the food preparation area for garbage disposal should be provided.
Main Kitchen, Servery, and Staff
Ci rculat ion
... 1150 square feet
(Due to the small size of The
Mercantile, a single servery is
probably all that is necessary,
with small satellite warming bars
and pantry areas within each
The details of the inner workings of the kitchen/servery will not be dealt with in this program. Functionally the servery should be in a central location to all restaurant/dining facilities, as well as close to freight elevator to provide room service.
An easy circulation flow should be developed to all of these areas. Because so much equipment is involved in this are, ease of installing and maintaining building systems in kitchen/servery must be considered. This area should be visibly, audibly and ofactorily secluded for public areas. Possible satellite pantries could be provided on each floor for room service. Storage for this area (600 square feet) should be adjacent and easily accessible and supervised. Thie lizuor and wine storage should be closely watched and easily accessed to re-stock the lounge/bar facility.
Housekeeping, Linen, Valet ...650 square feet
Should be away from the other operational facilities, particularly the grease and odors of the servery. This area must be easily accessed to and from both the loading dock for deliveries and the service elevator for housekeeping. Separate small
storage facilities for linen and housekeeping supplies, should be provided on each floor, out of the public corridors. Administrative office and a valet room (either for in-house cleaning, or storage of items to be sent to an outside service) should be in the main linen storage area. Ample shelving to hold several changes for each guest-room (4 1' per room) and a
light table for linen inspection should be available. A telecommunication center that ties directly in with the registration desk to notify each other when rooms are ready for housekeeping or guests, would be helpful.
Employee Facilities ... 750 square feet
Space should be provided to insure staff personal space to change lounge, dine and take care of personal hygene. Privacy and personal comfort should be provided, out of the operational work flow, as well as away from pub lie facilities.
The staff dining area should be located near or easily accessible to the servery. Lounge areas and lockers for each of the staff should be provided. A separate staff entrance, easily supervised, would also be recommended into this area.
Operations Circulation Should be maximized to increase efficiency. Congestion near or in front of loading dock or service elevator should be alleviated by allowing ample circulation space. Where service and public circulation must cross or so-exist, apparatus should be kept to a minimum (i.e. housekeeping carts etc.). Corridors should be wide enough to allow guests with luggage to pass freely.
...650 square feet (100 square foot circulation area)
Because The Mercantile is marketing to a high-end clientelle, the guest-rooms should be large, with a number of suites. The above recommeded space allocations evenly breakdown into four floors of guest-rooms, 16 rooms per floor.
Since part of the market will be convention travelers, which often require double verses single rooms, required by most business travelers, double room accommodations should be provided in at least a percentage of the rooms.
The business market has a need for workspace within the room, and a possible area that either is or could be converted to a small daytime meeting area. If there are doors between adjoining rooms, they must be sound proof. Provision in the rooms hould be provided for sleeping, storage (closet, luggage rack, drawer space, work, lounging,and personal hygene. Privacy comfort, identity, ease of circulation, ease of maintenance, and over all appearance of the romm must be cons i dered.
Due to the size of the rooms in The Mercantile, separate rooms may be provided for different activities within the room, Double room suites, or possible conversion to, to accomodate group travelers and meetings should be cons i dered.
Accommodations to facilitate room service should be considered, (i.e. table and chairs) as well as the possibility of other food and drink provisions within each room (i.e. bar, refrigerator).
The furnishings in each guest-room should be luxurious, comfortable, yet easily maintained and durable. A television/radio should be provided in each room. Ample task lighting should be provided throughout each room. Switches should be easy to find and reach.
The bathroom should equal 1/61h of the room size, and be located such that the space plan of the room is enhanced, by the placement, ans so that plumbing and echanical systems can be easily stacked. Visual and audible privacy must be considered, particularly in 2 room suites. A bath, a basin and a water closet should be included.
OTHER PHYSICAL CRITERIA
Materials and Finishes Throughout the hote 1/restaurant facility must evoke the degree of luxury desired, yet to prevent costly and difficult maintenance and replacement, each must be considered for it's duribility and ease of upkeep.
Moldings etc. with small crevices should be discouraged in operational areas. Durability, ease of cleaning and maintenance should take precedence over aesthetics.
The following Code s apply to
development of The Mercant ile Hotel:
Bui 1d i ng Code : The Denver Bui 1 d i ng
Plumbing Code : The Denve r Building
Meehan i ca1 Code : The Denver
Bui 1d i ng Code, 1981
Electr i cal Code : The Denver
Building Code, 1981
Fire Code: The Denver Bui 1d i ng
Code, 1981. Also refer to Nat iona 1
Fire Protection Agency. ZONING
The site is located within a B-7 district, "intended to provide for and encourage the preservation and vitality of older areas". Hotels and eating places, both are permitted uses within this district.
Economic Tax Recovery Act of 1981 Historic Preservation Guidelines, U.S. Department of the Interior.
CODES, ZONING & REGULATIONS
The performance criteria will be first generated based on goals and research data in terms of the entire hote 1 /restaurant facility, then in terms of each individual area of the Mercantile. The primary adjacencies between these areas are shown i n Exh i b i t Q.
OVERALL DESIGN CRITERIA
Design the character of the interiors such that they reflect or are compatible with surrounding "old downtown" Denver, in particular the Union Arcade.
Use existing walls and columns when and wherever possible as an integral part of the overall design.
Bring the "flavor" of the "Romanesque Revival" (i.e. arched windows etc.) to the interior of the hotel.
Provide restaurant facilities, that have their own identity, and are perceived as such by the daily patron.
Provide adequate space and proper networking to facilitate new mechanical systems, which must be redone to meet code.
Administration/ Reception Area
Private Dining/ Executive Meeting
Fine Dining Cafe
Bar / Lounge Public Circulation
Food & Beverage Storage
Shop, Maintenance & Mechanical
Receiving/ Freight Elevator
Staff Lounge & Lockers
Housekeeping & Linen Storage
Strong Adjacency e Moderate Adjacency
Flexibility and adaptability of the public areas must be allowed, such that they will integrate with the larger "second phase" of the hotel to be completed in the future.
CRITERIA BY INDIVIDUAL AREA
AREA: Main Entrance / Exit
USER: Guest / Patron
ACT IVITIES:Entering / Exiting Vehicles Carry Luggage Meet friends Enter hotel Approach i ng
...To attract attention of valet or bellcapta i n.
...To leave vehicle and gather luggage with a minimum of inconven ience.
...To carry or have carried, luggage inside the hotel.
...To find registration desk, or other hotel facilities.
...To leave the hotel and obtain individual/public transportation. ...To find Main Entrance to the Mercant i le.
USER: Operational Staff
ACTIVITIES: Hold doors Valet Auto Carry luggage Hale taxis Greet guests
...To transport luggage from vehicles to inside hotel.
...To prevent congestion at entrance.
...To get and park guests cars. ...To show people inside the hotel, to the registration desk or other facilities.
Locate entrance such that it is highly visible and accessible from the street.
Provide a recognizable physical "sense of entrance" in the the hotel, that stands out, but does not detract from the 1900's facade.
Provide signs that are obvious and visible on approach to the hotel.
Good illumination at the entrances to provide visibility of the entrance and for the activities that take place there.
Doors must be wide enough to enter with luggage in hand. More than one door should be provided to alleviate congestion.
The entrance must "trap" outside air from going inside hotel.
Provisions for "handicap access" must be made.
The location of the entrance must be directly into the lobby of the hotel, and near and easily accessed from the registration desk.
Should provide shelter for valets and for guests getting luggage or waiting for transportation.
The high quality, expensive image of the hotel must be reflected in the entrance.
Admi n i s t rat ion
ACTIVITIES: Check-in / Check-out Cashier Reservat ions Messages
Luggage handling Telecommun i cat ions Desk work Pub lie re lat ions Supe r v i s i on
...To check in and out in a mi n imum of t ime.
...To settle bills in a minimum of time without any confusion.
...To greet and welcome guests, and answer any questions.
...To take care of any further accommodations the guest may need. ...Take phone reservations, quickly and efficiently.
...To take care of all office work with maximum efficiency.
...To notify housekeeping of
status of guest-rooms.
...To get luggage to guest's room, or storage, and guests away from
registration desk,to minimize conges t ion.
USER: Hotel Guest
ACTIVITIES: Checking in / out
Settling bills Receiving Messages Getting Information Making Accommodations
...To locate registration desk. ...To check in/out as quickly as possible.
...To settle bills quickly, discreetly.
...To get luggage to guest-room or storage.
...To get assistance with messages, accommodations, and information.
The registration desk must be visible and accessible from the main entrance.
A surface must be provided to take care of paperwork from a standing position.
Space for messages, keys, paperwork, and telecommunications equipment, must be provided within easy reach of the registration staff.
Provide adequate lighting for visibility of registration area, and for tasks that take place at regi strat ion desk.
A private work area and accommodations for manager, accountant, public relations, telephone operators, reservationist and back up registration staff must be provided, adjacent to Registration area.
Lobby and elevators must be visible from registration area, for supervision.
Bell captain, must be provided with area to keep tags, telephone etc., clearly visible and easily accessible from entrance, registration, elevators, and luggage/cart storage.
Signage and design must allow registration area to be clearly recognized without being focal point of Lobby.
A privacy barrier between office administration and public areas must be provided.
A warm receptive feeling for the hotel guest should be projected.
USER: Adminstrative /
Operat iona1 Staff ACTIVITIES: Supervision Ma i n tenance Housekeep i ng
...To maintain image of luxury and quality in lobby area, as "hub" and focal point from all other public hotel facilities.
...To supervise area, so that all guests may be provided with serv i ces des i red.
...To clean and maintain lobby area, with maximum efficiency, and minimum inconvenience to guests.
USER: Hotel Guest/Daily
ACTIVITIES: Meeting Lounging Conversation Or ientat ion
. . .To orient oneself, prior to
going on to other facilities or rooms.
...To carry on relaxed conversat ion.
...To lounge, wait, interact, or observe.
The Lobby must be centralized among other public facilities in hotel.
The Lobby should be the focal point from the entrance of the hotel, providing orientation.
Circulation paths through and around Lobby should be clear and defined.
Provide lighting to enhance the interest of the Lobby, while still providing a level of light adequate to read by.
Daylighting should be taken advantage of wherever possible.
Acoustics must allow for small group conversation.
Provide comfortable lounge seating in various arrangements to allow for for small groups, or i nd i v i dua 1 s.
Rest rooms must be easily
Existing columns must be incorporated into the design
character, which should reflect the quality image which the
Mercantile is trying to project.
AREA: Private Dining or
USER: Daily Patrons and
Hotel Guests ACTIVITIES: Meeting
Converse/Discuss Di ne/Dr ink Le c t u r e Vi sua 1 Aids
...To dine and drink in a private comfortable environment, either in a small group (2-8) or a medium sized group (10-20).
...To take in given information as thoroughly as possible, without interruption.
...To relax with a group, in a private and secluded environment. ...To easily access meeting and dining rooms from either guestrooms, or outside of the hotel.
USER: Operational Staff
ACTIVITIES: Serving Food or Drink Cleaning Setting up Running Visual Aids
...To serve food and drink quickly and efficiently.
...To minimize "set up" time of furnishings and displays for dinners and meetings.
...To be able to accommodate guests in terms of visual aids di splayed.
Provide approximately 1550 square feet of small to medium sized rooms to accommodate one to twenty people.
Provide flexible barriers, so that rooms sizes can be changed.
Furnishings should be provided or easily accessible for dining,
working, lounging, in a group
Lighting should be adaptable and flexible, to accommodate, different uses such as dining, tasks, lounging, and visual aid v i ewi ng.
Room must be acoustically sound such that sound neither penetrates or escapes.
Windows should be minimal to prevent glare on A.V. screen.
Audio visual equipment must be easily accessible and easily used.
Provide an easy traffic flow from kitchen, lounge, and liquor
Circulation in room must be such that food/beverage service carts can be moved in and around without any obstruct ion.
Provisions must be made for an entrance/foyer space.
The rooms should be totally enclosed to provide privacy.
Seating arrangements must be flexible, but allow for individual personal space within each con figuration.
AREA: Cafe and Fine Dining
USERS: Hotel Guests and
Dai ly Patrons Patrons
Sociali z i ng Meet i ng
...To interact, with companions, and with staf f.
... To eat and drink.
... To mee t peop le.
...To relax and lounge.
USER: Operational Staff
ACTIVITIES: Serve Food and Drink Clean tables Seat guests Promote comfort
...To serve food and beverage to guest as quickly and easily as poss i b le.
...To seat guests without much wait.
...To provide a clean and appealing atmosphere.
...To bus tables efficiently with little distraction to the customer.
...To make sure guests have proper service.
Seating capacity must be ample (82 requested) and arranged such that groups of different (1 to 6 people) sizes can be accommodated.
Provide a light warm, inviting atmosphere in the space at all times of day and night. This should be accomplished through color, texture and light levels. Daylighting should be incorporated.
Circulation to and through space must allow for easy servicing of tables, and ease of guest seating.
Provide adjacency to Kitchen/ Servery and Lounge/Bar.
Either the cafe itself, or signage indicating the cafe must be visible from the exterior of the hotel and Union Arcade.
A "sense of place" identification for guest, and continuity with renovated exterior should be evident in overall feeling of cafe.
Rest rooms and coat storage must be adjacent.
Provide an entrance/foyer area to accommodate waiting customers, and alleviate congestion.
A separate entrance to cafe from street and/or Arcade must be prov i ded.
Any vistas should be emphasized.
Acoustics should provide for a moderately quiet conversation area.
Open dining areas should be sub-divided into smaller table groupings with semiprivate barriers.
Quality of space should denote a less formal, less expensive restaurant than the Fine Dining area by it's character and decor.
Must be adjacent to entrance, rest rooms, coat rooms, Kitchen/ Servery, Lounge/Bar, and liquor and wine storage.
Provide an exterior entrance, clearly defined by sinage.
Provide comfortable seating (comfortable, for at least a 2 to 3 hour time period).
Provide location in the hotel that is prominent, yet exclusive (no "fish bowl" effect).
An atmosphere of intimacy, luxury, and excluciveness must be characterized in the use of materials and space layout.
Provide light levels and acoustic barriers, that promote private and intimate conversation areas.
Circulation should be ample for guests to pass in the aisle, and for staff to pass with trays of food.
Provide at least 20 to 25 square feet per person, including circulation.
Various size seating groups must be provided for, and at least a portion of those should be flexible.
Entrances to Cafe and Fine Dining should be separate.
Storage, (linen, tableware, pantry) must be easily accessible to staff, but completely barred from guest view.
Cashier area should be provided away from customer view.
Provide waiting/foyer area near entrance and also near lounge. This area should provide no more than a "glimpse" into dining area, to prevent guests from feeling "watched".
AREA: Cocktail bar/Lounge
USER: Hotel guest and Daily
...To meet peop le.
...To socialize in a condusive env i ronmen t.
...To have cocktails.
...To wait to be seated in cafe or fine dining.
USER: Operational staff
ACTIVITIES: Serving drinks Clean ing Bar tend ing Cashier Stocking bar
...To serve drinks to customers as quickly and effeciently as poss i ble.
...To keep lounge and bar area clean and inviting.
Provide 110 seats in lounge as requested by devloper (more than Lawson's calculated number of 32).
Bar must be easily accessible from fine dining, cafe, and executive meeting/dining rooms.
Lounge area must be adjacent to foyer of fine dining, so guests can wait in lounge to be seated.
Wine and liquor strorage must be easily accessed from bar.
Provide entrance to lounge, adjacent to lobby.
The bar must be the focal point of the lounge, and must have clear access to guests and staff.
The bar itself must have a counter for drink pick up, an area for customers to sit at bar, a back bar for liquor stroage, glass storage, sink and draining area, cashier, refrigerator and mix d i spensers.
Ample aisles inside and around bar (at least 2'6") must be allowed for serving and obtaining drinks.
Provide seating that can accommodate individuals as well as various size groups.
Less space per guest (14 sq.ft, /person) should be alotted for than in dining facilities.
Provide light level in lounge that is low and intimate, but can be raised for cleaning.
Task lighting must be provided at bar, to assure proper serving of dr inks.
Materials used must be moisture resistant, particularly of floor.
Acoustics must allow for moderate conversation levels.
Decor and character of lounge
should be compatible with all
AREA: Public Circulation
USER: Hotel guests / Daily
patrons / Staff ACTIVITIES: Walking
Transport luggage Transport food carts Transport linen carts Stand i ng
...To provide an unobstructed flow of public traffic within hotel. ...To alleviate waiting, on elevators and in corridors to gain entrance into public facilities such as restaurants.
...To get items, such as luggage and food to their destinations as quickly and efficiently as poss i ble.
Public circulation paths must connect all public facilities of the hotel with entrances and/or elevators.
The path of circulation must be defined physically (i.e. change in material or barrier/indicators) for easy recognition.
Aisles and corridors must be wide enough to allow guests to pass any on coming service cart with ease.
Long corridors must be minimized.
Ample light should be provided in all circulation areas.
The acoustical quality of the floor covering must be given emphasis in private ares of hotel such as guest-rooms and meeting areas.
Necessary ramps/elevators to provide handicap access to all spaces is a must.
A minimum of 2 public elevators must be provided near lobby and registration desk. Area in front of elevators must allow ample space for people getting on and off with luggage.
AREA: Main Kitchen / Severy,
USERS: Operational staff
ACTIVITIES: Food & Bev. Storage Food preparation Transport food/drink
...To prepare and serve quality food to guests in the most efficient, expedient means poss i b le.
(Note: This area is not to be
dealt with in detail in the scope of this project. It is only to be blocked out in the appropriate area to function properly as it relates to all the other facilites within the hotel.)
Approximately 2000 square feet must be blocked out for kitchen, servery, and storage.
The location must be central and provide ease of accessibility to and from restaurants, executive dining/meeting rooms, freight elevator, loading dock, and staff dining.
Satelite pantries, containing high demand room service items could be located near service area of each gues t-room f loor.
Room service cart storage should be near entrance to kitchen and close to freight elevator so service can be expidited when an order is rece i ved.
Corridor space to and from kitchen should be able to handle a great deal of traffic, and have no "blind corners".
If the kitchen/servery is on a different level than restaurant facilities, a mechanical means of transporting food should be i ns ta1 led.
AREA: Public Cloakroom <5c
USER: Hotel guests / Daily
ACTIVITIES: Personal Hygene Rest
Take coats on/off
...To make use of rest rooms as descreetly as possible.
...To take care of personal hygene in a convenient, pleasant env i ronmen t.
...To place belongings in secure cloakroom upon entering hotel.
USER: Operational staff
...To provide the utmost sanitary conditions in all rest rooms.
...To provide security for all belongings left in cloakroom.
...To take and get the customers belongings as quickly as possible, to prevent crowding at entrance.
Location must be near secondary entrance and public facilities.
Ample hanging and storage space for all potential users should be provided (75 to 90 l.f. of hanging space) with sufficient aisles for easy retrieval.
A barrier must be provided to keep all but the cloak clerk out of the area for security. Ample opening must be left for belongings to be passed through.
Provide a seat and counter for cloak clerk, at entrance to cloak room.
Light level must be high enough to allow belongings to be easily ident i f ied.
The room just be able to be totally physically secured.
Must be located within easy access of dining/drinking facilities.
Entrance should be easily identified, yet placed such that they are in no way a focal point.
Entrances to rest rooms must be of corridor, rather that from fac i 1 i ty.
Lounge seating must be provided in rest area, away from toilets.
Lighting and color must be warm near mirrors to enhance appearance of user.
Light over toilets must provided easy visibility.
Acoustical privacy must be provided between rest rooms and any other adjacent facility.
Total privacy for the toilet area from the entrance to the rest room is a must.
Materials and finishes must be easily cleaned and sanitized.
Spacing of fixtures (toilets, partitons and lavatories) far enough apart to provide "personal space" for users, and ease of cleaning must be provided.
Circulation must be ample to prevent crowding, and to denote the luxury, spaciousness, and quality desired at this hotel.
AREA: Mechanical, Workshop,
Ma i n tenance
USER: Operational Staff
General handiwork Repairs
...To keep all mechanical systems, furnishings, and general facilities, in repair and proper working order.
Approximately 900 square feet for mechanical and 250 square feet for work shop area must be provided in an easily accessible non-public ar ea.
Total acoustical barriers must be provided to prevent internal noise from penetrating to other areas of hotel.
Ventilation must be adequate to exhaust any toxic fumes from workshop area.
Work surfaces and storage must be provided in workshop.
Mechanical room must be located such that the systems can easily penetrate from that point to all other levels of hotel.
Lighting must be 50 to 70 footcandles in each of the areas, to provide ample illumination for any maintanence tasks.
Storage for warehoused furnishings should be adjacent to the workshop.
USER: Operational Staff
ACTIVITIES: Linen Inspection Linen storage Cleaning storage Prepare laundry for pickup
Communicate with regi strat ion desk Deliver clean linen to
CONTINUED: satellite storage
Make up rooms Clothes valet
...To keep ample linen on hand. ...To check quality of linen. ...To get unoccupied rooms made as quickly as possible.
... To get linen to laundry service.
...To do paper work, process.
... To do any guest
Provide storage for both clean and used linen (approx. 4 1. f. / guest-room clean).
A light table for linen inspection must be adjacent to incoming linen storage area.
Work space to accommodate one to two people for paper work and telecommun i cat ions.
Storage area must from freight receiving dock.
have easy access elevator and
Ventilation must be good, to prevent odors from settling in linen.
Finishes and materials must be eas i ly c leaned.
Main storage of cleaning supplies, equipment, and carts should be adjacent to linen storage.
The entire area must be separated from public areas.
Satellite linen and supply storage should be provided on each guest-room floor to maximize effiency of housecleaning tasks.
AREA: Staff lounge lockers,
USERS: Operational Staff
ACTIVITIES: Resting Changing Eating Socializing Personal hygene
...To rest, relax, before, after, and on break form duties.
...To eat on duty meals.
...To change into and out of uniforms, and have adequate and safe personal belonging storage. ...To socialize with co-workers. ...To use staff toilet facilities.
Provide an area adjacent to kitchen/servery and staff entrance of approximatel 800 square feet.
The area must have both open sections for socializing, dining and lounging, and private sections for lockers and changing.
A small serving and vending area must be next staff dining.
Dining table and chairs must accommodate about 30 people.
Lounge furniture should be in a semi-private area.
Lockers must be provided for each staff member within dressing room, adjacent to staff rest room.
Colors should be warm and st imulat ing.
Visibility of all areas must be clear to administrative staff.
Staff facilities must be secluded from public areas of hotel, with acoustic barriers between any adjacent facilities.
Lighting level must provide enough light to eat and read.
AREA: Loading/Receiving Dock
USERS: Operational Staff
ACTIVITIES: Unload supplies
Dispose trash/garbage Linen pickup/de1ivery Food/Bev. p i ckup/de 1 i ve ry
...To keep as secluded as possible from public areas of hotel.
...To maximize efficiency of loading/unloading good and taking to or from storage.
Provide visual barrier from public area to loading dock.
Provide dock at height to make loading/and unloading from trucks easy.
Vehicular access to hotel should be out of the public streets and pathways.
Minimize distance to food, linen, supply and trash storage.
Materials and finishes should be durable and easy to clean.
USER: Hotel Guest
Meet i ng Relaxing Eating Work i n g
...To rest/sleep as comfortably as poss i ble.
...To take care of personal hygene.
...To hold small meetings in a secluded private environment.
...To have meals in the privacy of a guest-room.
...To do work efficiently in a private room.
USER: Operational Staff
ACTIVITIES: Clean rooms Change linen Serve food
...To carry out housekeeping tasks as quickly and efficiently as possible, yet as un-noticed by hotel guests as possible.
...To provide housekeeping services in keeping with the degree of quality and luxury denoted by the hotel.
...To serve food and drink quickly and in an accomodating area in each of the guest-rooms.
...To make guests as comfortable as poss i ble.
Guest-rooms must be away from public and service areas of hotel.
Provide sleeping accommodations or the flexibility to provide sleeping accommodations for double occupancy in at least one third of the guest-rooms.
Each room must denote the spaciousness, quality and luxury associated with the rest of the Mercantile. Essentially each room is a suite.
Guest-rooms must be easily accessible for lobby and registration area.
All codes and criteria pertaining to hotels must be met (i.e. all suites must have exterior windows at least 10% of room square footage etc.).
Circulation within room must allow for ease of guest and for staff to get in and out with cleaning equipment .
Provide the following areas in each guest-suite: sleeping,
lounging, dressing, bathing, toilet, vanity, dining/work area, storage. (areas may serve a dual function where possible).
Provide storage for hanging and folded clothing and luggage.
Areas within suites, should be subdivided by functions, with a perceived barrier between each.
There should be flexibility to combine at least some of the adjoining suites into a large suite.
Furnishings and materials should be extremely durable and tie in the the decor with the rest of the Mercantile in a "flavor of the Victorian era.
Colors in sleeping areas should be cool and relaxing, while in dining/working area they may be wa rmer.
Task lighting must be provided throughout the space, with easy to reach switches.
The bathroom must be located such that maximum user privacy is at ta i ned.
Provided audible and visual privacy from entrance to dressing and sleeping areas.
Furnishings must be arranged such that they are easily moved or accessed from all sides by cleaning equipment.