Citation
The future of the historic landscape

Material Information

Title:
The future of the historic landscape
Creator:
Mitchell, Cathe
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
75 unnumbered pages : illustrations, charts, folded map, folded plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Landscape protection -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Historic sites -- Conservation and restoration -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (pages 73-75).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master's degree in Landscape Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Cathe Mitchell.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
08815358 ( OCLC )
ocm08815358
Classification:
LD1190.A77 1981 .M57 ( lcc )

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Full Text

ENVtRDNMENTM: P !N
A IRARIA LIBFt
December 1981
Cathe Mitchell
MLA Degree Candidate
Department of Landscape Architecture
College of Environmental Design
University of Colorado at Denver
1100 14th Street
Denver, Colorado
Site/Case Study:
Lawrence C. Phipps Memorial Conference Center formerly Belcaro
the residence of
Senator and Mrs. Lawrence C. Phipps 3400 Belcaro Drive Denver, Colorado
Qwner/Client: University of Denver Denver, Colorado represented by


TABLE OF CONTENTS
PROJECT INTRODUCTION
ASSUMPTIONS
METHODOLOGY
SUMMARY
RESEARCH
INVENTORY
ANALYSIS
VITAL ELEMENTS
FUTURE CRITERIA
ALTERNATIVES
EVALUATION/CONCLUSION
APPENDIX
BIBLIOGRAPHY
7^7


Foreword
This document describes work which was done begining in the fall of 1980 and terminating in the spring of 1981. The issues surrounding the historic landscape have been an interest of mine for several years and this project has provided me with the opprotunity to research this area and develop a tool which can be of use in the policy making for the future management and protection of the historic landscape site.
In this project the site of the Lawrence C. Phipps residence and grounds will be the case study. This process may also be useful in dealing with other sites as well.
I would like to thank all of the people who have listened, aided, and directed me in my pursuit:
Dr. Thomas Williams, Curator
Phipps Memorial Conference Center
Merril Wilson, Architect
State Historical Society of Colorado
Robert Melnick, Historic Landscape Arch. Kansas State University and National Park Service
George Yarwood, Landscape Architect and Historian ASLA
D. M. Anderson, Landscape Architect and Historian
Susan Buggey, Steering Committee for
Alliance for Historic Landscape Preservation, Ottawa, Ontario
Jane Silverstein Ries, Landscape Architect, and my employer
Carolyn Etter, Historic Denver
Thanks also goes to the group of personal friends who have helped by being everything from my support system to typists:
Melissa Dunning, Chris Sadler, Cindy Unger,
Ruth Williams, Jan Burton, Kathy Hamilton, ___________Elaine Williams.__________________________




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PROJECT INTRODUCTION
The British historian, W. G. Hoskins says in The Making of the English Landscape, The (man made) landscape itself, to those who know how to read it aright, is the richest historical record we possess.
"Preservation of the landscape is a more complicated task than structures....more variables in management
and preservation.....intrinsic dynamic nature of the
landscape as opposed to the static qualities of structure."
GOALS:
This project investigated historic preservation as it applies to the landscape and attempted to develop a process by which the historic value can be assessed; and a level of preservation can be matched to the importance of the historic value. The process continued to develop a policy for the management and implementation of the desired protection of the
landscape.
1. ASSESS VALUE
2. MATCH LEVEL OF PRESERVATION TO
VALUE, USE AND CONDITION
3. DEVELOP MANAGEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION
POLICY
SITE:
Belcaro, the former home of Senator and Mrs. Lawrence C. Phipps, is the site which this study addressed.
This estate, now called the Lawrence C. Phipps Memorial Conference Center, is located at 3400 Belcaro Drive, Denver, Colorado.



CLIENT:
The University of Denver, Denver, Colorado is now the owner of the estate and was represented by Dr. Thomas Williams, curator.
PROBLEM STATEMENT:
To determine the place in history of the grounds and gardens of Belcaro and design a plan for the future management of this landscape.




AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF BELCARO SHOWING THE SITE PRIOR TO THE SUBDIVISION OF THE PROPERTY




ASSUMPTIONS
There are four major assumptions which have been the basis of all of this project. They are products of meetings with Dr. Thomas Williams, curator of the Lawrence C. Phipps Memorial Conference Center.
1. The University of Denver is still in the process of developing and marketing Belcaro as the conference center. This property continually becomes more financially self-sufficient and has still not reached its maximum use. The conference center may reach a point when
it produces funds and volunteer interest for restoration projects in additions to maintenance and management.
2. The present condition of the grounds and gardens is in fair condition but some areas are very fragile and will require attention and repair in the near future.
3. Some changes have occurred which will not or cannot be reversed, such as the sale of a portion of the site. And also changes in labor costs and technology will not be changed to accommodate a pure and complete restoration, such a the installation of an irrigation system.
4. Belcaro is located in a residential neighborhood of upper middle class families. Both the zoning and the University's respect for its setting within the neighborhood will act as a limiting factor for potential uses of the structure and the grounds and gardens of this estate.


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SUMMARY
METHODOLOGY:
This chart illustrates the structure which was used to organize this project. This methodology combines a process used in historic preservation and the design process. Because of the involvement of the historic element it was necessary to include research beyond the specific site.
I
PROBLEM STATEMENT:
To determine the place in history of the grounds and gardens of Belcaro and design a plan for the future management of this landscape.
I
GOALS:
1. ASSESS VALUE
2. MATCH LEVEL OF PRESERVATION TO
VALUE, USE AND CONDITION
3. DEVELOP MANAGEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION
POLICY
RESEARCH:
1. THE STATE OF THE ART
2. LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT
3. LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY
4. HISTORY OF THE FAMILY AND ESTATE
The first stage of research was to become acquainted with and informed of the attitudes, policies and methods of historic preservation toward structures and how they deal with the landscape.


One of the criteria used by historians in evaluating a site as a representative piece of history is to look at the designer. An excellent example of an important designer's work may be a strong consideration in determining a need for protection.
The grounds of Belcaro were designed by Annette Hoyt Flanders in 1935-36, so it was important to research
her work and her position in the history of landscape architecture.
Another aspect which is of interest to the historian is the family history in relationship to the community, the region or the nation. The family may provide the historic importance which would make protection important.
INVENTORY:
Belcaro has undergone several changes in condition, size and shape, and use since the time of its original design and construction in the thirties. As the interest of this project is protection of history it was necessary to inventory the site as it compared to the original plans. This inventory was accomplished by the use of the original landscape architectural drawings of Annette Hoyt Flanders. In the appendix is a catalog of all of the drawings which still exist.
ANALYSIS:
During the analysis phase of the project the intent was to understand how the present condition of Belcaro compared to what it once was. To look at what changes have occured and how those changes effect the total picture that remains, and combining all of the research and inventory together in order to determine the strength of history at Belcaro.


VITAL ELEMENTS:
From all of the information compiled in the analysis, inventory and research phases, the next step was to determine what pieces remaining at Belcaro represent its time in history and should be protected, and what elements that have been removed could or should be replaced to more accurately represent its place in time.
FUTURE CRITERIA:
The future criteria step takes the vital elements a stage further to develop criteria to aid in the policy development for the future management of the Belcaro estate, the Lawrence C. Phipps Memorial Conference Center.
ALTERNATIVES:
This phase of the project explored several ideas for the future of Belcaro. The ideas represent the two extremes, from complete restoration to no action.
And several possibilities for dealing with this landscape in the future which would accurately represent the historic values and be compatible with the present needs and uses of this site. No single plan for the future of Belcaro has been established at this time. All of the alternatives are presented as possibilities
EVALUATION:
For this methodology to become a useful tool it will be necessary for the University of Denver to adapt and expand this process and information to address their future plans for the use of Belcaro as the Lawrence C. Phipps Memorial Conference Center.




RESEARCH
THE STATE OF THE ART:
Historic preservationist have developed and refined a method for dealing with and evaluating structures for their historic importance. The criteria which interest historians is a follows:
1. The structure is related to an important person of family.
2. The structure is connected in some way to an important historic event.
3. The structure is a good example of a period in design of and example of the work of an important designer.
The Department of the interior has developed Standards for Historic Preservation Projects with
Guidelines for Applying the Standards. This document
defines the as follows: variety of levels of historic preseration
1. Acquisition
2. Protection
3. Stabilization
4. Preservation
5. Rehabilitation
6. Restoration
7. Reconstruction
And goes on to guideline the methods by which each of these levels would be implemented.
Landscape issues are addressed only as they appear at the edges or exteriors of the structural pieces of our history. The standards do not deal with the landscape as a unit of history as it stands alone.


"Preservation of historic landscapes is a complex and many-faceted problem because it is embroiled in issues relating to land use, urban sprawl, preservation of agricultural land and natural conservation. "
"Historic preservationist have always accepted the concept of preserving buildings as the essence of our heritage. Now we must work to bring the land to this same level of recognition."
These are the comments of William H. Tishler, landscape architect concerned with the history of the land.
In 1978 an group gathered of historians, landscape architects, archeologists and other interested professionals gathered to form the Alliance for Historic Landscape Preservation.
Robert Melnick, Historic Landscape Architect from Kansas State University received a grant from the National Park Service to begin formulating standards which the Park Service can apply to historic sites. He feels that "landscapes are more complicated than structures..." as there are more variables in management and preservation of the land and the problems of the intrinsic dynamic nature as opposed to the static qualities of structures.
Melnick put catagories on the land. Natural Areas which are protected or managed by humans but are in a natural state. His study addresses, however, what he terms the Cultural Landscape which is land that has been manipulated by people, and under this catagory he recognizes another designation, that of the Historic Landscape. Fourteen standards were proposed that address the land: "Potential Standards of General Treatment and Use for Cultural and Historic Landscape Preservation" and published in the Cultural Resource Management Bullentin, a National Park Service Technical Bullentin.
"Historic landscapes are associated with a specific date, time, or person. Generally, their management should be stricter than the management of cultural landscapes which are more representative than


specific. It may often be necessary in a historic landscape to duplicate plant materials exactly, while plant materials in a cultural landscape may be chosen for such characteristic qualities as color, shape, and massing that approximate the original material in the landscape. Management of cultural landscapes would be aimed at preserving the accurate historic materials as nearly as possible. In both cases, the intergrity of the landscape is an overriding factor in management preservation decisions."
Peter Watts, of Australia, developed a scoring system for accessing the worth of the historic remnants of a garden or landscape. The system has a possible twenty points and any landscape over 15 points he feels is worth historic consideration.
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"Since that day int 18th century when as erstwhile salesman of chintzes coined the name 'landscape
architect' and under it set himself up to make gardens gardens that for better or worse changed the face of many an English estate the landscape architect has risen by slow degrees. From a catchword it has become a profession, from a pleasant avocation it has attained the respect that now affords its workers a merited place among those who who pursue the fine arts. In the course of this evolution it managed to expand its efforts and with expansion to assume new responsibilities. It was horticulturist first, then landscapist, then architect, and now it impinges on the bailiwick of the engineer. Without training in all four fields the modern landscape architect can scarcely hope for success.
Annette Hoyt Flanders, having been trained along these four lines, added to them the gift of native genius inherited from a family of garden lovers, with the result that she has succeeded in creating some of the most beautiful gardens in America. At Smith College she majored in Botany. From the University of Illinois she was graduated in Landscape Architecture. At Marquette University she undertook special studies in Engineering. Added to this scholastic work were many trips abroad, lasting from three months to a year, including a course at the Sorbonne and three winters devoted to studying the vegetation of the tropics.
On these well-directed and diverse experiences she draws for her grasp of landscape problems and their eventual solution. Between these two lies the making of that fine art which creates and preserves beauty in the surroundings of the home. That is the function of the landscpae architect to guide man's modification of the landscape so that he may derive from his property the greatest possible esthetic satisfaction as well as the widest use.


In a successful garden the four sciences and arts are so blended that no one dominates the other. So liberal is its designing that it willingly collaborates with the architect and the sculptor. Evidences of this collaboration are found in the gardens pictured here. They have distinction and rare beauty and yet are primarily livable. They are colorful and still are tranquil. One is impressed with the fact that Mrs. Flanders has kept her architecture will in hand so that Nature might have a chance to complete the picture.
Commenting on one of her gardens, Royal Cortissoz, the eminent critic, says that it can be taken 'as an epitome of the present temper of the art in this country. One looks from between low hedges across a lawn with a pool in the center. The curb of this pool is practically on a level with the turf and is absolutely unobtrusive. It is not so many years since that curb would have been replaced by a balustrade. Masonry would have dominated the scene, under the pressure of that formalizing influence which we then imported from Italy. The Italian garden still gets itself developed here and there in America, to this day, but on the whole our gardens are racier than they ever were before. The garden by Mrs. Flanders, to which reference has just been made, is positively endearing in its simplicity and in the adjustment of its balanced design to the sentiment of place. Flowers are used, but they are used sparingly. The note of color is not forced. The broad effect of turf and hedge contributes enormously to the prevailing atmosphere of peace and charm.' "
Foreword by Richardson Wright for the brochure of Annette Hoyt Flanders, 1932.
Annette Hoyt Flanders was born in Milwaukee. In 1910 she graduated from Smith with a degree in Botany, in 1913 she married an attourney, Roger Yale Flanders.
She completed a degree in Landscape Architecture from the University of Illinois in 1918. She later studied design at the Sorbonne and civil engineering at Marquette University.


She practiced landscape architecture for Vitale, Brincker-hoff & Geiffert in New York City, and in 1922 she opened her own office in N.Y.C. where she worked until 1943 when she moved her practice to Milwaukee and continued to work until her death in 1946.
in Oyster Bay, Long
House and Garden Hall of Fame recognized her in 1933, saying
her work was the "epitome of the present temper of the art in this country". She designed the "classic modern garden" Chicago Century of Progress Exhibition. The Architectural League of N.Y. awarded her a gold medal for her work on the estate of Charles F. McCann Island.
She was noted for gardens of exceptionally vigorous qualities.
She joined The American Society of Landscape Architects in 1923 and in 1943 became a fellow.
Norman T. Newton includes her in the Country Place Era.




LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY


The following three photographs are illustrations of the work of Annette Hoyt Flanders which she selected to represent her talent and style. They were used in two books, one is the A.S.L.A. "Illustrations of Work of Members"., 1931 and a small book she published as a brochure of her work.
These photographs also demonstrate her position in The Country Place Era.
1. Detail
2. Proportion and scale
3. Clarity of spacial structure
4. Horizontal and vertical definition 5# Form and material honesty
6. Limited plant list, firm not airy
7. Understatement and reserve
8. Clarity of circulation
Estate of Mr. and Mrs. William R. Simonds, Southampton, Long Island
VIEW FROM THE END OF THE GARDEN TOWARD THE HOUSE


THE MAGNOLIA TERRACE
"A large country estate may include many types of landscape treatment. It may be entirely formal, entirely informal, or as is more usual/ a happy blending of the two with areas designed for formal entertainment as well as for informal enjoyment. The work shown illustrates the various types of development used on large estates."
Photograph and caption from A.H.F. Brochure


A FOUNTAIN AS SEEN FROM THE FORECOURT.
Estate of Charle E.F.McCann


HISTORY OF THE FAMILY AND THE ESTATE:
Senator and Mrs. Lawrence C. Phipps
Lawrence C. Phipps was born in Amwell, Pennsylvania. He worked in the steel business beginning with a dollar-a-day job in the steel mill of his Uncle Henry and went on to attain the position of vice president and treasurer of Carnegie Steel. In his mid thirties and as a millionaire, he moved to Colorado.
Following two terms in the United States Senate, he built the 54 room Georgian style Belcaro Mansion on a 5 acre site at the edge of the city of Denver, to stimulate business and jobs during the depression.
The Belcaro Mansion was designed by Fisher & Fisher Architects, of Denver and constructed by Platt Rogers, Jr., brother of Mrs. Phipps. Annette Hoyt Flanders, Landscape Architect from New York City, designed and supervised the installation of the grounds and gardens of Belcaro in 1935 and 1936.
In 1960, Mrs. Phipps gave the Tennis House portion of the property to the University of Denver, and in 1964 the mansion was also given to the University.
The structures of this estate were added to the Historic American Buildings Survey in 1977. The following year, when the University was faced with some major maintenance and repair costs, the property


was subdivided. The new residential sites have bisected the 5 acres, drastically changing the scale of the grounds and destroying many of the original elements of the gardens. The rose garden, the reflecting pool and a green house were completely removed from the site.




Bricks were made in Denver of a special mold for the garden construction. The same shape of brick was used in two ways, for the screen between the main gardens and the Tennis House and for the pillars of the grape arbor.
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BELCARO WITHIN THE NEIGHBORHOOD NETWORK. THE LIGHT TONED AREA IS THE PROPERTY WHICH WAS SOLD, THE DARK TONED AREA INDICATES THE AREA OF THE ESTATE WHICH REMAINS AND IS THE PROPERTY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF DENVER, AND CALLED THE LAWRENCE C. PHIPPS MEMORIAL CONFERENCE CENTER.



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VITAL ELEMENTS



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EVALUATION AND CONCLUSION






BELCARO LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS Annette Hoyt Flanders___________________
Numbering of the drawings is as done by Flanders, the drawings not prepared by Flanders are noted as such. Cataloged March 1981. The information which I have added is in the parentheses.
# Title Date
1 (missing)
2 Topography Map, Prouty Bros Engineering 1" = 10'
3 Topography Map, Prouty Bros Engineering (also noted as plan #4) 1" = 10' 10-10-35
4 Preliminary General Design, VOID 1" = 20' 10-26-35
5 (missing)
6 (missing)
7 Preliminary Design for Cutting Garden 1" = 10' 10-25-35
8 (missing)
9 Layout Plan for Flower Garden and Rose Garden, revision dates: 12-11-35 12-21-35, 1-29-36 11-02-35 9
10 Layout for the Area North of Tennis Court Building 1" = 10' 11-10-35
11 (missing)
12 Revised Preliminary Design for Area Between Residence and Tennis House, 11-09-35
VOID 1" = 20'


# Title
Date
13 Grading Plan, Flower Garden & 11-07-35
Rose Garden
1" = 10'
14 Layout Plan for Cutting Garden 11-12-35
15 Grading Plan for the Area North of 11-12-35
the Tennis Court Building,
revision dates: 12-12-35, 12-31-35
16 Grading Plan for Cutting Garden 11-12-35
1" = 10'
17 Planting Plan for the Perennial 11-14-35
Walk, revision date: 4-24-36
1" = 4'
18 Construction Details for Cutting 12-12-35
Garden, (also called Construction
Sheet #2)
19 Construction Details for Flower 11-15-35
Garden, (also called Construction
Sheet #1) variety of scales
20 Construction Details for Flower and 11-20-35
Rose Gardens, (also called Construction
Sheet #2) variety of scales
21 Plan to Show Heights of Metal Retaining 11-23-35 Walls in Flower Garden 1" = 10'
22 Planting Plan for Rose Garden 1" = 4'
35
23 Plan and Elevations to Show Heights 11-30-35
of Brick Masonry of Southwest Corner Pool in Flower Garden 1" = 2'


# Title
Date
24 Plan and Elevations to Show Heights 11-30-35
of Brick Masonry of Northwest Corner
Pool in Flower Garden 1" = 2'
25 Bulb Planting Plan, Garden at South of Cutting Garden (not used, ? a second drawing found with same information drawn by another person)
1" = 4
26 Tulip Planting Plan for Tennis House 3-12-36
Central Parterre (as built)
1" = 4'
27 Sections Showing Positions of Trees in 12-06-35 Rows in Flower Garden
1" = 10'
28 Bulb Planting Plan for the Perennial 12-12-35 Walk, (some of this drawing is stuck
to the linen topography map)
1" = 4'
29 Construction Details for Center Garden 12-12-35 Balustrade Tennis Court Building
Parterre, (also called Construction Sheet #1)
3/4" = 1*
30 (missing)
31 Construction Sheet #4 12-17-35
(stair details, flagging details for
Tennis House)
32 (missing)
33 (missing)
34 Plan for the South Terrace 12-24-35
1/4" = 1'
35 (missing)
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# Title
Date
36 (missing)
37 General Design for the Estate of Senator and Mrs. L. C. Phipps
1" = 20'
38 (missing)
39 Construction Details Flower Garden variety of scales
40 Detail of Boundary at Extreme South of Main Garden
41 Planting Plan for Bowling Green revision dates: 5-08-36, 3-18-37
1-11-36
12- -35
2-07-36
42 Design for Bri<-k Walks in Cutting Garden 2-05-36
3-17-36
43 The Gateway Between Main Garden a and Forecourt 1" = 10'
44 (missing)
45 (missing)
46 Planting West of House Terrace 5-09-36
1" = 4'
47 (missing)
48 Planting Plan for Area South of Rose 7-10-36
Garden
49 Planting Plan for the Flower Garden, 12-13-35 sheet one of two, revision dates:
3-16-36, 5-09-36
50 Planting Plan for Flower Garden, sheet two of two 1" = 4'
12-13-35


# Title
Date
43 Tulip Planting Plan for Main Garden Parterre (two drawing are numbered 43)
Titles, dates and scale are as they appear on Flanders' drawings.
The following is a list of additional drawings which were not part of the numbered set:
West Square Garden Near Tennis House ]__ .35
Construction Details 3/4" = 1'
0 Plan for Wall Foundations for Tennis House Parterre Garden 1/4" = 1'
0 Rose Garden and Pools 1" = 1'
0 Layout for Sundial and Gnomon, (drawing by other)
0 Bulb Planting Plan 1/4" = 1'
0 Rose Garden and Pool 1" = 10'
0 Study Design, not submitted to Client,
#1
0 Study Design, not submitted to Client
0 Study Design, not submitted to the Client, #4A
0 Flower Garden Preliminary Design


# Title
Date
0 Grade Profile 1" = 20'
Sketches of Various Parts of Design 10-25-
0 South End of Garden, Corner Pool 10-24-
as Seen from Garden
North End of Garden, Corner Pool 10-24-
as Seen from Garden
0 Limestone and Lead Table with Special Armillary Sundial, The Erkins Studios,
255 Lexington Ave., N.Y.C.
Sketches of iron railings (elevations), plus many other sketches of railings of House
Sketch View of Corner Terrace in Garden 10-24-As Seen from South End of House
Sketch Cutting Garden Area OBSOLETE
Sketch Showing Peacock at Entrance to Allee
(Sundial) The Erkins Studios
35
35
35
35


EDUCATION
Annette Hoyt Flanders
Smith College
AB in Botany 1910
University of Illinois
BS in Landscape Architecture 1918
Marquette University
special courses in civil engineering 1919 Sorbonne, Paris
studies in design and architecture 1919
OFFICES
Vitale, Brinckerhoff & Geiffert 1919
101 Park Avenue, New York
Own offices in New York City
408 East 57th Street
381 Park Avenue thru 1943
own office in Milwaukee, Wisconsin
524 Mason Street
thru 1946


SCOPE OF WORK
Annette Hoyt Flanders_______________________________
Private Estates
Real Estate Subdivisions
Grounds of Large Industrial Plants
Recreational Developments
Exhibition Gardens
"Classic Modern" Garden at the Century of Progress Natural Areas Roof Garden
Perennial, Annual and Bulb Beds
Client list and scope of work from: Landscape Architecture of Annette Hoyt Flanders, 1932


CLIENT LIST Annette Hoyt Flanders
Mr, and Mrs. Vincent Astor Port Washington, Long Island
Mr. J. Walter Schiffer Mt. Kisco, New York
Mr. and Mrs. Henry Siegbert White Plains, New York
Mrs. Patrick A. Valentine Southampton, Long Island
Mr. and Mrs. Harold M. Lehman Tarrytown, New York
Mr. and Mrs. Charles A. Stone Charlottesville, Virginia
Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. F. McCann Oyster Bay, Long Island
A city garden
on 52nd Street, New York City
Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. Van Vleck, Jr. Southampton, Long Island
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Kiser Southampton, Long Island
Mr. and Mrs. Thompson Ross Great Neck, Long Island
Mr. and Mrs. Lewis Cass Ledyard, Jr. Syosset, Long Island
Mr. and Mrs. Harold W. Jennys Rye, New York
Mr. and Mrs. Warren S. Crane Cedarhurst, Long Island
Mr. and Mrs. George S. Olds Great Neck, Long Island


Dr. and Mrs. T. Lawrence Saunders Westbury, Long Island
Mr. and Mrs. Vernon Tenney Honolulu, Hawaii
Subdivision of Country Estates for Mr. Robert McLean Philadelphia, Pa.
Mr. and Mrs. Charles W. Wright Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Mr. Kellogg Patton Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Mr. and Mrs. Harold Fowler Peapack, New Jersey
Philip Armour Lake Bluff, Illinois
Mrs. David Van Acken New Mexico
Mr. and Mrs. DeLancey Kountze Mr. and Mrs. Samuel A. Lewisohn Mr. and Mrs. Montague Flagg Mr. and Mrs. Mortimer Barnes Mr. and Mrs. Louis R. Hardenbergh Mr. and Mrs. Max Rossbach Mr. and Mrs. Charles F. Samson Mr. and Mrs. Allen S. Lehman Mr. and Mrs. Walter Hochschild Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Tree Dr. and Mrs. Arthur A. Mitten Mr. and Mrs. William R. Simonds Mr. and Mrs.
Louis Porter




BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Alderson, William T., and Low, Shirley Payne, Interpretation of Historic Sites, Nashville, TN, American Association for State and Local History 1976.
2. Alliance for Historic Preservation, Architecture de Paysage Canada, Automne, 1979.
3. American Society of Landscape Architects,
ASLA Members Handbook, 1980.
4. American Society fo Landscape Architects, Illustrations of Work of Members, 1931.
5. Anderson, Dorothy May, Landscape Architect, to Cathe Mitchell, December 3, 1980.
6. Andrews, Gregory E., ed., Tax Incentives for Historic Preservation, National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1980.
7. Canadian-American Preservationists, Bulletin The Association for Preservation Technology, 1979.
8. Cawley, Frederick D., ed., Historic Landscape Preservation and Restoration. An Annotated Bibliography for New York State, Preservation League of New York State.
9. Denver Atlas: A Sourcebook of Social & Economic
Information, Denver, CO, Department of Geography University of Denver, 1977.
10. Dillard, Nancy, Pioneering Women in Landscape Architecture
11. Favretti, Rudy J., and Favretti, Joy Putman, Landscape and Gardens for Historic Buildings,
Nashville, TN, American Association for State and Local History, 1978.


12. Glenn, Marsha, A.I.A., Historic Preservation -A Handbook for Architecture Students, 1974.
13. Howerton, Elizabeth, Landscape Architect, to Cathe Mitchell, April 18, 1981.
14. Hubbard & Kimball, Landscape Architecture Design.
15. Jackman, J.B., "Sterile Restorations Cannot Replace a Sense of the Stream of Time,"
Landscape Architecture, Vol. 66, No. 3, May,
1976., pg. 194.
16. "Land," Landscape Architecture News Digest,
YqI. XXII, No. 1, January, 1981.
17. "Preservation Leaps the Garden Wall," Landscape Architecture, January, 1981.
18. Melnick, Robert, interviewed by Cathe Mitchell, telephone interview, November, 1980.
19. Melnick, Robert Z., ed., Architecture Series: Bibliography, Kansas State University,
Manhatten, KS.
20. Melnick, Robert, "Landscapes More Complicated
Than Structure," Prpsprvi ng CnH-ural_and
Historic Landscapes; Developing Standards, Washington, D.C., National Park Service.
21. Mendel, Mesick, Cohen, Architects, Historic Structure Report, Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C., 1978.
22. Morton, W. Brown, III.., and Hume, Gary L. Standards for Historic Preservation Projects. Guidelines for Applying the Standards,
Washington, D.C., H.C.R.S. Technical Preservation Services Division, the Secretary of the Interior, 1979.


23. National Park Service Technical Bullentin, "Preserving Cultural and Historic Landscapes: Developing Standards."
24. Newton, Norman T., Design on the Land,
Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, pp. 427-445.
25. O'Donnell, Patricia, and Kunst, Lisa,
"Historic Landscape Preservation Deserves a Broader Meaning," Landscape Architecture Magazine.
26* Parker, Danna, An Overview of the Trends, Eras, and values of Landscape Architecture in America From 1910 to the Present with an Emphasis on the Contributions of Women to the Profession, North Carolina State University, 1978.
27. "Preservation and Restoration of Historic Gardens and Landscapes," Landscape Architecture Magazine, May, 1976.
28. Tishler, William H., "Recognizing the Land," Landscape Architecture Magazine.
29. University of Denver, Lawrence C, Phipps Memorial Conference Center Brochure.
30. White, Richard, Olmsted Park System, Jamaica Pond Boathouse, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts,
31. "Who's Time is this Place?" Landscape Architecture Magazine, May 1976
32. Yarwood, G.A., The Council of Fellows,
American Society of Landscape Architects Biographical Data.
33. Yarwood, George, Former Historian for A.S.L.A., to Cathe Mitchell, December 6, 1980.




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N WI EN I AL r w-. JRARIA LIBR 1 1111111111111111111 1 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 3 1204 00255 4914 December 1981 Cathe Mitchell MLA Degree Candidate Department of Landscape Architecture College of Environmental Design University of Colorado at Denver 1100 14th Street Denver, Colorado Site/Case Study: Lawrence c. Phipps Memorial Conference Center formerly Belcaro the residence of Senator and Mrs. Lawrence C. Phipps 3400 Belcaro Drive Denver, Colorado Owner/Client: University of Denver Denver, Colorado represented by Dr. Thomas Williams, Curator

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TABLE OF CONTENTS PROJECT INTRODUCTION ASSUMPTIONS METHODOLOGY SUMMARY RESEARCH INVENTORY ANALYSIS VITAL ELEMENTS FUTURE CRITERIA ALTERNATIVES EVALUATION/CONCLUSION APPENDIX BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Foreword This document describes work which was done begining in the fall of 1980 and terminating in the spring of 1981. The issues surrounding the historic landscape have been an interest of mine for several years and this project has provided me with the opprotunity to research this area and develop a tool which can be of use in the policy making for the future management and protection of the historic landscape site. In this project the site of the Lawrence C. Phipps residence and grounds will be the case study. This process may also be useful in dealing with other sites as well. I would like to thank all of the people who have listened, aided, and directed me in my pursuit: Dr. Thomas Williams, Curator Phipps Memorial Conference Center Merril Wilson, Architect State Historical Society of Colorado Robert Melnick, Historic Landscape Arch. Kansas State University and National Park Service George Yarwood, Landscape Architect and Historian ASLA D. M. Anderson, Landscape Architect and Historian Susan Buggey, Steering Committee for Alliance for Historic Landscape Preservation, Ottawa, Ontario Jane Silverstein Ries, Landscape Architect, and my employer Carolyn Etter, Historic Denver Thanks also goes to the group of personal friends who have helped by being everything from my support system to typists: Melissa Dunning, Chris Sadler, Cindy Unger, Ruth Williams, Jan Burton, Kathy Hamilton, Elaine Williams.

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I am submitting this work to fulfill the Independant Design Practicum requirement for the completion of the Masters of Landscape Architecture Degree.

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PROJECT INTRODUCTION The British historian, W. G. Hoskins says in The Making of the English Landscape, The (man made) landscape itself, to those who know how to read it aright, is the richest historical record we possess." "Preservation of the landscape is a more complicated task than structures .... rnore variables in management and preservation ... intrinsic dynamic nature of landscape as opposed to the static qualities of structure." GOALS: This project investigated historic preservation as it applies to the landscape and_ attempted to develop a process by which the historic value can be assessed; and a level of preservation can be matched to the importance of the historic value. The process continued to develop a policy for the management and implementation of the desired protection of the landscape. SITE: 1. ASSESS VALUE 2. MATCH LEVEL OF PRESERVATION TO VALUE, USE AND CONDITION 3. DEVELOP MANAGEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION POLICY Belcaro, the former horne of Senator and Mrs. Lawrence C. Phipps, is the site which this study addressed. This estate, now called the Lawrence C. Phipps Memorial Conference Center, is located at 3400 Belcaro Drive, Denver, Colorado.

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CLIENT: The University of Denver, Denver, Colorado is now the owner of the estate and was represented by Dr. Thomas Williams, curator. PROBLE!-1 STATEt-iENT: To determine the place in history of the grounds and gardens of Belcaro and design a plan for the future management of this landscape.

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AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF BELCARO SHOWING THE SITE PRIOR TO THE SUBDIVISION OF THE PROPERTY

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ASSUMPTIONS There are four major assumptions which have been the basis of all of this project. They are products of meetings with Dr. Thomas Williams, curator of the Lawrence C. Phipps Memorial Conference Center. 1. The University of Denver is still in the process of developing and marketing Belcaro as the conference center. This property continually becomes more financially self-sufficient and has still not reached its maximum use. The conference center may reach a point when it produces funds and volunteer interest for restoration projects in additions to maintenance and management. 2. The present condition of the grounds and gardens is in fair condition but some areas are very fragile and will require attention and repair in the near future. 3. Some changes have occurred which will not or cannot be reversed such as the sale of a portion of the site. And also changes in labor costs and technology will not be changed to accommodate a pure and complete restoration, such a the installation of an irrigation system. 4. Belcaro is located in a residential neighborhood of upper middle class families. Both the zoning and the University's respect for its setting within the neighborhood will act as a limiting factor for potential uses of the structure and the grounds and gardens of this estate.

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I I II II I 1?'}h?Y.jftA:J I I I I II II

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I SUMHARY METHODOLOGY: This chart illustrates the structure which was used to organize this project. This methodology combines a process used in historic preservation and the design process. Because of the involvement of the historic element it was necessary to include research beyond the specific site. PROBLEM STATEMENT: To determine the place in history of the grounds and gardens of Belcaro and design a plan for the future management of this landscape. GOALS: RESEARCH: l. ASSESS VALUE 2. MATCH LEVEL OF PRESERVATION TO VALUE, USE AND CONDITION 3. DEVELOP MANAGEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION POLICY l. THE STATE OF THE ART 2. LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT 3. LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY 4. HISTORY OF THE FAMILY AND ESTATE The first stage of research was to become acquainted with and informed of the attitudes, policies and methods of historic preservation toward structures and how they deal with the landscape.

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One of the criteria used by historians in evaluating a site as a representative piece of history is to look at the designer. An excellent example of an important designer' s work may be a strong consideration in determining a need for protection. The grounds of Belcaro were designed by Annette Hoyt Flanders in 1935-36, so it was important to research her work and her position in the history of landscape architecture. Another aspect which is of interest to the historian is the family history in relationship to the community, the region or the nation. The family may provide the historic importance which would make protection important. INVENTORY: Belcaro has undergone several changes in condition, size and shape, and use since the time of its original design and construction in the thirties. As the interest of this project is protection of history it was necessary to inventory the site as it compared to the original plans. This inventory was accomplished by the use of the original landscape architectural drawings of Annette Hoyt Flanders. In the appendix is a catalog of all of the drawings which still exist. ANALYSIS: During the analysis phase of the project the intent was to understand how the present condition of Belcaro compared to what it once was. To look at what changes have occured and how those changes effect the total picture that remains, and combining all of the research and inventory together in order to determine the strength of history at Belcaro.

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I VITAL ELEMENTS: From all of the information compiled in the analysis, inventory and research phases, the next step was to determine what pieces remaining at Belcaro represent its time in history and should be protected, and what elements that have been removed could or should be replaced to more accurately represent its place in time. FUTURE CRITERIA: The future criteria step takes the vital elements a stage further to develop criteria to aid in the policy development for the future management of the Belcaro estate, the Lawrence c. Phipps Memorial Conference Center. ALTERNATIVES: This phase of the project explored several ideas for the future of Belcaro. The ideas represent the two extremes, from complete restoration to no action. And several possibilities for dealing with this landscape in the future which would accurately represent the historic values and be compatible with the present needs and uses of this site. No singleplan for the future of Belcaro has been established at this time. All of the alternatives are presented as possibilities. EVALUATION: For this methodology to become a useful tool it will be necessary for the University of Denver to adapt and expand this process and information to address their future plans for the use of Belcaro as the Lawrence c. Phipps Memorial Conference Center.

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RESEARCH THE STATE OF THE ART: Historic preservationist have developed and refined a method for dealing with and evaluating structures for their historic importance. The criteria which interest historians is a follows: 1. The structure is related to an important person of family. 2. The structure is connected in some way to an important historic event. 3. The structure is a good example of a period in design of and example of the work of an important designer. The Department of the interior has developed Standards for Historic Preservation Projects with Guidelines for Applying the Standards. This document defines the variety of levels of historic preseration as follows: 1. Acquisition 2. Protection 3. Stabilization 4. Preservation 5. Rehabilitation 6. Restoration 7. Reconstruction And goes on to guideline the methods by which each of these levels would be implemented. Landscape issues are addressed only as they appear at the edges or exteriors of the structural pieces of our history. The standards do not deal with the landscape as a unit of history as it stands alone.

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"Preservation of historic landscapes is a complex and many-faceted problem because it is embroiled in issues relating to land use, urban sprawl, preservation of agricultural land and natural con-servation .. "Historic preservationist have always accepted the concept of preserving buildings as the essence of our heritage. Now we must work to bring the land to this same level of recognition." These are the comments of William H. Tishler, landscape architect concerned with the history of the land. In 1978 an group gathered of historians, landscape architects, archeologists and other interested professionals gathered to form the for Historic Landscape Preservation. Robert Melnick, Historic Landscape Architect from Kansas State University received a grant from the National Park Service to begin formulating standards which the Park Service can apply to historic sites. He feels that "landscapes are more complicated than structures ... as there are more variables in management and preservation of the land and the problems of the intrinsic dynamic nature as opposed to the static qualities of structures. Melnick put catagories on the land. Natural Areas which are protected or managed by humans but are in a natural state. His study addresses, however, what he terms the Cultural Landscape which is land that has been manipulated by people, and under this catagory he recognizes another designation, that of the Historic Landscape. Fourteen standards were proposed that address the land: "Potential Standards of General Treatment and Use for Cultural and Historic Landscape Preservation" and published in the Cultural Resource Management Bullentin, a National Park Service Technical Bullentin. "Historic landscapes are associated with a specific date, time, or person. Generally, their management should be stricter than the management of cultural landscapes which are more representative than

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specific. It may often be necessary in a historic landscape to duplicate plant materials exactly, while plant materials in a cultural landscape may be chosen for such characteristic as color, shape, and massing that approximate the original material in the landscape. Management of cultural landscapes would be aimed at preserving the accurate historic materials as nearly as possible. cases, the intergrity of the landscape is an overriding factor in management preservation decisions." Peter Watts, of Australia, developed a scoring system for accessing the worth of the historic remnants of a garden or landscape. The system has a possible twenty points and any landscape over 15 points he feels is worth historic consideration. 4 I ern---JAL I;:IUt/ i t?Zt::;ri
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LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT: "Since that day int 18th century when as erstwhile salesman of chintzes coined the name 'landscape architect' and under it set himself up to make gardens -gardens that for better or worse changed the face of many an English estate -the landscape architect has risen by slow degrees. From a catchword it has become a profession, from a pleasant avocation it has attained the respect that now affords its workers a merited place among those who who pursue the fine arts. In the course of this evolution it managed to expand its efforts and with expansion to assume new responsibilities. It was horticulturist first, then landscapist, then architect, and now it impinges on the bailiwick of the engineer. Without training in all four fields the modern landscape architect can scarcely hope for success. Annette Hoyt Flanders, having been trained along these four lines, added to them the gift of native genius inherited from a family of garden lovers, with the result that she has succeeded in creating some of the most beautiful gardens in America. At Smith College she majored in Botany. From the University of Illinois she was graduated in Landscape Architecture. At Marquette University she undertook special studies in Engineering. Added to this scholastic work were many trips abroad, lasting from three months to a year, including a course at the Sorbonne and three winters devoted to studying the vegetation of the tropics. On these well-directed and diverse experiences she draws for her grasp of landscape problems and their eventual solution. Between these two lies the making of that fine art which creates and preserves beauty in the surroundings of the home. That is the function of the landscpae architect -to guide man's modification of the landscape so that he may derive from his property the greatest possible esthetic satisfaction as well as the widest use.

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In a successful garden the four sciences and arts are so blended that no one dominates the other. So liberal is its designing that it willingly collaborates with the architect and the sculptor. Evidences of this collaboration are found in the gardens pictured here. They have distinction and rare beauty and yet are primarily livable. They are colorful and still are tranquil. One is impressed with the fact that Mrs. Flanders has kept her architecture will in hand so that Nature might have a chance to complete the picture. Commenting on one of her gardens, Royal Cortissoz, the eminent critic, says that it can be taken 'as an epitome of the present temper of the art in this country. One looks from between low hedges across a lawn with a pool in the center. The curb of this pool is practically on a level with the turf and is absolutely unobtrusive. It is not so many years since that curb would have been replaced by a balustrade. Masonry would have dominated the scene, under the pressure of that formalizing influence which we then imported from Italy. The Italian garden still gets itself developed here and there in America, to this day, but on the whole our gardens are racier than they ever were before. The garden by Mrs. Flanders, to which reference has just been made, is positively endearing in its simplicity and in the adjustment of its balanced design to the sen timent of place. Flowers are used, but they are used sparingly. The note of color is not forced. The broad effect of turf and hedge contributes enormously to the prevailing atmosphere of peace and charm.' Foreword by Richardson Wright for the brochure of Annette Hoyt Flanders, 1932. Annette Hoyt Flanders was born in Milwaukee. In 1910 she graduated from Smith with a degree in Botany, in 1913 she married an attourney, Roger Yale Flanders. She completed a degree in Landscape Architecture from the University of Illinois in 1918. She later studied design at the Sorbonne and civil engineering at Marquette University.

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She practiced landscape arch-. i tecture for Vi tale, Brincker-. hoff & Geiffert in New York City, and in 1922 she opened her own office in N.Y.C. where she worked until 1943 when .a\_ she moved her practice to rr Milwaukee and continued to work until her death in 1946. House and Garden Hall of Fame recognized her in 1933, saying her work was the "epitome of the present temper of the art in this country". She designed the "classic modern garden" Chicago Century of Progress Exhibition. The Architectural League of N.Y. awarded her a gold medal for her work on the estate of Charles F. McCann in Oyster Bay, Long Island. She was noted for gardens of exceptionally vigorous qualities. She joined The American Society of Landscape Architects in 1923 and in 1943 became a fellow. Norman T. Newton includes her in the Country Place Era. I

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LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY:

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The following three are illustrations of the work of Annette Hoyt Flanders which she selected to represent her talent and style. They were used in two books, one is the A.S.L.A. "Illustrations of Work of Members"., 1931 and a small book she published as a brochure of her work. These photographs also demonstrate her position in The Country Place Era. 1. Detail 2. Proportion and scale 3. Clarity of spacial structure 4. Horizontal and vertical definition s. Form and material honesty 6. Limited plant list, firm not airy 7. Understatement and reserve 8. Clarity of circulation VIEW FROM THE END OF THE GARDEN TOWARD THE HOUSE Estate of Mr. and Mrs. William R. Simonds, Southampton, Long Island

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THE MAGNOLIA TERRACE "A large country estate may include many types of landscape treatment. It may be entirely formal, entirely informal, or as i s more usual, a happy blending of the two with areas designed for formal entertainment as well as for informal enjoyment. The work shown illustrates the various types of development used on large estates." Photograph and caption from A.H.F. Brochure

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A FOUNTAIN AS SEEN FROM THE FORECOURT. Estate of Charle E.F.McCann

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HISTORY OF THE FAMILY AND THE ESTATE: Senator and Mrs. Lawrence C. Phipps Lawrence c. Phipps was born in Amwell, Pennsylvania. He worked in the steel business beginning with a dollar-a-day job in the steel mill of his Uncle Henry and went on to attain the position of vice president and treasurer of Carnegie Steel. In his mid thirties and as a millionaire, he moved to Colorado. Following two terms in the United States Senate, he built the 54 room Georgian style Belcaro Mansion on a 5 acre site at the edge of the city of Denver, to stimulate business and jobs during the depression. The Belcaro Mansion was designed by Fisher & Fisher Architects, of Denver and constructed by Platt Rogers, Jr., brother of Mrs. Phipps. Annette Hoyt Flanders, Landscape Architect from New York City, designed and supervised the installation of the grounds and gardens of Belcaro in 1935 and 1936. In 1960, Mrs. Phipps gave the Tennis House portion of the property to the University of Denver, and in 1964 the mansion was also given to the University. The structures of this estate were added to the Historic American Buildings survey in 1977. The following year, when the University was faced with some major maintenance and repair costs, the property

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was subdivided. The new residential sites have bisected the 5 acres, drastically changing the scale of the grounds and destroying many of the original elements of the gardens. The rose garden, the reflecting pool and a green house were completely removed from the site.

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INVENTORY

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Bricks were made in Denver of a special mold for the garden construction. The same shape of brick used in two ways for the screen between the main gardens and the Tennis House and for the pillars of the grape arbor.

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BELCARO WITHIN THE NEIGHBORHOOD NETWORK. THE LIGHT TONED AREA IS THE PROPERTY WHICH WAS SOLD, THE DARK TONED AREA INDICATES THE AREA OF THE ESTATE WHICH REMAINS AND IS THE PROPERTY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF DENVER, AND CALLED THE LAWRENCE C. PHIPPS MEMORIAL CONFERENCE CENTER.

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ANALYSIS

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of tf-a t_, I V\i-bi Pvt .... t:'ltU1'b tlnM U 4 z

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VITAL ELEMENTS

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FUTURE CRITERIA

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ALTERNATIVES

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EVALUATION AND CONCLUSION

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APPENDIX

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BELCARO LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS Annette Hoyt Flanders Numbering of the drawings is as done by Flanders, the drawings not prepared by Flanders are noted as such. Cataloged March 1981. The information which I have added is in the parentheses. # Title 1 (missing) 2 Topography Map, Prouty Bros Engineering 1" = 10' 3 Topography Map, Prouty Bros Engineering (also noted as plan #4) 1" = 10' 4 Preliminary General Design, VOID 1" = 20' 5 (missing) 6 (missing) 7 Preliminary Design for Cutting Garden 1" = 10' 8 (missing) Date 10-10-35 10-26-35 10-25-35 9 Layout Plan for Flower Garden and 11-02-35 Rose Garden, revision dates: 12-11-35, 12-21-35, 1-29-36 10 Layout for the Area North of Tennis 11-10-35 Court Building 1" = 10' 11 (missing) 12 Revised Preliminary Design for Area Between Residence and Tennis House, VOID 1" = 20' 11-09-35

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# Title 13 Grading Plan, Flower Garden & Rose Garden 1" = 10 I 14 Layout Plan for Cutting Garden 15 Grading Plan for the Area North of the Tennis Court Building, revision dates: 12-12-35, 12-31-35 16 Grading Plan for Cutting Garden 1" = 10 I 17 Planting Plan for the Perennial Walk, revision date: 4-24-36 1" = 41 18 Construction Details for Cutting Garden, (also called Construction Sheet #2) 19 Construction Details for Flower Garden, (also called Construction Sheet #1) variety of scales Date 11-07-35 11-12-35 11-12-35 11-12-35 11-14-35 12-12-35 11-15-35 20 Construction Details for Flower and 11-20-35 Rose Gardens, (also called Construction Sheet # 2) variety of scales 21 Plan to Show Heights of Metal Retaining 11-23-35 Walls in Flower Garden 1" = 101 22 Planting Plan for Rose Garden 1" = 41 23 Plan and Elevations to Show Heights of Brick Masonry of Southwest Corner Pool in Flower Garden 1" = 21 35 11-30-35

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# Title 24 Plan and Elevations to Show Heights of Brick Masonry of Northwest Corner Pool in Flower Garden 1" -2' 25 Bulb Planting Plan, Garden at South of Cutting Garden (not used, ? a second drawing found with same information drawn by another person) 1" = 4' 26 Tulip Planting Plan for Tennis House Central Parterre (as built) 1" = 4' Date 11-30-35 3-12-36 27 Sections Showing Positions of Trees in 12-06-35 Rows in Flower Garden 1" = 10' 28 Bulb Planting Plan for the Perennial 12-12-35 Walk, (some of this drawing is stuck to the linen topography map) 1" = 4' 29 Construction Details for Center Garden 12-12-35 Balustrade Tennis Court Building Parterre, (also called Construction Sheet # 1) 3/4" = 1' 30 (missing) 31 Construction Sheet #4 (stair details, flagging details for Tennis House) 32 (missing) 33 (missing) 34 Plan for the South Terrace 1/4" = 1' 35 (missing) 12-17-35 12-24-35

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# Title 36 (missing) 37 General Design for the Estate of Senator and Mrs. L. C. Phipps 1" = 20' 38 (missing) 39 Construction Details Flower Garden variety of scales 40 Detail of Boundary at Extreme South of Main Garden 41 Planting Plan for Bowling Green revision dates: 5-08-36, 3-18-37 Date 1-11-36 12--35 2-07-36 42 Design for Brir.k Walks in Cutting Garden 2-05-36 43 The Gate':.;ray Between Main Garden and Forecourt 1" = 10 I 4 4 (missing) 45 (missing) 46 Planting West of House Terrace 1" = 4' 4 7 (missing) 48 Planting Plan for Area South of Rose Garden 49 Planting Plan for the Flower Garden, sheet one of two, revision dates: 3-16-36, 5-09-36 50 Planting Plan for Flower Garden, sheet two of two 1" = 4' 3-17-36 5-09-36 7-10-36 12-13-35 12-13-35

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# Title Date 43 Tulip Planting Plan for Main Garden Parterre (two drawing are numbered 43) Titles, dates and scale are as they appear on Flanders' drawings. The following is a list of additional drawings which were not part of the numbered set: o West Square Garden Near Tennis House Construction Details 1--36 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3/4" = 1' Plan for Wall Foundations for Tennis House Parterre Garden 1/4" = 1' Rose Garden and Pools 1" = 1' Layout for Sundial and Gnomon, (.drawing by other) Bulb Planting Plan 1/4" = 1' Rose Garden and Pool 1" = 10' Study Design, not submitted to Client, #1 Study Design, not submitted to Client Study Design, not submitted to the Client, #4A Flower Garden Preliminary Design

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# 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Title Grade Profile 1" = 20' Sketches of Various Parts of Design South End of Garden, Corner Pool as Seen from Garden North End of Garden, Corner Pool as Seen from Garden Limestone and Lead Table with Special Armillary Sundial, The Erkins Studios, 255 Lexington Ave., N.Y.C. Sketches of iron railings (elevations) plus many other sketches of railings of House Date 10-25-35 10-24-35 10-24-35 Sketch View of Corner Terrace in Garden 10-24-35 As Seen from South End of House Sketch Cutting Garden Area OBSOLETE Sketch Showing Peacock at Entrance to Allee (Sundial) The Erkins Studios

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EDUCATION Annette Hoyt Flanders Smith College AB in Botany 1910 University of Illinois BS in Landscape Architecture 1918 Marquette University special courses in civil engineering 1919 Sorbonne, Paris studies in design and architecture 1919 OFFICES Vitale, Brinckerhoff & Geiffert 101 Park Avenue, New York Own offices in New York City 408 East 57th Street 381 Park Avenue own office in Milwaukee, Wisconsin 524 Mason Street 1919 thru 1943 thru 1946

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SCOPE OF WORK Annette Hoyt Flanders Private Estates Real Estate Subdivisions Grounds of Large Industrial Plants Recreational Developments Exhibition Gardens "Classic Modern" Garden at the Century of Progress Natural Areas Roof Garden Perennial, Annual and Bulb Beds Client list and scope of work from: Landscape Architecture of Annette Hoyt Flanders, 1932

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CLIENT LIST Annette Hoyt Flanders Mr. and Mrs Vincent Astor Port Washington, Long Island Mr. J. Walter Schiffer Mt. Kisco, New York Mr. and Mrs. Henry Siegbert White Plains, New York Mrs. Patrick A. Valentine Southampton, Long Island Mr. and Mrs. Harold M. Lehman Tarrytown, New York Mr. and Mrs. Charles A Stone Charlottesville, Virginia Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. F. McCann Oyster Bay, Long Island A city garden on 52nd Street, New York City Mr. and Mrs. Charles E Van Vleck, Jr. Southampton, Long Island Mr. and Mrs. John W. Kiser Southampton, Long Island Mr. and Mrs. Thompson Ross Great Neck, Long Island Mr. and Mrs. Lewis Cass Ledyard, Jr. Syosset, Long Island Mr. and Mrs. Harold W. Jennys Rye, New York Mr. and Mrs Warren S. Crane Cedarhurst, Long Island Mr. and Mrs. George S. Olds Great Neck, Long Island

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Dr. and Mrs. T. Lawrence Saunders Westbury, Long Island Mr. and Mrs. Vernon Tenney Honolulu, Hawaii Subdivision of Country Estates for Mr. Robert McLean Philadelphia, Pa. Mr. and Mrs. Charles W. Wright Milwaukee, Wisconsin Mr. Kellogg Patton Milwaukee, Wisconsin Mr. and Mrs. Harold Fowler Peapack, New Jersey Philip Armour Lake Bluff, Illinois Mrs. David Van Acken New Mexico Mr. and Mrs. DeLancey Kountze Mr. and Mrs. Samuel A. Lewisohn Mr. and Mrs. Montague Flagg Mr. and Mrs. Mortimer Barnes Mr. and Mrs. Louis R. Hardenbergh Mr. and Mrs. Max Rossbach Mr. and Mrs. Charles F. Samson Mr. and Mrs. Allen S. Lehman Mr. and Mrs. Walter Hochschild Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Tree Dr. and Mrs. Arthur A. Mitten Mr. and Mrs. William R. Simonds Mr. and Mrs. Louis Porter

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Alderson, William T., and Low, Shirley Payne, Interpretation of Historic Sites, Nashville, TN, American Association for State and Local History, lg76. 2. Alliance for Historic Preservation, Architecture de Paysage Canada, Automne, 1979. 3. American Society of Landscape Architects, ASLA Members Handbook, 1980. 4. American Society fo Landscape Architects, Illustrations of Work of Members, 1931. 5. Anderson, Dorothy May, Landscape Architect, to Cathe Mitchell, December 3, 1980. 6. Andrews, Gregory E., ed., Tax Incentives for Historic Preservation, National Trust for His-toric Preservation, 1980. 7. Canadian-American Preservationists, Bulletin The Association for Preservation Technology, 1979. 8. Cawley, Frederick D., ed., Historic Landscape Preservation and Restoration. An Annotated Bibliography for New York State, Preservation League of New York State. 9. Denver Atlas: A Sourcebook of Social & Economic Information, Denver, CO, Department of Geography, of Denver, 1977. 10. Dillard, Nancy, Pioneering Women in Landscape Architecture 11. Favretti, Rudy J., and Favretti, Joy Putman, Landscape and Gardens for Historic Buildings, Nashville, TN, American Association for State and Local History, 1978.

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12. Glenn, Marsha, A.I.A., Historic Preservation A Handbook for Architecture Students, 1974. 13. Howerton, Elizabeth, Landscape Architect, to Cathe Mitchell, April 18, 1981. 14. Hubbard & Kimball, Landscape Architecture Design. 15. Jackman, J.B., "Sterile Restorations Cannot Replace a Sense of the Stream of Time," Landscape Architecture, Vol. 66, No. 3, May, 19 7 6 o 1 pg o 19 4 o 1:6. "Land," Landscape Architecture News Digest, Vol. __ No.1, January, 1981. 17. "Preservation Leaps the Garden Wall," Landscape Architecture, January, 1981. 18. Melnick, Robert, interviewed by Cathe Mitchell, telephone interview, November, 1980. 19. Melnick, Robert z., ed., Architecture Series: Bibliography, Kansas State University, Manhatten, KS. 20. Melnick, Robert, "Landscapes More Complicated Than Structure," preserving Cultural and Historic Landscapes: Developing Standards, Washington, D.C., National Park Service. 21. Mendel, Mesick, Cohen, Architects, Historic Structure Report, Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, u.s. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C., 1978. 22. Morton, w. Brown, III and Hurna,_ Gary L., Standards for Historic Preservation Projects. Guidelines for Applying the Standards, Washington, D.C., H.C.R.S. Technical Preservation Services Division, the Secretary of the Interior, 1979.

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23. National Park Service Technical Bullentin, "Preserving Cultural and Historic Landscapes: Developing Standards." 24. Newton, Norman T., Design on the Land, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, pp. 427-445. 25. O'Donnell, Patricia, and Kunst, Lisa, "Historic Landscape Preservation Deserves a Broader Meaning," Landscape Architecture Magazine. 26. Parker, Danna, An Overview of the Trends, Eras, and Values of Landscape Architecture in America From 1910 to the Present with an Emphasis on the Contributions of Women to the Profession, North Carolina State University, 1978. 27. "Preservation and Restoration of Historic Gardens and Landscapes," Landscape Architecture Magazine, May, 1976. 28. Tishler, William H., "Recognizing the Land," Landscape Architecture Magazine. 29. University of Denver, Lawrence C; Phipps Memorial Conference Center Brochure. 30. White, Richard, Olmsted Park System, Jamaica Pond Boathouse, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, 31. "Who's Time is this Place?" Landscape Architecture Magazine, May 1976 32. Yarwood, G.A., The Council of Fellows, American Society of Landscape Architects Biographical Data. 33. Yarwood, George, Former Historian for A.S.L.A., to Cathe Mitchell, December 6, 1980.

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