Citation
Western Campus Student Union

Material Information

Title:
Western Campus Student Union
Creator:
Cuneo, Victor
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
80 unnumbered leaves : illustrations, maps (some color), plans (some color) ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Student unions ( lcsh )
Student unions ( fast )
Genre:
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Victor Cuneo the Third.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09560699 ( OCLC )
ocm09560699
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1980 .C87 ( lcc )

Full Text
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Printed in USA


mMJE IF OTIWK
I.) INTRODUCTION
History of Suffolk County Community College. Surroundinq Area ,
Philosophy of Client.
?.) SURROUNDING AREA STUDY
Regional School Locations.
Population .
Social Characteristics.
Transportation.
Zoninq and Landmarks.
Land Use Policy
3.) SITE
History of Site.
Visual Sc Physical Characteristics, Traffic Analysis.
Utilities.
Climate Analysis.
Soils Report.
Flora Sc Fauna of the site.
4. ) MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL
H.V.A.C. Design Criteria. Lighting Desiqn Criteria.
5. ) STRUCTURAL
Systems.
6. ) ENERGY
A Case for Solar.


7 ) PROGRAM
Space Allocation s Cost
Desiqn Philosophy and Imp I i cations
8 ) FINAL DESIGN (CAMPUS)
Concepts Final Drawinqs
9 ) FINAL DESIGN (STUDENT UNION)
Concepts Final Drawi n qs
10 ) FINAL DESIGN ( SOLAR ANALYSIS)


HISTORY OF SUFFOLK COUNTY COMMUNITY COLLEGE
In the early 1950s the population of Suffolk County beqan to increase rapidly and in recoqnizinq its resDonsibility to its citizens the Suffolk Board of Supervisors created a temporary Commsion on Hiqher Education in 1957. It was the task of this qroup to survey the Dossibi lities for development of hiqher educational facilities in the County. After careful research and many meetinqs with community qroups, the Commsion made a recommendatio n to the Board of Supervisors that a two year community col leq be developed under the sponsorship of the County. In 1959 the Board of Supervisors resolved to ;
u Establish a Community Colleqe pursuant to Article 196 of the Education Law and the plans standards and reaulations per-scribed by *-he Trustees of the State University of New York such community colleqe to be administrated by a Board of Trustees to be appointed as provided by law "
Thus, on December 18. 1959. Suffolk County Community Colleqe came into being as a leaal entity The Colleqe offically opened on October 8, I960 with a full time enrollment of 161 students and a part time enrallment of 850 students. For the first year of operation, the Colleqe offered programs in Liberal Arts, Business Administration and Secretarial Science, and occupied temporary facilities in Sachem Junior Senior High School in Ronkonkoma New York as well as part time facilities at Riverhead High School in River head.
In Febuary 1961. the Board of Supervisors of Suffolk County made available to the Colleqe for its permanent campus a 180 acre site in Selden New York The Board of Trustees of the State University of New York approved this site as a permanenet camDus and matched the appraisal value pf the property with capital funds With this funds renovation and conversion of six buildinqs on the site were undertaken, and eauipment necessary for operation of the Colleqe was obtained In Auqust 1961, the Colleqe moved to its permanenet site and opened for its second year with over I.40C full time students and oart time students. Cirriculums in Engineering and related techroloqies were added and the proqrams at the Riverhead branch were strengthened and broadened In June 1962 the Colleqe held its first commenencement. at which 42 graduates recieved Associates Deqrees.
In 1969 Associate Deqree programs in Accounting and Nursinq were added to the curriculum. In 1964 a Marine Technology A .A. S Deqree program was added along with an A.A.S. Dearee proaram in Retail Business Manaement. The following year 1965, a General Studies A.A. oroqram


was added. This curriculum has grown consistently and rapidly to its present size where it serves over 30% of the colleqe full time student body.
Other programs added later include*.
A.A.S. in Data Processing.
A.A.S. in Banking 1965
A.A.S In Insurance and Real estate.
Design and Draftin 1967 A.A.S. in Telecommunications 1967 A.A.S. in Fire Science 1967 A.A.S in Community Service Assitant 1968 A.A.S. in Police Science I960 A.A.S. in Technical Writing 1969 A.A.S. in Physical Therapy Assitants 1969 A.A.S. in Therapeutic Recreation Leadership 1972 Suffolk County Community Colleqe recieved Middle States Association accrediation in 1966. During That same year the Nursing Program was accredited by the National Leaque for Nursing.
In the 1971 72 academic year, the enrollment of full time stud-
ents reached 5,460 while part time enrollment reached 5.358. The profess ional staff numbered 374 with 311 teaching faculty members, 15 professional in student services. 15 Librarians, 30 Administrators, and 3 professionals involved with plant operations.
Enrollment continues to qrow every year. Part time students are located in four branches in additions to the main Selden Campus. These branches are located in various parts of Suffolk County, in Northport, Brentwood. South Huntington and Westhampton Beach All of these branches are located in High Schools.
Total enrollment foe 1974 75 was over 15000. Enrollment oroi
ection for I960 1990 are for approximatly 24.000 students. This has led the county to develop multiple campuses, an Eastern Campus planned for approximatly 2,000 FTE (full time equivalent students) and a western Campus for an eventual 4,500 FTE students.
The Western Campus, which this proiect is dealing with, was a natural and anticipated arowth of the College's success in attracting a growing student body. The Western Campus opened in a temporary, prefabricated structure, the Alpha Buildina, in September 1974, with an enroll -ment of 461 full time and 910 part time students- Alterations to another building on the site, the Beta Building, have been completed and it is now
i n use.


SURROUNDING AREA CHARACTERISTICS
The main charcterisfic feature of this area is made uo of suburban communities wi th larqe we II developed shopping centers and industrial parks. Other well established villages and more recently constructed one family homes and apartment development communities, provide dwellings for the residents Long Island, like many other parts of the country, was greatly affected by post war bui Id i nq boom .
The western segment of Suffolk County is described as a sophist! -cated suburban area with a heterogenous population- There are several areas where low income families predominate, and other areas where larqe estates fill the landscape. Genera I ly moderate income level fami lies prevail and the area is best described as a middle class suburban residential area.
PHILOSOPHY OF CLIENT
"Suffolk County Community college seeks to provide a compre -henslve proaram to meet the needs of young people and adults in Suffolk County for education beyond Hiqh School."
"Cirriculum offerings shall lead to either the : Associate in Arts Degree. Associate in Science Deqree or Associate in Applied Science Degree. Liberal Arts pre professional and career programs wi II be available in an effort towards achieving the goals of the College. One year certificate programs and non deqree credit proqrams are also offered to meet the various educational, vocational and cultural needs of the populace.
"Athletic, social and cultural activities are provided to supplement the students learning process in the classroom. All these offerings afford the students the possibilities to realize his full potential and become a responsible member of todays society."
Potential students wi th educational deficiencies or poor financial status will be premitted every opportunity to make use of the Colleqes facilities. The community colleqe system in New York State is the primary source of post secondary education for members of financially plagued families. The ultimate expansion of Suffolk County Community Colleges into three seoerate camouses will olace the facilities within communtinq range of all the residents of the County."


The first main campus in Selden has, since its beqining contributed areatly to the community. Its specialized facilities have all been focal points for vari ous activities such as-, movies plays, workshops, and athlectics. The same will be true of the new Western Campus. Because of its location in the midst of densely populated communities and at a crossroads of two major highways, the campus is especially well suited to serve the community.


STUDY AREA
LONG ISLAND REGION
t
INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION

1 SUFFOLK COMMUNITY COLLEGE BRENTWOOD
2 SUFFOLK COMMUNITY COLLEGE SELDEN
3 SUFFOLK COMMUNITY COLLEGE RIVERHEAD
4 S U N Y AT STONY BROOK
5 S U N Y AT FARMINGDALE
6 DOWLING COLLEGE
7 L.I.U. SOUTHAMPTON COLLEGE
8 NEW YORK INSTITUTE OF TECH.
9 L.I.U. C.W. POST COLLEGE 10 S U N Y AT OLD WESTBURY I I ADELPHI UNIVERSITY
12 NASSAU COMMUNITY COLLEGE
13 HOFSTRA UNIVERSITY
14 MOLLOY COLLEGE
O 5 10 15M.
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LEGEND
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POPULATION
DENSITY
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I973 LI LCO ESTIMATE '
1970 PLACE MAP NASSAU SUFFOLK REGIONAL PLANNING BOARD
SELDEN
CAMPUS
r- 9 POP. PER ACRE 10-12 POP. PER ACRE 5M


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6-10* BELQW.pftvgRTY LEVEL 1
10* AND OVER BELOW ^POVERTY LEVEL
Minorities:
25*50* BLACK
5-10* PUERTO RICAN BIRTH OR PARENTAGE
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TRANSPORTATION
Transportation plays an important part in the future of the County and the surrounding area in a number of ways- Employment centers usually seek to locate along transportation corriders for ease in shipping goods and for acess by employees, higher income commuters to the central city (New York) look for rapid, efficient commuter service. Growth on Long Island is constrained to a degree by its lack of connection to the Boston Washington corrider except through New York City. There have been pro oosals for a bridge to connect Long Island to Connectticut but these have been opposed and have never been followed through.
On Long Island, as in most suburbs, low density development led to increasing dependence on the automobile as the means og getting every where .
Highway improvement being planned for Western Suffolk include rebuilding route 110 as a six lane limited acess highway and the Nesconset Port Jefferson Highway (route 397) as a limited access highway with a spur at Happauge to tie it to the Long Island Expressway. The Comprehensive Development Plan recommends a north south corrider expressway from Northport to Babylon Improvement to the hiqhway system would reduce the time distance ratio and make the new campus more accessable by car.
Mass transportation as an alternative to the car, or for those without cars, is and may continue to be a major problem. The railroad has stations at Pine Aire and Brentwood, approximately one and a half miles south of the campus, it seems doutful that an adeauate local rail service with bus transfers connections will be developed to serve the effectively. There are three bus routes which go fairly close to the new campus. These lines could probably be presuaded to include the college on thier routes, if so then an alternative to the automobile would exsist reaardless of present inadequacies .


n *


LAND USE POLICY
In 1966 40% of Suffolk County,s land was vacant, a total of about 972,000 acres or nearly 440 sauare miles. Obviously with the last I? years development has absorbed some of this land, but the remainder still constitutes a tremendous resource of open space and is the maior area for development in the future. The Nassau / Suffolk Reqional Planning Board stated in its I970 comprehensive Development Plan that, "Suffolk County with 41% of its land vacant, has sufficent land to satisfy its own needs, absorb some of Nassaus and still preserve the open character of the eastern towns. Because Suffolk County has more then enough land to accomodate both its projected 1985 needs and the spill over from Nassau County, it is not necessary to establish rigid priorities except for the preservation of open land
Land use policies will also affect the population arowth and the rates and types of residential development in the area surrounding the College.
The study area, with approximately 78% of the total area of the County, has over 80 industrial parks totalling 1,760 a,cres and containing about 9.7 million sauare feet of industrial office space. Judqina by the past industrial office space arowth the expansion of job oppurtunties will continue in the surroundinq area which will result in a further influx of resident population. The Nassua Suffolk Reqional Planinq Board has made a number of assumptions reaardinq residential land use. One is that the average household size will be somewhat smaller in the future. Therefore by 1985 approximately 88,000 multi family attached dwellina units could be expected to be built in the surroundinq area Of these the plan recomme nds 6% be built in exsistina older business districts with a porti on of the remainder to be built in cluster developments-, an additional 8,500 publicaly assited housing units are recommended for locations near shoopinq and public transportation. This increase in housing and industrial office development will have a direct impact on the Western Campus by stimulating:
an increasing share of the population to seek a colleqe education, a demand for career oriented traing to match employment oppurtunities,
need for continuing education.


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HISTORY OF SITE
The ?06 acre site was acauired by the County early in I974 from the New York State Department of Mental Hyqene, which operates the near by Pilgrim State Hospital Facility. It was chosen over several other Dotential sites for havinq excellent roadway accessability for bieng well placed in a heavily populated area and for being state owned property which simplyfied the transfer of the title to the County of Suffolk.
Originally the land was used orincioally as a farm to provide produce for the hospital complex. The fields were abandoned in the 1960s., and now are planted with alfalfa. A few small barns in various staqes of repair and four well pump houses dot the site. Three cottaqes and the three story Beta Building, originally a part of Pilqrim State Hospital and located on the southwest corner, have been renoveted for College use. They form the center of the present campus with a total enrollment of approximately 1,500. The prefabricated classroom and labortory, Alpha Building, was built in the summer of 1974 and housed, along with the renovated cottages the entering class in the fall of that year. The Beta Building has more then doubled the present facilities and prem.its the enrollment to double as well.


AERIAL VIEW OF SITE


VISUAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Relationship of site to surroundinq area- The 706 acre site, acauired from adjacent Pilqrim State Hospital, is a part of the hospitals oriqinal site seperated from the bulk of the property to the west by Crooked Hill Road and Saqtikos Parkway. The somewhat imposinq bulk of the dark red brown hospital buildinas. part of wh ich rise to 13 stories in hieqht, are silhoueted aqainst the west horizon-. The Lonq Island Expressway froms a barrier to the north seperatinq the Campus from the Vanderbilt Industrial Park and the Commack residential area. The Brentwood residential development of sinale houses at a density of about four per acre is situated to the east .
The sites arade rises approxima tely six or seven feet at a distance of about one hundred feet west of Wicks Road providinq a natural buffer and liftinq the campus above the eye level of the adioininq neiqhborhood.
The L.I.L.C.O. ( Lonq Island Liqhtinq Company ) hiqh tension towe rs run in a 60 foot wi de easeme nt a lonq the south property line of the site above a newl y improved road. Immediately south of the easement is a tract of about 70 acres currently zoned for residential use Southeast of the campus site and south of Pilarim State Hospital is an area of about 7 sauare mi les (aproximately 1,700 acres) of mostly undeveloped land for wh ich a wide variety of non residential uses are beinq prooosed. One use is for the Multi Town Solid Waste Manaement Corporation Plant, presently in the planninq staqe. Other proposals include an industrial park, a recreational park and a Suffolk County Coliseum Soorts Complex. Despite the unresolved nature of the plan for this section, the area immediately surroundinq the site is assumed to be relatively stable and to expect no major impact on the new camp us.
As is typical of much of Lonq Island, the sites prevadinq character istics is the flatness. It is mostly devoid of trees wi th the exception of a densly wooded area in the extreme northwest corner. The views to the south west and east seem to qo to the horizon wh ile the L. I.E forms its own horizon on the north. Transmission towers, water tanks, Pi Iqrim State Hos oital interrupt the distant view. This wi II tend to lead the desiqn towards an introverted desiqn concept.


Photos I are of the two administration cottages looking Northwest,


Photos 3 & 4 are of the main classroom bu ildinq lookinq southeast


Photo 6 is of the greenhouse and maintenance barns looking northwest.

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Photos 7 & 8 are looking northeast straiaht up the main axis of the old campus.


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CLIMATE ANALYSIS
The climate is temperate wi th some harsh wi nters and summers,
The summe r wi nds come from the southwe st at 4 to 7 mp h. The wi nter wi nds come from the northwest at 8 to 17 mph.
Good solar orientation 40 deqrees north latitude over 5,000 deqree days per year.
SLOPE ANALYSIS
The site is very flat it beqins to approach .5% slope near the eastern edqe of the site*
EXSISTING FEATURES
The exsistinq campus consists of restored barns and cottaqes.
In the northwest corner of the site there is a forty acre wooded area which would be nice to preserve.
All four side of the site are bordered by heavily traveled roads.
The southern edqe of the site is lined wi th power towers and one wa ter towe r.
VEIW ANALYSIS
This is one of the biqqest determi nants in the site desiqn.Unpleasant veiws are on all sides of the sit e wi th the only qood veiws beinq towards the wooded area and the old campus.


V




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TRAFFIC ANALYSIS
Exsistinq conditions-. The site is bounded on the east by Wicks Rd. on the north by the Long Island Expressway, on the west by Soqtikos State Parkway and on the south by L.I.L.C.O transmission lines.
Wicks road is a two lane North south town road wh ich presently accomodates 10,POO cars per day. To the north of the site Wicks Road intersect the Lonq Island Expressway wi th a full diamond interchange system.
Crooked Hill Road, which is also located west, is a diaqonal county road which connects Wicks Road on the south to Commack Road on the north. From Wicks Road to Saqtikos Parkway it exsists as a four lane divided highway., while to the north it is a two lane road
Future Traffic Conditions Full development of the campus is expected by 198? wi th the followi nq projected enrollments:
4.000 full time students
1.000 part time students
1.000 full time niqht students
. 4.000 part time niqht students
Projected College Traffic-. From previously conducted traffic studies at various campuses on Long Island the followi ng traffic generation factors have been derived-.
Full time students 2.5 one way trips per day
Part time students .5 one way trips oer day Projected College peak hour traffic for full enrollment:
Daily Volume Factor Peak hr.
(veh. per day) (peak hr daily vo[) (veh hr.)
AM peak arrivals (7-30 8-30) 7,500 .15 1,125
PM peak arrivals ( 2-00 3-00) 7,500 * .13 975
Parking reauirements- The present main campus at Selden has 4,200 parking spaces for approximately 6 500 full time students. This represents a ratio of .65 parking spaces per student. Peak parking accumulatiln 8-30 and I0-30 AM. In planing for 4,000 students parking should be provided for between 2,600 and 2,800 vehicles.


Trip Distribution Approaching S.C.C.C Campus.
WICKS £D.
24%


AM Peak Hour Arrival Volumes.
WICKS RD.
1


7
PM Peak Hour Departure Volumes
Pm Peak I Hour Total departing 975 Vehicles.

230
CROOKED HILL RD. 170
SAGTIKOS STATE PKWY


SITE UTILITIES
The 206 acre site slope gently to the south from the northwest wooded area with an elevation diffrential of approximately 20 feet. There are no watershed,drainage areas or bodies of water on the site. Stands of alfalfa and grass presently dominate the site. The ground water elevation is estimated to be around 50 to 55 feet above mean sea level or roughly 80 feet below the surface .
SANITARY COLLECTION
The anticipated sewage flow criteria for the proposed Western Campus has been estimated as 67,000 gallons per day'design capacity.
The presently exsisting 8 inch branch line from the 2.4 million gallons per day plant at Pilgrim State Hospital will be used as an interim measure until the proposed interceptor from the Southwest Sewer District is extended to the proposed campus for connection .
STORM DRAINAGE
The basic areas of land use for the proposed campus are as follows-
Parking facilities 24 acres
Roadways 6 acres
Athletic feilds 30 acres
Roof area 5 acres
Courtyard areas 4 acres
Recharge Basin 5 acres
The master planners are Investigating the possibilitie of employing an ecological basin as a part of the water recharge basin system. Five such recharge basins, developed by the New York State Dept, of Highways, are being planned at the present time in the Long Island area.


SOILS REPORT
This a summary of the soils report done by Lockwood, Kessler and Bartlett inc. Consulting Engineers.
This site is underlain to an approximate depth of 180 feet by glaciofluvial deposits of upper pleistocene age materials consisting primarily of stratified sands and gravels developed as glacial outwash lying south of the Ronkonkama Terminal Moraine. These deposits overlie the Magothy Formation which is composed of beds and lenses of fine to coarse sands and gravels, together wi th variable amounts of clays, silts and clayey and silty sands.
Verticle soil sequence consist of three distinct layers:
Layer one The organic topsoil layer, ranging up to 1.2 feet in depth.
Layer two Loam ranging from 2 to 4.5 feet in thickness and varying slightly in the quantity of fine through coarse sand and silt and clay present.
Layer three Fine through coarse, permeable sands and gravels of glacio fluvial origin.
LOAD BEARING
Layer three of the soil units is considered to posess good bearing capacity. The definition of good indicates a conservative range of bearing values of 2 to 3 tons per square foot.


GENERAL CLIMATIC DATA
The c limatic data was tabulated for one averaq year (1973)
and for a lonq term period (30 years)
Precipatation Avq. Monthly Temp. Wind
197? Lonq Term 1973 Lonq Term Direction
Jan. 3 98" 3.36" 32' 30 NW
Feb. 3.60" 3.30" 30 31 NW
Mar. 4.07 4.21 44 38 NNW
Apr. 7.88 3.52 50 47 SW '
May 484 3.64 56 57 SW
June 4.95 2.94 69 67 sw
July 3.70 3.6? 74 72 SW
Auq. 2.9? 4.31 74 71 SW
Sept. 2.JI 2.88 66 65 s w
Oct. 3.63 3.32 56 55 w
Nov. 2.72 4.24 46 44 w
Dec. 8 06 4.13 39 33 NW
Annual 52.46 43.31 53 51
Typical wind sDeeds in precentaqes.
Ca Im 14%
1 3 MPH 7%
4 7 MPH 23%
8 12 MPH 30%
13 18 MPH 21%
19 24MPH 4%
24 MPH & Up 1%


MEAN MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE (F.), JULY
Data are based on the period 1931-52. Isolines are drawn through points of approximately equal value. Caution
should be used in interpolating on these maps, particularly in mountainous areas.


MEAN MINIMUM TEMPERATURE (F.), JANUARY
Data are based on the period 1931-52. Isolines are drawn through points ot approximately equal value. Caution
should be used in interpolating on these maps, particularly in mountainous areas.


NORMALS, MEANS, AND EXTREMES
Station YORK/ NfW YORK JOHN F. KfNNfDY INTI AIRR0RT Standard hate used lASTfRN Latitude 60* 19- N Longitude 7|* 67* M Elevation (pound) 11 leel
fl** Ttnfmalwt Precipitation Relative humidity find | 11 > 2 8 1 I Mean number ot days
Normal Extremes ft i r £ 1 i li 3 0 1 z 6 j 1 a E £ J ! s > # | ; Snow Ice pellets 1 X 01 (1 5 07 -oca I II lie g X 1* r) i i 11 JI Fastest aik X i £ Sunrise to S s ll H h ii 51 ! 1 ? a X Tempe Max ratures Mm
a S i s i 5 t s § a e 1 11 if m B Z II x a > a 0 s 1 s C a i I > s !: i S > I § 1 <5 8 > 1 u fl f o t 11 £ 2 1 s 3 & s g 3* 2 S o 3
(a) (b> J J 0 25.6 11.9 6 A 1967 0 1961 1029 1.21 5.77 1949 0.21 1956 l.*0 1959 7. A 17.* 1965 11.0 1964 66 70] 59 66 ii.) 52 26 1966 6.0 9 l* 10< 2 2 0 9 25
F 11.5 2 A 7 31.6 62 1965 -2 1963 933 2.91 5. A 6 1960 1.73 1 96 2 7 1 75 6 25.3 1961 19.9 ,1969 6 70 51 61 11.9 66 23 1967 6.6 T 11 10 2 3 c 6 21
H 0.9 11.A It. 7 72 1961 7 1967 15 A. 15 7.93 1953 1.35 196* 2.27 1962 5.0 21 1 1960 t.l 1967 69 71 57 61 11.6 6 A 21 1971 6.0 10 11 12 2 l 1 0 1 15 o'
A 57.5 AO.A a9.0 62 1 96 A 26 1969* AlO l.At 6.60 1964 1.12 1963 2.12 1*71 0 A 1.2 1971 1.2 1971 71 70 35 63 ll.C AA 26 1970 6.1 7 10 11 11 a i 1 0 0 2 0
M 69.5 50.9 60.2 99 1969 1A in* 167 3.67 6.1* 1951 0.1 1955 2 1961 T T 1967 T 1967 75 70 55 67 ll.t 15 26 1 9 6 9 6.1 7 12 12 H 0 i 3 1 O' 0 0
J 79.1 60.9 70.1 99 196 a A5 19fe7 12 3.55 *.27 1962* T 1949 l.ftl 1961 0.0 0.0 0.0 7* 72 51 71 10. 12 10 1967 *.0 7 12 11 0 A * 1 0 0 0
A. 7 67.1 75.9 10A 1966 55 1963 0 A 0* .At 1969 0 A 6 1954 1.21 1969 0.0 0.0 0.0 77 71 57 70 10.6 17 16 1969 6.2 6 11 12 9 0 5 1 * 0 0 0
A 2. 9 66.0 7 A 5 97 1969 *6 m> 0 A.97 17.41 1955 0.67 16A 6.59 1955 0.0 0.0 0.0 71 75 57 70 10.6 A 6 10 1965 3.6 11 10 0 5 2 1 0 0 0
s 76.7 59.3 67.6 9A 1961 AO 1963 36 A. 16 9.60 1960 0.70 1951 5.11 I960 0.0 0.0 0.0 79 7# 57 70 10.6 A0 >0 1970 5.6 10 10 10 0 2 1 1 0 0 0
0 65.9 A9.J 57.6 It 1967 25 1961 2A 3.21 6 A 1 1999 3.09 1963 1.21 196* T 0.5 196? 0.5 1962 76 77 56 69 11.1 19 26 1967 3.2 11 u 7 0 1 1 0 0 1 0
N 51.2 39.1 A6.2 73 1971* 20 1967 56 A 3.51 7.19 1963 1.10 19*9 2.93 1961 0.2 2.1 1967 2.1 1967 72 75 3 7 12.1 46 05 1968 6.6 7 9 l 11 a 2 0 0 5 0
0 *1.1 21.A JA.9 66 1962 5 1962 933 3.25 6.16 1969 (1.66 1971 I.0J 1961 5.5 16. A 1960 . 2 1960 71 7> 1 66 12.6 66 06 1969* 6.2 1* 11 2 1 0 5 10 o'
uJl. fl 6. AUG. JUN. AUG. Ml. FEB. JAN.
YR *1.1 A5.1 51.2 10a 1966 -2 1963 n 4 J .93 17.61 1955 T 19*9 6.59 1955 27.1 25.1 1961 19.9 1969 76 71 57i 67 12.0 52 26 1966 6.0 96 122 167 IP 21 11 11 21 91 1
10 For the period June 1961 through the current year.
$ Greatest calendar day through March 1969.
# Greatest calendar day August 1966 through March 1969.
Station Nf 4 YORK# NE H YORK
IfmprUluK
£ lA GUARDI A AIRPORT
Slandnid lime used EASTtRN
i.lrulion I ground.
Relative
h umiJily
Mrar numhei .>1 da vs
__ t T ' ... _ P _ £ Sunrise ] 1 rm pel. iluir
Normal Exliemes (ft j Snow Le pellets Fasiesi it. ile r _ Id V.. 1
9 r i 5 - 3 4 - 8 sense a 1 e *
' S c - * C X 8 * X - \ 5 , | 6 = * T t | '
X S m 1 a t i i a t l X o H X a v B t J a 1 5 ; 2 e 8 z If X E X I £ e E * t ? < 1 s 5 % X E f li j A t \ X - 2 01 (1 ox a 19 i l 5 f 1 s * i I £ j | _ J! 1 c § E i/ -i r- ij f X §! 4 2 A f z? y 3 o A.
X E j _
(a. b. - l! t 27 27 27 9 9 9 9 23 i* n 22 21 27 21 23 9 ; 9 9
J 19.6 27.5 11.6 66 1967 1 1966 9 7 J 1.31 3.77 19*9 10.76 1*70 2.12 |19*4 6.6 16. 1 19*6 *.0 1964 62 64 36 57 14.2 xAx *6 Nfc 1936 6.4 6 13 n 2 2 ol 11 24 0
F A0. A 26.6 11.6 61 1971 -2 1963 679 3.09 5.76 19*0 il.17 1966 2.90 !l9*l 4 21.3 19*7 17.A 196 1 M 64 54 36 14.2 mNh *4 NE 1956 6.4 7 7 l* 10 2; 1 0 b 71
N *M 13.6 40.6 77 1963 10 1967 750 A.23 6.71 1933 |0.67 1966 3.25 5.4 16.* 193R 13.3 I960 64 67 54 56 1A. 3 Nu *0 Nw 1959 6.1 8 * 1* 11 i! l 1 0 1 11 0 '
A 5v. 1 43.0 51.2 A 1964 27 1969 *1* 1.57 7.36 1961 1.21 19s2 2.52 1956 0.6 6.4 1956 6.A 1956 63 06 49 5* 11.1 NH 59 u 1961a 6.1 J 10 11 11 a 2 1 0 0 1 0
N 70.7 53.4 62.1 95 1962 36 1966 12* 1.56 7.42 19*6 0.43 ; 1 964 3.02 1966 T 7 1961 T 1961 67 67 50 36 11.7 NE 52 nh 1935 6.1 1? 11 11 . 1 2 1 0 0 0
J 0.0 61.0 71.5 97 * 1967 6 3.36 b. 16 1966 .0.0 3 19*9 3.26 ;l**t 0.0 0.0 0.0 70 71 * S 5* Nn 1952 5.9 1 1 11 9 C 4 4 1 0 0 o!
J .t ct.s 76.6 107 1966 37 11969a 0 1.71 9.27 i960 ;0.*9 jl93A 3.62 ;i*7l 0.0 0.0 0.0 7G 70 51 39 10.A S 59 Nn 493* *. 1 7 1? 12 9 0 5 1 5 ! 0 0 o!
A 2.6 67.6 75.4 9a 1966* 1965 C 3.06 16.03 11935 jO 2* 1964 7.11 ,1955 0.0 0.0 0.0 71 73 2 60 10.1 S *1 Nn 1956 3.6 12 11 9 3 , 5 l 1 0 0 3
s 76.2 61.1 66.6 94 1963 AA 1961 27 1.92 6.0* 19*4 |0.62 .1941 0.06 .1963 4.52 11969 0.0 0.0 0.0 71 73 55 *2 11.0 5 70 NE i960 5.6 10 9 11 8 c i 2 1 0 c 0
0 65.9 51.) 56.6 5 196 7 30 11969 223 3.17 9.09 19*3 3.16 4**3 T 1.2 1962 1.2 1962 *9 72 51 61 11.7 S- 66 SE 195* 5.1 11 * 11 a 1 1 0 1 0 0
N 53.6 *1.0 *7.A 76 1971 1967 526 3.39 7.92 1931 1.03 !19a9 !. 1961 0.5 *.0 1*33 4.0 195 3 67 70 57 62 12.6 rnx *6 N11951a 6.* 7 9 1* 10 a 1 0 0 1 0 i
0 42.A 10.1 16.4 66 1970a 3 1962 67 3.19 5.62 1967 i0.ll 1933 1.44 1**1 6.7 26.6 19*7 22. 19*7 63 67 60 *1 11.7 HN. 56 Nm 1931 6.3 9 14 10 2 1 0 i 3 16 o 1
JUl . Fit. AUG. JUN. AUG. OF C 0EC. Sf F.
YR 52.0 47. J 54.7 107 1966 -2 1963 *611 *4.22 16.03 1933 10.03 Il9*9 7.11 11*35 26.6 26.6 19*7 22.6 19*7 67 69 53 39112.4 HNm 70 NE I960 *. 1 93 117 15111* 24 14 l* 22 7 6 1
J For pei iod May 762 thn> igh the urrent year Means anil extremes ahove are fiuc existing and (u Lowest temperature -7 in February IVaJ.
in the locality as I olio
Average daily solai tadiahon langleyt


I
** cs o' t o j > > c k c z r r f~ r a 1 o i r a a no* £ 3 i i 323 505 -' S 3 * .V s-liiSi : ~ 9 f H J O f I > ^ f zf u* -* 9 ^ U 1* < ST AT IOW I 1- -
MM MMW >- M M M w 9 N 9 \J* MOI^M N J *J w ^ kj M M ui w m Kj j w >- >u M M W H >4 w M M fit M W > M M W M >g N M ^ M N N w H-g^NW o o f oi m o n o 9 um o f >g o o r a m o r >g o m o o 9 a ^ ai m o r a m oo r t -j oo *g o r bm Frrrie (tirnkoK troperalure
OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO 00030 00003 ooooo ooooo mrr rrnr rrn; rrfrr rrrtr yiiyy rtrrr uyty rrm ;rr?T yysty rrrrr rrrir nrr? WOWU HUtOMO O > oig 900 > Wr-lg WOmOh r*M0**0 O g O H O O "J ON O 099 NgO^O MM OigO W-M NON ON ^ t UO O 4- -4 -4 9> O O V* O M N O O g O -4 WM m U> O M O N M O W M HI V* M f M M H Cl a N O J MMM W ^ M i#MO- l*a date of laet Spring occurrence
*-* MMMMW M Q H M M H > M ^ O O MM^OO O M *- K H M - O M H> MMO o M MMMM MH H>0 O M M o O M O O O m *- H m O O O <> o mm Q A mm O O 6 o Q mm m mO O O mm O O* (iii iiiii iiiii iiiii iiiir iiiti iiiTT Mill iiiii iiiiT iiiii iiiii iiiiT o W NO N HI M M O M mOMmO OmOM O OMOMm M OM mm O M O M m M M m 0 90 mOmOm nMm 9 Ohm Om M M O M m MON^W 40000 O > M o H 40 HH M M g o > 4 <1 9 J 4 4 m 4 S O m 09*40*4 9 4 4 0 4 9 m f 4 o S O M g O 999x441 O M O 9 W *49900 Mean date of ftrat Fall occurrence
M 4 M M M MMMmm M M M M m \|MMmm M MMMm mMmmm N N N Mm m mmm M m M m mmmmm MMMMM m m m MM MMMMM MMMMM mmmmm MMMMM 99999 MMMMM MMMMM *4 *4 *4 *4 *4 *4 *4 *4 *4 *4 OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO *4*4999 99999 04999 OOOOO 00900 OOOOO 99999 MMMMM OOOOO *4*4*499 Tear* of record Spring
MMMMM m m *4 M MMMMM MMMMM *4 *1 *4 *4 *4 99999 MMMMM 44*4*444*4 MMMMM MMMMM OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO *4*4999 99999 04999 OOOOO 09900 OOOOO 99999 MMMMM OOOOO *4*4*499 No. of occurreocea in Spring
MMMMM MMMMM MMMMM MMMMM MMMMM *4 *4 *4 *4 *4 MMMMM MMMMM MMMMM *4 >4 *4 *4 *4 OOOOO 99999 99909 99 99999 0999-4 9999-4 99999 49000 99999 *4 *4 *4 *4 *4 OOOOO OOOOO Teara of record Fall
*4*444*4*4 44*4*4*4 *4 14 *4 *4 *4 MMMMM *4 *4 *4 *4 *4 *4*4*4*444 *4 *4 *4 *4 *4 MMMMM *4 *4 *4 *4 *4 *4 *4 *4 *4 *4 99000 99999 O 99999 144 99999 99999 99999 99999 99000 99999 *4 -4 *4 *4 *4 OOOOO OOOOO la Fall
-* -an nOoo A A Q r r rv '"Tit 29** ill ; ? 1 3 1 5 5 1 s £ C S ~ P 5 si r* x o rOH 9 9 2 1 f r ^ x ia m ^ r H *4 ft 3 > H a
M *4 *4 V4 *4*4*49 *4 *4 44V4 *4 *4 *4 M4 *4*4*49 *4*4*49 *4*4 *49 *4 *4 *4 9 *49*49 *4*4*49 9*4*49 9999 9 9 9 9 0909 O 9 M 009 09 90909 90909 9090*4 909 09 90909 90909 9090*4 90909 90909 9090*4 Free/# tDreeOold tenperature
ooooo ooooo ooo oo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooo oo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo ooooo trm firry rrrtt nttf mrr rrm tmrr mrr mrr rfur rrftt rmr mrr 9090 O d 0 9 M4 900 9 0 9 9 9 0 9 O 99 9 099 9 6 O O O 9 9090 9090 99)909 -4 444 90 0 9 0** 0404 90990 99 9 009*99 999 99909 9009 99099 99990 Mean date of 1aat Spring occurrence
nrj? rfff? ntf? mr? r???f ytyYY rr?f? YYvr? yyyy? YYYff yyyy? yyyyy yyyy? 00909 9 9 O O 9 0 9 0 9 0 9 09 99 90 09 O 9909 O 0 9 90909 9 O 9 0*4 099 !"*">> o 9 9 90 f 4 409 44 099-4 999 99 9900 9999*4 *19999 *99* 09*90 09*09 Mean date of flret Fall occurrence
9*49 9 999 9 9 9 9 999 9 9 h 999 99 mm^mh 9 999 99 O M O 9 C O -40x409 900* Ml* 9 *# O M* O 9 909*9 0*9 900* O O O W- 4 09- 0 9 V* O *4 *9900 0*099 09*490 Jo<4 *9 99090 09099 W9M- ai 449 00090 00900 Mean No. of day a beteeen datea
4 4 4 4 4 4 4444 99999 99999 999 99 99999 99999 99999 99999 99999 Teara of record Spring
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 99999 99999 999 99 99999 99999 99999 99999 99999 OOOOO 9 OOO OOOOO 000-49 OOO OO OOOOO 900** 0 0 9 9 0 999-4-4 OOOOO OOOOO Mo of occurreocea In Spring
OOOOO HHt-HH OOOOO 99999 99999 9 9 9 99 99999 99999 999 *4 99999 99999 OOOOO 99000 OO OOOOO ***** 44444 4 4a OOOOO 0999 0090* 4M444 9 a da a OOOOO Teara of record rail
90000 *4 90000 99999 99999 99 999 99999 99999 999 99999 99999 OOOOO 9*4000 OO OOOOO ***** *4444 441 OO OOOOO O 9 9 00*40* 44444 OOOOO In Fall
FREEZE DATA


I
MEAN SEASONAL SNOWFALL, INCHES
Data are based on the period 1931-68. Isolines are drawn through points of approximately equal value. Caution
should be used in interpolating on these maps, particularly in mountainous areas.


NORMALS BY CLIMATOLOGICAL DIVISIONS
Taken from "Climatography of the United States No. 81-4,
Decennial Census of U. S. Climate'*
TEMPERATURE (T)
PRECIPITATION (In.)
STATIONS (BY DiVtMOAAl 1 JAM i Ml MAI AMI JUNt MJIY auG J otc
WESTERN PLATEAU ALFREO 23.5, 23.4 30.9 43.5 54.7 63.6 07.4 68.7 89.2 49.C 37.1 25.9
ALLEGANY STATE PARK 25.6 26.3 32.6 44.8 55.4 6). 8 67.8 06.0 59.8 49.9 38.3 27.0
ANGELICA 24.5 24.2 32.0 44.5 55. ) 64.5 08.6 60.7 89.9 49.5 37.9 20.7
CORNING J . . . . . .
ELMIRA IT.l! 27.0 34.7 47.2 60.4 67.6 72.0 69.7 62.4 61.7 40.8 2 9.7
HASK1NVILLC . . .
OLEAN * | * *
DIVISION 24.7 24.6 32.1 44.7 58.7 64. 7 68.7 66.9 60.2 49.8 38.2 27.1
eastern plateau
BAIN8R10GE . ,
OINGhAmTON WSO 2 3.81 2 3.8 31.3 43.5 88.1 63.5 68.4 66.5 89.5 49.8 38.0 26.8
COOPERSTOWN 22.7; 23.0 31.0 44.1 56.3 04.4 68.7 66.6 69. 7 49.4 38.0 28.7
CORTLAND 23.7! 23.5 31.3 44.3 55.8 05.2 70.1 08.1 60.6 50.3 38.6 26.7
OCLHI 2 SW 23.7 23.9 31.6 44.2 55.4 64.2 68.4 06.6 59.0 49.5 38.1 26.2
F9EEHOL0 2 nw 26.0127.2 35.8 4 0.4 69.7 60.9 73.4 71.1 63.3 62.8 41.2 29. )
morpisvillE 2C.8! 20.7 29.0 42.3 53.5 62.9 67.4 65.4 50. 1 47.7 36.6 24.0
NORWICH l NE 22.3 22.3 30.8 44.0 54.7 64.0 68.4 66.8 59.2 48.6 37.5 25.1
R0K8URY 23.4 23.9 31.8 44.1 65.2 63.8 68.3 60.5 59.2 49.0 38.0 26.2
SHCR0URNE 2 S ' * *
DIVISION 23.7' 24.0 32.1 44.8 66.0 66.0 69.5 67.6 00.3 50.0 38.5 26.5
NORTHERN PLATtAU
3IG MOOSE 3 E . .
hiGhmaRKET . 1 . . .
hOFFmEISTER 3 w . . . , .
HOPE . . . . . .
INDIAN LAKE 2 SW 16.8; 16.9 25.4 30.) 80.8 89.9 64.1 62.2 65.0 44.61 32.8 19.6
LAKE PLACIO CLUB 14.9; 15.6 24.8 38.6 61.3 60.7 64.9 02.7 68.2 44.0 32.1 18.4
LOWVILLE 16.3 19.2 26.3 42.7 54.9 64. J 68.7 66.8 59.2 48.5 35.9 22.)
LYONS FALLS . . . . . .
SOUTH EDvaROS 1 E . 1 . . . . .
STILLWATER RESERVOIR 14.4114.4 23.9 38.5 81.7 61.1 65.8 63.9 66. 3 46.4 32.8 18.2
TUPPER LAKE SUNMOUNT 14.3 17.C 25.7 39.3 52.1 61.3 65.4 63.4 85.8 46.4 33.1 19.6
VANAKENA RANGER SCHOOL 16.8 17.4 26.2 40.3 52.9 61.6 65.7 63.9 86.6 46.1 33.9 20.2
01VI SION 16.4j 17.0 27.1 39.6 62.3 61.4 65.7 63.7 86.3 45.8 33.5 19.9
COASTAL BRIOGEHAMPTON I 32.0 31.9 37.6 46.6 86.1 65. 71.) 70. 7 64.4 88.1 45.3 34.8
NEW vCRK CNTBL OK WSO 33.2 33.4 40.8 51.4 62.4 71.4 6.0 78.1 08.8 58. 3 47.0 38.9
NY JOHN F ENNE0Y (NAP 31.8 31.6 38.7 49.0 60.2 70.1 76.9 74.8 67.8 57.6 40.2 34.9
N Y LA GUAROIA VSO 33.6 33.6 40.8 51.2 62.1 71.5 70. t 75.4 68.8 58.6 47.4 30.4
SCARSOALE 30.5 31.2 38.5 49.7 60.8 69. 74.3 72.7 65.6 85.3 44.2 33.1
SETAUKET 33.Oj 32.8 39.2 49.5 69.8 60.4 73.8 ' 72.5 66.3 87.1 40.8 35.8
' Ml MAI AM MAT JUM JUl* AUG >F OCT , MOV D*C 4NM
45.3 2.28 2.08 3.29 3.08, 3.79 3.09 3.46 3.29 2.99 2.98 2.03 2.3) 18.9 i
40.4 2.84 2.78 3.46 3.49 4.27 4.27 4. *6 3.62 4.38 3.44 3.77 3.C7 43.30
46.2 2.11 1 .81* 2.9 4 2.7? 3.37 3.46 3. 39 2.99 2.09 2.42 2.89 2.C 9 3 2.7.
1.84 1.69 2.74 2.98 3.92 3.18 3.71 3.0 2.9 2. 73 2.41 2.19 : 4.: 9
49.0 1.88 1*9? 2.98 '.00 3.94 3.37 3 0 3.97 2.04 2.70 2.49' 2.2? 4.
. 1.87 1*9? 2.81 2.8* '.64 3.46 '.*2 3.28 2.01 2.71 2.40 2 .Cf ).7:
* 2.40 2.22 3.08 3.39 3.85 3. '7 3.92 3.00 '.30 2.47 2.88 2.4t 37.11
40.4 2.3) 2.26 J. 1 ' 3. 4 3.82 3.60 3.*9 3.44 3.20 2.04 2.91 2. 1 37.54
2.77 2.6 3.20 3 34 3.77 3.07 8*. 1.71 3.44 3.26 3.00 3.C* 4?.65
46.0 2.50 2.19 2.89 2.94 3.49 3.08 3.?1 3.47 1.98 3.09 ? 8 l :.56 36.2-
48.7 2.90 2.74 3.22 3.3 3 3.9 3 3.77; 4.27 3. <0 3.70 3.49 3. 32' 3.37 41 9
40.8 2.81 2.83 3.84 3.21 3.78 3. 70 4.10; 3.7- '.53 3. 36 2.99 3.21 40.66
46.Oj 2.78 2.66 3.19 3 3 21 3.99 ).92| 4.62 j 4.211 3.90, 3.44 3.40 2. *6 42.23
49. 71 2.40 2.33 3.09 3.10 3.88 3.29 3.63 3.13 3.92 3.08 3. 38 3.0) 39.8*
44.0! 2.5 J 2.88 2. 98 3.07' ' .05 3.87 '.74' 3.01 3.44 3.62 2.90, 2.00 10.7.
46. 3 2.81 2.81 3. 39 3.41 3.71 3.89 4.?8 3.46 3.42 3.48 3.2 3 3.00 40.7 >
46.8 3.01 2*62 3.44 3.60 3.90 3.07 4. '4. 3.90' 3.78 3.63 3.81 2.9a. 4 2.2 7
* 2.39 2.16 2.98 3.20 3.4 8 3.89 4.1) 3.80 3.07 .26 2.94 9 * 10.0?
40.51 2.81 2.61 3.24 3.38 3. 78 3. 70 4.1 7 3.39 3.00 3.40 3.24 2.77 40.79
*.02 3.68 3. 74 3.79 4.00 3.39 4.89 3.70 4.7) 4.V9 4.41 4.40 69.4 ;
. 4.12 3. 4.09 4.34 4.44 3.62 '. * 4.0 7, -..,0 5.11 4. 0| 4.40 0 2.02
4.12 3.82 4.4 2 4.29 4. 3 3 4. 6 8.-4 4.:7, 4.9) '..62 4.66I 4.-0 8 > 9 5
. >.81 3.32 3.78 3.80 3.07 3.74 4.46 j 4.; 3.6" 4.; 3.9 5 48.06
40.5| 3.16 2. 70 3.1 l 3.35; 3.72 4.32 '. i 0, 4.-9 *.62 ? 9' 3.44 4 1.4-
40. )! 3.1 3 2.97 3.24 2.70, 3.28 3.07 3.96 3.41 3.74 2.92 2.90' 3.19 39.16
<4. 1 2 86 2.81 3.01 3.08' 3.25 2.00 3.2 71 3.00 3.28 3.41 3.54 3. 6 '3 3 9
3.83 2.9? 3. 30 3.30 3.72 3.12 4.11, 3.2 '..10 4.39 4.12 3.40 43.84
3.03 2.89 3.05 3.38' 3.99 3.47 4.10 3.79 4.26 3.94 3. 7 3.69 4 3.12
40.51 3.01 3.68 4.08 3.91| 4.06 3.91 4.92' 3.99 4.S0 4.48 4. 32 4.41 49.91
41.2! 2.44 2.29 2.60 2.64 3. '0 3. J* 3.97 3.93 3.68 -3.12 2.79 2.6 7 36.74
41.8 3.06 2.83 3.17 3.2 4 3.61 3.8 3 4.10 3.40 6.02 3.01 3.80 '.0 4 l 9 J
41.5 3.26 2.97 3. 38 3.24 3.80 1.50 *21 3.89 4.06 . 7| 3.66 -.6 3 4 2.02
60.9 4.20 3.59 4.6 1 3.6 2 3.44 2.89 2.02 4.42 3.07 , .8 4.66 4.10 4 8 f
54.8 3.31 2 84 4.01 3.m3 3.07 3.31 3.70 4.-4 3,0 3.14 3. 39 * 21 4 J 7
53.2 ' J.2) 2.93 4.;8 3.40 3.07 3. 3 4.04 *..97 4.: 6 3.21 3.4J 3.23 4 3
84. 3.31 3.00 4.2 3 3.87 3.88 3. 38 3.71 8.00 3.92 3. 3 L. 9 3. 39 44.22
82.r 3.36 2.78 4. 19 4.10 4.21 J. 79 4.1 4.90 4.40 3.91 4. J" ).7> 49.. 8
52.9 ' 3.87 1 ).1 4.20 3.70 3.88 3.40 3.88 4.iJ 3.91 3.36 4.12 3.66 44.65
DIVISION
MUOSON VALLE v
ALBANY WSO ALBANY
3EDFORO MILLS CARMEL X SW CONKL I NOV I LLE DAM
MCCMANICVILLE 2 S MOMONK LAKE POUGHKEEPSIE SCHENECTADY SNITmS BASIN
SPIER FALLS WARWICK VEST POINT
32.2 32.4.39.2
49.4 ; *>9.9
69.Ij 74.6 73.l 66.3'66.6i46.9i 35.0|
22.7'23.7'33.0 *6.2;37.9i67.3 72.1 70.0161.6 30. 39.I 26. ;23.7 26.7 33.7,48.4; 39.9169.0' 74.0 71.?|63.7|33.1!4l.7 29.. 29.61 SC.sl38.2 49.8 60.6:69.31 74.3 72.4 63.1 34.8 43.1 32. ,26.4 27.C*j 33.li 47.2| 37.81 66.3 71.7 70.01 62.8! 32.8 41.4 29.
26.01 26.8| 34.3,46,7' 38.11 66.1! 70.8 68.9 61.9! 32.01 60.6 28. 27.3!26.3 37.3!69.3'60.7!69.6 74.6 72.4 64.6j34.0 42.6 30. 123.6124.6|33.7 46.9139.0!68.3j73.2 70.662.431.4; 39.8 27.
I i # i # j I # i ' *! *! * i
22.i;23.2|32.7 46.O138.1:67.4'71.8 69.9i62.1.31.2 39.2!26.
. . j . | . . i . ! . . I . .
28.2i29.3;37.3 49.6i60.6!69.6 74.9 73.0 63.3 34.9 43.2' 3l.
32.8 3.64 3..4 4.37 3.73i 3.71 J.J9
47.6 2.47 2.20 2.72 2.77 3.471 3.23 49.9 2.31 2.26 2.86 2.90(3.62 3.74
51.7 3.32 2.83 4.00 4.02 4.0713.94 49.Oi3.34 2.73,3.76 3.70 4.3313.90
. 3.43 3.13(3.60 3.47 3,261 3.34
j | I ;
. 2.3l>1.97'2.43 3.0113.47 3.82
48.4! 3.48 3.38l 3.91 4.44 4. 33,3.98 31.0,2.89 2.43 3.09! 3.631 3.37( 3.48 48.4 2.3712.29 2.87 2.84 3.28 3.30 . 2.64 2. U 2.71 3.24 3.1913.94'
47.3 3.09 2.64 3.14 3.3313.26 3.42 !3.00 2.33 3.68 3.7313.79;4.04 31.3!3*34,2.96 4.16 4.08 4.20; 3.83
3.70 4.60 3. '.4914.07 3 6 2.77 2.70 2.39 j*>.08 4.29 3.3C 4.0C 2.84 2.9C-2.7? 3.93 4.00 4.37 4.11 3.70: ?.92 3.99 47.*4
4.71 4.61 4.24 3.63 4,12' 3.49 46.7C 3.97 4.46 3.46. 3.33 3.73 3.63 42.lt
3.97' 3.17 3.4 3.06 2.93 2.t? 37.08
4.71 4.20 4.26 3.88 4.0JI 3.6t 4,.9t 4.13 3.89 3.6 3.04 3.35 3.CC 60.21 3.46 3.26 3.55 2.91 2.60 2.*2 34.83 4.42 3.03 3.64| 2.8 7 3.29, 2.60 3 83
3.863.17 3.23 2.98 3.38 3.19 38.*8
4.40 4.40 3.94 3. ?-? 4.03 3. 39 4 4.29
4.40 4.08 4.18 3.66 4.10 3.80 *6.71
DIVISION
26.2126.2j 34.7,47.3151.7j 67.5,72.4
62.6! 52.0 4Q.6 28.5 48.81 3-06 1 2 .62 3.42 3.62 : 3.82 I 3.79 4.30 38 3 3.92 3.29*4.61 '.23 42.51


FLORA AND FAUNA INVENTORY
This inventory was taken area of the proposed site.
Flora Inventory
Trees
Aspen, Biqtooth Aspen, Quaking Birch, Gray Cedar, Red Cherry, Black Charry, Choke Crabapple Dogwood Locust., Black Mulberry Oak Black Oak Scrub Oak, White Peach Pear
Pine, Eastern white Pine Scrub Sassafrass Spruce, Norway Sycamore
Trees Planted Along the Parkway
Ash, Norhtern Mountain Ha wthrone
Pine Japanese Black Willow
n the TO acre northwest woodland
Bushes
Burrdock Dogbane Dwarf Sumac Multi Flora Rose Pokeweed
Tartarian Honeysuckle
Wildf lowers
Alfalfa Clover Allsike Clover Asparaqus, Wild Aster
Black Eyed Susan Cinquefoil Curlydock Dande lion Goldenrod Ground Nut Hawkweed Horse nettle Ironweeed Lanceleave Mi Ikweed Mustard, Wild Pearly Everlasting Pepperqrass Rag weed Self Head Spanish Bayonet St. Johns Wart Thistle


Vines
Bitter Nightshade Bittersweet Blackberry Wild Grape, Wild Honeysuckle Poison Ivy Raspberry, Wild Viriqinia Creeper
The remaining 176 acres of the site contains the following
species.
The perimeter of the entire site is basically Broom Grass, Orchard Grass, Pepperqrass, Goldenrod and Aster. The interior of the site consists of Alfalfa Grass which is cut and baled twic e each year


FAUNA INVENTORY
birds Animals
Blue jay Chipmunk
Crow Cottontail
Goldfinch Grey Sauirre!
Grackle Meadow Mouse
Junco Mole
Meadowlark Oppossum
Mockinqbird Red Fox
Mourning Dove Shrew
Phoebe Robin Starling Sparrows Field Sparrow Fox Sparrow Song Sparrow Vesper Sparrow White Thorated Sparrow White Footed Mouse
Warblers Black Throated Warbler Myrtle Warbler
Woodpeckers
Downy Woodpecker Hairy Sapsucker Flicker
Game Birds
Bobwhite Quail Rinq necked Pheasant-Woodcock
Birds of Prey
Piqeon Hawk Red Tailed Hawk Screech Owl Sparrow Hawk


DESIGN LIGHTING LEVELS
The below are based minimum recommendations of IES. ESI = Equivalent Sphere of Illumination F .C. = Foot Candles
Auditoriums Design Lighting Levels Exhibits 30 Assembly 10 F.C.
Lobby areas General 10 Reading 30
Audiovisual Areas 70
Offices General 100 Private 100 Conference 100
Foodservice Leisure Dining Light environment 30 Subdued 15 Qiuck Service Light surrounding 100 Normal 50 Cashier 50 Entrance Foyer 30
Reading Areas Printed Material 30 Study and Note Taking 70
Table Games 30
General Lighting Conversation ,Entertainment, 10 Passage Areas 10 Corriders and Stairways 20
Exterior Lighting
Entrances Design Lighting Levels (F.C) Active (main,pedestrian, conveyance) 5 Inactive ( normally locked, infrequently used) 1
Building surrounds


Bulletin and Poster Boards
50
Roadway
Parking Areas
Between or along buildings I Not Bordered by Buildings .5
H.V.A.C. DESIGN CRITERIA
Outdoor Conditions
Eauipment Design Parameters Control Setting Parameters
Summer 95'F DB 75'F DB 88 F DB 76' F DP
Winter 0' F DB 15 mph wi nd 5' F DB 15 mph wind
Indoor Conditions
Summer Air conditioned spaces 78'F DB 50% RH 80- F DB 50%rH
Areas with low sensible heat ratios. 77' F DB 60% RH 79-F DB 60% RH
Winter 72F DB 70' F DB
Showers, Lockers, and other simi lar areas . 80 F DB 75'F DB


STRUCTURAL
Code rquirements dictate the new buildings will be fireproof construction. Both steel and concrete framing systems are being looked at as to over all economy which must include consideration of loads, spans, fireproofing, building volume, mechanical systems, flexibility, thermal characteristics, and cost. At present it seems likely the both structural materials will be used as dictated by the nature of the design.
\


A CASE FOR SOLAR ENERGY
There is a severe energy problem in Hie United States. Many Americans have become aware of this but only because of factors like the last two severe winters, a coal strike in the midwest, the oil embargo of late 1973, and the recent unrest in Iran. Even with this belated energy awareness Americans are still not taking the intiative to conserve energy. Most of the public feels that these incidents are unique phenomenons that will pass leaving things as they were before. Some important facts that many individuals do not know is that the U.S. imports about 50 % of its oil, and that the U.S. consumes a third of the worlds energy but only make up 6 % of the worlds population.
People must become aware of what is actually happening, which means increased public education on the energy problem is necessary. In 1952 the government stated that "energy consumption would double by 1975" When 1975 rolled around it had actually tripled. The U.S. uses thirty times the energy thier grandparents did.
The supplies for our main source of energy, oil, are depleting very quickly but each american citizen still uses 3.3 gallons of oil per day, 50% of wh ich is imported. It is obvious that alternative forms of energy are needed and should be explored. It is the moral obligation of anyone who is envolved in an energy consumi ng project to consider all of the alternative energy sources available to them, and to pick the one which is most benefical to them and society.
OUTLINE OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES
Shale Oil Shale oil from rock in the western U.S. exsist in large quanties but the prospect is grim. One ton of earth must be moved to provide one barrel of oil at close to 20 dollars per barrel.
This process also reauires great amounts of water which Is be corn! ng very scarce in the western U.S.
Coal Another fossil fuel, coal represents four fifts of the known fuel
resources in the U.S. True it is the most abundent but it is also the most damaging to the environment. One of the extraction processes, surface mining, would have to be greatly incraesed in order to meet the new demands. The coal must also be cleaned of sulpher which requires a highly polluting


process.
Natural Gas The natural gas supply is also diminishing rapidly. Supplies
Water left range from 30 to 50 years. Every day each person consume the equivalent of 797 cubic feet of natural gas. 7 % of our total energy comes from hydroelectricity. Becauseof its nature we cannot make much more of it, even with a full scale program hydroelectricity would only yeild up to 10 % of our needs.
Ocean Thermal Presemtly there are several pilot programs underway to use
Geothermal the oceans temperature differences, varying from 45 degrees F at 1500 feet below the surface to 85 degrees F at the surface, for power generation. A prototype plant in California is in operation. Geothermal energy is limited by geography andsome environmental problems.
Nuc lear This is the most controversial energy source today, there are 71 plants in the U,S. today and about the same number under construction or being planned. Nuclear fiisons major problems are safety and waste disposal. This problem could be solved if further research and development work is seriously undertaken. Nuclear Fussion, the source of the suns heat, is a good alternative but the obstacles are great. One such obstacle is containment of the exterme ly high temperatures involved in the process. Presently it is still 70 years away from being economically comp etetive -
Wind Wind, an indirect method of solar energy, has been used for centuries in a variety of forms. It is very good alternative but still very expensive to produce electricity by it.
Solar The worlds fossil fuel reserve is the eguivalent of only three weeks of solar radiation. The energy that comes from the sun can be utilized directly for heat and electricity or indirectly through wind, plant growth, and in the thermal gradients of the ocean. The solar energy that falls on the U.S. could supply 500 times the energy needs for the year 7,000. Solar energy is still dependent on geography, wheather patterns, atmosphere conditions, cost, and public an government acceptance.


SPACE ALLOCATIONS
I. Food Facilities
Dininq' 15 % of 4,500 F.T E. 675 seats
Dining Room l?5 seats @ 15 SF 'S 1875 S.F.
2 Private Dining Rooms 50 seats @ 15 SF 'S 750 S.F.
Cafe 200 seats @ 15 SF 'S 3000 S.F.
Pub 175 seats @ 15 SF 3 7S 2625 S.F.
Co op Kitchen 800 S F.
Delicatessen 75 seats @ 15SF S 1125 S.F.
Faculty Dinina 50 seats @ 15 SF 'S 750 S.F.
Vending Areas 2 @ 240 S.F. 480 S.F.
Total 675 seats 11405 S.F.
2. Food Preperation 8ulk Storage
Scramble Area 7 Service Kitchen and Dishwashing Storaqe and Walk in Refrigerator Emp loyee Areas Garbage Room VIP Pantry
Total estimated 6750 S.F.
3. Student Activities
Student Government Meeting Room 800 S.F.
Work Room 200 S.F.
Student Activities and Clubs Work File Room
20 Clubs @40 S.F. 'Club, 2 rooms @ 400 SF 800 S.F.
Poster Room 130 S.F.
Meeting Rooms, 4 Rooms @ 40 Seats @ I? SF S 1920 S.F.
Newspaper and Campus Publications Office 480 S.F.
Radio Station 480 S.F.


Lounge Area for 200 seats @25 SF.S Game Room for Noisy Activities Game Room for Ouiet Activities
5000 S.F.' 2000 S.F. 1000 S F.
Total
4. Multi Purpose Room
Flat area wi th staqe type Area at One End Coats Storage and Pantry Protection Booth
Total
5. Bookstore
6. Administration
Directors Office
Assistant Directors Office 2 @ 120 SF
Secretary 3 @ 120
Workroom Files
Meeting Room
Information Office
Ticket Office
Total
7. Storage Grand Totals
1. Food Facilities
2. Food Preperation Bulk Storage
3. Student Activities
4. Multi Purpose Room
5. Bookstore
6. Administration
7. Storage
12810 S F.
3500 S.F. 600 S. F. 200 S.F.
4300 S F.
4500 S.F.
180 S.F. 240 S.F. 360 S.F. I5C S.F. 180 S.F. 100 S.F. 100 S.F.
1310 S.F.
1500 S.F.
11405 S.F. 6750 S.F. 12810 S.F. 4300 S F. 4500 S.F. 1310 S.F 1500 S.F.
Total
42,574 S.F


COST
The original projected budjet for the Student Center was based on an anticipated bid date of Feb.28, 1977, I wi II assume an inflation rate of approximately I % per month and adjust the budjet for this rate.
Student Center Budjet 6,416,000
24 months have passed at 1% per month = 24 % increase
24 % of 6,416,000 = 1,579,840
New Budjet = 6,416,000 + 1,579,840 = 7,955,840
Approximate Cost Breakdown
Structural Frame 25.7 % 2,012,827.52
Mechanical Systems 16.9 % 1, 744,576.96
Electrical 11.7 % 899,009.92
Plumbing 5.6% 445,527.84
Vertical Transportation 5.1% 405, 747.84
Partitions 9.4 % 747, 848.96
Finish Materials 15.2 % 1,209,287.68
Engineer Architect 11.2 % 891, o54.08


DESIGN IMPLICATIONS
Three basic considerations have dictated the overall external major design concepts to be used in this design. The first and most important consideration is the automobile and the parking spaces they require. Approximately three thousand parking spaces must be provided for student vehicles. Because of this enormous amount of cars comi ng and goinq throughout the day, due to the commuter oreintation of the school, the vehicles shall be totally seperated from the pedestrian population of the campus. In this situation the student union becomes very important. It wi II serve as a destination as we II as a distribution point for students cir culatinq from the parkinq or public transportation area to the center of the campus.
The visuals aspects of the site are another reason for the introverted design concept. The site is fairly flat and is bordered by the Lonq Island Expressway to the north, a suburban development and a park and ride to the east, transmission towers, water towers and power lines to the south southwest.
The old campus, consisting of renovated brick buildings, maintenance barns and a greenhouse, exsist on a southwest northeast axsis. In order to tie the new campus in with the old campus, the new one shall also be designed along the same axsis.
The student union should be the main focal point of the campus The actual structure must function as a symbolic and magnetic core on campus. In order to accomplish this and also interact with the larger complex of the whole campus, of which it wi II be a part, the student union must constitute a complex in it self. It must offer a rich variety of spatial experiences, oppurtunities for social interactions, orientations, views, and a choice of quiet or noisy zones.
The architectural character of the Union, which wi II also serve as a direction from which the rest of the campus wi II be designed from, must be derived through many considerations. Besides the previously mentioned major considerations the unions actual character will be developed through design, by providing the union wi th its own atmosphere, its own idiom of forms, spaces, and materials all suitable to the terrain, climate surrounding community, and the exsistinq campus.
Another obviously important aspect in developing architectural character of a building is the designers own philosphy and outlook towards design. This designers philosphy does not let current fashion and polemic become the forces that single handily shape the design solutions.


(Architectural solutions will respond differently depending on the human needs for any particular problem. By this it is meant that a solution should not be determined by a dogma or an imposition of a set structure of outlines. I try to bring some constant aualities to my designs without letting them dictate any set solutions. The first is the use of light. The utilization of natural daylighting in the interior of a building for aesthetics and practical purposes. The second auality is the simplification and purification of form. This is usely accomplished by using basic geometric shapes. The third is the subordination of the structure, but not to the point where the observer loses comprehension of how loads reach the ground.
This basically sums up my philosphy on architecture except for one rule that I always follow, I can contradict myself any time I want.


FINAL DESIGN


Campus Systems Analysis






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FIRST FLOOR
1 Loadinq Dock
2 Service elevator and stairs
3 Bathrooms
4 Games and vendinq areas
5 Information Booth
6 Ticket booth
7 Fireplace sunken seatinq area
8 Bar Dininq area
9 Bathroom
10 Elevators
11 Student activity offices and meetlnq rooms SECOND FLOOR
1 Service and storaqe area
2 service elevator and stairs
3 North entry bermed up th second floor
4 Multi Purpose room
5 Bookstore ma nqer and accountants offices
6 Bookstore
7 Lobby
8 Seatinq area
9 Seatinq and qiet qames area
10 Admi nistration offices
11 Bathrooms
THIRD FLOOR
1 Storaqe and service area
2 Service elevator
3 More formal dininq area
4 Lobby seatinq area overlookinq north entry
5 Two story open space over Multi Purpose room
6 Seatinq area
7 Two story open space over seatinq and auiet qames area
8 Bathrooms
9 News paper and Publications offices


FTrsf Floor


Second FlOOr


Third Floor


Roof Plan



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SOLAR ANALYSIS
Winter Day
The east facade Kalwa II system wi II be closed in the morninq in order to deliver the auick heat buildup to the cold offices on the west side-The south facade will be open to recieve the heat qain in the thermal masses of the walls and floors*
Winter Nite
All of the Ka Iwa II systems on both facades will be closed to keep the heat from escapinq to the cool wi nter sky.
Summer Day
The Kalwa II system on the East facede will be closed in order to prevent any heat buildup from the low morninq sky.
The south facade will be mostly open with the sun beinq blocked by over hanqs and the Kalwa II system.
Summer Nite
All of the vents and kalwall systems will be open to let out as much heat as possible*


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June ?l 8am


June ?l 8am


June 91 4pm


June ?l 4pm