Citation
A mixed-use development project in Denver

Material Information

Title:
A mixed-use development project in Denver
Creator:
Orhun, Deniz
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
iii, 82 leaves : illustrations, charts, maps, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Real estate development -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Urban renewal -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Real estate development ( fast )
Urban renewal ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Genre:
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Deniz Orhun.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
12078006 ( OCLC )
ocm12078006
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1982 .O74 ( lcc )

Full Text
ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN
AURARIA LIBRARY
; t
A MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT IN DENVER
DENIZ ORHUN
Thesis Preparation University of Colorado at Denver Department of Architecture College of Design and Planning December 1982


To Emrah and Denem


CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION
2. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
2.1. Physical Facts
2.1.1. Site and Neighborhood Analysis
2.1.1.1. Existing Land Use
2.1.1.2. Circulation
2.1.1.3. Noise
2.1.1.4. Odor
2.1.1.5. View
2.1.1.6. Utilities
2.1.2. Climate
2.1.2.1. Sun and Wind Analysis
2.1.2.2. Shading
2.2. Social Facts
2.2.1. Neighborhood Analysis
2.2.2. Economic Facts
2.3. Building Constraints
2.3.1. Zoning Codes
2.3.2. Building Codes
3. ANALYSIS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND BASIC DESIGN DECISIONS
3.1. Proposed Activities and Their Space Allocations
3.2. Functional and Spatial Relationships of the Activities
ii


33 Decisions on Site Planning 3*^ Energy Considerations
4. REFERENCES
5. APPENDICES
6. PROPOSED PROJECT
iii


1
1. INTRODUCTION
This is a pre-thesis study for a mixed-use development in Denver for thesis project. The site is located between l6th Avenue, Clarkson Street, Emerson Street and Mammoth Gardens which is next to Colfax Avenue.
i
The neigborhood is in a state of change. The general tendency is to renovate older buildings into commercial office spaces or to rehabilitate them.
The chance mentioned above has led to a deterioration of the residential quality of this environment. The residential atmosphere of the area should be renewed, otherwise, this neighborhood will loose its character and turn into an environment which is very similar to downtown Denver. For that reason it is proposed to include housing in the development program.
In connection with the commercial development of Colfax Avenue, the development project for this site should include commercial facilities such as pharmacy, bank, laundry, eating places, stores etc.
The area is very close to downtown Denver and the need for expansion has caused office development in this neighborhood. It is thought that commercial and professional office spaces are also going to take place in that specific site due to such development.
The importance of energy costs calls for an energy efficient project. A mixed-use development gives a chance to examine the problems of solar energy in the entire spectrum.


2
2. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
Environmental factors are assembled under the headings of physical and social facts, and the building constraints. These are the factors which affect the concept of design directly since it should respond and relate to its physical and social context.
Physical facts which are related to the region, neighborhood and site are explained under site and neighborhood analysis, climate and winds. Under social facts, the overall social conditions are summarized and socio-economic conditions are explained by examining the socio-economic condition indicators.
Building constraints set forth by the City and County of Denver bring certain limitations on the location of structures on the zone lot, on the height etc. that should be examined and applied during the process of designing.
All of these factors and constraints will be superimposed on top of each other and design decisions will be made accordingly.
2.1. PHYSICAL FACTS
Physical facts are one of the most important factors in the design process. The collected data which relates to climate, sun and winds are used in making the basic desicions. The neighborhood is analyzed in terms of the urban activities taking place there and the factors such as traffic patterns, odor, noise, views and utilities which affect the site are explained graphically.


3
2.1.1. SITE AND NEIGHBORHOOD ANALYSIS
The site is located in Denver Colorado (See Figure 1 and 2), (3). It is very close to downtown Denver and connected to it by E.Colfax Avenue. The site is
located between the l6th Avenue, Clarkson Street, Emerson Street and Mammoth
\ .
Gardens which is next to E.Colfax Avenue (Fig.3). It is composed of two lots with dimensions of 175 feet by 145 feet and 248 feet by 145 feet (Fig.4),(3). The site is nearly empty except a one story brick house and a one story social club building. Mammoth Gardens is a recreational center next to the site. On Colfax Avenue, strip commercial development is taking place. There is no specific vegetation on the site that should be preserved besides a few trees
(Fig.5).
This is a mixed neighborhood in one of the oldest sections of the city that includes full range of urban activities. There are extensive office and multi-family units in this area that is adjacent to the Central Business District.
The multi-family housing area is the largest among the other uses, but the number of units has experienced a high rate of decline (l). In terms of specific housing conditions, problems are indicated by the City and County of Denver Planning Office in the amount of housing lacking plumbing, number of units built pre 1940 and amount of rent. The number of units lacking plumbing has improved since 1970 and it is worse than city norms. Housing values and rents are relatively low. The level of overcrowding has remained low and is better than city norms.


Fig.1
Metro Location


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6
16 th Avenue
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Fig.3 The site


Fig. 4 The commercial establishments on E.Colfax Avenue
Fig.5 View of the site from l6th Avenue


8
2.1.1.1. EXISTING LAND USE
The general land use pattern is mixed use. It includes a mixture of commercial, multi-family residential and office areas. None of these uses are dominant (2). The residential density is one of the highest in the city and the majority is multi-family residential units. Office type units cover the second largest area due to the influence of Central Business District.
Since the vacant lands are exclusively zoned for multi-family and office development, the most recent constructions have been related to commercial office space and multi-family residential development. Actual land use and zoning patterns are in close agreement. The figure 6 shows the existing land use (3).
2.1.1.2. CIRCULATION
E.Colfax Avenue is the busiest road next to the site. It is a two-way road running East-West direction. E.Colfax Avenue is the main connection with downtown Denver. It is also the main bus and truck route. l6th Street is an alternative to E.Colfax Avenue. It is a one-way road running toward West. 16th Street is the second busiese road next to the building lot. Clarkson and Emerson Streets are connection roads between E.Colfax Avenue and 16th Street. Clarkson Street is a one-way road toward North, Emerson Street is a two-way road on North-South direction.
Main pedestrian generating source is E.Colfax Avenue. The people living north of E.Coif ax Avenue tend to use the commercial activities on the Avenue. For that reason there is also a pedestrian movement toward south.


9
Alley is used primarily for service purposes of Mammoth Gardens. There is a secondary pedestrian path through the alley.(See Fig.7)
2.1.1.3. NOISE
Since E.Coifax Avenue and 16th Street are the busiest roads, the major traffic noise occurs on these roads. Though it is considered minor, certain amount of traffic noise is created on Clarkson Street. The traffic noise on Emerson Street is not considerable. (See Fig.8)
2.1.1.4. ODOR
The major odor generating source is the traffic. The traffic odor through E.Colfax Avenue and l6th Street is considerable especially during the rush hours. There is also disturbing odor coming from the restaurant next to the building lot. (See Fig.9)
2.1.1.5. VIEWS
Denver is located on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. Toward the west there is a very beautiful mountain view. It runs from North-West to South. Though it is not as attractive as the mountains on the West, the silhouette of downtown Denver creates an interesting view. (See Fig.10 and 11)
2.1.1.6. UTILITIES
The information on the utilities as illustrated in Fig.12 has been obtained from a student project on Mammoth Gardens (3)


10
Fig. 6 Neighborhood Map


11
NEIGHBORHOOD MAP
1. Vacant lot
2. The Turnverein Social club and meeting room facility
3. Mammoth Gardens
4. Shops
5. Wendy's Restaurant fast food service
6. THK Architects offices in renovated building
7. Moore Mortuary
8. Perrenoud Apartment Co-operative
9. In-progress renovation project Commercial office space, available for lease
10. Ronald McDonald House Recently completed housing for families from out of town visiting their children at Children's Hospital
11. Swallow Hill Row Condominium renovation project
12. The Ogden Theatre
13. A Lang house renovation to be commercial office space
14. The Royal Palace Motel (Royal Host Inn)
15. Emerson Street East Restaurant
16. Several buildings which have been cleaned up and redecorated, currently in use as arts a nd crafts stores, an art school and offices
17* 911 East Fourteenth Avenue Rowhouse Condominium for sale
18. Emerson Townhomes Renovation of houses
19. East Fourteenth Condominiums Renovation of houses
20. St. John's Episcopal Cathedral
21. Public Parking Plaza
22. Argonaut liquor Store 23 Safeway Store


12
24. White Spot Restaurant
25. Lang's Court Condominiums Condominium renovation project
26. Phipps Real Estate office renovation
27. 1624 Washington A Lang house renovation, with conversion to commercial office space
28. Machine Payroll Accounting Services Computer company
29. Houses renovation project
30. Shops
31 Denver Clinical Center


Fig.7 Circulation


Fig.8 Noise
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e-


Fig.9 Odor
Clarkson Street
Emerson Street


Fig.10 Views

Emerson Street
Os
16th Avenue


17
Fig.11 Downtown view
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Fig 12 Utilites
00


19
2.1.2. CLIMATE
All climatic data is collected at Denver Stapleton Airport (4). The latitude is 3946" N, longitude is 104*53" W. Ground elevation is 5283 feet.
Denver is located on a flat area next to the mountains. The characteristics of the climate are mild temperatures, moderate winds, low relative humidity and dry winds that descend the eastern slopes of mountains help moderate winter temperatures. The average temperature varies in great degrees between day and night. Clear days are mo^e all over the year. Precipitation is little especially during the winter, the highest precipitation occurs during the spring. Snow is frequent during the winter, but snow cover is not persistant.
The values concerning the monthly maximum, minimum and mean temperatures, degree days for heating and cooling, relative humidity, precipitation, the percent of possible sunshine and mean cloud cover are given in Table 1- 5


20
Table 1 Average Temperatures ( F)
Month
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Monthly______________Dally Max.___________Dally Min.
29.9 **3.5 16.2
32.8 **6.2 19.4
37.0 50.1 23.8
47.5 61.0 33.9
57.0 70.3 43.6
66.0 80.1 51.9
73.0 87.4 58.6
71.6 85.8 57.4
62.8 77.7 47.8
52.0 66.8 37.2
39.4 53.3 25.4
32.6 46.2 18.9
Dec


21
Table 2 Extreme Temperatures (F)
Month Maximum Temn Minimum Temn Days max. above 90 Days max. below 32 Days min. below 32 Days min. below 0
Jan 69 -25 0 7 30 5
Feb 76 -18 0 4 27 1
Mar 84 -4 0 4 26 1
Apr 84 5 0 0 14 0
May 93 25 0 0 7 0
Jun 98 35 5 0 0 0
Jul 103 43 15 0 0 0
Aug 100 41 10 0 0 0
Sep 97 20 2 0 1 0
Oct 87 3 0 0 9 0
Nov 78 -2 0 2 26 0
Dec 73 -15 0 5 30 3


22
Table 3 Degree Days
Month Heating Base 65F Cooling Base 65*1
Jan 1088 0
Feb 902 0
Mar 868 0
Apr 525 0
May 253 5
Jun 80 110
Jul 0 248
Aug 0 208
Sep 120 54
Oct 4 08 5
Nov 768 0
Dec 1004 0


23
Table 4 Relative Humidity ( percent )
Month Relative Humidity
5 AM 11 AM 5 PM 11 PM
Jan 63 ^5 48 63
Feb 67 44 44 66
Mar 69 42 41 65
Apr 68 38 34 59
May 7 38 36 61
Jun 72 39 37 62
Jul 72 36 36 59
Aug 70 37 35 59
Sep 72 40 37 63
Oct 66 36 37 60
Nov 70 44 51 67
Dec 66 45 52 65


Zb
Table 5 Possible Sunshine ( percent )
Month
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Possible Sunshine
72
71 70 66 6b 70 70
72 7b 72 65 68
Dec


25
2.1.2.1. SUN AND WIND ANALYSIS
The altitude angle at noon on the 21st of December is 26,5 degrees, on the 21st of June is 73 degrees. The climate could be summarized as semi-desert, the protection from sun during the summer is necessary, but in fall and winter sun is desirable especially for apartments.
The prevailing direction of the wind is South. It dominates throughout the year but especially during the late spring and summer. South winds are also prevailing at night. The strongest winds are NW winds and occur frequently during the winter and early fall. NW winds prevail during the day. (Fig.13) The values of the average wind speed are given in Table 6.
Table 6 Average Wind Speed (m.p.h.)
Month Wind Speed
Jan 9.2
Feb 9.3
Mar 9.9
Apr 10.4
May 9.4
Jun 9.0
Jul 8.5
Aug 8.2
Sep 8.2
Oct 8.2
Nov 8.7
Dec
9.0


Clarkson Street
V.
16 th Avenue
E. Colfax Avenue
Fig.13 Sun and Wind Analysis
Emerson Street


27
16 th Avenue
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Fig.14 Shading


28
2.1.2.2. SHADING
The shading patterns of the buildings next to the building lot are seen on Fig.14. This condition of shading is valid for the 21st of December when the largest and most critical shading occurs on the site.
2.2. SOCIAL FACTS
This is a mixed neighborhood in one of the oldest sections of the city. It includes full range of urban activities adjacent to the Central Business District.
In this section the socio-economic condition indicators defined by the City and County of Denver Planning Office are summarized. The neighborhood's overall condition and the inclination of this condition are explained by statistical data given by the Denver Planning Office. (2)
Income levels, employment, age groups and education level of the people living in this neighborhood of Denver give information about the people who will, live in the environment studied.
2.1.2. NEIGHBORHOOD ANALYSIS
The neighborhood's overall condition as defined by the City and County of Denver Planning Office is endangered. The overall inclination suggested is extensive decline. Generally the residential part has deteriorated. The residential units has experienced a high rate of decline (2).


The population has been decreasing since l^O's 1980 population is expected to decrease slightly in this neighborhood. Elderly population is high and far above the city norms. The rest of the population is young adults. (2)
Socio-economic condition indicators are defined by the City and County of Denver Planning Office as automobile availability, education level, unemploy ment, family income, crime rate, infectious disease rate, voter registration family and child welfare and old age assistancs (2). The problems are indicated by extensive unemployment, low median family income, high crime and infectious disease rate, low voter registration and high family and child welfare levels. The old age assistance, the level of overcrowding and the number of units with no autos available are low. This neighborhood is below city norms -as far as these indicators are concerned.
Unemployment is very high and considerably above the city norms. The median family income is very low, and declining. A number of families are below the poverty line (2).
The median education level is suggested normal for the City, and includes a low proportion of both college graduates and persons with no schooling (2)
Owner-occupied units are extremely scarce, on the contrary, renter-occupied units have increased. Neighborhood stability is very low, since a great number of families are living in the same area not more than five or more years. Although the number of vacant units have been declining, the number of persons per household is decreasing toward the lowest levels among all


30
Denver neighborhoods (2).
The neighborhood condition is generally below city norms as far as the indicators mentioned above are concerned. The general inclination of the individual conditions is downward.
2.2.2. ECONOMIC FACTS
This neighborhood is one of the busy economic activity area in the City. The actual per acre value of land relative to the city norms is among the highest. The major land value which is extremely valuable per acre is provided by commercial property. Other land use categories are also very valuable when compared with city norms.
The mean value of the residential units has declined to below the city norm since 1970. There are no high-rent units, the mean rent is lower than the city-wide norm and even declining (2).
2 .3. BUIIDING CONSTRAINTS
The proposed building should meet the requirements which are defined by the Zoning Code and the Building Code.
The limitations on the location of the building in the zone lot, on allowable area, parking fencing, sign, height and encroachments are found in the Municipal Code of the City and County of Denver (5) (Appendix A). The constraints on materials, fire resistive protection, occupancy types, occupancy


31
separations, types of construction permitted, occupant load, number of exits required, minimum and maximum distances between exits, exit width required, minimum corridor width and requirements for light, ventilation and sanitation are obtained from Uniform Building Code (6), (Appendix B).
2.3.1. ZONING
Building zone: R-4
Basic allowable area: Basic allowable area excluding garage space, shall not be greater than four times the area of the zone lot. Therefore it is 2^4,ooo square feet.
Easement: The rise to run ratio is 2 to 1. In that case the allowable height is 90 feet.
Setbacks: Emerson and Clarkson Streets are taken as the front sides of the zone lot, l6th Avenue is the side. In this case the front setback is 10 feet from each front line on Emerson and Clarkson Streets. The setback is reduced to 5 feet on l6th Avenue. The setback on the alley is 7 feet and 6 inches.
Parking requirements: There shall be 1,5 off-street parking spaces provided for each dwelling unit. Therefore 105 spaces are necessary for the regular units. There shall be one off-street parking space for each 3 elderly dwelling units. Therefore 16 spaces are necessary for the elderly units. There shall be one off-street parking space provided for each 500 square feet of office gross floor area. Therefore 91 spaces are necessary for the office space. In total, 250 spaces are necessary for total parking space.
For the other uses see Appendix A.
Open space: 30 percent of the area of the zone lot shall be provided for


32
the unobstructed open space. It is not necessary to be on the ground. The open space supplied should be 18,300 square feet.
Fencing rstrictions: Between the front line of the zone lot and the front setback line for structures, the maximum height of fences and walls will be 48 inches. 72 inches height may be elswhere.
2.3.2. BUILDING
Fire zone: 3
Occupancy types: H2 Apatments
G3 Automobile parking garages
FI Drinking and dining establishments with an occupant load of less than 150 persons.
F2 Office buildings
Stores for retail sales
Occupancy seperations: One hour seperation except between G3 and H2 which is two hours seperation.
Type of construction: Type I construction Occupant load: Total occupant load is 1204.
Number of exits required: At least two exits are required from high-rise and office floors. At least three exits are required from the ground floor.
Minimum distance between exits: 25 feet
Maximum distance between exits: At F and G occupancy 150 feet, at H occupancy it is a 100 feet.
Exit width required: The minimum total width on high-rise is 2,5 feet, on office floor is 9*8 feet, on ground floor is 13.2 feet.
Minimum corridor width: It is at least 44 inches.


33
3.1. PROPOSED ACTIVITIES AND THEIR SPACE ALLOCATIONS
The character of this neighborhood has been changing since the general tendency toward to renovate and rehabilitate older buildings into spaces other than residential spaces. If the residential quality is not renewed, this neighborhood will loose all its historical character as a residential area and turn into deteriorated business area. For this reason more than 50 percent of the total allowable area is designated for residential use. Due to zoning regulations at least 30 percent of the area of the zone lot should be provided for open space because at least 50 percent of the gross floor area of the structure is designated for permanent residential occupancy.
The accessory uses plus dining-drinking establishments and support services are chosen such that they will be used extensively by the people living in this structure. These uses will take place for the residents' convenience.
The accessory uses are barber shop, beauty shop, laundry, dry cleaning unit, deli, news and cigar shop, gift shop, printing shop and dining and drinking establishments. Support services are post office, bank, reading room and library and pharmacy.
The change in the character of the neighborhood has occured due to the closeness to downtown Denver and the need for expansion of the office developments.
Though the main aim is to keep the residential character, the present change in this neighborhood is undeniable. For that reason both commercial and pro* fessional office spaces are also going to take place in that complex.
Garage space is not included in the basic allowable gross floor area. The off-street parking space is thought to be underground.


SPACE ALLOCATION SCHEDUIE
Category and Components_______________________________Approximate Net Area
Residential space 9000 m2- 100,075
Office space 4293 **5,525
Post office 50 a2 550 sqft
Bank 50 55 0
Reading room & library 150 1650
Art studio 150 1650
Pharmacy 150 1650
Support services (total) 550 6050
Barber shop 90 1000
Beauty shop 100 1100
Laundry 150 1650
Dry cleaning 150 1650
Deli 150 1650
Travel agency 80 900
News & cigar shop 80 900
Gift shop 100 1100
Printing shop 100 , 1100
Dining & drinking 180 2000
Accessory uses (total) 1180 13,050
Open space 1647 18,300
Total net area 16,470 183,000
25 $ for mechanical areas, structure,circulation 5490 61,000
Total gross area 21,960 244,000


35
SPACE ALLOCATION FOR APARTMENTS
This neighborhood is very close to downtown Denver, and there is a very regular bus service through Colfax to downtown. Due to the commercial development on E.Coifax Avenue, it is also easy to go shopping without depending on a car It is very convenient for elderly people to live in this neighborhood. The elderly population is already high and far above the city norm.
For these reasons two fifths of the residential units is designated for elderly people. This area is also suitable for students or singles other than large families. Three fifths of the total residential units is designated for regular units other than elderly units. There are two-bedroom, one-bedroom apartments and studios.
No of units Net area of each unit Total net area
Two-bedroom units 15 120 m2 1330 sqft 1800 m2 19,950 sqft
25 90 1000 2250 25,000
One-bedroom units 30 90 1000 2700 30,000
Studios 25 60 675 1500 16,875
25 30 - 330 750 8,250
Total net residential area 9000 a 100,075 sqft
Regular units 70
Elderly units 50
Total number of units
120


36
3.2. FUNCTIONAL AND SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS OF THE ACTIVITIES
The main functional relationships are among garage space, apartments, offices, accessory uses and support services. Though there are several pedestrian generating factors around, the main approach will be through the garage space. Functionally, but not spacially, garage should be connected to all the other areas through cores. The cores of apartments and offices are seperated, because the users are not the same, the cores between support services and the apartments and offices are seperated due to the security problems. The open space functionally serves for the apartments but spacially it is related to the commercial activities taking place on the ground level. (See Fig. 15)
Privacy between the apartment units is an important factor. The apartments themselves are arranged so that the public living and dining ares and the private bedrooms areas in one unit are connected through a buffer area in between. In two-bedroom 'apartments visual and audial privacy
should be ensured


37
OPEN SPACE
1
ENTRANCE
REGULAR UNIT APARTMENTS
ELDERLY UNIT APARTMENTS
SUPPORT
SERVICES
ACCESSORY
USES
COMMERCIAL OFFICE SPACE
I
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LU
cr
o
o
PROFESSIONAL LI OFFICE SPACE
LlJ
cr
o
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GARAGE
SPACE
FUNCTIONAL
______SPATIAL
Fig.15 Functional and Spatial Relationships of Activities


38
3.3. decisions on site planning
The first decisions in the design are made on the pedestrian and vehicular approaches to the proposed building complex, and as a result of the probable placement of the cores, the positioning of the high-rise and the orientation of different functions according to the sun and other environmental factors.
The alley serves as a service road for Mammoth Gardens and Wendys restaurant.
It is connected to Clarkson Street instead of l6th Avenue. The service for the proposed structure could be supplied from the underground garage space.
The entrance-exit ramp is on Emerson Street, because Emerson Street is a two-way road and it gives easier access to both 16th and E.Coifax Avenues. It is the least busiest road, the service entry does not disturb the heavy traffic. (See Fig. 16)
The cores of the different functions should be placed so that the pedestrian paths could reach the cores easily. Another factor should be the easy circulation of service trucks in the garage space. (See Fig. 17)
The orientation of the high-rise residential block should be south or 30 degrees toward East or West. The block should not cast any shadow on the open space.
The south open space could be the best solution. (See Fig. 18)
The surrounding buildings are generally low-rise buildings, up to three to four story high. The scale of the new structure should be examined carefully. The human scale should be achived along the pedestrian paths and the high-rise could be placed toward the central area of the site where it is perceived


39
from a distance. (See Fig. 19)
The existing structures on the site are a one-story brick house and a one-story stucco building used as a social club. These two structures will not be preserved.
3.4. ENERGY CONSIDERATIONS
Design and energy should be considered one and the same. When the energy concepts are expressed, they will begin to shape the building form and create the physical environment.
The precautions for conserving energy could be taken in passive and active ways. In this project, the passive design principals are used as the basic principles of energy-concious design, and active design elements have secondary importance. The passive design is first of all related to the building form and materials. Since the comfort is a function of air temperature, air movement and relative humidity, the passive heating and cooling become important factors. For cooling, a great deal can be done with natural ventilation to provide comfort without excessive energy consumption. The best configuration of the building could be the elimination of northern facade and stepping the south surface. That increases south surfaces as much as possible and increase the heat gain from the South. But because of the site conditions the best form for high-rise apartment block is taken as an elongated rectangle on East-West axis. The orientation of the high-rise apartment block is South or 30 degrees toward either East or West from South.


The opportunities for providing natural illumination in office space should be considered. The window area and placement, top lighting possibilities are important factors. lighting levels need not be uniform throughout the floor, but vary according to space function office space, circulation area etc.
The structural material is reinforced concrete and brick. Exposed concrete and brick structure absorb heat in summer. These materials are of the same kind with the surrounding buildings.
In housing, the energy required to heat hot water can be quite an important part of the total energy requirements for the entire building. In order to decrease hot-water load in the apartments, solar water heaters should be
considered



i
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16 th Avenue
a>
o>
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c
8
cD
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Fig.l6 Proposed circulation


Clarkson Street
E. Colfax Avenue
16 50 100 '
n_____i i
Fig.17 Proposed possibilities for core placement
Emerson Street


Clarkson Street
E.Colfax Avenue
\ / 10 50 100
R_ _ji
Fig. 18 The orientation of the high-rise structure
Emerson Street



16th Avenue
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E.Colfax Avenue
10 50 100 '
fl____I I
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Fig.19 The position of the high-rise and low-rise structures


If. REFERENCES
1. Denver, Condition of the City Denver Community Renewal Program City and County of Denver
2. Denver Neighborhood Analysis Denver Community Renewal Program City and County of Denver
3. Hutchinson, B., Mommoth Gardens, Arch. Student Project # 150, University of Colorado
k. Mostellar, B.R., Denver Commons, A Mixed Use Development, Arch* Student Paper # 169, University of Colorado
5. Revised Municipal Code of the City and County of Denver, 1976
6. Uniform Building Code, 1976


5. APPENDIX A
46
Rrrazo Muxtcnui Coot or mx Cm xm Corner or Dsxm
.3. R-4 District.
.5-3. Permitted Uses. No land shall be used or occupied and no structure shall be designed, erected, altered, used or occupied except for either one or more of the following Uses by Right or for one or more of the following Uses by Temporary Permit; provided, however, that a Use by Right may be accompanied by lawful Accessory Uses and/or one or more of the following Uses by Temporary Permit. (Ord. 126, Series 1967)
.5-3(1) Uses by Right. The following uses may be operated as Uses by Right;
Apothecary' (limited to sale of pharmaceuticals and medical
.5-3(1 )(a). supplies);
.5-3(1 )(b). .5-3(l)(c). .5-3(1 )(d). .5-3(1 )(e). not for gain; 5-3(1 )(f).
Art Museum;
Church;
Clinic, dental or medical;
Club or lodge, private and operated for benefit of members and
Community Center; shall have no outdoor public address system or any type of amplified music device; (Ord. 301. Series 1966)
.5-3(l)(g). Repealed by Ord. 598. Series 1978.
.5-3(l)(h). Dwelling, multiple unit;
.5-3(l)(i). Dwelling, single unit;
.5-3(1 )(j). Electric substation; if transformers are exposed, there shall be provided an enclosing fence or wall at least six feet high and adequate to obstruct view, noise and passage of persons or materials; exempted from Limitations on External Effects of Uses relating to Volume of Sound Generated to the extent of sixty-five decibels;
.5-3(1 )(k). Fire stauon;
.5-3(l)(l). Fraternity or sorority house;
.5-3(l)(m). Gas regulator station; exempted from Limitadons on External Effects of Uses relating to Volume of Sound Generated to the extent of sixty-five decibels;
.5-3(l)(n). Hospital, not including animal hospital;
.5-3(l)(o). Hotel;
.5-3(l)(p). Repealed by Ord. 227, Series 1960.
,5-3(l)(q). Laboratory, dental or medical;
.5-3(l)(r). Library or reading room;
.5-3(l)(s). Monastery, convent or similar insdtution of religious training;
.5-3(l)(t). Mortuary;
.5-3(l)(u). Motel, but not trailer camp or court;
.5-3(1 )(v). Office; any office in which chattels or goods, wares or merchandise are not commercially created, displayed, exchanged or sold; (Ord. 364, Series 1958)
.5-3(l)(w). Optician;
.5-3(1 )(x). Orthopedic and prosthedc devices and appliances fabrication, repair and sale, limited to prescripuon work only; (Ord. 200, Series 1978)
.5-3(l)(y). Parish house;
.5-3(1 )(z). Parking of vehicles, only to serve any other Use by Right permitted in the District, need not be enclosed and providing that any part of such use conducted outside a completely enclosed structure shall comply with all specifications for maintenance hereinafter required for off-street parking space. (Ord. 8, Series 1979).
.5-3(1 )(aa). Police station:
.5-3(1 )(bb). Post office;
.5-3(l)(cc). Pre-school; exempted from Limitations on External Effects of Uses relating to Volume of Sound Generated:
.3-3(l)(dd). Public park and/or playground: need not be enclosed;
.5-3(1 )(ee). Railway right-of-way: any railway right-of-way existing on the date this ordinance became effective, but not including railway yards, maintenance or fueling facilities; need not be enclosed;
.5-3(l)(ff). Rooming and/or boarding house;



.5-3(l)(gg). School: (1) Elementin and/or secondary school meeting all requirements of the compulsory education laws of the State of Colorado and not providing residential accommodations: exempted from Limitations on External Effects of Uses relating to Volume of Sound Generated: (2) Any school not permitting the use of machinery, other than office machines and mechanical or machinery parts of household appliances used for instruction of or practice by the student. Repair as a service or the sale of repaired appliances prohibited. Classes or other school activities not permitted after 11:00 P.M.; (Ord. 71, Series 1967)
.5-3(l)(hh). Studio for professional work or teaching of any form of fine arts, photography, music, drama, dance, but not including commercial gymnasium;
.5-3(1 )(ii). Telephone exchange: a telephone exchange without shops or garages;
.5-3(l)(jj). Terminal for intra-city public transit vehicles; need not be enclosed;
,5-3(l)(kk). Theatrical studio;
.5-3(1)01). Tourist home;
,5-3(l)(mm). University or college: a university or college furnishing residential accommodations for at least 20 percent of the student body or 50 students, whichever is less;
.5-3(l)(nn).. Utility pumping station;
.5-3(l)(oo). Water reservoir; need not be enclosed;
.5-3(l)(pp). Rehabilitation center for handicapped persons;
.5-3(l)(qq). Hearing aids store; (Ord. 197, Series 1958).
.5-3(l)(rr). Community Recreadonal Facility: shall have no outdoor public address system or any type of amplified music device; need not be enclosed; (Ord. 386, Series 1976)
.5-3(1 )(ss). Landing or take-off area for Police rotorcraft, not including maintenance, repair, fueling or hangar facilities; need not be enclosed. (Ord. 27, Series 1969)
.5-3(l)(tt). Bank. (Ord. 250, Series 1971)
.5-3(l)(uu). Residential Care for the Elderly: shall have a Zone Lot which provides no less than 400 square feet of land area for each resident and shall provide no less than 180 square feet of floor area for each rental room. (Ord. 489, Series 1972)
.5-3(l)(vv). Health Service Establishment: a health service establishment' licensed by the Department of Health and Hospitals of the City and County of Denver. (Ord. 332, Senes 1979)
.5-3(2). Uses by Temporary Permit. Upon application to and issuance by the Department of Zoning Administration of a permit therefor, the following uses may be operated as Uses by Temporary Permit and need not be enclosed. (Ord. 215, Series 1959)
,5-3(2)(a). Bazaar: a bazaar operated as a place for the display and sale of miscellaneous goods and for entertainment but not including motorized amusement rides. Each permit shall be valid for a period of not to exceed 12 consecutive days and provided that a period of at least 90 days shall intervene between the termination of one permit and the issuance of another permit for the same location. (Ord. 566, Series 1977)
.5-3(2) (b). Newspaper distribution station: a newspaper distribution station operated in accordance with all of the' following standards: Shall be maintained in a sightly condition with all papers, waste wrappers and newspapers stored, handled and distributed within a completely enclosed structure until removed from the premises; shall provide adequate on the premises storage for bicycles and shall prohibit unnecessary loitering on or about the premises; provided, however, that each permit shall be valid for a period of not more than one calendar year but may be renewed; and provided, further, that a failure to comply with any of the standards herein set forth shall be cause for revocation of any permit.
.5-3(2)(c). Non-commercial concrete batching plant, both incidental and necessary to construction in the zoning district. Each permit shall specify the location of the plant and the area, within the same zoning district, of the permitted operation, no part of which area shall be a distance of more than two miles from the plant. Each such permit shall be valid for a period of not more than six calendar months and shall not be renewed for more than six successive periods at the same location. (Ord. 96, Series 1957)


48
.5-3(2)(d). Parking lot designated for a special event; provided, however, that each permit shall be valid only for the duration of the designated special event; and provided, further, that if the designated special event is a seasonal activity, the permit may be valid for the entire season but shall be restricted in use to designated dates and times during which the event is occurring; need not be enclosed;
.5-3(2) (e). Temporary building or yard for construction materials and/ or equipment, both incidental and necessary to construction in the zoning district. Each permit shall specify the location of the building or yard and the area, within the same zoning district, of the permitted operation, no part of which area shall be a distance of more than two miles from the building or yard. Each such permit shall be valid for a period of not more than six calendar months and shall not be renewed for more than four successive periods at the same location; need not be enclosed. (Ord. 95 Series 1957)
.5-3(2) (f). Ambulance Service operated in accordance with all of the following standards: (1) not more than two ambulances at any one location;
(2) vehicles to be parked in completely enclosed structure when not in use;
(3) no mechanical or maintenance work is to be done on premises and no gasoline is to be stored there; (4) no office is to be maintained in connection with the above use. Each permit shall be valid for a period of not more than six months, but may be renewed; provided, however, that failure to comply with any of the standards set forth shall be cause for revocation of any permit. (Ord. 363, Series 1958)
.5-3(3). Accessory Uses.
.5-3(3) (a). All Uses by Right. Incidental only to any Use by Right, any use which complies with all of the following conditions may be operated as an Accessory Use and need not be enclosed. (Ord. 321, Series 1969)
.5-3(3) (a) (a-1). Is clearly incidental and customary to and commonly associated with the operation of the Use by Right. (Ord. 321, Series 1969)
.5-3(3)(a) (a-2). Is operated and maintained under the same ownership, or by lessees or concessionaires thereof, and on the same Zone Lot as the Use by Right. (Ord. 321, Series 1969)
.5-3(3) (a) (a-3). Does not include structures or structural features inconsistent with the Use by Right. (Ord. 321, Series 1969)
.5-3(3) (a) (a-4). Does not include residential occupancy except by domestic employees employed on the premises and the immediate families of such employees. (Ord. 321, Series 1969)
.5-3(3) (a) (a-5). If operated partially or entirely in detached structures, the gross floor area of such detached structures shall not exceed ten per cent of the area of the Zone Lot; provided, however, that this limitation shall not apply to detached garages or detached car ports used exclusively by occupants of structures containing the Use by Right or by persons employed in such structures. (Ord. 321, Series *1969)
.5-3(3) (a) (a-6). If operated partially or entirely within the structure containing the Use by Right, the gross floor area within such structure utilized by Accessory Uses (except garages and dining rooms for the exclusive use of occupants or persons employed in the structure) shall not be greater than: (1) twenty per cent of the gross floor area but not to exceed three hundred square feet, of a single unit dwelling or any dwelling unit in a multiple unit dwelling containing eight or less dwelling units or (2) ten per cent of the gross floor area of a structure containing any Use by Right other than a single unit dwelling or a multiple unit dwelling containing eight or less dwelling units. (Ord. 321, Series 1969)
.5-3(3) (b). Multiple Unit Dwelling, Hospital and Office Only. Upon application to and issuance by the Department of Zoning Administration of a permit therefor and incidental only to a multiple unit dwelling, hospital or office, contained in a structure having 50,COO or more square feet of gross floor area, one or more uses hereinafter set forth may be


operated as Accessory Uses if each such use meets the following- conditions: (1) is provided for the convenience of the owner and/or tenants;
(2) does not have signs of any type; (3) does not have a separate outside
entrance facing any street and (4) is not evident from any street: (Ord.
464, Series 1975)
.5-3(3)(b)(b-1). Barber shop. (Ord. 321, Series 1969)
.5-3(3)(b)(b-2). Beauty shop. (Ord. 321, Series 1969)
.5-3(3) (b) (b-3). Collection and distribution station for laundry and dry cleaning. (Ord. 321, Series 1969)
.5-3(3) (b) (b-4). Eating place, no live entertainment. (Ord. 321, Series
1969)
.5-3(3) (b) (b-5). Travel or car rental service. (Ord. 321, Series 1969)
.5-3(3) (b) (b-6). Delicatessen. (Ord. 321, Series 1969)
.5-3(3)(b)(b-7). News, cigar, and/or candy stand. (Ord. 321, Series
1969)
.5-3(3)(b) (b-8). Gift shop. (Ord. 321, Series 1969)
.5-3(3) (b) (b-9). Photo offset duplicating shop employing not more than five persons. (Ord. 341, Series 1975)
.5-4. Permitted Structures.
.5-4(1). Zone Lot for Structures. A separate ground area, herein called the Zone Lot, shall be designated, provided and continuously maintained for each structure containing a Use by Right. Each Zone Lot shall have at least one front line and shall be occupied only by the structure containing a Use by Right and a subordinate structure or structures containing only Accessory Uses; provided, however, one subordinate structure containing more than one habitable story and which structure was erected prior to November 8, 1956 as a carriage house, may be used in its entirety as a single unit dwelling. The Zone Lot for each structure designed or used either wholly or partly for residential occupancy shall be not less than 50 feet wide at the front setback line for structures and shall contain not less than 6,000 square feet; provided, however, that on a Zone Lot for a structure used as a single unit dwelling the minimum width may be reduced to 37 feet and/or the requirement as to minimum size may be waived altogether on a Zone Lot adjoined on both sides by Zone Lots with structures thereon or on a Zone Lot adjoined on one side by a street and on the other side by a Zone Lot with a structure or structures thereon. The Zone Lot for the following structures, if more than 50 per cent of the gross floor area of the structure is designated for permanent (not transient) residential occupancy, shall provide at least the following amounts of Unobstructed Open Space which shall not include space provided for off-street parking: (1) each residential structure of one to three habitable stories twenty per cent of the area of the Zone Lot; (2) each residential structure of four or more habitable stories thirty per cent of the area of the Zone Lot. Unobstructed open space may be located on the ground and roof decks having an average height of not more than six feet above grade and shall be utilized only for landscaping and/or recreational facilities. Upon application to and approval by the Department of Zoning Administration, the boundaries and area of a designated Zone Lot may be amended if full com-
Eliance with all requirements of this ordinance can be maintained. (Ord. 200, eries 1977)
.5-4(2). Location of Structures. Except as otherwise hereinafter provided, the space resulting from the following setbacks shall be open and unobstructed.
.5-4(2)(a). Front Setback. All structures shall be set in a distance of not less than ten feet from each front line of the Zone Lot; provided, however, that on the two shorter dimensions of any biock oblong in shape, the front setback may be reduced to five feet for structures which face on either longer dimension; and provided, further, that detached accessory structures, except those detached accessory structures used as garages or for recreational or outdoor cooking and eating purposes or gas-fired incinerators, shall be set in a sufficient distance from each front line of the Zone Lot so that such structures are located only on the rear one-fourth of interior Zone Lots and on corner Zone Lots are located only on the rear part of the Zone Lot which is adjacent to and corresponding with the rear one-fourth of abuttine interior Zone Lots and no closer to the side street


right-of-way than thirty feet or one-half the dimension of the comer Zone Lot, measured perpendicularly from the side street right-of-way, whichever distance is greater. The space resulting from the foregoing set backs shall be used for landscaping and access wavs to the Use by Right but shall not be used for the parking of vehicles. (Ord. 165. Series 1969)
.5-4(2)(b). Rear Setback. If no alley abuts the rear line of the Zone Lot, all detached accessory structures and fixtures shall be set in a distance of not less than five feet and all other structures shall be set in a distance of not less than twenty feet from each rear line of the Zone Lot. If an alley
abuts the rear line of the Zone Lot, detached garages and carports opening directly on the alley shall be set in a distance of not less than rive feet from the alley line; detached accessory structures (including garages and carports which do not open directly on the alley) and fixtures for the disposal of trash and garbage may be located on the alley line and all other structures shall be set in a distance of not less than twenty feet from the center line of the abutting alley; provided, however, that if a Zone Lot has more than one rear line by reason of abutting alleys, the aforesaid setbacks shail be required from only one rear line and the other rear line or lines shail, for the purposes of setbacks, be deemed side lines of the Zone Lot. Whether or not an aiiey abuts the rear line of the Zone Lot, electric substations, gas regulator stations and utility pumping stations which do not have a rear entrance may be located on the rear line of the Zone Lot; if such structures do have a rear entrance they shall be set in a distance of not less than rive feet from the rear line of the Zone Lot.
.5-4(2)(c). Side Setback.
.5-4{2)(c)(c-l). On Zone Lots less than thirty feet in width, all structures, except detached garages or carports as set forth in Section ,5-f(2)(c)(c-3). hereof, shall be set in a distance of not less than three feet from each side line of the Zone Lot
.5-4(2)(c)(c-2). On Zone Lots thirty or more feet in width, electric substations and gas regulator stations shall be set in a distance of not less than rive feet and all other structures, except detached garages or carports as set forth in Section .5-4{2)(c)(c-3). hereof, shall be set in a distance of not less than seven feet and six inches from each side line of the Zone Lot.
.5-4(2)(c)(c-3). Regardless of the width of the Zone Lot, detached garages or carports need not be set in from any side line of the Zone Lot if such garages or carports meet the following conditions: (1) On Zone Lots 125 or less feet in depth, are located in their entirety on the rear one-third of the Zone Lot and no part of such structures is more than forty feet from the rear line of the Zone Lot; (2) On Zone Lots more than 123 feet in depth, are located in their entirety on the rear one-third of the Zone Lot and no part of such structures is less than eighty-five feet from one or more front lines of the Zone Lot. (Ord. 53, Series 1957)
.5-4(2)(c)(c-4). The space resulting from the foregoing setbacks shall be used for landscaping and access ways but shall not be used for the parking of vehicles; provided, however, if the distance from the building to the side line of the Zone Lot measures 21 feet or more, that setback space may be used for the parking of vehicles. (Ord. 165, Series 1969)
.5-4(2)(d). Permitted Encroachments on Setback Space.
.5-4<2)(d)(d-l). Beit courses, sills, lintels, and pilasters may project eighteen inches into front, rear and side setback spaces. (Ord. 467, Series 1959)
.5-4<2)(d)(d-2). Cornices, eaves and gutters may project three feet into front setback space, five feet into rear setback space and thirty-six inches into side setback space; provided, however, that if the side setback space is less than five feet in width then such projection shall not exceed one-half the width of the side setback space. (Ord. 333, Series 1959)
.5-4(2)(d)(d-3). Outside stairways may project rive feet into front setback space, ten feet into rear setback space and three feet into side setback space;
.5-4<2)(d)(d-4). Unwalled porches, terraces and balconies may extend five feet into front and rear setback spaces;
.5-4(2)(d)(d-5). Chimneys not to exceed six feet in width may project eighteen inches into front, rear and side setback spaces. (Ord. 468, Series 1959)
.5-4(2)(d)(d-6). Building accessories designed and intended to control


light entering a building and being a permanent part of such building may project five feet into front setback space, ten feet into rear setback space and three feet into side setback space;
.5-4(2) (d) (d-7). Building accessories designed and intended to control light entering a building and not being a permanent part of such building, by being removable therefrom and by not being attached to a load-bearing member thereof, may project any distance into any setback space.
.5-4(2) (d) (d-8). Canopies may project any distance into the front setback space. (Sec. 1(a), Ord. 16, Series 1958)
.5-4(2)(d)(d-9). Any structure or part thereof which is beiow the grade of any setback space may project any distance into such setback space. (Ord. 411, Series 1959)
.5-4(2) (d) (d-10). Gas and electric meters and transformers may project three feet into front, rear and side setback spaces if screened on all sides by a masonry wall. (Ord. 494, Series 1971)
,5-4(2)(e). Fences, Walls and Retaining Walls. Fences, Walls and Retaining Walls not exceeding 48 inches in height may be erected on any part of the Zone Lot between the front line of the Zone Lot and the front setback line for structures and on any other part of the Zone Lot may be erected to a height of not to exceed 72 inches; provided, however, (1) retaining walls abutting public rights of way may be built to any height; (2) schools, public parks and/or playgrounds may erect open-mesh fences to any height on any part of the Zone Lot and (3) on a corner Zone Lot, fences and walls not exceeding 72 inches in height may be built on the rear line of the Zone Lot and on the front line of a Zone Lot from the rear line forward to the rear of any structure containing the Use by Right if the corner Zone Lot meets the following qualifications: (a) is located on a block oblong in shape; (b) the structure thereon containing the Use by Right faces a longer dimension of the block; and (c) all Zone Lots on the same shorter dimension of the same block are either vacant or do not have thereon any structure containing a Use by Right which structure faces the shorter dimension of the block. The height of walls, fences and retaining walls shall be determined by measurement from the ground level at the lowest grade level within three feet of either side of such walls, fences or retaining walls; provided, however, that in computing the height of retaining walls there shall be omitted from such computation any open-mesh fence located on top of the retaining wall and not exceeding 48 inches in height. Fences, walls and retaining walls permitted hereunder shall not be included in computing com-
fliance with Outside Area of Window Exposure. (Sec. 1(b), Ord. 39, Series
958)
.5-4(3). Maximum Bulk of Structures. No part of any structure (except church spires, church towers, flagpoles, antennas, chimneys, flues, vent3 or accessory water tanks) shall project up through bulk limits which are defined by planes starting (1) at horizontal lines which are co-directional to the side line or lines of the Zone Lot and pass through points thirty feet above the mid-point of each such side line or lines, and (2) at horizontal lines which are co-directional to the center lines of all streets abutting the Zone Lot and pass through points thirty feet above the mid-point of such center lines between the boundary lines of the Zone Lot extended, and
(3) at, if no alley abuts the Zone Lot, a horizontal line which is co-directional to the rear line of the Zone Lot and passes through a point thirty feet above the mid-point of such rear line of the Zone Lot; and if the rear line or lines of the Zone Lot are established by an abutting alley or alleys such planes shall start at horizontal lines which are co-directional to the center lines of such abutting alley or alleys and pass through points thirty feet above the mid-point of such center lines between the boundary lines of the Zone Lot extended, and which planes extend up over the Zone Lot at an angle of sixty-three degrees and twenty-six minutes with respect to the horizontal (a pitch of two feet additional rise for each foot additional set-


52
back) until such planes imersect a vertical line thirty feet horizontally distant from the various points of beginning as above set forth, at which point the angle of the bulk plane snail change from sixty-three degrees and twenty-six minutes to ninety degrees or true vertical. (Ord. 279, Series 1970'
.5-4(4). Maximum Gross Floor Area in Structures. The sura total of the gross floor area of all structures on a Zone Lot, excluding garage space, ihall not be greater than four times the area of the Zone Lot on which the structures are located.
.5-4(5). Outside Area of Window Exposure. Each legally required window shall have not less than the following amount of outside exposure determined in the following manner: From a reference point located at the bottom center of the window, extend outward at right angle to the window plane, a horizontal sector of 140 degrees, centered on the window, with a radius of fifteen feet. Within this sector the minimum required outside area of exposure'for the window shall be any open sector or combination of sectors totalling 70 degrees. Applied in the direction of adjoining Zone Lots, the area which may be credited as outside area of window exposure, extends to required setback lines, regardless of the actual location of structures. (Sec. 1(b), Ord. 117, Series 1959)
.5-5. Permitted Signs. The provisions of Article 613. Permitted Signs shall be in full force and effect in this district.
.5-6. Off-Street Parking Requirements. The provisions of Article 614. Off-Street Parking Requirements snail be in full force and effect in this district.
.5-7. Off-Street Loading Requirements. The provisions of .Article 615. Off-Street Loading Requirements shall be in full force and effect in this district.
,5-8. Special Zone Lot Plan for Planned Building Groups. The provisions of Article 616. Special Zone Lot Plan for Planned Building Groups shall be in full force and effect in this district.
ARTICLE V. OFF-STREET PARKING REQUIREMENTS
Sec. 59-586. Required off-street parking.
At least the following amounts of off-street pair king space shall be provided. All off-street parking spaces hereinafter required under this chapter shall be designed in accordance with the dimensions set out in Chart #1, off-street parking, which chart is attached hereto. The proportion of compact car spaces provided to satisfy these requirements shall not exceed fifty (50) percent of the total of all off-street parking spaces required for each use. The width of off-street parking spaces for large cars contained within any off-street parking structure shall be at least eight and one-half (8 Vi) feet, all other off-street parking spaces for large cars shall be at least nine (9) feet wide. The following parking classes shall apply to all uses by right or authorized use exceptions, and if for any reason the classification of any use by right for the purpose of determining the amount of off-street parking or the number of off-street parking or the
number of off-street parking spaces to be provided by such use by right is not readily determinable hereunder the parking class of such use by right shall be fixed by the department of zoning administrator.
(1) Parking class one, being composed of all uses by right which are enumerated in the schedule hereinafter provided: There shall be one and one-half (1) off-street parking spaces provided for c each dwelling unit in a multiple-unit dwelling; provided, however, that for a multiple-unit dwelling whose occupancy is restricted entirely to individuals sixty (60) or more years of age, there shall be one off-street parking space provided for each three (3) dwelling units; and provided further, there shall be one off-street parking space provided for each dwelling unit in a multiple-unit dwelling located in a B-4 district.
(2) Parking class two, being composed of all uses by right and authorized use exceptions which are enumerated in the schedule hereinafter provided: There shall be one off-street parking space provided for each six hundred (600)


53
square feet of gross floor area contained in any structure or structures containing any use by right; provided, however, that for each habitable unit in a motel there need be provided not more than one off-street parking space.
(3) Parking class three, being composed of all uses by right, which are enumerated in the schedule hereinafter provided: Parking shall be provided in an amount equal to one-fourth of the area of the zone lot on which the use by right is located; provided, however, a community recreational facility or tennis club which restricts its membership to persons living in a specific geographical area shall provide at least ten
(10) per cent of the area of its zone lot for off-street parking.
(4) Parking class four, being composed of all uses by right which are enumerated in the schedule hereinafter provided: There shall be one off-street parking space provided for each two hundred (200) square feet of gross floor area contained in any structure containing a use by right.
(5) Parking class five, being composed of all uses by right which are enumerated in the schedule hereinafter provided: An area equal to one-fourth the gross floor area in all structures containing the use by right.
(6) Parking class six, being composed of all uses by right which are enumerated in the schedule hereinafter provided: An area equal to one-tenth the gross floor area in all structures containing the use by right.
(7) Parking class seven, being composed of all uses by right which are enumerated in the schedule hereinafter provided:
a. Each elementary or grade school or junior high school shall provide ten
(10) off-street parking spaces plus one off-street parking space for each classroom;
b. Each senior high school shall provide one off-street parking space for each teacher and employee plus one off-street parking space for each six (6) students based on design capacity for such senior high school;
c. Any school not an elementary or grade school, junior high school or senior high school shall provide an area equal to one-half the gross floor area occupied by the use by right in a structure or structures.
(8) Parking class eight, being composed of all uses by right which are enumerated in the schedule hereinafter provided: There shall be one off-street parking space provided for each three hundred (300) square feet of gross floor area contained in any structure.
(9) Parking class nine, being composed of all uses by right which are enumerated in the schedule hereinafter provided: There shall be one off-street parking space provided for each five hundred (500) square feet of gross floor area contained in any structure.
(10) Parking class ten, being composed of all uses by right which are enumerated in the schedule hereinafter provided: There shall be one off-street parking Bpace provided for each eight hundred (800) square feet of land area occupied by the use by right.
Sec. 59-588. Off-street parking classes.
(a) Class one:
(1) Dwelling, multiple unit.
(b) Class two:
(1) Apothecary;
(2) Art museum, public;
(3) Consular residence;
(4) Historic structures use exception; office, art gallery;
(5) Hospital (not animal);
(6) Hostel;
(7) Hotel, tourist home;
- (8) Institution;
(9) Laboratory, dental or medical;
(10) Library;
(11) Library or reading room;
(12) Library, public;
(13) Monastery, convent (religious training);
(14) Motel, not trailer camp or court;
(15) Museum;
(16) Nursing home;
(17) Orthopedic shoe repair;
(18) Parish house (including nunnery or similar residence of clergy);
(19) Pre-school;
(20) Rehabilitation center for handicapped persons;


5fc
(21) Studio for professional work;
(22) University or college.
(c) Class three:
(1) Church;
(2) Community center;
(3) Community recreation facility;
(4) Residential care for the elderly;
(5) Swimming pool;
(6) Tennis club, private;
(7) Trampoline center.
(d) Class four:
(1) Apparel and accessories store; ~
(2) Appliance store;
(3) Art gallery;
(4) Automatic archery lanes;
(5) Automatic trapshooting;
(6) Automobile accessory store;
(7) Automobile laundry or polishing shop;
(8) Auto polishing shop;
(9) Bakery, retail;
(10) Bakery store;
(11) Barber shop;
(12) Beauty shop;
(13) Bicycle store;
(14) Billiard parlor;
(15) Book store;
(16) Bowling alley;
(17) Bridge studio;
(18) Business machine store;
(19) Camera and photo supplies store;
(20) Candy, nut and confectionery store;
(21) Cleaning, noninflammable;
(22) Collection and distribution station for laundry and dry cleaning;
(23) Dairy products store;
(24) Delicatessen store;
(25) Department store;
(26) Drug store;
(27) Dry cleaning plant;
(28) Dry goods store;
(29) Eating place;
(30) Egg and poultry store;
(31) Floral shop;
(32) Food locker plant;
(33) Fruit store;
(34) Garden supply store;
(35) Gift, novelty souvenir;
(36) Grocery store;
(37) Hall renting;
(38) Hardware store;
(39) Health equipment and supply store;
(40) Health studio or health treatment on payment of a fee;
(41) Hobby supply store;
(42) Household appliance store;
(43) Ice skating and/or roller skating rink;
(44) Interior decorating shop;
(45) Jewelry store;
(46) Laundry, package plant;
(47) Laundry, self-service;
(48) Linoleum and tile store;
(49) Liquor store (sale by package only);
(50) Locksmith;
(51) Luggage store;
(52) Meat, fish and seafood store;
(53) Mortuary;
(54) Music, musical instruments and phonographic record store;
(55) Music store;
(56) Music studio;
(57) News stand;
(58) Notions store;
(59) Paint, wallpaper store;
(60) Pawn shop;
(61) Pet supply store;
(62) Photo studio, photo processing;
(63) Pressing, altering, repairing, weaving;
(64) Public baths;
(65) Radio and television store and repair shop;
(66) Repair, rental and servicing of any product, the sale of which product is a use by right in the B-2 district;
(67) Repair, rental and servicing of any article, except automobiles, trucks and trailers, the sale of which article is permitted in the B-3 district;
(68) Restaurant;
(69) Sale at retail of any article not enum*>. ated under any other parking classify cation;
(70) Sale of medical and hospital equimncw and supplies;
(71) Sewing machine store;
(72) Shoe repair shop;
(73) Shoe store;
(74) Sporting goods store;
(76) Stationery store;
(76) Theatre;
(77) Theatrical studio;
(78) Tobacco store;
(79) Toy store;
(80) Tropical fish hatchery;
**-T*,' - -v(
(81) Typewriter and adding machine store; ?
(82) Vacuum cleaner store; ' ^4;
(83) Variety store;
(84) Vegetable store. . vv; \
(e) Class five:
(1) Assaying office and laboratory;
(2) Assembly, without fabrication;
(3) Blacksmithing shop;



55
(4) Blueprinting;
(5) Caterer;
(6) Crating service;
(7) Custom fabrication;
(8) Diaper service;
(9) Distribution of books and other printed materials;
(10) Electric contractor;
(11) Electric generator;
(12) Electric substation;
(13) Entertainment and sports arena;
(14) Exterminators;
(15) Fabrication;
(16) Fire station;
(17) Garage for commercial and public utility vehicles;
(18) Gas regulator station; ...
(19) Incinerator;
(20) Junk yard;
(21) Laboratory; '§,!
(22) Laboratory research;
(23) Laundry;
(24) Linen supply;
(25) Manufacturing, processing and/or ftb rication;
(26) Mirror silvering;
(27) Monument and tombstone retail sales;
(28) Packaging or distribution, or both, of cosmetics, drugs, jewelry, notions, personal luggage;
(29) Painting and decorating contractor;
(30) Photostating;
(31) Picture framing;
(32) Printing, publishing and allied industries;
(33) Processing or fabrication;
(34) Radio and television broadcasting Stas' tion;
(35) Railroad facilities;
(36) Railroad facilities, but not including shops;
(37) Reservoir;
(38) Riding academy;
(39) Rodeo;
_(40) Sale at wholesale;
(41) Sewage disposal plant;
(42) Sign contractor;
(43) Special trades contractor;
(44) Reserved;
(45) Terminal for intra-city public transit vehicles;
(46) Terminal for inter-city or intra-city vehicles, including railroad passenger station, for movement of persons or freight;
(47) Trucking freight terminal;
(48) Utility pumping station;
, (49) Water filtration plant;
; (50) Water reservoir.
(f) Class six:
(1) Contractor yard for vehicles, equipment, materials and/or supplies;
(2) Distribution of books and printed material;
(2J>) Telephone exchange;
(3) Warehousing and storage.
(g) Class seven:
(1) School, any type;
(2) School, elementary, secondary;
(3) School for industrial or business training or school charging tuition;
(4) School for training in occupational skills.
(h) Class eight:
(1) Ambulance service;
(2) Amusement on payment of a fee;
(3) Animal hospital;
(4) Auctioneer;
(5) Auto gasoline filling station;
(6) Auto sales room or repair;
(7) Bank;
(8) Boat sales or repair;
(9) Camper sales;
(10) Clinic, dental or medical;
(11) Club or lodge, private;
(12) Dance studio, private instruction;
(13) Hearing aid store;
(14) Industrial bank;
(15) Koshering of poultry;
(16) Mail order house;
(17) Metal sharpening;
(18) Motorcycle store;
(19) Motor vehicle service station;
(20) Newspaper distribution station;
(21) Optician;
(22) Pet store;
(23) Plant husbandry;
(24) Police station;
(25) Post office;
(26) Repair, rental and servicing: the repair, rental and servicing of any article the sale, warehousing, fabrication or as- I sembly of which article is permitted in the B-4, B-A-4 and B-8 districts;
(27) Repair and servicing: the repair or servicing, or both, of any commodity the fabrication or processing of which is permitted in the 1-0 and 1-1 districts;
(28) Repair, rental and servicing: the repair, rental and servicing of any commodity, the fabrication or processing of which is permitted in the 1-2 district;
(29) Rooming and/or boarding house;


(30) Savings and loan associations;
(31) Sorority or fraternity house;
(32) Tire recapping;
(33) Veterinarian.
(i) Class nine:
(1) Furniture store, household;
(2) Furniture store, office;
(3) Furniture store;
(4) Home furnishings;
(5) Office.
(j) Class ten:
(1) Miniature golf or putting course.
(Code 1950, § 614.8; Ord. No. 246-81, § 1, 5-18-81)
CHART 1
OFF-STREET PARKING
LARGE CARS
a b c d e f1 V
rvft (tff it *tff
wMf% l* cwt [If'Un,**!! ?*< Iff oiini iw'k If twf% tvtflof ( C
n i'v 1 s 170 23 0 29 0
u f'O" f 0 17 0 23 0 30 0 -
30' IV" w ? 110 17 0 44 1 37 4
f'O'' 17.3 110 It 0 45 I 37 1
45' IV If.4 13 5 120 57 3 44 3
f'O" If 1 13 0 12 7 57 a 44 7
60" IV 20 7 II 5 i a If f 55 4
f'O" 71 0 11 0 10 4 40 0 55 5
90' I'*" If 0 73 0* 1 5 41 0
f'O" If 0 23 0* f 0 41 0
COMPACT CARS
a b C d e P
tttl fitfTI tn m It nr*% [IS '"1 ] mri f im f 1 (* fctn till Nlfll <<>4 bfiWffH fv* t fftrlef 1-4
O' 7.5 7.5 n.o i9.a' 26.0 26.0
30 7.5 14.0 11.0' 150 39.0 325'
45' 7.5 15.9 11.0 10.6 42.8 37 9
60' 7.5 16.7' 14.0 8.7' 47.5 40.4
90' 7.5 15.0' 18.o 7.5 48 0 48.0


APPENDIX B
TABLE NO. S-A
CROUPS OF OCCUPANCY
CHAPTER
GROUP DIVISION DESCRIPTION OF OCCUPANCY REFERENCE
A An assembly building with a stage and an occupant load of 1,000 or more 6
B 1 An assembly building with a stage and an occupant load of less than 1,000
2 An assembly building without a stage and an occupant load of 300 or more
3 An assembly building without a stage and an occupant load of less than 300. and which is not classified as a Group F occupancy 7
4 Stadiums, grandstands, bleachers, reviewing stands, and amusement park structures not included within Group A or Group B Division 1. 2. 3 occupancies.
C A building used for educational purposes by 20 or more persons at the twelfth grade level or below, such as nurseries, kindergartens, preschools, dance schools, day care centers, schools for manual arts, elementary schools.
junior high schools, etc. 8
2 A building used for educational purposes by fewer than 20 persons at the 12th grade level or below, such as nurseries, kindergartens, preschools, dance schools, day care centers, schools for manual arts, elementary schools, junior high schools, high schools, etc.
D I Buildings used for mental hospitals, mental sanitariums, jails, prisons, houses of correction, or buildings where personal liberties of the inmates are restrained.
2 Buildings used for hospitals, sanitariums, homes for the retarded, homes for the handicapped, nursing homes, orphanages, rehabilitation centers, and similar uses, and which accomodate 5 or more patients or residents. 9
E I Buildings storing or handling hazardous matenals*fNFPA classed flammable liquids; highly flammable solids; explosive materials; flammable compressed gases, or similar material, including hazardous chemicals as defined in the Fire Code. 10
2 Buildings storing or handling hazardous materials NFPA classed combustible fluids such as diesel fuel, fuel oil. printers ink. animal fat. combustible dry cleaning fluids or aimilar to any listed in this Section.
3 A building storing or handling materials for processing or manufacturing, where combustible residue is produced or generated
4 Repair facilities where gasoline, diesel fuel, gas and similar fueled equipment is housed. Automobile service stations.
5 Aircraft repair hangers and aircraft storage hangers.
F I Drinking and dining establishments, recreational buildings and other assembly buildings without fixed theater type sealing, and with an occupant load of less than 150 persons. 11
2 Stores for whole lale or retail sales. ofTice buildings, medical or dental ofTice buildings, and clinics, veterinary clinics and hospitals, police and fire stations, universities, colleges, and adult education facilities in which each classroom has an occupant load of less than 50 persons.
G 1 2 Manufacturing plants, factories, or workshops utilizing noncombustible, non-explosive or not highly combustible materials and ;iU rooms' incidental to their operation A building storing non-explosive materials, noncombusl ible or not highly combustible materials and salesrooms incidental to their operation. 12
3 Automobile parking garages
H 1 Hotels and motels.
2 Apartments, garden apartments, dormitories, convents monasteries, rooming and boarding houses, foster homes senior citizen homes. 13
3 Townhouses. cluster homes, row dwellings and connectec dwellings housing more than 2 families.
I One and 2 family dwelling units. 14
J Private garages, carports, covered patios, storage sheds agricultucal buildings, laundry buildings, and minor recreational buildings not exceeding 1000 square feel in area and an occupant load of 10. See Chapter 1. 15
2 Separate structures such as swimming pools, retaining walls, and fences.
NOTE: See Chapters 6 through 15 for specific requirements.


TABLE NO. A-B
REQUIRED SEPARATIONS IN BUILDINGS OF MIXED OCCUPANCY (IN HOURS)
GROUP
A B B B B C C D D E E E E E F F G G G H H H I J J
1 2 3 4 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2
A N N N N N N N 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 N
B 1 N N N N N N 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N
B-2 N N N N N 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N
B 3 N N N N 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 N 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N
B-4 N N N 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N
Cl N N 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 Vj 1 1 1 1 1 1 N
C-2 N 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N
D-l N N 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 N
D 2 N 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 N
Erl N 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 3 1 N
E2 N 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 1 N
E-3 N 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 1 N
E-4 N 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 N
E5 N 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 N
FI N 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N
F-2 N 1 1 1 i i 1 1 1 N
G 1 N N 1 i 1 1 1 1 N
G 2 N 1 1 1 1 1 1 N
G-3 N 2 2 2 2 1 N
HI N 1 1 1 1 N
H-2 N 1 1 1 N
H 3 N" 1 1 N
I N N
J 1____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________N N
J-2__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________N
Refer to Occupancy Chapters 6 through 15 for specific requiremenU.
N = No Separation required.
* Provided that materials as approved for one-hour fire-resistive construction on the garage side and tight-fitting solid wood door at least one and three-eighths (1-3/8) inches in thickness, shall be permitted.
See Chapter 13 for required separation between unita.


TABLE NO. 5-C
BASIC ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA (IN SQ. FT.) FOR BUILDINGS ONE STORY IN HEIGHT IN FIRE ZONES No. 1 AND No. 2. FOR BUILDINGS LOCATED IN FIRE ZONE No. 3, THE BASIC AREA MAY BE INCREASED 33 1/3 PERCENT.
Occupancy TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
I u III IV V
1-Hour or H.T. N 1-Hour-N 1-Hour N
A Unlimited 22,500 NP NP NP NP NP NP
B 1 Unlimited 22,500 10,200 NP 10,200 NP 7.800 NP
B 2 Unlimited 22,500 10.200 NP 10,200 NP 7,800 NP
B 3 Unlimited 22,500 10,200 6,900 10,200 6,900 7,800 1,500
B-4 Unlimited 22,500 10,200 6,900 10,200 6,900 7.800 4,500
C-l Unlimited 33,000 15,300 .10.200 15,300 10.200 11.700 1,200
C-2 Unlimited 15,000 15,300 3,000 6,000 3.000 4,800 600
D 1 Unlimited 12,000 NP NP NP NP NP NP
D 2 Unlimited 12,000 5,100 SR 5,100 SR 3.900 SR
E-l 20,000 9,000 4,200 2,700 4,200 2,700 3.300 1,200
E 2 35,000 9,000 4,200 2,700 4,200 2,700 3,300 1,200
E-3 Unlimited 18,000 8,400 5,700 8,400 5,700 6,600 3,800
E-4 Unlimited 18,000 8,400 5,700 8,400 5,700 6,600 3,800
E-5 Unlimited 33,000 25,000 15,000 25,000 15,000 6,600 3,800
FI Unlimited 18,000 13.500 9.000 13,500 9,000 10,500 6,000
F-2 Unlimited 30,000 13.500 9,000 13,500 9,000 10,500 6,000
G 1 Unlimited 45,000 13,500 9.000 13,500 9,000 10,500 6,000
G 2 Unlimited 45,000 20.400 13.500 20,400 13,500 15,900 9,000
G-3 Unlimited 45,000 13,500 9,000 13,500 9,000 10,500 6,000
H-l Unlimited 24,000 10.200 6.900 9,000 6,900 7,800 NP
H-2 Unlimited 24,000 10,200 6,900 10,200 6,900 7,800 NP
H-3 Unlimited
I Unlimited
J-l See Chapter 15
J-2 See Chapter 15
SR = Special requirements Refer to Occupancy Chapter for special provisions.
NP = Not Permitted
N=Non Fire-resistive construction
NOTE: See Section 505 and 506 for additional information on allowable floor area and floor area increases. For open parking structures, see Chapter 12.


TABLE NO. 5-D
MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF BUILDINGS
. TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
Occupancy 1 n III TV V
1-Hour or H.T. N 1-Hour N 1-Hour N
MAXIMUM HEIGHT IN FEET
Unlimited 75 65 55 65 55 50 40
MAXIMUM HEIGHT IN STORIES
A Unlimited NP NP NP NP NP NP NP
B-l Unlimited 4 2 NP 2 NP 2 NP
B 2 Unlimited 4 2 NP 2 NP 2 NP
B 3 Unlimited 4 2 1 2 1 2 1
B4 Unlimited 4 2 1 2 1 2 1
Cl Unlimited 4 2 1 2 1 2 1
C-2 Unlimited 4 2 1 2 1 2 1
D 1 Unlimited 2 NP NP NP NP NP NP
D-2 Unlimited 3 1 1 1 NP 1 1
El Unlimited 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
E-2 Unlimited 5 2 1 2 1 1 1
E-3 Unlimited 5 2 1 2 1 2 1
E-4 Unlimited 5 2 1 2 1 2 1
E-5 Unlimited 5 2 1 2 1 2 1
F-l Unlimited 6 4 1 4 1 3 1
F-2 Unlimited 6 4 1 4 1 3 1
G-l Unlimited 6 4 1 4 1 2 1
G-2 Unlimited 6 4 1 4 1 2 1
G-3 Unlimited 6* 5" 1 4 r 3" 1
HI Unlimited 6 4 1 4 i 3 NP
H-2 Unlimited 6 5 1 4 l 3 NP
H-3 Unlimited 3 3 1 3 l 3 NP
I Unlimited 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
J-l Unlimited 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
J-2 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
NP = Not Permitted **
NA = Not Applicable N = Non Fire-resistive Construction NOTES:
Refer to Chapters 6 through 22 for other requirement*
For other restrictions regarding the height of buildings, see Articles 640, 645, and 646 of the Revised Municipal Code.
For maximum height limitations of open parking structures, see Chapter 12.
Parking structures may be permitted on the first story in this type of construction when built of noncom bustible materials. See Chapter 12.


CHAPTER 11
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUP F OCCUPANCIES
SECTION 1101. GROUP F OCCUPANCIES DEFINED.
Division 1: Drinking and dining establishments, recreational buildings, and other assembly buildings without fixed theatre type seating, and with an occupant load of less than 150 persons.
Division 2: Stores for wholesale or retail sales, office buildings, medical of dental office buildings and clinics, veterinary clinics and hospitals, police and fire stations, universities, colleges, and adult education facilities in which each classroom has an occupant load of less than 50 persons.
SECTION 1102. CONSTRUCTION, HEIGHT, ALLOWABLE AREA.
fa) General. Buildings or portions of buildings classified in Group F occupancy because of the use or character of the occupancy shall conform to the types of construction, area and height requirements specified in Chapter 5.
fa) Special Provisions. See Chapters 17, 25 and 32 for attic partitions and draft stops.
fa) Occupancy Loads and Separations. See Chapter 33 for occupant loads. See Chapter 5 for occupancy separation requirements.
SECTION 1103. LOCATIONS.
(a) In City. See Chapter 16 for restrictions based upon location in Fire Zones.
(b) On Property. Buildings shall adjoin a yard, public space, or street on at least one side. See Zoning Regulations for property setbacks.
(c) Exterior Wall and Opening Protection. See Chapters 5 and 17 through 22 for fire-resistive protection of exterior walls and openings, as determined by location on the property. See Chapter 5 for regulating and adjacent buildings on the same property.
SECTION 1104. EXIT FACILITIES. See Chapter 33.
SECTION 1105. LIGHT, VENTILATION, TOILET ROOM
FACILITIES.
(a) Light. All portions of the building used by human occupants shall be provided with either natural or artificial light.
(b) Ventilation. See Chapter 52.
(c) Toilet Room Facilities. See Chapter 5.
SECTION 1106. ENCLOSURE OF VERTICAL OPENINGS.
(a) Exits. See Chapter 33.
(b) Shafts. See Chapter 17.
SECTION 1107. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS. See Chapter 38.
SECTION 1108. SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS.
(a) Chimneys and Heating Apparatus. See Chapters 37, 51, 52 and 58.
(b) Heating or Equipment Rooms. See Chapters 17 and 33.


SECTION 1109. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR DRY CLEANING PLANTS USING NONFLAMMABLE LIQUIDS.
(a) General. This Section shall apply to dry cleaning plants using nonflammable, toxic liquids.
(b) Construction and Occupancy. These plants shall be constructed without basement, cellar, or floor below grade. Dwelling occupancy shall not be permitted in conjunction with this occupancy.
(c) Floor Construction. The entire floor area shall be of non-absorbent, noncombustible construction.
(d) Servicing Area, the dry cleaning equipment shall be constructed to permit servicing from the rear of the equipment. An area shall be provided at the rear of the equipment to permit access and servicing. See Chapter 52 for ventilaltion of this area.
(e) Heating Equipment and Access. Heating equipment and water heaters shall be enclosed in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 17. Entry to the heating equipment or water heater room shall be provided only from the exterior of the building. Combustion air shall be provided from the outside and in accordance with Chapter 51. The use of duct, wall, or unit heaters is prohibited.
CHAPTER 12
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUP G OCCUPANCIES
SECTION 1201. GROUP G OCCUPANCIES DEFINED.
Division 1: Manufacturing plants, factories, or workshops utilizing noncombustible, non-explosive or not high combustible materials. Division 2: A building storing non-explosive materials, noncombustible or not highly combustible materials and salesrooms incidental to their operation.
Division 3: Automobile parking garages.
SECTION 1202. CONSTRUCTION, HEIGHT, ALLOWABLE AREA.
(a) General. Buildings or portions of buildings classified in Group G occupancy because of the use or character of the occupancy shall conform to the types of construction, area, and height requirements specified in Chaper 5.
(b) Special Provisions. Storage areas in excess of 1000 square feet in connection with offices incidental to these operations, shall be separated from the public areas by a one-hour ffrV^resistive occupancy separation as defined in Chapter 5. See Chapters 17, 25 and 32 for attic space partitions and draft stops.
(c) Occupancy Loads and Separations. See Chapter 33 for occupant loads. See Chapter 5 for occupancy separation requirements.
SECTION 1203. LOCATION.
(a) In City. See Chapter 16 for restrictions based upon location in Fire Zones.
(b) On Property. Buildings shall adjoin a yard, public space or street on at least one side. See Zoning Regulations for property setbacks.
(c) Exterior Wall and Opening Protection. See Chapters 5 and 17 through 22 for fire-resistive protection of exterior walls and openings, as determined by location on property. See Chapter 5 for regulating adjacent buildings on the same property.


SECTION 1204. EXIT FACILITIES. See Chapter 33.
SECTION 1205. LIGHT, VENTILATION, TOILET ROOM
FACILITIES.
(a) Light. All portions of the building used by human occupants shall be
provided with natural or artificial light.
(b) Ventilation. See Chapter 52.
(c) Toilet Room Facilities. See Chapter 5.
SECTION 1206. ENCLOSURE OF VERTICAL OPENINGS.
(a) Exits. See Chapter 33.
(b) Shafts. See Chapter 17.
SECTION 1207. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS. See Chapter 38.
SECTION 1208. SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS.
(a) Chimneys and Heating Apparatus. See Chapters 37, 51, 52 and 58.
(b) Heating or Equipment Rooms. See Chapter 17.
SECTION 1209. AUTOMOBILE PARKING GARAGES.
(a) General. Structures housing Group G, Division 3 Occupancies shall conform to the following:
1. Automobile parking garages of more than one tier in height shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. Automobile parking garages one tier in height shall provide a floor surface constructed of noncombustible materials.
2. Automobile parking garages may be open or enclosed construction.
3. Curbs for traffic control shall be provided.
4. For purposes of this Chapter, a tier, level, or parking surface are synonymous.
5. Roof-top parking shall be permitted.
6. Hand-type fire extinguishers shall be as required by the Fire Department, and shall be located as directed.
7. Mechanical ventilation shall not be required for an automobile parking garage when 2 or more sides are at least 50 percent open.
8. Vehicle exit ramps may be utilized for pedestrian exit requirements, provided the pedestrian walkway space is clearly defined by a curb or raised walk; that the number of automobiles parked per tier is one hundred or less; and the number of tiers is three or less. See Chapter 33.
9. Where ramps are used for the transfer of automobiles from one floor to another, these ramps shall be within 2 feet of the ground floor level at a point at least 20 feet from the exit from the building. See Chapter 17.
(b) Open Parking Garages.
1. Definition. For the purpose of this Section, an open parking garage is a structure of Type I, II, or IV Construction more than one tier in height which is at least 50 percent open on 2 or more sides and is used exclusively for the parking or storage of passenger motor vehicles.
2. Construction. Construction shall be of noncombustible materials. Open parking garages shall meet the design requirements of Chapter 23. Curbs and guardrials shall be provided at each opening.
3. Area and Height. Area and height of open parking garages in Fire Zones No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 shall conform to Table 12-A, except for increases permitted by Subsection 1209(b)4.


CHAPTER 13
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUP H OCCUPANCIES
SECTION 1301. GROUP H OCCUPANCIES DEFINED.
Division 1: Hotels and motels.
Division 2: Apartments, garden apartments, dormitories, convents, monasteries, rooming and boarding houses, foster homes, senior citizen homes.
Division 3: Townhouses, cluster homes, row dwellings, and connected dwellings housing more than 2 families.
SECTION 1302. CONSTRUCTION, HEIGHT, ALLOWABLE AREA.
(a) General. Buildings or portions of buildings classified in Group H Occupancy because of the use or character of the occupancy shall comform to the types of construction, area and height requirements specified in Chapter 5.
(b) Special Requirements.
1. Group H-l and H-2 Occupancies more than one story in height shall be at least one-hour fire-resistive construction.
2. Group H-3 Occupancies shall meet the following conditions:
A. Shall consist of 3 or more attached dwelling units, not more than 3 stories in height, with each unit having independent access to the exterior of the building in the ground story.
B. Shall be provided with separate sewerage, water supply, heating, electric and plumbing systems together with all other housing utilities and equipment.
C. Each dwelling unit shall be separated by a 2-hour fire-resistive wall extending from the foundation to the highest point of the building, to the underside of the roof sheathing or decking, and to the exterior walls. Voids or openings shall not be permitted. Common utilities including plumbing, electrical, heating, air conditioning, telephone and etc., shall not be permitted in the 2-hour fire-resistive separation wall.
D. Electrical, heating, plumbing and construction installations shall conform to all the requirements of Group I Occupancies.
E. For purposes of this Section, if living quarters are located in a basement, the basement shall be considered a story.
F. The second story or basement of any Group H-3 Occupancy shall not be utilized to house another family.
G. Where a conflict exists between this Section and other Sections of this Building Code, this Section shall apply.
(c) Occupancy Loads and Separations. See Chapter 33 for occupant loads. See Chapter 5 for occupancy separation requirements.
SECTION 1303. LOCATION.
(a) In City. See Chapter 16 for restrictions based on location in Fire Zones.
(b) On Property. Buildings shall adjoin a yard, public space, or street on at least one side. See Zoning Regulations for property setbacks.
(c) Exterior Wall and Opening Protection. See Chapters 5 and 17 through 22 for fire-resistive protection of exterior walls and openings, as determined by location on property. See Chapter 5 forYegulating adjacent buildings on the same property.
SECTION 1304. EXIT FACILITIES. See Chapter 33.


SECTION 1305. LIGHT, CEILING HEIGHTS, VENTILATION,
TOILET ROOM FACILITIES.
(a) Light. All portions of the building used by human occupants shall be provided with either natural or artificial light. Required windows shall open on a court, yard, or street, either directly or through a porch at least 7 feet high and not more than 7 feet deep, with at least 2 sides 50 percent open. The width of courts or yards shall be at least 3 feet when not more than 2 stories high, and shall be increased in width at the rate of 6 inches for each additional story. The court shall have a width at least 50 percent greater than otherwise required when the court is entirely surrounded by the building.
Go) Ceiling Heights. Every habitable room shall have a minimum ceiling height of 7 feet over at least 50 percent of its area, and no portion of the remaining ceiling shall be less than 5 feet in height.
(c) Ventilation. See Chapter 52.
(d) Toilet Room Facilities. See Chapter 5.
SECTION 1306. ENCLOSURE OF VERTICAL OPENINGS.
(a) Exits. See Chapter 33.
(b) Shafts. See Chapter 17.
SECTION 1307. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS. See Chapter 38.
SECTION 1308. SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS.
(a) Chimneys and Heating Apparatus. See Chapters 37, 51, 52 and 58.
(b) Heating or Equipment Rooms. See Chapter 17.


CITY and COUNTY of DENVER Fire Zones 1 and 2
NOTE: Balance of map not indicated herein shall indicate that all areas outside Fire Zones No. 1 and No. 2 shall be Fire Zone No. 3.


TABLE NO. 17-A
TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION AND FIRE-RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS
(For details, see Chapters under Occupancy and Types of Construction)
Materials I 11 III IV V
of Noncom- Noncom- Combustible Noncombustible Combustible
Construction bustible bustible l-Hr. or HT N l-Hr. N l-Hr. N
EXTERIOR 4 4 4 4
BEARING AND Sec. Sec. Sec. Sec. Table Table Table Table
NONBEARING 1803(a) 1903(a) 2003(a) 2003 17-B 17-B 17-B 17-B
WALLS (a) Sec. 2103(a) Sec. 2103(a) Sec. 2203(a) Sec. 2203(a)
INTERIOR BEARING WALLS 3 1 2 1 N 1 N 1 N
STRUCTURAL FRAME 3 2 1 or H.T. N 1 N 1 N
PERMANENT PARTITIONS
1 1 1 or H.T. N 1 N 1 N
VERTICAL OPENING 2 7 2 1 or H.T. 1 1 1 1 1
ENCLOSURES Sec. 1706 Sec. 1706
FLOORS 2 1 1 or H.T. N 1 N 1 N
ROOFS 2 / Sec. 1866 1 Sec. 1906 1 or H.T. N 1 Sec. 2107 N 1 N
EXTERIOR
OPENINGS See Section 1707 and Table 17-C
N No general requirements for fire resistance. H.T. Heavy Timber


CHAPTER 18
TYPE I BUILDINGS
SECTION 1801. GENERAL. The structural elements in Type I buildings shall be of steel, concrete or masonry. Walls and partitions shall be noncombustible fire-resistive construction except that interior non-bearing partitions of one hour or 2 hour fire-resistive construction, which are not part of a vertical enclosure, may have fire retardant treated wood within the rated assembly. Materials of construction and fire-resistive requirements shall be as specified in Chapter 17.
SECTION 1802. STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK. Structural framework shall be of structural steel as specified in Chapter 27, reinforced concrete as in Chapter 26 or masonry as in Chapter 24.
SECTION 1803. EXTERIOR WALLS AND OPENINGS.
(a) Exterior Walls. Exterior walls and all structural members therein shall comply with the requirements specified in Table 17A. EXCEPTIONS:
1. Nonbearing walls fronting on streets or yards having a width of at least 40 feet may be of unprotected noncombustible construction.
2. In Groups F, G and H Occupancies, exterior bearing walls may be of 2 hour fire-resistive noncombustible construction where openings are permitted.
3. In other than Group E Occupancies, exterior nonbearing walls may be of one hour fire resistive noncombustible construction where unprotected openings are permitted and 2 hour fire-resistive noncombustible construction where fire protection of openings is required.
(b) Openings in Walls. All openings in exterior walls shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 17 and Table 17C.
SECTION 1804. FLOORS.
(a) Floor Construction. Floor assemblies shall be of noncombustible fire-resistive construction as specified in Table 17A except that wood flooring may be applied over a concrete floor slab. See Chapter 17.
(b) Mezzanine Floors. Mezzanine floors shall be constructed of one hour fire-resistive noncombustible materials. See Chapter 17 for mezzanine limitations.
SECTION 1805. STAIRS. Stairs and landings shall be constructed of reinforced concrete or structural steel. Stairs shall be designed as specified in Chapter 33.
SECTION 1806. ROOFS. In Groups A, B and C Occupancies with fixed seating, except exhibition halls as defined herein, and where every part of the roof structure is at least 25 feet above any floor, the roof construction may be of unprotected noncombustibe materials. In exhibition halls, and in all occupancies other than Groups A, B, and C where every part of the roof structure is at least 25 feet above any floor construction may be of noncombustible materials protected by one of the following:
1. A water spray fixed sprinkler systsem designed to provide the equivalent of one hour fire-resistive protection to the roof structure.
2. A water deluge or foam-water deluge sprinkler system designed to control fire at floor level.


3. One hour fire-resistive protection of all structural members and the roof deck.
4. A continuous ceiling equivalent to that required for one hour fire-resistive construction.
5. An approved fire sprinkler system installed throughout the building.
For the purpose of this Section, exhibition hall shall be defined as any assembly building having facilities for trade shows, merchandise displays, conventions, carnivals, etc., when the combustible load exceeds 10 pounds or 9000 Btu per square foot of floor area in the display areas.
CHAPTER 33
STAIRS, EXITS AND OCCUPANT LOADS
SECTION 3301. GENERAL.
(a) Purpose. In addition to the other requirements of this Building Code, this Chapter shall govern and determine the occupant loads and exit facilities of buildings, structures, or any portion thereof.
(b) Scope. Every building, structure, or portion thereof shall be provided with exits as required by this Chapter. Where there is a conflict between a general requirement and a specific requirement for an individual occupancy, the specific requirement shall govern.
(c) Definitions. For purposes of this Chapter, certain terms are defined as follows:
1. Balcony, Exterior Exit. A landing or pocrh projecting from the wall of a building and serving as a required means of egress.
2. Corridor. A horizontal space dedicated to providing pedestrian communication within a building.
3. Corridor, Dead End. A corridor which provides only one means of egress.
4. Corridor, Private. A corridor other than a public corridor.
5. Corridor, Public. A corridor open to general use, or used by more than one tenant.
6. Exit. A continuous and unobstructeed means of egress to a public way, including intervening doors, doorways, corridors, exterior exit balconies, ramps, stairways, horizontal exits, exit passageways, exit courts and yards.
7. Exit Court. A yard or court which provides egress to a public way.
8. Exit, Horizontal. A means of passage from one building into another building, or from one section of a building into another section of the same building through a separation wall. See Section 3307.
9. Exit Passageway. An enclosed means of egress connecting a required exit or exit court with a public way.
10. Exit, Vertical. A means of egress between two or more floors or levels, including exterior stairways, fire escapes, ramps, and interior stairways.
11. Floor Area. See Chapter 4r1
12. Occupant Load. The total number of persons permitted to occupy a building or portion thereof at any one time.
13. Panic Hardware. A bar which extends across at least one-half of the width of each door leaf, which will open the door when subjected to pressure.
14. Public Way. Any parcel of land unobstructed from the ground to


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the sky and at leat 10 feet in width, dedicated to the free passage of the public.
15. Stairway. See Chapter 4.
16. Stairway, Exit. One or more flights of stairs and the necessary landings, platforms, handrails, and guardrails connecting them to form a continuous and uninterupted passage from one floor to another.
17. Stairway, Private. A stairway serving one adjacent floor only, for one tenant only, and not serving as a required exit.
18. Stairway, Spiral. A stairway which provides a circular form in its plan view, with uniform sector shaped treads attached to an radiating about a supporting column. The effective tread shall be delineaed by the nosing radius line exterior arc (center line of railing), and the overlap radius line (nosing line of tread above). Effective tread dimension shall be taken along a line perpendicular to the center line of the tread.
19. Stairway, Winder. A tread of a stair which, because of the arrangement of the stair, does not have a uniform horizontal dimension measured from riser to riser at each tread.
(d) Determination of Occupant Load. The occupant load permitted in any building or portion therof shall be determined by dividing the floor area assigned to that use by the square foot per occupant set forth in Table No. 33-A. When the number of square feet per occupant is not given for a particular occupancy, it shall be determined by the occupancy which it most nearly resembles. In determining the occupant load, all portions of the building shall be presumed to be occupied at the same time, except as permitted by the Department.
EXCEPTIONS:
1. The occupant load of an area which provides fixed seats shall be determined by the number of fixed seats installed. Aisles serving fixed seats, and not used for other purposes, shall not be considered as adding to the occupant load.
2. Accessory use areas which ordinarily are used primarily by persons that occupy the main areas of an occupancy shall be provided with exits as though they were completely occupied, but their occupant load need not be included in computing the total number of occupants for the story or building.
(e) Posting of Occupant Load. Rooms in Group A or B Occupancy and dining or drinking establishment in a Group F occupancy which provide an occupant load of more than 50 shall have the capacity of the room posted in a conspicuous place. The wording of the sign shall be as determined by the Department.
(f) Overcrowding. The number of occupants of any building or portion thereof shall not exceed the permitted posted capacity.
(g) Benches, Pews, and Booths. When benches or pews are used, the
number of seats shall be based on one person for each 18 inches of length of the benches or pews. When booths are used in drinking or dining areas, the number of seats shall be based on one person for each 24 inches or major portion thereof, of the length of the booths.
(h) Mixed Occupancies. The maximum occupant load of a building containing mixed occupancies shall be determined by adding the number of occupants of each occupancy as specified in Table 33-A.
(i) Mixed Occupancy Exit Requirements. For determining exit requirements for a building or portion thereof which is used for more than one occupancy, the capacity shall be determined by the occupant load for the largest number of persons.
(j) Exit Obstruction. Obstructions shall not be placed in the required width of an exit, except those projections permitted by this Chapter.


(k) Heating Equipment and Incinerator Rooms. Boiler or furnace rooms containing an incinerator, liquified petroleum gas, or liquid fuel-fired equipment, shall be provided with at least two means of egress. All interior openings shall be protected as set forth in Table 33-B. See Chapter 49 for Machinery Room Exits.
0) Changes in Elevation. Changes in elevation of less than 12 inches along an exit shall be made by means of a ramp.
EXCEPTION: Group I and J Occupancies and along aisles adjoining seating areas.
(m) Exit Ramp Requirements. Every building housing Group A, B-l, B-2, B-3, B-4, C-l, C-2, D-2, D-l, D-2, F-l, F-2, H-l, or H-2 occupancies shall provide one means of exit from the first floor for the handicapped confined to wheel chairs, unless otherwise approved by the Department.
SECTION 3302. EXITS REQUIRED.
(a) Determination of the Number of Exits Required. Building or floors, including basements, cellars, or occupied roofs shall have not less than two exits where required by Table No. 33-A. In all occupancies, floors above the first story having an occupant load of more than 10 shall have not less than two exits.
(b) Mezzanines. Each mezzanine used for other than storage purposes, if greater than 2,000 square feet in area or if more than 60 feet in any dimension, shall provide at least 2 stairways to the adjacent floor below.
(c) Special Requirements for All Occupancies. See Section 3315 through 3323, and Chapters 12 and 49.
(d) Stage Exits. See Chapter 39.
(e) Three Exits Required. Every story or portion thereof which provides for an occupant load of 500 to 999 shall have at least three exits.
(f) Four Exits Required. Every story or portion thereof which provides for and occupant load of 1,000 or more shall have at least four exits.
(g) Multiple Story Exit Determination. The number of exits required from any story of a building shall be determined by using the occupant load of that story plus the percentages of the occupant loads of floors which exit through the level under consideration as follows:
1. Fifty percent of the occupant load in the first adjacent story above and the first adjacent story below when the story below exits through the level under consideration.
2. Twenty-five percent of the occupant load in the story immediately above and below the first adjacent story.
(h) Final Exiting. The maximum number of exits required for any story shall be maintained until egress is provided from the building.
(i) Motion Picture Projection Room Exits. Every projection room shall be provided with at least one exit, or as otherwise required by Table 33-A. The door opening shall be at least 30 inches in width and at least 6 feet 6 inches in height. Entrances to a projection room shall be protected by a self-closing assembly having a 3/4-hour fire-resistive rating. The doors shall open outward and lead to exits as required by this Chapter.
(j) Width. The total width of exits in feet shall be at least the total occupant load served divided by 50. The width of exits shall be divided approximately equally among the separate exits. The total exit width required from any story shall be determined bq using the occupant load of that story, plus percentage of the occupant loads of floors which exit through the level under consideration as follows:
1. Fifty percent of the occupant load in the first adjacent story above, and the first adjacent story below when a story below exits


through the level under consideration.
2. Twenty-five percent of the occupant load in the story immediately above and below the first adjacent story.
3. The maximum exit width required from any story of a building shall be maintained until egress is provided from the building.
(k) Arrangement of Exits. When more than one exit is required from a portion of a building or story, at least 2 of the exits shall be remote from each other and arranged and constructed to minimize any possiblity that both may become blocked by any one fire or other emergency condition. Means of egress shall be arranged so that, from any room door, exits will be accessible in at least 2 different directions except as permitted in Section 3304. Minimum travel distance between exit doors shall be 25 feet for a building or story.
(l) Distance to Exits. The maximum travel distance in any occupied space to at least one exit, measured in accordance with the following requirements, shall not exceed the limits specified for individual occupancies. See Sections 3315 to 3324. Means of egress shall be so arranged that there are no dead end pockets, hallways, corridors, passageways, or courts whose depth exceeds the dead-end corridor regulations of this Chapter. Exit distance and length of dead-end corridors shall be measured from the most remote point on the floor or dead-end corridor along the shortest travel distance to the center of the exterior door, horizontal exit, or exit enclosure.
(m) Exit Through Adjoining or Accessory Areas. Exits from a room may open into an adjoining or intervening room or area, provided the adjoining room is accessory to the area served and provides a direct means of egress to an exit corridor, exit stairway, exterior exit, horizontal exit, exterior exit balcony, or exit passageway.
EXCEPTION: Exits shall not pass through kitchens, storerooms, rest rooms, closets, heating or mechanical rooms, or spaces used for similar purposes. In Group H-3 and I occupancies, exits may pass through kitchens.
Foyers, lobbies and reception rooms constructed as required for corridors shall not be construed as intervening rooms.
SECTION 3304. CORRIDORS AND EXIT BALCONIES.
(a) General. This Section shall apply to every public corridor serving as a required exit. For purposes of this Section, the term corridor shall also include exterior exit balconies and covered or enclosed exit passageways, including walkways, tunnels and malls.
1. Foyers, lobbies and reception rooms meeting the construction requirements of corridors as specified in this Section may be considered as corridors.
2. Partitions, rails, counters, and similar space dividers less than 6 feet in height above the floor shall not be construed to form cor-riodors.
(b) Width. Corridors shall be at least 44 inches in width. For special requirements for Groups C and D Occupancies, see Sections 3317 and 3318.
(c) Height. Corridors shallprovide a clear height of at least 7 feet, measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling.
(d) Projections. The required width of corridors shall be unobstructed. For purposes of this Chapter, a door, when fully opened, shall be perpendicular to the opening.
EXCEPTIONS:
1. Trim and handrails shall not reduce the required width by more than a total of 7 inches.


73
2. Exit doors may swing into the corridor a maximum of 1 foot when the corridor exceeds 6 feet in width. The required width of the corridor shall not be decreased by the projection into the corridor.
3. Doors may swing into a corridor from rooms that are infrequently used, and provided with a lock; such as janitors, telephone, and ellectrical closets.
(e) Access to Exits. When more than one exit is required, exits shall be arranged so that is is possible to go in either direction from any point in a corridor to a separate exit, except for dead-end corridors permitted by this Section.
(f) Dead-End. Corridors in all occupancy groups may have dead-ends not to exceed 20 feet in length. Dead-end corridors permitted by this Section shall comply with the following requirements:
1. All doors opening onto a dead-end corridor shall be protected by a labeled fire assembly which provides a fire-resistive rating of at least 45 minutes. These doors, except in Group H Occupancies shall also be provided with an approved self-closing device to maintain the door in closed position.
2. Branch corridors shall not be permitted from a dead-end corridor. EXCEPTION: Except in Groups C and D Occupancies, when the entire building is provided with automatic fire extinguishing system, the dead-end corridor may be extended to a total length of 50 feet.
(g) Construction. Walls of public corridors shall be of at least one-hour fire-resistive construction and the ceilings shall be at least that required for a one-hour fire-resistive floor or roof system. The long side of an exterior exit balcony shall be at least 50 percent open, with the open area distributed to prevent the accumulation of smoke or toxic gases. Exterior exit balconies shall be of noncombustible construction, except that in Type III and Type V building not exceeding two stories in height, the balconies may be of wood at least 2 inches in nominal thickness. EXCEPTIONS:
1. One-story buildings housing Group G Occupancies.
2. When the entire building is provided with an automatic fire extinguishing system throughout.
(h) Openings. When corridor walls are required to be one-hour fire-resistive construction, every interior door opening shall be protected as set forth in Table No. 33-B. Other interior openings, except ventilation louvers equipped with automatic fire dampers, shall be 1/4 inch fixed wire glass set in metal frames. The total area of all openings, other than doors, in any portion of an interior corridor shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the corridor wall of the room which it is separating from the corridor.
EXCEPTIONS:
1. Protection of openings at interior walls of exterior exit balconies.
2. When the building or floor is protected with an automatic fire extinguishing system throughout, openings in corridor walls need not provide a fire-resistive rating.
(i) Location of Property. Exterior exit balconies shall not be located in an area whre openings are required to be protected due to location on the property.
SECTION 3305. STAIRWAYS.
(a) General. Every stairway serving any building or portion thereof shall conform to the requirements of this Section.
EXCEPTION: In buildings less than 4 stories in height, stairs or ladders used only to attend equipment or access to an unoccupied roof are exempt form the requirements of this Section. Ladders shall extend a minimum of 2 feet above the floor, roof, parapet, or landing.


(b) Width. Stairways serving an occupant load of more than 50 shall be at least 44 inches in width. Stairways serving an occupant load of 50 or less shall be at least 36 inches in width. Private stairways serving an Occupant load of less than 10 shall be at least 30 inches in width. Trim and handrails shall not reduce the required width by more than 3 1/2 inches on each side. See Section 3317 for stiar width requirements in Group C occupanies.
(c) Rise and Run. The rise of every step in a stairway shall not exceed 7 1/2 inches, and the run shall be at least 10 inches. Except as provided under Sub-Sections (d) and (e), the maximum variations in the height of risers and the width of treads in any one flight shall be 1/4 inch. EXCEPTION: Private stairways serving an occupant load of less than 10 and stairways to unoccupied roofs may be constructed with an 8 inch maximum rise and 9 inch minimum run.
(d) Winding Stairways. Winders may be used in private stairways of Group H and I Occupancies if the required tread width is provided at a point 12 inches from the side of the stairway where the treads are narrower. In no case shall the width of run be less than 6 inches at any point. All risers in one flight between landings shall have identical dimensions with 1/4 inch tolerance.
(e) Circular Stairways. Circular stairways may be used as an exit, provided the minimum width or run is not less than 10 inches at a point 12 inches from the side of the stairway where the treads are narrower. All risers in any one flight between landings shall have identical dimensions within a 1/4 inch tolerance.
(f) Spiral Stairways. For purposes of this Chapter, spiral stairways shall be permitted only as private stairways, and shall be permitted in all occupancies.
1. The tread of spiral stairways shall provide an exterior arc cord of at least 10 inches, and a minimum effectiive tread dimension of 6 inches, measured 11 inches from the exterior arc cord of at least 10 inches, and a minimum effective tread dimension of 6 inches, measured 11 inches from the exterior arc. For limited access purposes, the tread shall provide an exterior arc cord of at least 8 1/2 inches, and a minimum effective tread of 5 inches, measured 9 inches from the exterior arc. The angle of stairway rise shall be between 30 and 50 degrees, measured at the exterior arc.
2. The stair shall be designed, constructed, and installed to carry a live load of 5 times the live load required.
3. the vertical clearance shall be a minimum of 6 feet 6 inches.
4. Spiral stairways may be installed as a required exit in Group I Oc-
cupancies. Access shall be to an area no greater than 400 square feet. -
(g) Landings. Every landing shall have a dimension measured in the direction of travel equal to the width of the stiarway. The dimension need not exceed 5 feet when the stair has a straight run. Landings, when provided, shall not be reduced in width by more than 3 1/2 inches by a door when fully opened. See Section 3303 (h).
1. The vertical distance between landings shall not exceed 12 feet, 6 inches.
2. On all floors above the first floor, a space at least 25 inches by 42 inches shall be provided for one wheel chair in each stairway enclosure as an area of refuge for handicapped persons confined to J wheelchairs where exits usable by the handicapped persons are I not provided. This refuge area shall be required only in building with elevators to upper floors.


(h) Basement and Cellar Stairways. When a basement or cellar stairway and a stairway to an upper story terminate in the same exit enclosure, a barrier shall be provided to prevent persons from continuing into the basement or cellar. See Section 3308 (e). Directional exit lights shall be provided as set forth in Section 3312 (b).
(i) Handrails. Stairways shall have handrails on each side. In addition, every stairway required to be more than 88 inches in wiidth shall be provided with at least one intermediate handril for each 88 inches of required width. Intermediate handrails shall be spaced approximately, equal within the entire width of the stairway.
1. Handrails shall be placed not less than 30 inches, or more than 34 inches above the nosing of the treads. Handrails shall be continuous the full length of the stairs and except for private stair-
*ways, at least one handrail shall extend at least 6 inches beyond the top and bottom risers, with the ends returned or terminating in posts or safety terminals.
2. Handrails projecting from a wall shall provide a space of at least 1 1/2 inches between the wall and the handrail.
EXCEPTIONS:
1. Stairways 44 inches or less in widht and stairways serving one individual dwelling unit in Group H or I Occupancies may have one handrail except that stairways open on one or both sides shall have handrails provided on the open side or sides.
2. Stairways serving on individual dwelling unit in Group H or I Occupancies having less than four risers need not have handrails.
(j) Guardrails. See Chapter 17.
(k) Exterior Stairway Protection. Openings in the exterior wall below or within 10 feet, measured horizontally, of an exterior stairway serving a building in excess of two stories in height, shall be protected by a selfclosing fire assembly having a three-quarter hour fire-resistive rating. EXCEPTION: Openings may be unprotected when two separated ex-trior stairways serve an exterior exit balcony.
(l) Interior Stiarways. Interior stairways shall be constructed as specified in Chapters 17 through 22 of this Building Code. In occupancies other than I, J and individual units of Group H Occupancies, when stair or ramps are not required to be enclosed and usable space is provided under these stairs or ramps, an automatic fire extinguishing system shall be installed as required by Chapter 38. The space shall be enclosed as required for one-hour fire-resistive construction.
(m) Exterior Stairways. Exterior stairways "shall be constructed of noncombustible material, except that on Type III buildings not exceeding two stories in height, and on Type V buildings, stairs may be constructed of wood at least 2 inches in thickness. Exterior stairways shall not project into yards where protection of openings is required. See Section 3304 (i) for Exit Balcony requirements. When enclosed usable space is provided under stairs, the walls and soffits of the enclosed space shall be protected on the enclosed side as required for one-hour fire-resistive construction.
(n) Stairway to Roof. In every building four or more stories in height, one stairway shall extend to the roof surface, unless the roof has a slope greater than 4 in 12. Openings onto the roof shall have hinged doors.
(o) Escalators. Escalators shall not be considered as a required exit.


76
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