Citation
A light rail station for Boulder, Colorado

Material Information

Title:
A light rail station for Boulder, Colorado
Creator:
Madeira, David
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
88 leaves : illustrations, plans ; 29 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Railroad stations -- Colorado -- Boulder ( lcsh )
Local transit stations -- Colorado -- Boulder ( lcsh )
Local transit stations ( fast )
Railroad stations ( fast )
Colorado -- Boulder ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 87-88).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master's degree in Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
by David Madeira.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
08673326 ( OCLC )
ocm08673326
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1981 .M34 ( lcc )

Full Text
I
ARCHITECTURAL THESIS:
A LIGHT RAIL STATION FOR BOULDER, COLORADO
By David Madeira May 1, 1981


TABLE OF CONTENTS
BACKGROUND
Page No.
Project Proposal
- Project Description 1
- Issues Addressed 1
- Goals and Objectives 2
- Scope Limits and Product ' 2
- Personal Goals 2
- Advisory Board 2
- Schedule for Spring 1981 3
Site Location and Description 4
- Location Maps 7
- Site Selection 8
Historical Aspects 9
- Trains in Boulder 10
- Evolution of Rail Stations. 12
PROGRAMMING
Site Analysis
- Views 14
- Climate 24
- Solar Access 26
- Site Topography, Geology, Soils, and Hydrology 29
- Bus Routes Existing and Relocated 31
- Vehicular and Pedestrian Circulation' 34
- Existing Buildings on and Off Site * 36
Setback and Utilities 39
Community Context 41


Legal Restraints
Page No
- Codes 43
- Zoning 46
- Legal Description 48
Economics
- Impact of Station on Surrounding Land 50
- Retail Background 53
Retail Design Factors
- Design Factors 56
- Design Elements 58
- Space Requirements 62
Station Design Factors
- Design Factors 63
- Design Elements 65
- Space Requirements 67
- Passenger Volume Parking 68
- Rail Requirements 69
- Schematic Layouts 70
DESIGN
Description
- Concept 72
- Site Description 72
- Station Description 73
- Square Footage 75
- Drawings and Models 76
Bibliography 87


Project Proposal


(1)
Project Description
The R.T.D. has proposed several light rail lines for the Denver area, one of these is to run between Denver and Boulder. For my Master's Thesis in Architecture I intend to design the end-of-the-line station for the city of Boulder. Included in this project will be the station, it's support facilities, parking, and retail spaces.
The selection of a site for a project of this scale is a long and involved process. I have not made a detailed study of this selection since it is beyond the scope of this project, but rather have made a reasonable site selection based on basic requirements.
Issues Addressed
The design of this facility involved a coordination of highly technical factors with important sociological considerations. The success of the light rail may lie in the commuters willingness to use these stations. This project creates a unique problem in addressing public, historical, and contemporary aspects of architecture in Boulder.


(2)
Goals and Objectives
My objective is to create a facility that will enhance the use of public transportation and create a safe and pleasing environment which will make the exchange between automobile and light rail as effortless as possible.
Scope-Limits and Product
My proposal calls for the design of one light rail station and its' site. The square footage at this time is: 7,000 sq. ft. for waiting area, offices, and support facilities and an additional 6,500 sq. ft. for shops. This will include a detailed architectural design including mechanical, lighting, and structural system. The site design will include parking, landscaping, and lighting.
Personal Goals
My goals are to learn what is involved in the design of a public facility of this nature and to gain some experience coordinating a building with a highly technical element such as public transit.
Advisory Board
Michael Whitehouse A practicing architect in
Colorado.


(3)
Stephen Millard R.T.D. Technical Advisor who has worked with students in the past.
Thesis Semester Schedule
February 1st March 15th Generate alternative design concepts.
March 15th April 7th Selection of preferred alternate.
April 7th May 1st Preparation of presentation including reductions and models.


Site Location and Description


(4)
SITE LOCATION AND DESCRIPTION
The site is located in Boulder, Colorado, a city with a population of 188,000 located thirty miles north of Denver along the front range of the Rocky Mountains. Boulder is located directly against the mountains, part of the city is actually in the foothills. (See Map).
The roads bordering the site are Baseline Road (runs along the 40th parallel) to the north, 27th Street to the west, Moorhead Avenue bisecting the middle, Elm Street to the south, and U.S. 36 to the north. It is in the southern part of the city. It is readily visible from the Baseline Road exit looking west.
To the east of the site is Basemar Shopping Center and a three-story apartment complex. To the north is the main campus of the University of Colorado, and a motel and restaurant. To the east (beyond U.S.36) are several "Fast Food" restaurants and gas stations. The southern half is enclosed by single family residences continuing for several miles.
The site is bisected by Moorhead Avenue dividing it into northern and southern halves. The northern half presently has four buildings existing (described under site analysis.) with several large Cottonwoods.


(5)
The southern portion is vacant excluding one service station. There is a farmer's irrigation ditch running east to northeast (dry during the winter months.)


(6)
SITE SELECTION
Because this sight selection process was so involved, it was not a considered part of this problem. What I did do, though, was to pick a site that was reasonable in the sense of connections, locality, size, and accessability.
The preliminary plans of R.T.D. are to follow U.S. 36 to and from Denver. The tracks will run along the easements. The north half of the sight is directly connected to this easement (see Map on following page and site photo on page *). It was also important for the site to be accessible; this site is located at the intersection of two of the major roads in Boulder as well as being immediately adajecent to U.S. 36. This intersection (Baseline and Broadway) also has three major busstops within walking distance that have practically every city route serviced. There is a R.T.D. "Park and Ride" 100' to the southwest as well. This choice also provides adequate space for parking on the southern half, (south of Moorhead).


(8)


Historical Aspects


(10)
TRAINS IN BOULDER
Boulder has had a wide range of trains in it's past. Lines have run from Denver to Cheyenne, stopping at Boulder; there was even an inter-urban route running from Boulder to Louisville, to Denver, and back to Boulder, via Eldoraro Springs.
The main depot was located at the intersection of Canyon and Broadway and tracks were run down the center of the streets. The other major stop was the University, which was a modest shed located at the present-day site of the Physics building. The main depot, itself, has been reconstructed on the eastern half of the Pow-Wow property, between Folsom and 28th Street. It was built in what may be called the western Victorian style, consisting of a steeply pitched, gabled roof dominated by an almost bizarre looking turret in the middle.
Beside the train routes in Boulder, there also existed an extensive street car system serving Chautauqua, downtown Boulder, and points east. Unfortunately, this system died-out about 1931. It is interesting that the first light rail to be built in Colorado will be one serving a very similar purpose as the old


(11)
street car system. It will run from the Crossroad"s Mall down Pearl Street to the Pearl Street Mall, shuttling shoppers back and forth between the major retail centers in the city.
At a time when Boulder is trying so hard to rediscover it's architectural past (one look at the Pearl Street Mall and you will see modern street metal store fronts being pulled off to reveal the original brick or tin facades of the 19th Century style), it is worthwhile to look at a key ingredient to the past: the rail lines of old Boulder.


(12)
EVOLUTION OF RAIL STATIONS
Probably, the best examples of American vernacular architecture can be found by looking at rail stations of the past. Even the best examples of classical revival are railroad stations. Located in the heart of our best cities. The reason for this is simple, in the 19th and early 20th centuries, railroad companies were big money, and their stations were designed to reflect what the society's philosophy was about rail travel; grand, efficient, and pleasurable to travel. The architects usually had a liberal budget and endless choices of materials. People remember these stations fondly as true statements of the times, "what buildings should be."
Even some early modern stations were fine examples of harmony between architectural, highly functional, and structural aspects of the program.
The Cincinnatti station was probably the best example and is still standing because of this. After this point (1930) stations reflected a need to economize; 80% of their costs were going to maintainance of the old stations. What evolved was less station, more advertisements. Technical advancements eliminated


(13)
the need to cover the train as well as the passenger, (these were called "bush sheds", covering huge spans.*) What evolved was what we see in 90% of stations today, the"butterfly canopy". These are usually dismal concrete forms with billboards between the column bays. Like their predecessors, these new stations reflect the state of rail travel, i.e. rundown, inefficient, and a nightmare to use. A major reason why so many rail lines went out of business was that the auto-industry would buy the smaller lines and purposely let them deteriorate, increasing the public's dependency on automobile travel. Today's lack of public transit is a result of this type of planning. We have recently seen that public mass transit can work in such places as San Francisco, and allow the individual some dignity while using it. The new stations in these systems play a key role in their success, I have shown some examples of these new stations on the following pages.
*Some of our engineering advancements were iidade in developing these spans.


Site Analysis
































.

















.




















HO-'ilOrv <7WVX<7<7T


v_
(ST)




:
fggS0.
* t OfaQi
Ow.;^jr -it
5 '<#1 iilfi

IP-i
M
CTi
V
WRST


(17)


k *:*, >' !

. <* .v ' ' ; f i '-* J!rv < i^i


r

3fe-:


HRai%
£
ais&ft:
M
00




lS!
ry feMs





uaafc£*a.
.<**
l_£*£<.\Hd*
rvvsrr


(20)






;^l^pg|Sp
3 :
it; .'*>X'" i, v'-v >. .. -vi-;>£;> v..; .'/> ; 'tT*-

t^L~Z3ZtfE

V-C* t.




M


(22)




pspgfl
" r* ^jVI
fflggi
^yfc^/T.C**t jr^'4- ,.-rJ-
"'< i~^ H'$
t?-ry^A, >. h?S£


(24)
CLIMATE
The climatic characteristics of the front range are cold, dry winters dominated by continental polar masses,.and hot, dry summers influenced by continental, tropical, and maritime tropical air masses originating from the gulf. The dryness can be attributed to the front range being in the "rain shadow" of the Pacific air masses. This creates what is called a "steppe" climate, practically desert. This location, with it's varied variety of weather conditions subject to rapid change. The wet months are May June while the dry season is November December.
Boulder's location close to the mountains creates greater winds and more precipitation. Storms moving west tend to lock-in near the foothills, while "chinook" winds rip the foothill areas with gusts up to 150 m.p.h. These winds are most common during late fall and early spring. The particular climate around the site is influenced by large parking lots creating slightly warmer temperatures in the summer. The humidity is slightly less due to the lack of vegetation. The prevailing winter winds are from the northwest, while summer breezes are from the south


(25)
west. Degree days average 5381.
Average precipitation 18V year Average snow 93" year


(26)
SOLAR ACCESS
The site has good southern exposure with a slight north facing slope. There are no immediate shading problems. The residential units to the south cast a few feet of shadow at the southern-most point of the site. The only other shading that does occur is cast by the four large trees on the northern half of the site.
The diagrams on the following pages show the sun at it's critical angles, the lowest points of usable solar gain and it's high points in the warmer
months.


OOht- r ll^vO 74
(27)
^Ol-AR. /vNAL


I Q 7)


(29)
SITE TOPOGRAPHY
The site is divided into two parcels of land by Moorhead Avenue. Running almost diagonally across the site is an irrigation ditch which is used primarily during the warmer months of the year. It's depth ranges from 5' to 7' feet below grade. The high point of the site is a small knoll located near the southwest corner of the sight (5374 0"). From this point, the site slopes down from southwest to northeast, (5368' 0" 5358' 0"). This southern half of the site is presently freshly turned soil.
The northern half of the site slopes fairly steeply from Moorhead to the irrigation ditch (5362' -0" 5357' 0"). The eastern most piced of this half slopes from 5350' 0" to 4350' 0"..
SITE GEOLOGY, SOILS AND HYDROLOGY
From the soil research done when Moorhead Avenue was built it was found that the site and points south and southwest, were originally swamp and presently composed of 15' to 20' of fill. The fill consists of sand and gravel, 4' of valmont clay, 2' of sand and pea gravel, and 4' of shale.


(30)
The water table varies within ten foot distances of test bores. The closest water table is 12' from the surface, located on the northern section of the site.
VEGETATION
Presently on the sight there are four large cotton woods on the northern half, ranging from 15' to 35' in height. There are also some remaining patches of buffalo grass but, unfortunately, the majority of the soil was recently turned over to
control weeds.


(31)
BUS ROUTES
City buses are an intergral part of mass transit, and their intergration is an important to the success of a regional light rail transit system. Their role will be important in the parking problem created by light rail stations. As mentioned in a latter part of this report, in previous light rail stations the parking provided, has never been sufficient to supply the needs of the commuters. One alternative to this problem is to provide shuttle bus service to the station. I have shown existing stops and proposed locations for new stops.
Also shown is the location of an R.T.D.
Park and Ride Station; this will also be used to relieve parking congestion.
The bus drop-off for the station should not interfere with current automobile circulation, seeing that 27th Street becomes extremely busy at rush hour peaks. The drop-off should also be within reasonable walking distance for commuters.
The location shown is a two-way drop-off out of the flow of the major traffic pattern. Routes running north south can circulate through the 27th and Baseline loop, as shown.


(32)
rexesnrt^
: £>u^> rotted 4
: 5ite Lo^noi:.-


(33)
1£>|TE LQiATiai
(
4^=^ { ;*=: >v rji A.

i



(34)
VEHICULAR CIRCULATION
The site is located near the Crossroads of two of the major streets in Boulder; Broadway runs north south and is the major automobile route in Boulder. Baseline runs east west (lying exactly on the 40th latitude), and is currently four lanes. Twenty-seventh Street acts as a by-pass for the intersection of Broadway and Baseline; it also serves as a feeder to Broadway from the off ramp of U.S.36.
(See drawing).
Moorhead Avenue and Elm Street are residential feeder routes serving the residential areas to the southeast. The old Moorhead Avenue that lies to the north of the current one is no longer used (the new Moorhead was installed two years ago).
PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION
There is currently a pedestrian path from the University of Colorado/Basemar shopping Mall direction across the southern half of the site to the residential area. There is also pedestrian circulation from 27th Street down Moorhead Avenue, and some running north and south on Twenty Seventh
Street.


(35)
SITE LO/TION/

> i ; ___ -
! r


i i * 1


(36)
EXISTING BUILDINGS ON AND OFF SITE ON SITE
There are presently five buildings located on the sight; none of which have an great redeeming architectural value and are constructed in the topical low-cost commercial fashion. The buildings are located on the map on the following page and are numbered.
Building No. 1 Presently a service station Building No. 2 Don's Sandwich Shop Building No. 3 Retail Liquor Store Building No. 4 Presently a service station Building No. 5 "7-11" Food Store.
The remaining parts of the site are parking; the southern half of the site is vacant.
OFF SITE
To the east is Basemar Shopping Center:
A retail mall consisting of two fast food restaurants, a Sears Mail-Order Store, two movie theateres, and various other small retail shops. To the south of this (see map, next page) is a four apartment building. To the north lies the southern border of the University


(37)
of Colorado at Boulder Campus. The eastern and southern borders are single family residential.
Standing on the site one gets the distinct impression of facing the backside of everything around you. This is especially disturbing with the Basemar Shopping Center, where trash dumpsters and utility hookups are plainly visable.


(38)
SULPIMto
C 5IT£~ uxatiom .
iTY cr <^^U3kap£
& UMt
K^T^JL- -

1/

Sj
~Z

C3lT~^-
f ~
MTVkL-

[

6/.
<5

/


(39)
SETBACK AND UTILITIES
Presently there are sewer, water and gas lines bordering the site; sewer and water lines are both eight inches, and the gas is three inches. Electrical power is available from lines running above the side. The location of these is shown on the plan on the following page.




Community Context


(41)
COMMUNITY CONTEXT
Boulder is a unique social setting in many ways. In one sense it can be considered a suburb of Denver, a large urban metropolis and center of the Rocky Mountains, while on the other hand, it is a very tightly knit community with a high interest in community involvement. There are many ties to Denver: media (television, radio) employment (a fair percent of Boulder commutes) culture (Denver provides major performances of ballet, theatre, and music.).
Boulder's character is difficult to pinpoint.
It ranges from eastern religious sects to upper-middle class professionals. Certainly, the University has something to do with the progressive lifestyles and liberal attitudes, but Boulder is in no sense a college town. I think the influence of these different lifestyles creates a colorful corss- ^ section of community living. The presence of a high number of restaurants and night clubs is evidence of the type of life led here.
If one concern is shared by the community it is a deep concern for the environment and the preservation of the lifestyle created by living at the foot


(42)
of the Rocky Mountains. There is a great pride taken in community activities such as recycling, and the political system throughout the area. People live very active lives here and participate eagerly in issues affecting their own futures, as well as Boulder's.
The community provides excellent facilities: street maintainance, fire and police protection, and an expensive inter-city bus system. A bike path system is currently being inplemented connecting
all major areas.
Population 188,456.


Legal Restraints


(43)
PROJECT. Light rail station and small retail LOCATION. Boulder
APPLICABLE ZONING ORDINANCE. Boulder zoning code APPLICABLE BUILDING CODE. U.B.C.
ZONING CLASSIFICATION. C.B.E. PE FLOOR AREA RATIO/BUILDING SQ FT LIMITS. BUILDING HEIGHT LIMITS: STORIES. FEET. BUILDING SET-BACK AND YARD REQUIREMENTS. P. 66, see written
MINIMUM LOT SIZE REQUIREMENTS. C.B.E. = PE = 7,000 sq. ft.
OFF-STREET PARKING REQUIREMENTS. C.B.E.
300' sq. ft. PE = .5 per 300 sq. ft. SCREENING AND WALL HEIGHT REQUIREMENTS. DRIVEWAY AND CURB CUT REQUIREMENTS. N/A
N/A
35' Boulderr ice U.B.C. -
Good sq. ft.
- /Per
N/A
FIRE ZONE DESIGNATION. N.A.
OCCUMPANCY CLASSIFICATION. A, Div. 2.1, B Division 2.1. OCCUPANCY SEPARATION REQUIREMENTS. 1 hr must extend from foundation to 30" above root CONSTRUCTION TYPE. N.A.
EXTERIOR WALL FIRE RATINGS. 1. hr stations, opening
protected 10' 1. hr, no openings 5', protected 10'


(44)
EXTERIOR WALL OPENINGS LIMITATIONS. Station-openings protected 61 Retail nopenngs 5' protected 20' FLOOR FIRE RATING. Retail non-combust 1 hr, station ROOFS FIRE RATING. Retail, 1 hr, station PARTITIONS FIRE RATING. Retail 1 hr, station 1 hr.,
1 hr seperation
STRUCTURAL FRAME FIRE RATING. N/A
MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA SPRINKLERED AND UNSPRINKLERED. N/A MAXIMUM HEIGHT SPRINKLERED AND UNSPRINKLERED. N/A NUMBER OF EXITS REQUIRED. Station-line of travel from all points shall be not more than 150'.
Two exits, station sq. ft. per occupant retail 30th per occupant NUMBER OF STAIRS Two DOOR WIDTH REQUIREMENTS. 32"
STAIR WIDTH REQUIREMENTS. 44"
STAIR LANDING REQUIREMENTS. No greater than 12' between landings
CORRIDOR WIDTH REQUIREMENTS. 42" MN
TRAVEL DISTANCE LIMITS. No more than 150' from aisles DEAD END CORRIDOR LIMITS. No greater than 20-0" in length
DOOR SWING REQUIREMENTS. Exit doors must swing in
direction of travel.


(45)
STAIR AND BALCONY RAIL REQUIREMENTS. No less than 30" high, no more than 34"
RISER TREAD LIMITS. lh" ~ 10"
RAMP REQUIREMENTS. 20/1 maximum ratio VERTICAL OPENINGS LIMITS AND FIRE RATINGS.
EXIT LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS. Illuminated for station EMERGENCY LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS. Station provide adequate
CEILING HEIGHT MINIMUMS. 7-6" minimum
MEZZANINE RESTRICTIONS. No opening greater than two stories
LIGHT AND VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS. Natural light
with an area and less than one twentieth of floor area
ROOF ACCESS REQUIREMENTS. N/A PENTHOUSE LIMITATIONS. N/A KYLIGHT REQUIREMENTS. N/A
FURNACE AND BOILER ROOM RESTRICTIONS. N/A CHIMNEY HEIGHT AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS. N/A TOILET ROOM FIXTURE REQUIREMENTS. Handicapped accessible
APRINKLER REQUIREMENTS. Require throughout STANDPIPE REQUIREMENTS. N/A


(46)
ZONING
The northern half of the site is zoned "Community Business, Established." This classification allows for transportation centers under special review. The new classification would be "Public Established/Community Business Established." The southern half is zoned "High Density Residential -Established." This classification allows for parking under special review.
SUMMARY OF REQUIREMENTS
Definitions
CR E Community business sub community center serving a number of neighborhoods, where retail stores predominate.
P.E. Areas in which public and semi-public facilities and uses are located, including government and educational uses.
Height Restrictions
"Up to, and including 35 feet, permitted by right, provided that for buildings 25 to 35*feet in height usable open space is at least 10% of the lot...*
*Boulder Zoning Code


(47)
General Requirements
PE
CBE
Minimum lot area
7,000
6,000 sq. ft.
Minimum parking per
- 300 sq. ft. of building
.5
1 spaces
- Farmers irrigation ditch must be retained as well as all water falling on site.
- Setbacks see site plan
- Optional bicycle parking
- where ten or more parking spaces are required, 10% of total spaces may be replaced by a rack or structure providing parking at a rate of three spaces for each car.
- Parking Parking requirements will be discussed under Station Requirements.


(48)
LEGAL DESCRIPTION
Presently the land is owned by Bauldie Moschetti, a developer in Boulder. The total area is 7.55 acres.
A parcel of land located in the NW% of Section 5, T1S,
R70W of the 6th P.M., described as follows:
Commencing at the Northwest corner of said Section 5;
thence S 0005'51" W, 155.00 feet along the West line of the NW^ of said Section5;
thence S 8954'09" E, 45.24 feet to the True Point of Beginning.
thence continuing S 8954'09" E, 7.50 feet;
thence S 0005'51" W, 70.01 feet parallel with the West line of the NW^s of said Section 5 to a point of curve to the left;
thence Southeasterly, 130.38 feet along the arc of said
curve to the left said arc having a radius of 83.0
feet and being subtended by a chord bearing S 4454'08" E,
117.38 feet to a point of tangency;
thence N 8954'07" W, 7.50 feet to a point of curve to the right;
thence Northwesterly, 130.38 feet along the arc of said curve to the right said arc having a radius of 83.0 feet and being subtended by a chord bearing N 444'08 W,
117.38 feet to a point of tangency;
thence N 0005'51" E, 70.00 feet to the True Point of Beginning. Said described parcel contains 1,546 square feet more or less.
AND
A parcel of land located in the NW^s of the NW% of Section 5, TlS, R70W of the 6th P.M., described as follows:


(49)
Commencing at the Northwest corner of said Section5;
thence S 0005'51" W, 432.41 feet along the West line of the NW^ of the NW% of said Section 5;
thence S 8954'07" E, 43.67 feet to the True Point of Beginning;
thence continuing S 8054'07" E, 8.26 feet;
thence Southwesterly 39.77 feet along the arc of a curve concave to the Southeast having a radius of 88.00 feet, said arc being subtended by a chord bearing S 13 02'38"
W, 39.43 feet to a point of tangency;
thence S 0005'51" W, 319.09 feet to the North line of Lot 14, Block 4, Highland Park, a subdivision in the County of Boulder, State of Colorado, according to the recorded plat thereof;
thence N 9000'00" W, 7.50 feet along the North line of said Lot 14;
thence N 0005'51" E, 319.10 feet;
thence Northeasterly 39.55 feet along the arc of a curve concave to the southeast having a radius of 95.50 feet said arc being subtended by a chord bearing M 11 57'42" E, 39.27 feet to the True Point of Beginning. Said described parcel contains 2691.16 square feet, more or less.




(50)
IMPACT ON STATION ON SURROUNDING LAND
The following is a summary of a report by Deleuw Cather and Company, Impacts of Rail Development on Adjacent and Nearby Land Uses. (Gallegos Research Group.)
SUMMARY OF RESEARCH RESULTS
Review of interviews indicates the majority of respondents have found:
Property Values
LRT development in residential areas, for the most part, seems to have an adverse impact on property values within the immediate impact area. This depends on a number of conditions, such as the nature of the facility, the type of neighborhood, the size of the facility, the increase in traffic volumes, noise and air pollution, and the potential visual impacts.
The opposite seems to be true of the properties within the general impact area.


(51)
This is because of proximity, and convenience of having a transit facility within walking distance and the reduction of negative impacts.
Noise
Noise seems to have an adverse effect on property values within the immediate impact area and very little affect on properties within the general impact area.
Traffic
Increased traffic volumes will adversely impact property values in the immediate impact area. Increased traffic and resulting noise and air pollution annoys residents and can detract from the attractiveness of property for sale or lease under these conditions. Traffic seems to have very little affect on properties within the general impact area.
Proximity
Proximity to a transit system seems to have an adverse effect to residential


(52)
properties located within the immediate impact area. The properties encompassed in the general impact area seem to benefit from proximity to a transit system.
Location
The presence of a transit system and/or it's facilities seems to have an adverse effect on property values if it is located in a residential area. However this seems to be limited to the immediate impact area.
The location of a transit system and/or it's facilities would have a positive effect on commercial properties.


(53)
DENVER, COLORADO
Assessors' Office Commercial Realtors
Proximity to a transit line might have an adverse affect on residential properties if those properties are located adjacent to the line. They will be subjected to traffic, and noise and pollution caused by increased traffic volumes. However, those properties approximately 1 to 2 blocks away from a transit line would be affected positively. Appreciation rates would increase at a greater rate for those within walking distance and not more than mile away.
Noise of a light rail system would have less impact on residential property than the 6th Avenue or the Valley Highway.
Proximity to a bus stop, a church, a parking lot or a fire station would affect property values because of the noise, traffic and possible air pollution.
High priced residential homes are most apt to suffer because people are not willing to pay high prices for homes where they might encounter above-mentioned problems.


(54)
RETAIL BACKGROUND
Currently, in Boulder, retail space leases range from fifteen dollars a square foot, (prime locations), to ten dollars a square foot in less desirable locations.
RENTABLE AREAS
Space breakdowns are five hundred square feet minimum, then sizes may go up at five hundred increments, with one thousand typical and twenty-five hundred maximum rentable. In Boulder, sizes larger than these tend to be "draws" for smaller stores and would not be applicable to this project.*
Possible shops for this space would be: a newstand magazine shop, a coffee and sandwich shop, drug store convenience shop, and possibly, a book store. All of these spaces could be accomodated in five hundred square feet except, possibly, the sandwich shop.
*This information was gained through several informal interviews with shop owners and realtors.
!


(55)
USERS
The users of this retail space will be primarily train passengers, although, some use must be expected from surrounding residential.


Retail Design Factors


(56)
DESIGN FACTORS RETAIL
Structural Design Flexibility
a. Steel most flexibility, allows for variation in store front modules due to large spans.* Long lead time required and extensive fire proofing.
b. Wood frame it's only advantage is availability. Bulky structure results with lack of flexibility.
c. Concrete no flexibility, excellent fire protection, good availability.
Shop Exposure
a. Orientation of store front to waiting area.
b. Depth to width ratio
Location
a. To parking should be in travel path to station
b. Travel distance from waiting to shops.
*See P. 45 Shopping Centers, Edgar Lion see diagram


(57)
Draw-Appeal
a. Competent graphic scheme
b. Shops relationship to outdoor spaces -spaces that cause interest.
c. Types of shops
Vandalism - Maintenance
a. Security-guards or T.V. supervision.
Disadvantage being high cost.
b. Antidestructive design. - Solid exposed
surfaces of strong, hard material, perfectly masonry, glazed tile or brick ect.. Plaster or plasterboard should be avoided, if used they should be covered with plastics (plexiglass, arcrylics). Exposed corners and columns should be protected especially washrooms. Mall furniture and planters should be strong heavy construction, planters should have tree-type vegetation rather than flowers. Windows may be divided into smaller sections for ease of replacement, heavy duty hardware should be chosen.
Sun Exposure
a. Shop windows should be protected from dir-sun that causes fading or damage to products


(58)
DESIGN ELEMENTS RETAIL
Materials
a. Floors areas may be divided so:
1. Rental areas usually a smooth cement finish is provided with allowances for carpet or tile.
2. Corridors consider durability, economics, and maintainance. Terrazzo, quarry tile, brick are some choices.
b. Walls usually interier walls are drywall with one coat finish provided by the owner with the shop owner providing finishing.
c. Ceilings exterior consider fire rating, vandalism, flexability, and climatic conditions .
Store Fronts
a. Arrangement has much to do with customer appeal. Openings have much to do with type of store. See Fig. 16 for alternatives. (See next page)


(59)
Up to 15' 15' to 25' Over 25'
Closed Closed - Closed ,
T":SL SL F SL SL F T" SL SL SL SL F |
Open Open Open !
66% 50% 66% 1
Closed Closed Closed 1 |
TSL slT F SL SL SL TSL SL SL SL .SL SL~?"
Open Open Open
~~~* ~ . rr
50% 75% 75%
Closed F SL
F Fixed panel SL. = Sliding panel
Open
50%
Figure 16 Sliding storefront arrangements. Various alternatives for dividing the storefront opening and the amount of opening left with the doors in the open position.
Fig. 16*
*P. 56 Shopping Centers, Edgar Lion


(60)
Mechanical Systems
a. Air Conditioning advantages and disadvantages of individual vs. central units. (See p. 47 Shopping Centers, Edgar Lion)
b. Electrical provide individual panels for each store. (See p. 48 Shopping Centers, Edgar Lion).
c. Solar Heating system must not interfere with retail operations i.e. window area, fading.
d. Sprinklers if not required by code, usually required by insurance company's.
Signage Graphics
a. Provide some type of control or planning scheme for aesthetic control. Repetition is not always a positive factor.
Toilets
a. Possibly share use with station
b. See section on vandalism for materials
Trash Service
a. Centralize mechanical areas. Provide access by pick-up and stops for trash.


(61)
minimize area due to lack of revenue, vide adequate loading docks.
Handicapped Access
a. Provide access for all areas
Pro-


(62)
SPACE REQUIREMENTS RETAIL
1. General retail space 5,000 sq. ft
2. Toilets 350 sq. ft
3. Circulation, service, 1,000 sq. ft
loading, mechanical
4. Out Door Plaza for sitting


Station Design Factors


(63)
DESIGN FACTORS STATION Efficient Connections
a. Parking, waiting, platform, and busstop 1. Minimize disorientation 2. Minimize travel distance 3. Minimize level changes
Safety
a. Provide safe connections stairs, proper light, and track location considerations
Incidental Services
a. Waiting areas, telephones, tickets, toilets newstand
Protection From Weather
a. Covered auto approach, bus approach, and parking, if possible
b. Provide enclosed waiting
Maintenance : Vandalism
a. Choice of materials ( See section under retail)
Operational Facilities
a. Crew room
b. Information


(64)
c. Station control
d. Relationships to tracks
Provisions for Expansion
a. Provide for possibility of continuation of rail line in the future.* (See:
A Case Study of Planning and Design Procedures vs. Department of Transportation .
Relationship of Retail to Station
a. Exposure for shops
b. Congestion problems interference with operation of rail system.


(65)
DESIGN ELEMENTS STATION Track Layout
a. Two tracks stub or loop configuration (see station design alternatives in Appendix)
Waiting Platform
a. Percent of enclosure (see station design alternatives in Appendix)
b. Number of seats provided.
Parking Layout
a. Lighting security
b. Snow removal
c. Drainage
d. Protection from weather for commuters
Materials
a. Floors
1. Maintenance durability (see Retail Section)
2. Texture of materials for non-slip or skid surfaces.
Signage Graphics
a. Clear, easily readable directions.


(66)
b. Distinction from retail signage
Toilets
a. Adequate size for handicapped and passenger peaks.
b. Durability and maintenance see section on Vandalism.
Ticketing
a. Typical distributions are vending type machines (see Appendix, Station Design Alternative)
Information
a. Provide several locations for clear directions for use of the system and arrival and departure.
Parking
a. Number of cars provided


(67)
SPACE REQUIREMENTS STATION
Waiting Area (Telephones -Platforms (Outdoor)
Toilets (two)
Ticketing Station Control Crew Rooms
Outdoor Seating Plaza Parking
newstands) 3,000 sq. f t.
(+ -) 3,000 sq. ft.
300 sq. ft.
200 sq. f t.
200 sq. ft.
500 sq. ft.
(+-) 500 spaces


(68)
PASSENGER VOLUME PARKING
The present ridership on the R.T.D. Boulder-Denver bus routes is, approximately, 1,500 people a day, one way. The estimated growth rate over the next ten years would put the ridership somewhere near 2,500 people. The peak time periods of people arriving are between 6:30 and 7:30 a.m.; arrivals at this time is near 30%, or 750 people. Ramps and platforms should accomodate this peak.
From a study done by Gallegos Research Group for R.T.D., it was estimated that the percent of riders parking at a suburban end of the line station is between 15 and 20%. This would put the number of spaces required at 500. (2,500 x .2 = 500). The
study goes on to suggest bus shuttles be provided as well as "Kiss and Ride" areas. Suggested bus routes are discussed under bus routes in site analysis.


(69)



7^
\7______________
k ^TJ??
n: /
\
I
/
T'W^ U10W!NIH-3U^7W^-
<^WC>|



(70)
SCHEMATIC LAYOUTS
IWC IM^>


(71)
-4

SCHEMATIC LAYOUTS



^SnKIM^


(72)
Design Concept
The basic design concept was to enhance the use of the light-rail system by creating an exciting and efficient environment. The building will be a billboard for the system but will at the same time be sympathetic to the residential neighborhood and surrounding commercial structures. The users will hopefully feel that using the system is not a dull daily task, that it is an enjoyable uplifting experience.
Site Planning
The general requirements for the site were:
1. Provide a bus drop; 2. Provide four hundred parking spaces; Provide a covered platform with a possibility of continuing the line to downtown Boulder. The trains would enter the site from the east along the northern end and dead-end into the platform; the seats in the train cars would then be flipped for the trip to Denver, and a track switch is provided for changing sides of the track.
I have re-routed the street bisecting the site to the southern end of the site to avoid pedestrian-


(73)
automobile conflicts, and placed the main entry off this road. The bus drop is located off the site to the west to avoid congestion with cars but allow pedestrial access.
The actual building siting is a result of the turning radius of the trains, parking efficiency, allowance for an auto-drop, and pedestrian-bike path routes.
Station Description
The station provides a covered train platform, enclosed waiting area, a restaurant, 4,000 sq. ft. of retail, and maintenance facilities. The form is a response to the major circulation spaces while being sympathetic to the houses to the south and big enough to compete with the large buildings to the west. The symmetry makes it absolutely clear where one goes to board the train.
The roof of the building slopes to the south, providing protection from the sun for the retail while providing a sheltered strolling area. It is high in the back, creating exciting spaces for the restaurant


(75)
and waiting area. The major circulation paths are enclosed in glassed arches. The arches over the platform emphasize movement while saying where the train goes.
The roof material is corregated steel allowed to rust, reminiscent of Boulder's mining past.
Exterior walls are stucco painted light blue, and the covered platform consists of white steel columns setting off the red-rust of the roof. Glass wind screens are provided between the structural bays of the platform.
Bike racks are located in the triangular spaces between the building and the platform with outdood seating. The car drop in front of the building allows for cars to wait for arriving trains, and provides ten handicapped parking spaces on the inside of the circle.
Lighting is provided along the circulation corridors as well as for parking. Around the building itself the arches are illuminated with florescent
curved tubing.


(75)
Square Footage
Restaurant 2,500 sq. ft
Waiting Area 1,000 sq. ft
Retail 6,240 sq. ft
Offices 400 sq. ft
Covered Platforms 10,000 sq. ft
20,340 sq. ft
Total


DRAWINGS & MODELS


^I'U'WW'U
r
SITE___PLAN______ , T T T
A
LIGHT RAIL STATON
(76)


A LIGHT RAIL STATON
2


NORTH ELEVATION
SOUTH_____ELEVATION
A LIGHT RAIL STATON
(78)


A LIGHT RAIL STATON
(79)


GALLERY
(80)


(81)
Resta^t



KIOSK
>
STOREFRONT
(82)


(83)


184J


(85)


Bibliography


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Light-Rail Transit Planning and Technology Special Report 182. By Transportation Research Board Commission on Sociotechnical systems, National Research Council National Academy of Sciences Wahs. D.C. 1978
Form and Functions of Twentieth Century Architecture Building Types by Talbot Hamlin, Columbia University Press 1952.
The Railroad Station Carroll L. V. Meeks Yale Univ. Press 1956.
Review of Parking Policies and Problems of Selected Transit properties. Gallegos Research Group 4400 West 46th Avenue, Denver, Colo.
Shopping Centers Edgar Lion. John Wiley and Sons New York 1976.
Urban Rail Transit Lang. Soberman MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1964.
Impacts of Rail Development on Adjacent and Nearby Law Uses by Gallegos Research Group 4400 West 46th Avenue Denver, Co. 80212.
Light Rail Station Alternatives by Deleuw, Cather and Company Denver, Colorado.
Transit Study Renovation: A Case Study of Planning and Design Procedures. By U.S. Department of Transportation Research and Special Programs Administration Office of University Research Washington, D.C., 20570
New Movement in Cities by Brian Richards Reinhold Publishing Corporation 1966.
Uniform Building Code by International Conference of Corporation 1979.
"GM's Trolley Story" Newsweek April 22 1974.