Citation
Aurora Central Library

Material Information

Title:
Aurora Central Library
Creator:
Perkins, Bob
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
66 unnumbered leaves, 8 plates : charts, maps, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Libraries -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Aurora ( lcsh )
Genre:
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master's degree in Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Bob Perkins.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
08751125 ( OCLC )
ocm08751125
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1982 .P47 ( lcc )

Full Text
THESIS PROPOSAL
ROBERT S. PERKINS SEPTEMBER 9,1981
Project Aurora Central Library, Aurora, Co, Client - City of Aurora,
Site - E. Alameda & Alameda Ave.
(proximity of new Aurora Civic Center)
Program Comprehensive library services for a rapidly
growing suburban/reglonal center. Gross square footage approximately 5^,000 square feet.
Architect Brooks Waldman Associates, Denver, Co.
Status - Waldman design under constructionoccupancy
anticipated Spring 1982.
CONTACT ORGANIZATIONS
Aurora Planning Office
Aurora Library (library Director: David Price)
Brooks Waldman Associates (Rick Holllngton)
Skidmore Owlngs and Merrill (involvement with master plan for Aurora Civic Center, Aurora City Hall)
PROSPECTIVE ADVISORS/JURORS Brooks Waldman Rick Holllngton David Price Don Woolard Gene Benda Davis Holder
Gary Long


THESIS PROPOSAL
ROBERT S. PERKINS SEPTEMBER 9, 1981
APPROACHES TO PROJECT/GENERAL NOTES
I will briefly describe my reasons for selecting this project and my anticipated areas of concentration in fulfillment of the Thesis requirement. Firstly, I am very interested in the library as a building type. I believe libraries have given us a rich heritage of architectural design. To many American cities, the library has also functioned as part of the civic core of the city, often across the town square from the city hall. In this project, therefore, the design must acknowledge a role in the public landscape, in fact a new type of town square, as well as the primary functional requirements associated with a library.
I am Interested in this project specifically because it is one immediately recognizable to an architects office (Brooks Waldman), and I hope to gain valuable Insights into their perspectives of the design process. Finally, I believe projects of this type working with smaller municipalities will be on the Increase during my professional career, and I therefore will be able to understand better the requirements involved.
To qualify the following statements upon my approaches to the design problem, I must note that this project was submitted last Spring as Thesis by Greg Hepp. I believe I will avoid any substantial duplication of Gregs work by concentration upon


APPROACHES TO PROJECT(p. 2)
certain issues within my particular fields of expertise.
I will therefore concentrate upon these issues in the discussion of my approach to the design solution. One theme of my effort will be energy conservation. I have considerable experience in computer-aided simulation of building energy performance, and I would like to put this knowledge to use in the design process.
I have discussed my interest in this area with Brooks Waldman, and he is very interested in working with me on this. Explorations in this area will be along two major lines. One will be innovative mechanical systems, such as thermal storage, night flushing, economlaser cycles, and evaporative cooling. The other will be in physical building configuration, especially as it relates to daylighting and reduction of cooling loads.
The former topic will probably involve numerical solutions of energy consumption, will the latter will involve construction and testing of a daylighting model.
Another element of my approach will be a strongly human factor oriented one. In this I will look at the activities in a library, postures, clearances, emotional responses.
Several aspects of this will relate to energy use, as in the sensations of visual comfort or thermal comfort. The responsibility in public buildings to a very literal and physical kind of humanism is tremendous.
A third key area will be the town planning Implications of the library. I intend to remain absolutely informed about the Civic Center plan and hope to be able to create public


APPROACHES TO PROJECT(p. 3)
spaces working with both existing and planned neighbor structures. The site is essentially without context at this time and so some knowledge to what the context will become is necessary to create any sense of place. Attached to this sheet area an Outline of Work and a Time Schedule which will provide more information about my proposal.


f AURORA CENTRAL LIBRARY program

JUNIOR SERVICES (CONT)
SPACE SIZE USER REQUIREMENTS ADJACENCIES
Staff Area 480 Childrens 1 Four (4) work stations Junior 1
Librarians (4) Desk, typewriter Junior 2
Filing cabinets Junior 3
Shelving Prep area
Visual surveillance Theater
Prep area 200 Staff Wet area Theater
Work table for preparation of displays Staff
Storage for props, supplies
Theater 500 Children (50) 50 folding seats Prep area
Staff Projection area Junior 1
Noise control Junior 2
Illumination control Junior 3
Clear visual field
Classroom 500 Children(25) Divisible into at least two spaces Junior 1
Staff Noise control Junior 2
Blackboard Junior 3
Bulletin board/display area Staff
Children's desks
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The bulk of the library's printed material is housed in this section, approximately 200,000 volumes in an. area of almost 15,000 square feet. Three major areas of activity are collection storage (stacks), reading/study areas, and support facilities. The collection includes newspapers and periodicals, fiction and non-fiction books, reference materials, and special items such as maps and microfilm. The reading areas are the prime location of user interface with these materials and demand a well-lit, quiet environment which will encourage use.
Support facilities are typing rooms, seminar rooms, reference desk, and switchboard. The reference and switchboard area must be thoughtfully combined to allow those handling reference requests over the phone to access the reference collection While minimizing disturbance to other users. This area of the library will be a major focus to most users and should be thoughtfully laid out to aid in location of library materials.
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AURORA CENTRAL LIBRARY program \
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ADULT SERVICES
SPACE SIZE USER REQUIREMENTS ADJACENCIES
Reading/Study 1900 SF Public, Staff Lounge furniture Three (3) copying machines Study tables and chairs Study carrels Noise control Glare control Adult coll. Ref. col 1. Ref. desk
Talking rooms 400 Public, staff Division into at least two seminar rooms Pin-up areas Meeting tables Noise control Lobby Adult coll.
Typing rooms 200 Public Eight (8) work stations Typewriter table, chair Noise control Lobby
Reference Collection 500 Public, staff 10,000 equivalent volumes Dictionary stands 0CLC (Titles catalog) terminals Ref. desk Adult col 1. Reading Switchboard
Reference Desk 200 Staff Three (3) work stations Desk, possible CRT Terminals Shelving for reserve books Provision for max. six (6) staff Ref. coll. Switchboard Adult coll. Staff Ofc. J
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ADULT SERVICES (CONT)
SPACE SIZE USER REQUIREMENTS ADJACENCIES
Adult 10,500 SF Public, staff Bookshelves for 200,000 equivalent vols. Ref. coll.
Collection Full height (90"), counter (42") Ref. desk
Magazine and newspaper racks Circulation
Map and map files Public
Microfilm and microfiche collection Toilets
Vertical plane illumination
High structural loading
Staff Offices 240 Reference staff Four (4) work stations Ref. desk
Desk, typewriter, shelving Switchboard
Visual isolation frem reference desk
Switchboard 180 Reference staff Three (3) work stations Ref. coll.
Desk, shelving Ref. desk
Telephone reference center
Public Lounge 520 Public Eight (8) tables Lobby
Vending machines Adult coll.
Easy-clean surfaces Public
Toilets
Public Toilets 200 Pub!ic Easy-clean surfaces Adult coll.
Ventilation Public
Three toilets, three lavatories each Lounge
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AURORA CENTRAL LIBRARY
program

CIRCULATION SERVICES
Circulation Services is the control point for entry to and from the library and also contains book return and checkout facilities. As the first and last space experienced by all library users, a welcoming atmosphere reinforcing a strong library image is important.
The circulation desk plays a central role in book checkout and contains considerable electronic equipment. Other spaces include a lobby/waiting area, book sorting area, and security checkpoint. The architectural design of this program area should direct the flow of users in an orderly way which may be supervised with a minimum of staff. An automated checkout system may be introduced in the near future.
The lobby should be placed to view the entry and circulation desk so people may arrange to meet others at these critical points. Approximate total space requirement is 950 square feet.
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CIRCULATION SERVICES
SPACE SIZE USER REQUIREMENTS ADJACENCIES
Lobby 300 Public, staff Waiting area Securi ty
Casual furniture, tables Circulation
Exhibit stands
Circulation 300 Circulation Public Address system Security
Desk Staff Three (3) CRT Terminals Lobby
Three (3) CLSI checkout terminals Book return
4 Floor or wall safe
Accomodate book carts
Counter-top
Book return 250 Staff Accomodate book carts Circulation
Conveyor to sorting area Sorting
Shelving Drive-up
Security 100 Public, staff Surveillance of entry/exit Circulation
Channel traffic flow to minimize staffing Lobby
Possible electronic dtection equipment
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LEARNING MEDIA SERVICES
Learning Media Services is responsible for maintenance, exhibit, and circulation of the non-print collection. The net area of this division, composed of staff service desk, collection display and Storage, and gallery, is 3100 square feet.
Much of the collection is art work in the form of painting, sculpture, films, etc., and therefore must be protected in closed stack areas.
Prime user interface with these materials takes place at multi-media correls and in screening rooms. The staff service desk should be in a central position to supervise use of the collection.
The gallery and display area should serve as a major draw for this department and be adjacent to the central library. A working atmosphere, which also displays the collection to maximum advantage, is a major theme.
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AURORA CENTRAL LIBRARY
program

LEARNING MEDIA
SPACE SIZE USER REQUIREMENTS ADJACENCIES
Service Desk 200 SF Learning media Librarians, Public Two (2) work stations Desk, typewriter Counter for material check-out. Equipment storage Lobby Carrels Media col 1. Screening
Carrels 500 Public 20 4x5 carrels Noise control Flexible electrical outlets Service desk Media coll.
Multi-media Col lection 1000 Public, staff 2,500 equivalent volumes Paihting,. sculpture, film storage Natural light control to prevent ultra-violet deterioration of art work Service desk Carrels
Screening Rooms 200 Public, staff Illumination control Wall surfaces to receive projections Noise control Service desk
Gallery 1000 Public Flexible lighting Exhibit cases 48" high, 24" deep Maximum display surfaces Natural light control Lobby Gallery prep
Gallery prep 200 Staff Storage for exhibit items Light control Wet area Work table Gallery


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COMMUNITY COMMUNICATION CENTER
The production and transmission of programs through electronic media is the function of the Community Communication Center. Central to this area is the video broadcast studio which will be connected with closed circuit and community cable TV in order to reach other branch libraries as well as private homes with informational programming. Provisions should be made to accommodate community speakers and assorted community productions and/or interviews which will take pi ace. here.
A
Supporting the broadcast studio are a control booth, repair area, storage area, and staff offices. Space requirement for this program area is approximately 2000 square feet.
Relationship to other areas of the Central Library is not critical, and in fact some isolation is desirable to prevent untimely interruptions. Prime consideration must be given to meeting heavy technical requirements.
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COMMUNICATION CENTER
SPACE SIZE USER REQUIREMENTS ADJACENCIES
AURORA CENTRAL LIBRARY
program
Studio
1000
Control room
200
Repair
Storage
Staff Offices
300
300
200
Staff,
Community
Staff
Staff
Staff
Staff
25x40 recommended dimension 12' minimum ceiling height Large doors to accomodate props Illumination control Acoustical insulation Special electrical circuiting
Video broadcast and recording equipment False floor for electrical raceways Video monitor Acoustical insulation Illumination control
Wet area
Work table
24" deep storage
Prop storage
Large doors to studio
Two (2) work stations Desk, typewriter She!ving
Control room Storage Staff Ofc.
Studio Staff Ofc.
Control room Staff Ofc.
Studio
Studio
Control room Repair
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AURORA CENTRAL LIBRARY
program
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AUDITORIUM/MEETING
The Audi torium/Meeting area will be a prime focus of community events and should be accessible to other library users while also capable of being used after library hours.
Major spaces are the auditorium, capable of holding at least 250 persons, and the meeting rooms with a capacity of approximately 100. Supporting these spaces are a control booth, kitchen, storage area, and lobby.
Maximum flexibility is essential in order to house such diverse activities as square dances, dinners, slide presentations and movies, among others. The auditorium should not have either a fixed stage or fixed seating to this end. The meeting area should be easily subdivided into at least four rooms. All types of governmental community groups will use this area, particularly until more municipal facilities are built in the area. The projected space requirement is 5500 square feet. The area should be designed to facilitate security and minimize maintenance.
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AURORA CENTRAL LIBRARY
program
AUDITORIUM/MEETING
SPACE SIZE USER REQUIREMENTS ADJACENCIES
Auditorium 3,000 SF Community, Staff 250 persons minimum Flexible seating Movable (non-permanent) stage Noise control Illumination control Clear visual field Exit requirements (See code search) Flat floor to accomodate multiple uses Lobby Control room Storage
Control room 80 Projection!' st Control board for auditorium lighting Sound insulation Ventilation of heat build-up Special electrical circuiting Auditorium
Lobby 200 Community Controllable entry separate from library Informal seating area Lounge chairs, coffee table, sofa Bulletin board/display area Auditorium Meeting Kitchen Toilets
Meeting rooms V 1800 Community Divisible into at least four spaces Stackable chairs Surface to receive audio-visual Blackboard Bulletin board/display areas Illumination control Noise control Accomdate 100 persons minimum Lobby Storage Auditorium J
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site analysis
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AURORA CENTRAL LIBRARY
VICINITY MAP
1 h
1 1 o scale in IOOO feet




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The proposed site for the Aurora Central Library is within the recently created City Center District of the City of Aurora. The ordinance creating this special district is contained within Sections 41-407 through 41-416 of the City Code of Aurora, and is reprinted in the appendix of this report. The boundaries of this district are 1-225, 6th Avenue, Buckley Road, and Mississippi Avenue (See Zoning Map).
This discussion will concentrate upon three aspects of zoning for the proposed site. First, major points of the City Center Ordinance will be outlined and related to the project in question. The final two sections, "Design Guidelines" and "Design Integration", describe recommended design elements and their relationship to the City Center concept. These sections are condensed from the Aurora City Center Handbook.
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AURORA CENTRAL LIBRARY
zoning
CITY CENTER ORDINANCE
The major purpose of the City Center District is to establish a strong central care for Aurora. As stated in Section 41-407, "The City Center District is created in recognition of the economic and cultural advantages of an intensive, planned, mixed use City Center of sufficient size to provide related areas for retail and service activities, offices, high density residential, recreational, schools and public facilities".
Toward the end of reinforcing this strong central focus, the District is further subdivided into three categories Core, Fringe, and Periphery. The Central Library site is in the Fringe zone, an area intended to contain some high density public and commercial facilities,' but not as intense a development as the Core.
A wide range of uses is encouraged, including "schools and cultural facilities" (Section
41-409), under which the proposed library falls. In fact, plans for Aurora's municipal facilities indicate development in the Fringe area adjacent to the library site.
The prime means to demonstrate compliance with the City Center Ordinance is through a site plan review, and it is in this review process that the design's relationship to the "Design Guidelines" is measured. According to Section 41-412, "As a basis for approval, all site plans shall be in conformance with the City Center Design Guidelines". This procedure is intended to allow flexibility of design; however, in Section 41-413, some fixed requirements are detailed. In the Fringe district, the floor area to site area ratio is established as a maximum of 2.0 and a minimum of 0.5. Ground coverage must be at least 25% and not more than 60%. There are no maximum or minimum building heights, and no proscribed setbacks. Parking requirements are detailed in Section 41-414 and^ Article XVIII of Chapter 41 of the City Code.
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For this particular site, because of its proximity to existing parking facilities of the Justice Center, a total of 75 spaces was established as a requirement. This number was arrived at through negotiation of owner, architect, and City planning and does not reflect any specific zoning as code requirements. For all other requirements, refer to the "Design Guidelines" section.
SUMMARY
Floor Area Ratio 0.5 minimum
2.0 maximum
building edge with periodic variations to create public places, major entrances or visual interest should be the objective throughout the City Center.
1. The objective is to establish strong building edge continuity in the relationship of of one structure to another and to the pedestrian or open space system. Although there may be "breaks" between individual structures, the desire to create an attractive and highly urban core will tend to minimize disruption in the physical continuity of the building edge.
2. The integration of the building edge with the pedestrian system should be a major factor in determining building location.
Setbacks
none (See Code Study)
Height Limitation Ground Coverage
Parking
none (See Code Study)
25% minimum 60% maximum
75 stalls
B. Site Coverage
Site coverage works together with the location of buildings in establishing a "downtown" character. High percentages of site coverage are encouraged
DESIGN GUID-ELINES A. Location of Buildings
The location of buildings is a critical element in the creation of a "downtown" character for the City Center. A continuing, consistent
especially in the Core and Fringe where minimums have been established by the City Center District Ordinance. It is anticipated that with high building site coverage, landscaping and open space budgets and design efforts can be concentrated in smaller but more lively and attractive areas.
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AURORA CENTRAL LIBRARY
zoning
1. The objective in the Fringe is to encourage as much site coverage as possible, yet establish a maximum (60%) and a minimum (25%) allowing less intense development than in the Core.
2. Mixed or multi-use, medium density, residential intensive development is encouraged.
3. Uses which generate high pedestrian activity such as shops, restaurants, and service establishments should be the primary occupants of ground floor (pedestrian level) frontage.
jects, anticipated largely in the Core area, mixed use developments will be further characterized by:
1) the inclusion of multiple revenue-producing uses (such as retail, office, residential, hotel/ motel and recreation) which in well planned projects are mutually supporting, and 2) evidence of significant functional and physical integration of project components and thus highly-intensive use of land, including uninterrupted pedestrian connections .
C. Building Uses
A major objective for the Aurora City Center is the establishment of mixed-use development. A general definition of such development has been provided in the City Center Zone District Ordinance as follows:
"A single building containing more than one type of land use, or a single development of more than one building where the different types of land uses are in close proximity, planned as a unified complementary whole, and functionally integrated to the use of vehicular and pedestrian access and parking areas."
In relatively large-scale real estate pro-
In the Periphery and Fringe as well as parts of the Core where this full-scale integration of uses may not be possible, multi-use development is encouraged Examples include apartment houses with shops or offices on the first several floors and office buildings or even parking structures with ground floor retail or service uses.
D. Floor Area Ratio
A "downtown" character is generally associated with intensive pedestrian activity. By encouraging a dense pattern of development more workers, resi-
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dents and visitors can be attracted to the City Center to enjoy the public activity areas.
1. In the Fringe, high densities are also encouraged yet a maximum and a minimum F.A.R.* has been established in the Zone District in order to ensure a differentiation in density from that core.
E. Height
Tall buildings contribute to a "downtown" image, and are allowed in the City Center Core by the absence of any height limit.
Yet, even in the core, building heights will be considered during site plan review in conjunction with other competing and important design objectives such as continuity of building edge, solar access, view preservation, street level activity, human scale, and so forth.
Although the City Center Zone Ordinance does not limit the height of buildings in the Core and Fringe, the Planning Department will especially scrutinize the plans
for taller buildings to make sure they do contribute to the City Center concept, meet applicable design guidelines and do not create negative impacts on adjoining parcels.
1. In the Fringe, development of midrise structures is encouraged in order to differentiate from higher structures in the Core and to maintain a continuous edge and human scale.
2. No minimum height has been set. This allows for some low rise structures, yet encourages variation in height and flexibility for phasing to higher structures .
F. Main Entrance
The "front doors" of buildings should be located to reinforce the desired pedestrian/transit orientation of the City Center.
1. Building lobbies (especially office lobbies and retail entrances) should have the major point of entry openings off the pedestrian/transit system.
2. Both building design and signage systems should be used to lead the user or potential shopper from surrounding arterial and collector roadways to drop-off or parking areas, and then to major building entry points.
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3. Major entrances should be accessible from the nearest major parking area without crossing service roads or service areas. Where this cannot
be achieved, pedestrian-activated traffic signals and special crosswalk paving should be provided.
4. Entrances should be highly visible and properly lighted for purposes of public information and security.
5. Entrances and building lobbies should be accessible to the handicapped.
G. Service Entrances
1. Service entrances, loading docks, waste disposal areas and other similar uses should be oriented toward the collector roadway system with easy access from arterials.
2. Service entrances should be screened by structures of landscaping. Any structures used for screening should be detached or of non-combustible material.
3. The location of such areas should be coordinated with similar portions of surrounding development to avoid unpleasant views and truck traffic through activity areas.
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H. Emergency Access
Each development or phase of development must provide a smooth, flowing network of accessways for fire suppression, police, ambulance and other emergency vehicles.
1. Each development plan must design emergency pathways in conformance with the latest City ordinances and policies, including any special emergency access standards for the City Center which are outlined in the Infrastructure Plan portion of the City Center Handbook.
2. Most emergency access requirements should be satisfied off the arterial and collector roadway system, although the potential for emergency use of pedestrian/transit pathways should also be considered.
3. All emergency access routes should be signed in accordance with City requirements and design recommendations for signage found in Section 2G of these Design Guidelines .
I. Materials
In the choice of materials, it is important that the "downtown" image be maintained, that spillover effects such as glare be avoided, and that special
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attention be paid to materials in pedestrian areas. To the extent possible, however, the choice of materials will be left to the discretion of the developer and his architect for a specific site.
1. A key objective is to encourage the use of high quality, low maintenance materials.
2. Selection of materials which relate to the context of the building, its surroundings, orientation and climate is encouraged.
3. The choice of materials should be appropriate to the ultimate development plan for a site as well as for any earlier phase of development.
4. Compatibility and continuity of materials is desired, particularly within single (or adjacent) developments, although this is not to imply a desire for a total character or theme for the City Center.
J. Rooftops
Rooftops are frequently under-utilized and, from many points of view, highly visible
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resource, In densely developed downtowns, the visual appearance and open space value of rooftops should be considered in project design.
1. Design attention should be given to the appearance of rooftops as viewed from adjoining buildings.
2. Mechanical equipment and other unattractive uses should be screened from view.
3. Consideration should be given for use of rooftops for recreation and open space purposes. (Tennis courts, jogging track, visitor outlooks, etc.)
. K. Parking Structures and Surface Parking In our auto-dominated society, every square foot of office and retail buildings generally requires provision of an equal area dedicated to parking of the private automobile. In the City Center, a prime objective will be to reduce the total area required for parking. However, since patterns of auto usage are likely to be slow to change, an even more important objective is to encourage the location and design of parking facilities so as to minimize visual intrusion and pedestrian/vehicle conflicts in the City Center. In addition, all parking facil-
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ities must be of barrier-free design for handicapped access.
1. A primary objective in the Core is to devote as little ground area to parking as possible.
2. One means of reducing the amount of land used for parking is to encourage as much structured parking (including structured parking below-grade) as economically feasible.
3. When the structure is at or above grade, views of the cars should be screened from the pedestrian/transit system and the roadway system.
4. Facade treatment of parking structures should be compatible and coordinated with other structures in adjacent de-velopment.
5. Portions of a parking structure fronting on the pedestrian/transit system should be devoted to pedestrian oriented uses such as small shops or service uses. Parking accessible to the pedestrian system is encouraged, but. actual frontage on the system should be severely limited.
6. On-grade parking will be allowed in an initial development phase as long as the opportunity for well designed, structured parking in a subsequent phase is not foreclosed.
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7. All on-grade parking (including temporary) requires intensive landscaping or other screening to 1) buffer the views of parking areas from the pedestrian/transit system and 2) provide visual relief from massive areas of paving within the parking area.
8. The area devoted to parking may be reduced by designing a portion of the facility to accommodate small cars. The Zoning Code allows a percentage of the total spaces to be set aside for small cars. (See the most recent code for percentage allowed.)
9. For mixed-use projects, the total number of spaces may be reduced where the feasibility of shared parking can be clearly demonstrated.
10. The ultimate plan for any one area should have structured parking, underground or rooftop, when 1) any use or building requires 200+ parking spaces or 2) any surface lot would contain more than 150 spaces.
DESIGN INTEGRATION
A. Conti nui ty
The Aurora City Center will be developed in gradual stages by a number of individual property owners.
To accommodate the need for planning and design flexibility, both the City Center Infrastructure Plan elements and these Design Guidelines must
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allow for potential future modifications and adjustments within the context of an overall City Center concept. Conversely, individual development proposals must be reviewed for continuity to assure that unacceptable deviations do not occur.
1. There are five elements of continuity which must be addressed in any development plan:
a. pedestrian/transit system
b. collector roadways
c. fire and other emergency access
d. water, sewer, utilities service
e. drainage system
2. The first three (a, b, c) must be present and contribute to a system which runs through each larger block bounded by arterial roadways. Both visual and functional continuity are essential to pedestrian/transitways, roadways, and emergency access. However, their precise location as illustrated in the City Center Infrastructure Plan can
be adjusted to the particular development plan.
3. The last two (d and e) are less flexible and with few exceptions must follow major water and sewer lines and
drainage ways established by the City Center Infrastructure Plan.
4. All five elements should be addressed in any initial development phase. Needed rights-of-way, pipe sizing and landscaped drainage areas must be appropriate to an ultimate plan for the area. Phasing of these elements on any one parcel should not be allowed to foreclose more immediate use of development potential on surrounding si tes.
B. Phasing
The City Center District ordinance recognizes that many individual development projects will be accomplished in more than one period of construction, allowing a gradual intensification of development until the completed state is achieved. Phasing of a specific development project will be subject to review by the City to assure that the ultimate development plan fits with the City Center Guidelines, can realistically be accomplished, and that all possible efforts will be made to move toward later phases of development according to an agreed schedule. The temporary use and interim development phase which might unduly inhibit attainment of the
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ultimate proposal will be discouraged.
1. Location of Buildings:
The first phase or phases of construction in conformance with an ultimate development plan should attempt to define the edge or intersection of primary and secondary pedestrian/ transitways. Later phases may incorporate early buildings by adding levels to an existing structure, building on adjacent land or creating a facing edge of the pedestrian/ transitway.
2. Height of Structures:
Early phases (if they are low rise structures) can be constructed to accommodate added stories or adjacent taller buildings in later phases in conformance with height limitations, solar orientation and view maintenance.
3. Parking Structures:
The interaction of building location, height and parking facilities is a key factor in project phasing. Early phases at lower overall densities or F.A.R. may utilize on-grade parking with provision for substituting structured parking as later phases add density to the development. Interim on-grade parking lots can thus serve as a "holding use" pending subsequent in-
tensification as a result of later development phases.
C. Massing
The massing of buildings will be a key factor in creating an image of the City Center and differentiating the Core, Fringe, and Periphery. Previous sections of these Guidelines have discussed individual buildings their height, locations, uses, entrances. Massing relates to the visual impact of groups of buildings. The arrangement of building volumes as seen from entrances to the City Center and along its roadways and pedestrian/ transitways. Massing, as defined here, may be a-chieved through the coordinated design of a developer of a large parcel of land in the City Center or through individual builders and small developers who follow these Guidelines and work closely with the City in the review of project design.
1. The massing of buildings should emphasize tight groupings of buildings focusing on the pedestrian pathway routes. Height is less important than building volume and location.
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D. Solar Orientation
Potential application for both passive and active solar energy use should be investigated in the City Center. In particular, the location and design of buildings should be assessed in terms of the creation of a balance system and in activity areas, at different times of day and at different times of year.
1. Areas of primary importance for maintenance of access to sunlight and the creation of shaded locations are a-long the pedestrian/transit pathways and activity areas. Opportunities
to take advantage of natural snow melt should also be considered.
2. Reasonable procedures for maintenance of sun rights for passive and active solar heating or cooling should be followed. These relate to:
a. orientation of buildings
b. concentration of higher structures on the northern portion
of major blocks between arterial roadways.
c. special attention to smaller scale design of entrances, small plazas, bus stops, window design, atriums, and recreation areas.
d. avoidance of potential impacts of shadow and/or reflected light.
E. Views
The spectacular distant views of the Rockies will be one of the principal visual assets of the City Center. However, the importance of near views of the overall visual quality of the City Center should not be underestimated.
1. Views of the more distant mountains, the undeveloped hinterlands, the airport, downtown Denver and the rest of Aurora should be maintained as much as possible to provide orientation to the surrounding area,
a sense of drama for users of the City Center area.
2. Consideration of views should be a part of all design efforts. Pedestrians, people in vehicles arriving at the site and users of the tower office and residential buildings should all be considered.
3. Views of City Center landmarks (a new City Hall, the Judicial complex, the transit center, landscaped areas, fountains, plazas, major entrances to development areas) should be maintained for orientation of pedestrians, transit riders, and drivers and for creation of a sense of character for the City Center area. Sen-
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sitivity to views can also be important in creating a sense of entry to the City Center area as a whole.
4. Viewing areas, restaurants, and other public uses of upper floors of buildings are encouraged.
5. Objectionable views should be screened by fences of "softened" by landscaping. See Sections 1G, 1J, 2B, and 2E of these Guidelines.
F. "Good Neighbor" Approach The City Center's high density development pattern will require attention to "spillover" problems from one development to another and from private areas to public areas. Some of these spillover problems are effects which should be avoided or minimized. Others represent opportunities for shared efforts to reach a solution.
1. Noise:
Effects of high noise levels should be mitigated through screening of mechanical equipment, service areas and other high noise generators and location of these uses in less sensitive areas away from pedestrian pathways and other outdoor activity
2. Air Quality:
High pollution sources such as parking lots, truck service areas and building exhaust systems should be located to avoid impact on pedestrian areas and on air intakes for adjoining buildings.
3. Glare and Reflectivity:
The choice of materials for structures, signing and lighting should consider and control the negative effects of glare, reflectivity and "night light" intrusion on surrounding structures and public areas. Also, see solar orientation in Section 3D above.
4. Views:
Please see Section 3E, above.
5. Pedestrian/Bicycle/Vehicle Conflicts:
Design efforts must relate to the Circulation Element of the City Center Infrastructure Plan to minimize the potential for hazards and encourage grade and location separations from heavily used roadways.
Where separation is not possible, user activitated traffic signals should be provided at designated crosswalks. Crosswalks at stop signs in some cases would provide adequate safety, especially in the Periphery. Grade separation is not critical in the Periphery.
6. Water, Sewer, and Other Services:
The design of the first high use structure in an area can require services (such as
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water lines sufficient for sprinkler systems) which will affect the rest of the area. The physical configuration of such shared services must follow appropriate elements of the City Center Infrastructure Plan.
7. Emergency Access:
This is another opportunity for shared solutions which may not only save the cost of duplicative services, but also avoid extensive paved areas around each structure. Plans for emergency access must be reviewed on an individual basis with the Fire Department.
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AURORA CENTRAL LIBRARY
code survey
INTRODUCTION
In the City Code of the City of Aurora, within whose jurisdiction the proposed site for the Aurora Central Library falls, building design and construction regulations are governed by the 1979 Uniform Building Code of the International Congress of Building Code Officials. The following section will outline the major code regulations applicable to the proposed construction. Major segments will cover occupancy requirements, allowable floor area, fire-resistive requirements and special requirements. In each case, reference will be made to the UBC sections from which the material was taken and how the section(s) in question will impact Library design.
OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS
From Section 501, "Every building, whether existing or hereafter erected, shall be classifed by the Building Official according to its use or the character of its occupancy." Occupancy classification appropriate to the Aurora Public Library is GROUP A, DIVISION 2.1. This classification is defined in Section 701 as "any building or or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of less than 300 without a stage".
Two parts of this definition are important.
First, the major assembly area, the auditorium, is only programmed for 250 persons. However, they are given an area of 12 sf. per person while
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OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS (CONT)
ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREAS
the UBC recognizes a density of 7 sf. per person in Table 33-A. When the occupant load is calculated from the UBC density, the resultant load is greater than 300, which therefore places the building in division 2.1. The second restriction is the provision that no permanent stage be in the assembly room.
LOCATION ON PROPERTY
Section 701 defines location on property requirements for Group A, Division 2.1 Occupancy with the following,
-Shall front directly upon or have access to a public street not less than 20' in width.
-Access to the public street shall be a minimum 20' right-of-way unobstructed and maintained only as access to the public street.
-The main entrance to the building shall be located on the public street or on the access way.
Table 5-A defines wall and opening protection of occupancies based on location on property,
-Two hour fire-resistance within 5' of the property line for exterior walls, one-hour fire resistance elsewhere.
-No openings in exterior walls within 5' of the property line, protected openings within 20'.
Sections 505-506 define allowable floor areas and area increases available. The enclosed "Allow-.. ~ able Area Table" condenses the information in these sections and in Table 5-C to find the total allowable building area based upon occupancy A2.1 for various types of construction. Stipulations of these sections applicable are,
-For buildings over one story, the total area allowed shall not exceed twice the area al-s lowed for one-story buildings.
-The area of a one-story building shall not exceed the limits set forth in table 5-C.
-The basic area may be increased by 33-1/3% for buildings in Fire zone 3.
-Where public space, streets, or yards more than 20' in width extend from all sides of the building, areas may be increased at a rate of 5% for each foot the minimum width exceeds 20'.
These increases shall not exceed 100%.
Section 506 also provides for area increases for automatic sprinkler systems, but their use is not being considered in this project.
ALLOWABLE BUILDING HEIGHT
Section 507 defines the maximum height and number of stories based upon the character of occupancy and type of construction. This values are condensed here in the enclosed "Allowable Height Table" which reflects values provided in Table 5-D of the UBC.
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C A AURORA CENTRAL LIBRARY code survey A

, ALLOWABLE AREA TABLE, ALLOWABLE HEIGHT TABLE
Type of Construction I II-F.R. II-l hr III-l hr IV V- 1 hr
Basic allowable area uniimited 22,500 10,100 10, 100 10,100 7,900
Increase for Fire Zone 3 II 30,000 13,467 13,467 13,467 10,533
Increase for separation II 60,000 26,933 26,933 26,933 21,066
Increase for multi-story II 120,000 53,866 53,866 53,866 42,132
Total allowable area II 120,000 53,866 53,866 53,866 42,132
Maximum height in stories uniimited 4 2 2 2 2
Maximum height in feet II 160 65 65 65 50



AURORA CENTRAL LIBRARY
ALLOWABLE BUILDING HEIGHT (CONT)
Section 507 also provides for height increases for the use of automatic sprinkler systems, see above.
SELECTION OF CONSTRUCTION TYPE
In the selection of construction type for this project, the architects, Brooks Waldman Assoc., chose Type 11-1 hr. construction. As shown by the above tables, this construction type has a sufficient allowable area to meet program requirements but is limited to a height of two stories. The building is actually three stories but by the provisions of section 505, if an area is considered a basement it is not counted as a story under the height limitation. In order to count as a basement, the space must be such that the floor is not more than 6' above grade for more than 50% of the perimeter nor at any point more than 12' above grade.
The major choice of construction therefore is influence by building height. The configuration described above is the maximum far Type 11-1 hr., while Type II-F.R. allows up to four stories with a basement. In the event that the design could warrant the height allowed under II-F.R., both types will be considered further.
FIRE-RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS
Fire-resistive requirements for Type 11-1 hr. and Type II-F.R. constructions are summarized from Table 17-A into the following.
Construction type Exterior bearing walls Interior bearing walls Exterior non-bearing walls Structural frame Partitions-permanent Shaft enclosures Floors Roofs
Fire Rating (hr) II-F.R. II- Thr
4
2
4
2
1
2
2
1
Exceptions and addenda to the above table..are as follows,
-From Section 1903(F.R.), non-hearing walls front on streets or yards having a width of at least 40 feet in Fire Zone 3 may be of unprotected noncombustible construction.
-From Section 1903b(F.R.), all openings in exterior walls shall conform to the requirements of section 504 (See Location on Property) and shall be protected by a fire assembly having a three-fourths hour fire-protection rating when they are less than 20' from an adjacent property line or the center line of a street or public space.
-From Section 1904(F.R.), where wood sleepers are used for laying wood flooring, the space between the fldor slab and the underside of the
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FIRE RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS (CONT)
wood flooring shall be filled with non-combustible material or firestopped. Mezzanine floors may be of wood or unprotected steel.
-From Section 1906(F.R.) roofs and their members other than the structural frame more than 25' above any floor, gallery, or balcony, may be of unprotected non-combustible materials. Where every part of the structural framework of a Group A occupancy is not less than 25' above any floor, balcony, or gallery, fire protection of all members of the roof construction include those of the structural frame mat be omitted. Where every part of the structural steel framework of the roof of a Group A occupancy is more than 18' and less than 25' above any floor, balcony, or gallery, the roof construction shall be protected by a ceiling of not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction.
EXIT REQUIREMENTS
From Section 3302, every building must have not less than two exits where required by Table 33-A.
-For auditoriums, two exits are required where number of occupants is over 50.
-For library reading rooms, two exits are required where number of occupants is over 50.
-Floors above the first story having an occupant load of more than 10 shall have not less than two exits.
-Egress by means of an elevator or ramp must be provided for the physically handicapped.
-The number of exits required from any story of the building shall be determined! by using the occupant load of that story plus the percentages of the occupant loads of the floors which exit through the level under consideration.
-The maximum number of exits required from any story shall be maintained until egress is provided from the building.
EXIT WIDTH
The total width of exits in feet shall be not less than the occupant load served divided by 50. Maximum occupant load is determined by same method as above.
ARRANGEMENT OF EXITS From Section 3302b ,c.
-If only two exits are required they shall be placed a distance apart not less than one-half the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building to be served measured in a straight line between exits.
-Where exits are interconnected by means of a corridor, enclosure walls shall be not less than thirty feet apart at any point in a direct line of measurement.
-The maximum distance of travel to an exit passageway shall not exceed 150'. This distance may be increased 100' when the last 150' is within a corridor.
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CORRIDORS
Section 3304 details corridor width, construction, and dead-end limitation.
-Section 3304 applies to every corridor serving as a required exit for more than ten persons.
-Every corridor shall be not less in width than 44".
-Corridors shall have a clear height of not less than 7'.
-When more than one exit is required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to go in either direction from any point in a corridor to a separate exit, except for dead ends not exceeding 20' in length.
-Walls of corridors serving an occupant load of thirty or more shall be of not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction and ceilings shall be not less than that required for a one-hour fire-resistive floor or roof construction.
STAIRS
Section 3305 details stairway requirements.
-Stairways serving an occupant load of more than 50 shall be not less in width than 44".
-Stairways serving an occupant load ofless than 50 shall be not less than 36".
-The rise of every step in a stairway shall need exceed 7-1/2" and the run shall not be less than 10".
-Every landing shall have a dimension measured in the distance of travel equal to the width of the stairway.
-Landing dimension need not exceed four feet when the stair is a straight run.
-There shall be not more than 121 vertically between landings.
-Every required stairway shall have headroom clearance of not less than 6'-6".
-In every building four and more stories in height, one stairway shall extend to the roof surface.
EXIT SIGNS From Section 3312
-Exits shall be illuminated at any time the building is occupied with light having ah intensity of not less than one footcandle at floor level.
-Exit illumination shall be provided with separate circuits.
GROUP A EXIT REQUIREMENTS From Section 3315
-The main exit shall be of sufficient width to accomodate one-half the total occupant load.
-The main exit shall not be less than the total width of all pasageways leading therto, and shall connect to a stairway or ramp leading to a public way.
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AURORA CENTRAL LIBRARY
code survey
GROUP A EXIT REQUIREMENTS (CONT)
-Every auditorium shall be provided with exits on each side which shall be of sufficient width to accomodate one-third of the total occupant load served.
-Side exits shall open directly to a public way or exit court.
-Every balcony having an occupant load of more than ten shall be provided with two exits.
-An exit door having an occupant load of more than a 100 shall not be provided with a lock or a latch unless it is panic hardware.
-Panic hardware may be omitted if the exit is a single set or doors properly marked.
LIGHT, VENTILATION, AND SANITATION From Section 605.
-Glazing area not less than 1/10 floor area or artificial light.
-Vent area not less than 1/20 of floor area or mechanical ventilation.
-Mechanical ventilation shall supply not less than 5 CFM outside air and circulate not less than 15 CFM per occupant when the building is occupied.
From Section 1711.
-Toilet room floors .shall have a smooth', hard nen-absorbent surface.
-All doorways leading to toilet rooms shall have a clear width of not less than 30".
-Section 1711-b4 contains handicap stall requirements.
OCCUPANCY UNIT LIVE LOADS From Table 23-A.
-Library:reading rooms: 60 psf uniform load, 1000 pound concentrated load.
-Stack areas: 125 psf uniform load, 1500 pound concentrated load.
-Assembly areas(moveable seating): 100 psf uniform load, no concentrated load.

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System Administration contains those functions involving management and publication for the entire Aurora Public Library system. This program area covers approximately 2200 square feet and is composed of three segments Director's Office, Public Services, and Business Management.
The Director's Office is comprised of a large administrative suite for the director, reception area, conference room and clerical pool. Public Services is essentially a support function producing all types of printed material such as brochures or posters. As this material is produced for the entire system, both the Public Service Librarian and the
Service Coordinators meet frequently with the various branch librarians and other staff. Technical support is provided through a graphic arts studio and darkroom. The Business Manager and his assistants control accounting functions of the system and therefore have a strong tie to clerical areas.
A businesslike atmosphere somewhat separate from the other Central Library functions is appropriate for this entire program area.
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AURORA CENTRAL LIBRARY

program
ADMINISTRATION
SPACE SIZE USER REQUIREMENTS ADJACENCIES
Director's Office 250 Director of Aurora P.L. Executive desk Credenza Informal meeting area Couch, lounge chair, coffee table Private Toilet Reception Conference Business Mgr
Reception 180 Executive Sect'y 3x5 desk Typewriter with table Six (6) filing cabinets Storage for office supplies Inter-office mail area Waiting area Couch and/or lounge chairs, table Di rector Clerical Conference Business Mgr
Conference 350 Director, Library Officers Conference table for 15 Permanent wall chalkboard Pin-up area Compatible for audio-visual presentations Di rector Reception
Kitchenette 50 Director, Secretaries Refrigerator Counter-top stove Coffee bar Conference Director Reception
Clerical V 320 Clerk/typists(4) Four (4) work stations Desk, typewriter table 18 lin. ft. of lateral files Reception J



AURORA CENTRAL LIBRARY
program
ADMINISTRATION (CONT)
SPACE
SIZE
USER
REQUIREMENTS
ADJACENCIES
Manager's
Office
Assistants1 Office
Public Service Office
Service Coordinators' Offi ce
Graphic Arts
Darkroom
150
200
180
300
150
50
Business Mgr
Assistants to Business Mgr(2)
Public Service Librarian
Assistants to Public Service Librarian (3)
Artist
Artist,
Service Coord.
Executive desk Credenza
Two (2) Conference chairs Wall or floor safe
Two (2) work stations Desk, typewriter, possible CRT 10 file cabinets
Executive Desk Meeting area
Conference table, four chairs Wall of book shelving
Three (3) work stations Desk, typewriter, shelving Meeting area Table, four chairs
Light table Layout table Materials storage Desk
Clean-up area (Wet)
Hot, cold water
Work counter, sinks, water bath Light control
Assistants
Reception
Director
Business Mgr
Service Coordinator Reception Graphic Arts
Public Srvc Librarian Graphic Arts
Service
Coordinator
Darkroom
Graphic Arts Service Coordinator
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Staff Services is the book and media processing center of the library, and the hub of non-administrative staff activities. Major functions within Staff Services are cataloging and processing, reserves and inter-library loan, staff lounge, and materials receiving. The cataloging and processing area provides sorting for all circulating library materials as well as documentation and labeling of new materials. Reserve and inter-library loans oversees book accounting and search and depends considerably upon electronic equipment. The staff lounge contains an eating area with vending machines, a kitchen, toilets, and a sick room. Finally, receiving contains both a small holding room and a loading dock for freight shipments and bookmobile loading.
Much of the activity in Staff Services is of an Assembly line nature and involves transport of heavy items, so wel1-serviced spaces separate from public facilities are appropriate. Approximate program area is 2600 square feet.
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STAFF SERVICES
SPACE SIZE USER REQUIREMENTS ADJACENCIES
Staff Service Office 180 SF Staff Service Librarian Executive Desk Meeting area Table, four chairs Book shelving Possible CRT Terminal System Anal. Librarian Lib. I (C&P) Lib. I (R&L)
Systems Analysis 80 System Analysis Librarian Desk Shelving Two (2) CRT Terminals SS Librarian
Librarian I Office 80 Catalog & Processing Librarian Desk Two (2) CRT Terminals Storage for 150 equivalent volumes Assistants SS Librarian Processing & Mending Sorting
Library Assistants Office 160 Assistants to Lib. I (C&P)(2) Two (2) work stations Desk, two (2) CRT Terminals Storage for 300 equivalent volumes i Lib. I (C&P) Processing & Mending Sorting
Processing & Mending 600 Clerks(lO) Ten (10) work stations Desk, typewriter Clearance for book carts Work table (5xlQ) for mending Material and supply closet Wet area Shelving Sorting Storage Assistants )
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AURORA CENTRAL LIBRARY
program
STAFF SERVICES (CONT)
SPACE SIZE USER REQUIREMENTS ADJACENCIES
Sorting 250 SF Clerks Shelving-4000 equivalent volumes Work table (7x10x3.5) Laminating table (3x5x3) Processing & Mending Assistants Lib. I (C&P) Storage
Storage 120 Clerks 24" deep wal1 shelves Processing & Mendi ng Sorting
Librarian I Office 80 Reserves & Loan Librarian Desk Two (2) CRT Terminals Shelving for 450 equivalent volumes SS Librarian Assistants Teletype
Library Assistants Office 120 Assistants to Lib. I (R&L)(2) Two (2) work stations Desk, typewriter table Shelving for 500 equivalent volumes Lib. I (R&L) Teletype
Teletype 120 Assistants (R&L) Lib. I (R&L) Three (3) CRT Terminals Storage closet Shelving Assistants Lib. I (R&L)
Delivery Dock 100 Delivery Coord Workmen Covered loading area 20' width to accomdate bookmobile, freight vehicles Non-slip surface Security Receiving Freight Elev
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Junior Services is a major learning center and book collection for children and teen-ages of Aurora and as such has strong concerns for the education and maturation of its users. The Aurora system classifies junior users into three categories; Junior 1 (ages 3 to 7), Junior 2 (ages 7 to 13) and Junior 3 (ages 13 to 16).
For Junior 1 children, experiential qualities of the space (color, texture, and form) are critical in the development of a positive relationship of the child with the library and the learning processes.
The Junior 2 environment should emphasize the building of learning skills and use of the library.
For the teen-age users, building social skills and a transition to the adult collection are critical.
Staff facilities, a children's theatre, and classroom also are included for a total program area of 3880 square feet.
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JUNIOR SERVICES
SPACE SIZE USER REQUIREMENTS ADJACENCIES
Junior 1 300 Children(20) Informal reading area Junior 2
Parents Bean-bag chairs, lounge furniture Collection
Staff Exhibit space for children's art Staff
Noise control Theater
Emphasize sensory experience Classroom
Junior 2 400 Children(20) Study tables and chairs Junior 1
Parents Audio-visual carrels Collection
Staff Informal reading area (see above) Staff
Globe Theater
Bulletin board/display area Classroom
Magazine racks
Emphasize reading material
Junior 3 500 Children(20) Study tables and chairs Adult coll.
Staff Conversation pit Staff
Informal reading area (see above) Classroom
Reference area
: Bulletin board/display area
Audio-visual carrels
Magazine/newspaper racks
Emphasize group study
Junior 1000 Junior users 17,000 equivalent volumes Junior 1
Collection Staff Full height shelves (Junior, 66") Junior 2
Parents Counter height shelves (42") Junior 3
Reference materials and stands Staff
Provision for oversize books
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aurora central library
arcNtactura 701: ttwote may 3, 1082
rotoart a. parkins
collaoa of envkonmanUi daaign
univarslty of Colorado, daovar
tit la:


WALL SECTION
aurora central library
architecture 701: thesis may 3, 1982
robert a. parkins
college of environmental design
university of Colorado, denver
title: MISC scale: sheet __ of _