Citation
The Wynkoop Mercantile

Material Information

Title:
The Wynkoop Mercantile
Creator:
Perry, Michael C
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
60, [10] leaves : illustrations, charts, maps, color photographs, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Buildings -- Remodeling for other use -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Joint occupancy of buildings -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Buildings -- Remodeling for other use ( fast )
Joint occupancy of buildings ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 58-59).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Michael C. Perry.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
12266096 ( OCLC )
ocm12266096
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1985 .P477 ( lcc )

Full Text
TH.E_w Y ,N K 0 0 P_MERCANTILE
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning,
University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture
by
Michael C. Perry May, 1985
Date p ? *
02 1994 j } __ i
L IQ i
l iHrrr-* v 4 TVW
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The Thesis of Michael C. Perry is approved
Comrittee Chairman
University of Colorado at Denver May 1985


TABLE OF CONTENTS
introduction...................................................... l
HISTORY .......................................................... 6
BUILDING DESCRIPTION............................................. 11
SITE AND ENVIRONS................................................ 15
CLIMATE INFORMATION.............................................. 28
CONTEXT OF USES.................................................. 37
BUILDING CODES................................................... 41
ZONING CODES .................................................... 50
PROGRAM.......................................................... 52
DESIGN GUIDELINES ............................................... 54
CONCLUSION....................................................... 56
FOOTNOTES ....................................................... 57
BIBLIOGRAPHY..................................................... 58
PERSONAL CONTACTS................................................ 60
THESIS DRAWNGS .................................................. 61
MODEL PHOTOS
68




INTRODUCTION
Today, man Is thrusting ever deeper Into new and futuristic endeavors, to expand his capabilities and knowledge. This quest Is pervasive throughout the academic, professional and private sectors of our society.
Architecture, In point, has plans In the offing for megastructures of 150 to 250 stories In height. Rapid and uncertain changes such as this as well as others (the space shuttles) lead us to hold on to the past because we know It and are comfortable with it.
Robert Stipe, In his book Legal Techniques In Historic Preservation, states seven reasons why we seek to conserve historic resources.(1)
1. Historic resources are all that link us to our past;
2. We have lived with them and they have become a part of us;
3. We wish to maintain differences and uniqueness In an age of frightening communication and other technological abilities as well as Increasing cultural homogeneity;
4. Because of their relation to past events, eras, movements and persons, that we feel are Important to honor and understand;
5. Their Intrinsic value as art;
6. We believe In the right of our cities and countryside to be beautlfuI;
7. We seek to preserve because we have discovered that preservation can serve and Important human and social purpose In our society.


This thesis project presented Is the adaptive reuse of an existing warehouse built In 1899 at 1634 18th Street.
It Is slutated near the east end of what Is known as Denvers Warehouse Row which runs along the streets of Wazee and Wynkoop. The building stands five stories high on the southeast corner of Wynkoop and 18th Streets, overlooking the east wing of Union Station.
The project does not Include significant added floor space except that which may be required for circulation and access. As the building stands today. It contains 13,750 square feet In the basement and 12,500 square feet at each of the five floors above for a total of 76,250 square feet.
The project does Involve the study of the allowable uses which could be placed In the structure realistically and economically. In the end, which one or ones are best suited to fulfill the building's potential for useable space, area needs and, to a degree, profitability will be designed Into the building.
The paramount Issue of this thesis Is the way the uses can relate to the building. Each use will have a demand for a given square footage, lighting requirement, exterior visibility, traffic volumes and equipment requirements. The building In this case, Is set In Its dimensions, window openings, store front design and structural capabilities. In this respect, the building Is less In a position to adapt to new uses. New uses will have to be found that are compatible to existing conditions.
\

-2-


The design Idea proposed here Is that the building's structural and aesthetic Integrity can and will remain Intact and enhanced with the Introduction of new uses.
To do this, the exterior must remain essentially unchanged, additions of any kind must enhance the building and the Interior structural system must be allowed to express Its strength as a remainder of the butldlng's past use.
New uses In the building's core will require the Introduction of new materials and It Is the appropriateness of the materials which Is a second Issue that Is to be addressed. Currently, the trend In preservation has been to nearly match and compliment existing materials but still make the new material recognizable as new. In this project, the question Is not dealing with a restoration rather It Is a renovation and re-use of an Interior space which will Incorporate some materials never before used In this structure. For this reason, products will be allowed which are new In look and composition and need not reflect the period In which the building was built. The materials must reflect, however, the users/tenants In the building as well as help tie the exterior to the Interior changes. The materials chosen should be of high quality, hold up well under heavy use, reflect the use of the space (l.e. residential vs office) and compliment existing materials.
-3-


Circulation through a possible mixed use/adaptlve re-use project can become a severe problem If not handled properly. The possibility of several non-compatible use which require separate and/or secured circulation Is very probable. A push for housing In the area makes It a good candidate for at least one or two floors. In terms of context, office space as well as showroom space Is also possible. The Introduction of a restaurant as a new element creates even further circulatory problems. Any combination of these uses within the building may mandate separate access Internally as well as externally.
In response, circulation patterns should be set up to allow quick and easy access to one's destination. In a building of mixed use, the circulation layout should provide direct routes to destinations and allow access to more than one user type, If possible. For reasons of security, circulation must be designed so that access to uses which operate during the evening, such as a restaurant, Is available while access to businesses closed for the day or private areas Is limited or prohibited.
Another problem of circulation are entrances. Entrance as a component of design Is always one of the trickiest and most difficult to deal with. Stating an entrance exists can be extremely subtle or obnoxiously blatant and the procession Into the Interior can follow the same pattern. Access to the public requires or demands that an entrance be tnvltlng, easily found and act as a pre-determ 1nate of what will be found Inside. The entrance must, therefore, act as an Introduction to the building or a use and It's Interior.
-4-


By definition, entrance Is:
1. The act or point of entering.
2. A place for entering; door, gate, etc.
By only changing the Inflection, entrance (en'tr ns) becomes entrance (In trans') which means to fill with rapture or delight, enchant, charm; enrapture emotions that should be prevoked not only by the entrance but by the building as a whole.
A successful entrance should reflect the use beyond, be Inviting and provide a comfortable transition between exterior and Interior spaces.
In summary, four Ideas will be tested:
1. The building's structural and aesthetic Integrity can remain In tact and even be enhanced with the Introduction of new uses.
2. New materials should reflect the uses In the building as well as being compatible with the existing structure.
3. Distinct circulation patterns must be present If there are non-compatible uses within the building.
4. Each entrance must be readily Identifiable as to the use It Is servlng.
Through the combination of these design Ideas, I am to create a higher and better use of what I believe to be a distinguished building. By doing so, I will be fulfilling the seven points made at the beginning of this
Introduction. Although this Is not a project which will be completed physically, I still hope to show, through a successful design, how the life of this building can be greatly extended so that It can still remain a link to Denver's past.
-5-




History of the Area
The lower downtown area of Denver has its beginnings with the founding in the 1850's of the settlement of St. Charles east of Cherry Creek near what is now Blake Street. Blake Street, at that time, was the principal business avenue of St. Charles. The fire of 1863 destroyed most of the wooden buildings in the area but rebuilding with a more fireproof brick construction began immediately. Within two years, the area was redeveloped and became the business center for the entire Cherry Creek district.
-6-


In 1870, Denver became linked with the nation via the railroads which spawned new growth and business. The economy was also thriving due to the wealth from Leadville silver mines which prompted development up 17th toward the Brown Palace, shifting the financial and business activity away from Lower Downtown.
In 1893, a period of economic panic brought an end to the remaining business in Lower Downtown which left the area as mainly a warehousing district that eventually fell into decline in the ensuing decades, after VMI.
Three periods of development can be noted in the area between 1863 and WWI:
The first generation of buildings after the fire in 1863 were built of brick primarily to ensure a reduced fire hazard and to also take advantage of a material indigenous to the area. These first buildings were narrow and two-storied with the brick used in a simple, decorative construction which blended in with human scaled, narrow, arched windows and doors.
Beginning in 1870, the coming of the railroads nurtured the second generation of building as money and passion for opulance enmeshed the young city. The differences betweeen the first generation and the second was an increased height (up to four stories) and the use of more ornamentation. The ornamentation in many of these buildings shows the effect of railroad importation fcy the introduction of diverse materials in the ornamentation such as stone, castiron and wood.
-7-


Following the slew economic recovery after the economic panic of 1893, a third generation of buildings began to emerge after 1900. By this time, the opulance had moved entirely uptown and Lower Downtown became solely a service and storage area. In response, the buildings constructed were straightforward industrial warehouses primarily with large structural bays and tall floor-to-ceiling heights. Within this period of development are two types of structural systems: one is buildings with load bearing walls with expressed pilasters and wide spandrels; the second is metal structures with facades of expansive window walls.
After WWI, area development declined as did the physical condition of remaining buildings. The decline continued with the culmination coming with the Skyline Urban Renewal Project which flattened a large swath of ailing buildings. This proved to be a rallying point for the area as a new appreciation of the history and architecture of the area caused a revitalization of and renewed interest in the remaining structures.
-8-


HISTORY OF THE WAREHOUSE
Introductlon
The building was constructed In 1899 for John Sidney Brown and his brother Junlous Flagg Brown who owned what was then Brown and Brother Mercantile Company. The company was originally established In 1861 by John Brown and A.B. Daniels, Brown's cousin. The company became known as a leader in the wholesale grocery business west of Chicago. Brown Mercantile was first located at 1504 Blake Street in a one store frame building which was destroyed by the 1863 fire. Again, In 1864, the business was wiped out In the Cherry Creek flood. By 1876, the business moved up Blake to 1521 and then moved over one block in 1871 to 1528 Wazee. It was, at this time, that John and Junius Brown established Brown and Brother Mercantile and built the small, two story building standing today. This Is where the company remained until 1899 when the present building was completed at 1634 18th Street.
-9-


John Brown died In 1913 but the business continued at the 18th street location
until 1937 when It was sold to Morey Mercantile Company .
Morey Mercantile owned the building until 1945 when Knoebel Mercantile purchased the warehouse. In 1967 Knoebel built a new plant and sold this
building to an office supply firm who then sold the building two years later to Jack Barton, the current owner. A portion of the first floor was used by Denver Blue, a repogrpahics company until a few years ago when the owners needed more space for furniture storage.
-10-




BUILDING DESCRIPTION
Designed by the Denver firm of Gove and Walsh to be used as a warehouse for Brown Mercantile, the building has been In use as such since It was built.
The building stands five stories high, not Including the basement. The first floor Is raised to accommodate a loading dock along the Wynkoop elevation which Is a concrete replacement for the original dock. A corregated tin shed roof has been added to cover the dock, attaching to the building between the first and second floor openings.
On the 18th Street side of the building, It can be seen that the building's foundation wall Is constructed of granite blocks which end at the level of the first floor. A band of sandstone blocks cap off the granite and from It
springs the arched first floor windows as well as the brick of which the
building Is mainly constructed. The brick used from the first floor to the roof Is golden red pressed brick which Is Interrupted twice by bands of sandstone Just below the second and fifth floor windows. The Intricate
cornice brickwork is then capped off again by blocks of sandstone.
Back at the first floor, the dock openings along Wynkoop as well as on the alley are Identical In width and height above the floor as the window openings on 18th. On center with the arches on the 18th Street and Wynkoop facades are Implied arches which rise from the second floor course of sandstone and top out above the fifth floor window. Within these "arches" are punched the window openings for each floor. The arches reflect the structural system Inside, for each arch equals a bay and with eight arches on Wynkoop and seven on 18th Street, the structural grid within Is easily Implied.
-11-


The window openings on the alley are Identical to those on Wynkoop but the wall Is flush, no Implied arches exist except where the 18th Street facade turns Into the alley for a depth of one bay.
The loading dock on the alley has been covered with a corrugated tin shed which is served by a railroad spur In the alley. A metal fire excape stairway has been added to the alley facade to meet fire codes. Other than these additions on the alley facade and the tin roof over the Wynkoop loading dock, the building remains essentially the same since Its construction.
The Interior of the building is nearly all wood construction excluding the elevator shafts and outer walls. The basement has a concrete floor and granite walls but the posts, beams and stringers are all of heavy timber. The first floor has a wood floor and sub floor as do the remaining floors above. A portion of the celling on the first floor Is pressed tin where the offices were located along the 18th street side two bays In. The original vault Is also still In place as Is the lift equipment on which boxes of goods were placed on shelves which rotated past each level delivering goods to the lower floors or upper floors depending on which side the goods were placed.
The structural system from the first floor to the fifth Is essentially the same. The posts are heavy timber which diminish In size at each floor. The beams run from Wynkoop side to the alley with the stringers running perpendIcuIar to them. The subfloor planking runs diagonally to the plan but the floor boards run parallel or perpendicular to the stringers. The floor
-12-


boards are made of maple and Interior trim Is oak and Oregon pine. Two elevator shafts have been added to the building. Both shafts are against an exterior wall, one on the alley, the other on Wynkoop. Both shafts cover the windows of the fifth bay In from 18th Street so they are essentially on axis with each other.
The existing Interior stairway Is original and Is open In design. Due to Its open configuration, It does not meet fire code regulations as a fire exit stairway.
Some stiffening of the columns has taken place especially where stress cracks occur but otherwise, the floors and beams (which are original) are In good condition.
The window sashes are In good shape and all windows still open easily.
Some of the arched openings to the loading docks have been bricked off but In such a way that their removal will not damage the original brickwork.
Overall, the building Is In very good condition structurally as well as the materials of the Interior and exterior. The small additions and changes made to the building did not alter the original design so with their removal, the building would essentially be what existed upon Its completion In 1899.
-13-


PORTION OF 18th STREET FACADE
VIEW DOWN ALLEY


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SITE AND ENVIRONS
This project is unique by the fact that the structure is already in place and no new extensive additions are planned. In this respect, designing the basic structure and its orientation to reflect environmental factors is out of ny hands.
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What can be controlled is the manipulation of interior spaces, circulation and tenan placement to respond to the effect the site conditions have on the building. Beginning from the ground up, the following factors have sane bearing on the design of this project.

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IflBgflraphY
The site borders on the bed of the Platte River Valley which has a slope of M. At Wynkoop, this slope increases to 2% along the 18th street side of the building. A slope of less than W also exits on Wynkoop in the direction of Cherry Creek to the Southwest.
The topography is important to this project because of handicap accessibility. To get a wheel chair into the building will require a ramp or lift due to the distance between the first floor and the sidewalk. In terms of design, the length of the ramp is determined by the verticle distance between the sidewalk and first floor. In this respect, the change in topography can help decide where handicap accessibility might best be placed.
Flood Plain
The Platte River is still subject to flooding and, in past incidences, the building was inundated at the basement. In the past few years, several flood control measures have come on line and with them, a review of areas still endangered by flooding. The area in which my building exists is no longer considered threatened by any flood waters and, with this designation, comes the freedom to use the basement for whatever is allowed by zoning and building codes.
XiSMS.
The importance of views changes according to the user. Residential use leads the list for requiring a view. Offices come in second while retail is more concerned with internal views and warehousing requiring little use of view.
-16-


Placement of uses within the structure will be influenced by the potential for or lack of views. The basement, in this case, is windowless and any attempts at opening it up would most likely be limited to light wells with views of the sky.
The first floor has external views of Union Station, 18th Street Atrium and Beatrice Food Complex as well as potential views into alley. Presently a shed addition blocks the first floor openings to the new or natural light. The second floor views are identical to the first. The third floor views over Union Station reveal the Platte Valley and, in the distance, the Northern Rockies.
Once on the fourth floor, the view over Union Station are increased allowing a greater view of the Rockies especially those to the South. Views down the Platte Valley are opening up over the roof of neighboring 18th Street Atrium Building as well as glimpses of downtown's taller buildings on the alley side.
The top floor has a clear view of downtown over the roofs of the building across the alley as well as improved views of the Platte Valley and the Rockies.
Solar Access
In respect to this project, solar access is limited due to the building's position in relation to the sun. During the winter months, only the alley facade receives any direct sunlight. .Due to the width of the alley and shortness of the neighboring buildings, the sun does shine down to the first floor level.
-17-


In the summer months, on the other hand, the sun shines on the 18th Street facade during the early morning hours; on the alley side, nearly all day; and on the Wynkoop facade from late afternoon until the sun sets. (See chart on page 24.)
Utilities
Gas and Electricity:
Public Service of Colorado says that they can provide all the gas needed through the existing lines. Electricity is also readily available through the overhead wire supply but it is recommended that service into the building go underground in response to the time that the electrical lines also get buried.
Water:
Water is already supplied to the building and the supply pipes to the area can handle additional demand when the building's use changes. The supply pipe into the structure from the main line will most likely have to be replaced by a larger pipe once water demands are calculated.
Railroads
Union Pacific Railroad owns and manages several track lines which serve or have served the Lower Downtown area. One line travels down the alley behind the site and from it branch two spurs: one serving Franklin Furniture across the alley and the other the project loading dock.
The spur serving the project has been abandoned by the current owners but Franklin Furniture still uses their's so the line must remain clear eight and one half feet on each side from the center of the track.
-18-


On Wynkoop, a line once served the loading dock, but it has also been abandoned freeing the space for parking or expansion of the sidewalk.
Traffic
In the works are plans to change the traffic access to downtown which has the potential to greatly affect the number of cars in Lower Downtown. Presently, traffic on 18th Street and Wynkoop is well under their capacity but the redesign of access from 1-25 to downtown could change this.
Under consideration are the following changes:
1. Closing Larimer and Lawrence Streets between 1-25 and Speer Boulevard. Traffic would be re-routed along a new road paralleling Wazee which would then tie into downtown in three different ways:
a. Connect with Blake and Market Streets.
b. Swing back and re-align with Larimer and Lawrence Streets at Speer.
c. Connect at Speer in-bound lanes to Arapahoe Street and outbound lanes with Lawrence Street which changes the direction of both traffic on streets.
2. Lowering the 16th Street viaduct down to grade except where it crosses the Platte River. There are also plans to make it a bus-only route including the expansion of the mall down to Delgany if the convention center is built.
3. Continuation of the street grid into the Central Platte Valley when and if the area is re-developed.
-19-


4. Change 20th Street viaduct into a High Occupancy Vehicle route only leaving Fox/23rd to serve remaining traffic into the city.
Several of these changes will bring added traffic into Lower Downtown and with it, greater pollution problems, busier intersections, parking problems, changes in street traffic flow direction and greater accessibility. These changes could bring greater vitality and redevelopment to the area or increased problems which may stagnate development allowing the area to slip back into neglect unless careful planning is not undertaken.
-H.l-


SECOND FLOOR VIEWS
LOOKING NORTHWEST
LOOKING ACROSS 18th STREET -20-


THIRD FLOOR VIEWS
LOOKING NORTHWEST
VIEW NORTHEAST DOWN WYNKOOP
21


FOURTH FLOOR VIEWS
VIEW NORTHWEST
LOOKING TOWARD DOWNTOWN(ALLEY)
-22-


FIFTH FLOOR VIEWS
VIEW TO WEST
VIEW TO NORTHEAST
VIEW OF DOWNTOWN


FIG. 4
SOLAR CHART-DENVER
LAT. 3950'N LONG10450'W
ELEVATION 5280 FT.
-24-


TRANSPORTATION
Existing Roads
New Construction ------
Ra i 1 Lines ih-i'ini
T-XTi vAu^f 'y\zw~£ccM. -26-


MAJOR ROUTES
f
l
Freeway tmrf Transit/Pedestnan Mall 0000 Avg Vehicles
Arterials Proposed Mainline Track Weekday, 198


i


CLIMATE INFORMATION
Denver receives a potpourri of weather conditions throughout the year as well as in a single day. It is not uncommon to have a warm, sunny day turn into a snowy evening. Nor is it uncommon for hail, rain, thunder, lightning and sunshine to happe at the same time in the middle of summer. Fortunately, wild weather is not the norm, clear skies and mild days are the rule. But, because all types of weather can and does occur, even if only occasionally, it does impact our built environment. Although this project is already standing, climatic conditions will have a bearing on the tenant placement, entrance design, HVAC design, roof openigns, daylighting and the design of possible additions if required. To help in the design work, the information to follow has been compiled.
Temperature
Denver enjoys temperatures which are characteristic of a mild interior continental region. It rarely has extreme hot and cold temperatures lasting beyond a week. The winter to summer swing in temperature is less than the diurnal temperature range between night and day. The following table gives the mean and extreme temperatures in Farenheit for Denver.
Precipitation
Denver is situated in the rain shadow of the Rocky Mountains which gives the city a semi-arid environment. The mean annual precipation equals 15.51 inches
with the greatest amount of the moisture coming in the spring usually in the
(5)
form of snow. The winter months are characteristically the driest. In
summer, thunderstorms account for most of the precipiation which falls at this
( f))
period of the year.
-28-


Wind
Winter and spring area the seasons in which wind speeds in Denver are the highest while late summer has the lowest wind speeds.
NOTE: For heating, ventilation and air conditioning applications, it is much more important to know the various wind directions and wind speeds in relation
to the outdoor air temperatures and those desired temperatures in the building
(7)
at the time HVAC equipment is functioning.
Because of the night-time drainage winds down the South Platte Valley, south
is the prevailing wind direction in all seasons. During late morning and
(8)
afternoon hours, north and northeast winds are most frequent.
Sunshine
Denver receives, on the average. 70$ of the total possible sunshine throughout
(9)
the year. Clearest days occur in the fall and cloudiest in the spring. Annually, Denver averages 115 clear days (10 to 30 percent cloudcover), 133
partly cloud days (30 to 80 percent cloud cover) and 117 cloud days (80 to 100
,(10)
percent cloud cover).
Air Quality
Denver has been cursed with a pollution problem due to temperature inversions most prevalent in the winter months. Although this is a problem of the entire metropolitan area, the Central Platte Valley suffers more due to it being topographically suppressed. This makes temperature inversions more common and air circulation poor. In this area, there were nearly 50 days in the past year in which carbon monoxide levels violated air quality standards and nearly
every day in which total suspended particles were twice the acceptable
(11)
standards.
-29-


Not only can this pollution be seen, often called the brown cloud, there is also a smell associated with it. In response to unhealthy affects and smell of the pollution, an HVAC system must filter out any particles of pollutants and provide clean, comfortable and healthy air for the building's occupants. To do so, the system must be designed in response to the worst conditions that may exist.
-30-


RAW DATA
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
HEATING DEGREE DAYS (BASE 65 ) 1132 938 887 558 288 66 6 9 117 428 819 1035
COOLING DEGREE DAYS (BASE 65 ! ) 0 0 0 0 0 49 203 248 53 0 0 0
RELATIVE HUMIDITY 11:00 A.M. 44 45 43 37 39 40 36 37 40 36 44 45
PRECIPITATION 0.5 0.7 1.0 2.0 3.0 1.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.6 0.4
SNOW TOTALS (INCHES) 8 8 13 9 1 T 0 0 2 4 7 6
WINDS PREVAILING DIRECTION AND MEAN OF SPEED OF WIND: SOUTH MflftfflEASI WEST
10 11 8
-31-


F
Ton
100
96
92
88
8n
80
76
72
68
6n
60
56
52
H8
nn
no
36
32
28
2n
20
16
12
8
n
o
n
8
12
16
20
2n
28
32
JAn
76
15
-29
JAN
r EB ... APn nAY t JUL nuG L_. OCT _EC
7'
FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
DEGREES IN FARENHEIT
TEMPERATURE RANGES IN DENVER
-32-


AVERAGE TERMPERATURE (F)
AVERAGE
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION (inches)
AVERAGE =
AVERAGE SNOWFALL (inches)
J F MAM
J J
O N
AVERAGE 59.
PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE (%)
J F M A
M
J A
O N
TOTAL =70%
-33-


ACTUAL FREQUENCIES OF WINDS OF VARIOUS VELOCITIES AT STAPLETON AIRPORT, DENVER, COLORADO
LEGEND
WIND SPEED
4-12 MPH 13-24 MPH > 24 MPH
STRONGEST MIMP
From northwest every month of the year.
North and northwest wind = arctic air from Canada and Alaska.
South and southeast wind = warm, moist air from Gulf of Mexico
South and southwest wind = warm, dry air from Mexico
Westwind = Pacific air modified by passage over Rocky Mountains.
Denver is located in the belt of the prevailing westerlies.
PRIMARY WIND
From the south every month of the year.
SE.CQKMRY MJM
From north-northwest in winter.
From north-west in spring and summer. From north in fall.
-34-


HEATING DEGREE DAYS, BASE 65* F COOLING DEGREE DAYS
FIG. 1
HEATING AND COOLING CHART,
DENVER, COLORADO
r-200
ro*
rO 65*-
-200
-400
Leoo
-BOO
yiooo
KM
NORMAL HEATING DEGREE DAYS NORMAL COOLING DEGREE DAYS SUN ANGLE o^
DATA SOURCE: U S WEATHER BUREAU 1941-1970, DENVER
-35-
SUN ANGLE


AIR QUALITY
SSS'SSx Ex t r erne 1 y Poor Poot
Acceptable
-36-


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CONTEXT OF USES
Lower Downtown was once an area of primarily warehouses and light industry but with recent rennovation and re-use projects the user make up has changed, often dramatically.
Buildings in the imnediate area contain office space, housing, showrooms, hotels, restaurants and retail space. Two neighboring buildings to the project are about to undergo rennovation. The Beatrice Creamery on the north side of Wynkoop between 18th and 19th is to become a designer's market filled with showrooms of designer items. On the corner of 19th and Wazee, the Beebe and Runyun Furniture building is slated for rennovation into office space.
A large change for Lower Downtown may come if the preposed convention center is built adjacent to Union Station. If the Union Station site is chosen, it may be the catalyst to the development of the Central Platte River Valley as well as rennovation of Union Station for possible office, retail and museum use.
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RESIDENTIAL LAND USE
Source: Platte Valley Landowners Association, from Denver Planning Office.
CENTRAL VALLEY PLATTE WORKBOOK
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COMMERCIAL LAND USE
Source: Platte Valley Landowners Association, from Denver Planning Office data
CENTRAL VALLEY PLATTE WORKBOOK
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INDUSTRIAL LAND USE
Source: Platte Valley Landowners Association, from Denver Planning
Office data
CENTRAL VALLEY PLATTE WORKBOOK
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L
I
BGBG0


CODES
The following excerpts come from the Building Code of the City and County of Denver, 1982. These excerpts are portions of the code which I felt pertained to this thesis project to help In the study and design of spaces within the bu11dIng.
31-1(0 Chapter 31 Rehabilitation of Older Bui I dines
Exception for the Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings: Buldlngs,
structures and utilities, conforming wtth section 310(a) of this Building code, may be granted an exception from the requirements of this Building code permitting the repair, rehabilitation or change of use or occupancy (within the occupany as enumerated In Section 3101(a) when such would not comply with the provisions of this Building Code. No exception shall be authorized here under unless the Director shall find the following condltolns exist:
(a) The building, structure or utility was constructed to prior to January 1, 1950.
(b) The building, structure or utility Is structurally sound and the proposed repair, rehabilitation or change of use or occupancy will substantially Improve the use, safety and welfare of the occupants.
(1) The Director, In making this determination may request an engineers or architects report to determine the condition of the building, structure or utility.
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(c) The proposed repair or rehabilitation of a building, structure or utility for residential us does not violate the provisions of the Housing Code, Article 631 of the Revised Munclpal Code.
(d) The Fire Department concurs In any alterntalve method, utility, appliance or system related to five safety.
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OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION
5-12
16-3
20-1
5-14
5-16
Occupany Groups:
Restaurant F-1
Office F-2
RetaI1 F-2
Res I dent I a 1 H-2
Fire Zone
Construction type: Type III, Heavy Timber Required separations In buildings of mixed occupancy:
Separation between F-1 and F-2 1 hour
Separation between F-1 and H-2 1 hour
Separation between F-2 and H-2 1 hour
Maximum Height of Buildings:
Type III 1 hour or heavy timber construction Maximum height In feet = 65 Maximum height In stones = F-1 and F-2 =4
H-2 =5
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Exit Facilities for F-1. F-2 and H-2 Occupancies
33-25 Exit requirements and square feet per occupant:
2 or more exits required when occupancy load exceeds
sq.ua.re .f.Qot/.Qc.c.up.an.t
DwelIlngs Offices Retail Sales:
10
30
300
100
Basement Ground Floor
30
30
10
50
10
30
30
50
15
200
Upper Floors Dining Rooms Apartments
333(h) Mixed occupancy:
The maximum occupant load of a building containing mixed occupancies shall be determined by adding the number of occupants of each occupancy as specified In Table 33-A.
For determining exit requirements for a building or portion thereof which Is used for more than one occupancy, the capacity shall be determined by the occupant load for the largest number of persons.
33-3(1) Changes In Elevation:
Changes In elevation of less than 12 Inches along an exit shall be made by means of a ramp. (Exceptions: Group I and J and aisles adjoinInt seating areas.)
33-3(m) Exit Ramp Requirements:
Provide one means of exit from the first floor for the handicapped confined to wheelchairs.
33-4(k) Group H Special Exit Considerations:
Arrangement of Exits Minimum travel distance between exit doors shall be 25 feet for a building or story.
33-4(b) Maximum Travel Distance:
Exits shall be arranged so that the total length of an Individual living unit shall not exceed 50 feet or traverse more than one flight of stairs. The entrance door to any unit shall be within 100 feet of an exit or 150 feet when the entire building Is protected by an autoamtlc sprinkler system.
Exits Required (Group F-1 and F-2)
33-3(1) Mixed Occupancy Exit Requirements:
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33-3(a)
Two exits required at all levels
334(J) Width The total width of exits In feet shall be at least the total occupant load served divided by 50. The width of exits shall be divided approximately equally among the separate exits, the total exit width required from any story shall be determined by using the occupant load of that story, plus percentage of the occupant loads of floors which exit through the level under consideration as follows:
1. Fifty percent of the occupant load In the first adjacent story above, and the first adjacent story below when a story below exits through the level under consideration.
2. Twenty five percent of the occupant load In the story Immediately above and below the first adjacent story.
3. The maximum exit width required from any story of a building shall be malntaed until egress is provided from the building.
33-4(k) Minimum travel distance between exit doors shall be 25 feet for a building or a story.
33-2(1) Maximum travel distance to an exit from any point Is not more than 150 feet. Exception: when building Is protected thorughout by an automatic fire sprinkler system, the distance may be Increased to 200 feet.
Exit Doors:
335(b) Doors shall swing In direction of exit travel. No double-acting door s.
33-6(d) Width of door = 3 feet minimum.
Height of door = 6' 8" minimum
336(h) Change In floor level at doors. There shall be a floor landing on each side of the door. Where doors open over landings, the landing shall have a length of at least 44 Inches.
Corridors:
33-7(b) Width = at least 44 Inches.
33-7(c) Height = clear height of at lest seven feet measured to lowest projection of celling.
33-8(f) Dead End corridors can be no more than 20 feet In length.
Stairways:
33-9(b) Width: serving 50 plus occupants = 44 or more.
33-9(c) Rise and Run: Rise shall not exceed 7 1/2. run shall be a minimum of 10".
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33-10 Landings shall have a dimension measured In direction of travel equal
(z) to the width of the stairway. Vertical distance between landings
shall not exceed 12' 6".
33-10 Handrails are required on each side between 30" to 34 above tread
(l) nose. Need 1 1/2" between rail and wall. Ralls cant diminish width
of stairway by more than 7" total.
5-10 Handicapped Requirements:
132(a) Light:
All portions of the building uses by human occupants shall be provided with either natural or artificial light.
Cou rts:
Width of courts shall be at least three feet when not more than two stories high and shall be Increased In width at the rate of six Inches for each additional story. The court shall have a width at least 50 percent greater than otherwise required when the court Is entirely surrounded by the building.
132(b) Celling Heights:
Habitable room shall have a minimum celling height of seven feet over at least 50 percent of Its area and no portion of the remaining celling shall be less than five feet In height.
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Plumbing
5-17 Minimum Plumbing Facilities:
f WATER CLOSET H H H M n F H If * URINALS 1! 11 11 LAVATORIES M H F IfFOUNTAI NS f 11 11
OFFICE & RETAIL 11 1/ 1-30 11 1/ 1-10 * 0/ 1-10 11 1/ 1-30 f 1/ 1-30 K1/75 WITH
1 2/31-60 * 2/ 1-30 * 1/11-60 2/31-60 H 2/31-80 m/FLOOR
H 3/60-90 H 3/31-60 f 2/61-120f 3/61-120H 3/81-120 UMIN 11
ADDITIONAL OCC. * 1/30 H 1/20 f 1/60 * 1/40 11 1/40 H
I H * 11 f 11 11
RESTAURANT *1/ 1-100111/ 1- 75K1/ 1-100 111/
*2/101-600f2/ 76-200f2/101-600H1/ 113/601 -95 0U3/ 201 -400*3/601 -950111/
11/ 1-200) U2/201-600
1/FLOOR
*3/601-1000*
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ATRIUM 17-9 Atriums
(a) General. Buildings of other than Group D occupancy with automatic sprinkler protection throughout may have atriums complying with the requirements of this section.
Exception:
Individual guest roans or dwelling units in group H-l and H-2 occupancies may be equipped with a supervised smoke detection system in lieu of a sprinkler system within the room(s).
(b) Separation. Atriums shall be separated from adjacent occupied spaces ty not less than a one hour fire resistive construction. Openings in the atrium wall shall be protected in accordance with the requirements of Sections 1706 and 4308.
Exception 1:
Any two levels may be open directly to the atrium.
Exception 2:
The tenant space may be separated from the atrium by a wired, tempered or laninated glass wall.
(c) Atrium Perimeter Fire Sprinklers. Fire sprinklers shall be
installed at six feet on center spacing around the atrium within 12 inches from the edge of the ceiling opening.
Exception:
Where the atrium has a walkway ceiling less than seven feet six inches wide and is protected as in (b) exception 2 above.
(d) Smoke Detection. The atrium shall be fully detectored per NFPA 72 E. Smoke detectors shall be placed on the occupied side of any door opening into the atrium. Where a level is open to the atrium as in (c) exception above, that level or portion of that level open to the atrium shall be fully detectored.
(e) Smoke Control. Smoke shall be provided in all atriums as follows:
Buildings not classified as high rise shall be provided with an atrium exhaust system as specified in this Section.
In atriums in excess of 55 feet in height, regardless of volume, the exhaust system shall be sized to provide a minimum of four air changes per hour. Supply air shall be mechanically introduced within ten feet of the lowest level of the atrium at a rate of 75% of the exhaust.
In all cases, outside air intakes shall be less than 50 feet above grade. The atrium volume shall include all spaces open to the atrium.
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(f) Activation of Systems. Low Rise the activation of any fire detection device shall operate the atrium exhaust and supply systems.
(g) Annunciation. Low Rise Low rise buildings shall have a main annunciator panel in accordance with Chapter 38. Manual control for the atrium smoke control systems shall be located at a location approved by the Department and Fire Department.
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ZONING CODES
The area in which the project lies is designated as B-7 which was created to encourge the preservation and vitality of older areas that are significant because of their architectural, historical and economic value. Within this zone, new residential development is encouraged.
ZONING
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I have envisioned four user types which may be tenants for this project. They are office, residential, retail (showrooms) and a restaurant. These are all allowed by code for the B-7 zone, complete list of allowable uses by right can be found in the B-7 district description in the appendix.
Expansion of an existing structure. Any structure lawfully erected or altered in conformity with applicable municipal ordinances prior to August 30, 1974, may be maintained or enlarged to a point where the sum total of the gross floor area equals four times the site area. Any additions to such structures shall not be permitted to include any of the three types of floor area listed in section 59-380(b)(1). Any floor area within the original structure designed and used as a duelling unit shall not be counted as part of the gross floor area. (12)
Minimum size of dwellings. Each unit in a multiple unit dwelling and any other structure occupied in whole or in part for residential purposes shall contain a gross floor area of not less than four hundred square feet.
Off Street Parking Requirements: No off street parking is required since the building was lawfully erected in conformity with applicable municipal ordinances prior to August 30, 1974. Only when square footage is added to an existing structure will parking be required. Parking requirements for additional square footage will be one parking space per 750 square feet of added floor area, no matter what the use. (14)
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)


EBQGBBM
This thesis project involves in part deciding what use should be housed in the building. It is also possible a mixture of uses would be best once I finish that portion of the design analysis. To narrow down the possibilites, I have chosen four uses, as has beai mentioned previously, that would fit within the context of use already in the area as well as what is desired by the city.
Because of the nature of this approach, the following space requirements are left intentionally broad; although more specific information on some of the uses can be found in the appendix. Once the use(s) has been chosen, then more detailed programming may be required but it is felt that with this project it will be the solutions to circulation, access to public, natural lighting needs appropriate materials and public vs private spaces which will receive the greatest design effort and focus.
Restaurant
A dining establishment which will be open for breakfast, lunch and dinner serving local business personnel.
It will provide quiet and priviate dining with low ceilings, subdued lighting and quality furnishings. A lounge for drinks will also be included as well as a dance floor.
Space Requirement Guidelines:
Dining area 15 to 18 square feet per seat
Kitchen size Base on estimated maximum meals per hour.
200 or less multiply by 4.0 to 7.0 respectively.
200 to 400 multiply by 5.0 to 3.6 respectively.
50 to 60 percent of dining area square footage.
Less than 12,500 SF.
Actual SF to be determined early in design.
Lounge
Total square feet
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Showrooms
Showrooms can be for a multitude of uses such as furniture, carpet, kitchens, bathroom fixtures etc. Attention will be focused on the displayed items for which artificial light shall play a big part. Due to the nature of showrooms large open spaces are required so that displays may be altered, moved and expanded to show off a large number of products.
For the purpose of user planning, the following square footage is given space
as requirement guidelines:
Total SF min. 3000 SF
max. 6000 SF
Office Space
If or when office space is chosen as a spacer requirement for the building, it will more or less designed along the lines of spec office. In the final design, a few actual tenant layouts will be drawn into plans but for the purpose of user choice, study schemes will be based on the following:
Total SF min. 850 (2 bays x 2 bays)
max. 12,500 (mechanical, electrical,
circulation and other essential uses)
Housing
A push by the city for housing in the area swayed me to include it in the list on possible uses. Apartments in the area do not seem appropriate but then neither does any other type yet. I will lean toward condominum housing as a design guideline because of what could become expensive rennovation because create livable spaces by capturing natural light.
Space requirement guidelines:
Studio 650 SF
1 bedroom 800 Sf
2 bedroom 1,000 SF
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GG0OECO BtSDBEtLCtflEe


LOWER
LftfflMi,
m DESIGN GUIDELINES
In February, 1983, the Civic Design Team, The Denver Partnership, Inc., put together a booklet on design guidelines for new development and infill construction in Lower Downtown Denver. This booklet was desigined to assist professionals involved with projects in this area in the design of their developments. The effort was made to provide "accurate, quality information which identifies the appropriate scale and character of development for Lower Downtown.
The following is a synopsis of the guidelines:
1. Design new buildings or additions that avoid reproducing the historic architecture of Lower Downtown. When building new structures to fit within the context of existing structures maintain the scale of the street at the sidewalk edge. A contemporary design can accomplish this as well as a traditional one can.
2. Make the transition between existing old buidings and new ones as pleasing as possible. The relationship between new and old should be as harmonious as possible.
3. When feasible, incorporate design elements of old buildings into new structures. Study the height, width and proportions of neighboring buildings and repeat those elements in new construction in order to establish a relationship between the two.
4. Maintain the approximate alignment of cornices.
5. Continue the existing pattern of flat roofs.
6. Maintain the alignment of facades at the sidewalk building.
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7. To make basement space more useable, consider using light wells.
8. Maintain the established pattern of building widths. The typical dimension in warehouse buildings is approximately 15 to 20 feet.
9. Reinforce the existing pattern of upper story windows. Upper story windows create a pattern that unifies the width of the building and the design of the entire block.
10. Reinforce verticle elements in facades.
11. Use facade materials that are similar to those already used in the area. When possible, maintain brick as the major facade material.
12. Develop a color scheme for the entire building that coordinates all facade elements.
13. A maximum of three colors is best for most cases, except where snail amounts are used for trim.
14. Choose glass carefully. Glass used in Lower Downtown should not be coated to reflect its own color, such as bronze or copper.
15. Consider awnings to provide a three-dimensional quality to a flat facade.
16. Ornamentation is encouraged but imitation of historic detail is discouraged.
17. Clearly identify parking access but make it secondary to pedestrian circulation and other building uses.
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CONCLUSION
Four ideas were presented in pre-thesis for testing as stated in the introuction and in the design process I found that the first two were viable and workable in the design. I was able to maintian the building's structural and aesthetic integrity while introducing new uses and materials.
New materials were well integrated in the design to reflect the uses in the building as well as differentiating new from old.
The third and fourth ideas I presented were less successful because they would have created a more complex and less integrated design. Originally, I preposed that each use would need separate circulation patterns to serve them. In reality, this degree of separation was not required and space restrictions would not have allowd it. The combining of circulation routes to the different uses in the aid made for a more dynamic and plausible solution to the program requirements.
The fourth and final idea was a compliment to the separation of circulation patterns by introducing separte entrances to the differing uses. This idea was also altered so that the design of the aitrances identifying the differing uses pertained to their access off the atrium only.
I feel then, that the final solution was successful and that the changes made to my third and fourth ideas were justifiable in making the desing work and work well.
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(7 Q E17 ID E17 G 0



1. Stipe, Robert. Legal Techniques in Historic Preservtaion. Page 9
2. Guralnik, David B. Webster's New world Dictionary. Page 467.
3. Ibid, page 467.
4. Ryan, Doug. Public Service of Colorado.
5. Denver Planning Office. Planning with Climate and Solar Energy. Page 8.
6. Ibid, page 8.
7. Ibid, page 10.
8. Ibid, page 10.
9. Ibid, page 12.
10. Ibid, page 12.
11. Center for Community Development. The Central Platte Valley Workbook. Page 23.
12. City and County of Denver Zoning Code. Page 4287.
13. Ibid, page 4294.2
14. Ibid, page 494.2
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bunnel, Gene, et. al. Built to Last. Washington, D.C. Preservation Press.
1977
Cavaglieri, Giorgio. "Design in Adaptive Reuse". Historic Preservation. January 1974, pp. 12-22.
Coiter for Commmity Development. The Coitral Platte Valley Workbook.
Denver. U.C. Denver. Fall. 1983
Civic Design Team, The Denver Partnership, Inc. New Development and Infill Construction Design Guidelines Lower Downtown Dower. February, 1983.
Conway, H. McKinley. The Weather Handbook. Atlanta, GA. Conway Research. 1974
Crawford, Dana. "The Economics of Rehabilitated Downtown Areas". Historic Preservation. January March, 1969. Pages 29-31.
De Chiara, Joseph; Callendar, John Hancock. Time-Saver Standards for Building Types. 2nd Edition. New York. McGraw-Hill. 1980.
Diamonstein, Barbaralee. Buildings Reborn: New Uses, Old Places. New York. Harper and Row. 1978.
Denver Partnership, Inc. Lower Downtown Project, Project Report. August 6, 1982.
.Lower Downtown Project Zoning Revisions. November 19, 1982.
Denver Planning Office. Lower Downtown Development Guidelines. April, 1978. -------.Planning With Climate and Solar Energy. 1980.
Ditmer, Joanne. "Platte Valley Development Tied to Convention Center."
Denver Post. October 27, 1984. Page 1H and 10H.
Fitch, James Marston. Historic Preservation. New York. McGraw-Hill. 1982
Guralnik, David B. Webster's New World Dictionary. 2nd Edition. New York. Simon and Shuster. 1980.
Harney, Andy Leon. "Adaptive Use: Saving Energy As Well As Historic Buildings." ALA Journal. August, 1974.
Historic Denver. Lower Downtown: Architectural Survey of Downtown Denver. Volume III. January. 1984.
Kidney, Walter C. Working Places: The Adaptive Use of Industrial Buildings. Pittsburg. Ober Park Assoc. 1976.
Kleyle, Fredric Ellsworth. Rehabilitation of Historic Buildings: An
Annotated Bibligraphy. Washington, D.C. Technical Preservation Services Division of U.S. Dept, of Interior Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service. March. 1980.
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Markus, Thomas A. Building Conversion and Rehabilitation: Designing for Changes In Building Use. London. Butterworth and Co. 1979.
McLaughlin, Herbert P., Jr. "Commercial Rennovation proves its Worth." Historic Preservation. October December. 1975. Pages 14-19.
Packard, Rober T. Architectural Graphic Standards. 7th Edition. John Wiley and Sens, Inc. 1981.
Ruffner, James A. The Weather Almanac. Detroit Gale Research Co. 1974.
Shapins, Jerry, et. al. Lower Downtown Denver. University of Colorado at Denver. Fall, 1981.
Terrel, David. "The Recycling Trend: Adapting Old Structures for Modem Use
Isn't An Easy Job but Can Be Successful." American Preservation. May. 1978. Pages 21 29.
Thomas, Selma. "Rehabilitation." An Alternative For Historical Industrial Buildings. Historic American Engineering Record. Heritage Conservation and Recreation Servie U.S. Dept of Interior. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1978
Urban Design Group. 18th Street Atrium. Denver, May. 1982.
Williams, Norman, Jr., et. al,. Readings in Historic Preservation. New Brunswick, New Jersey. Center for Urban Policy Research. 1983.
ARTICLES
"Adaptive Use: The Key to Born Again Central Cities". Mortgage Banker December. 1978. Pages 57-59.
"In Search of a Place." Progressive Architecture. April. 1971. Pages 66-73.
"Living Places." Preservation News. Supplement. April. 1975.
"New Life for Old Buildings." Preservation News. Supplement. April. 1975
Preservation and Recycling of Building's For Bank User. National Trust for Historic Preservation. Information Sheet No. 18. Washington, D.C. The Preservation Press. 1978.
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PERSONAL CONTACTS
JACK BARTON, KACEY FURNITURE, OWNER OF BUIIDING DOUG GOEDERT, DENVER PLANNING OFFICE
Provided information packages concerning lower downtown as well as contacts for other information.
JCHN PETERFORD, URBAN DESIGN GROUP
Offered information on 18th Street Atrium Building regarding the adaptive re-use project of a warehouse.
DOUG RYAN, PUBLIC SERVICE OF COLORADO
Gave information on electrical and gas services to site.
SARA SEWARD, THE DENVER PARTNERSHIP
Gave invaluable insight on the plans and happenings in lower downtown.
GARY ZEHNTFENNIG, THE DENVER PARTNERSHIP
Presented the changes in traffic patterns and road construction coming in the next few years to the Denver area as well as future plans of the area.
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SITE PLAN
lull I -II I


Wynkoop Street
1ST FLOOR PLAN (retail)


<*
V
2ND FLOOR

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PARTIAL SOUTHEAST ELEVATI
SOUTHWEST ELEVATION


SECTION A-A
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