Citation
Market Square

Material Information

Title:
Market Square mixed use project at 16th and Market St., Denver, Co.
Creator:
McMahon, J. Kevin
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
91 unnumbered leaves : charts, maps, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Real estate development -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Joint occupancy of buildings -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Joint occupancy of buildings ( fast )
Real estate development ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 75).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Architecture and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
J. Kevin McMahon.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
16686905 ( OCLC )
ocm16686905
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1987 .M3178 ( lcc )

Full Text
MARKET SQUARE
A MIXED USE PROJECT AT 16TH AND MARKET ST. DENVER, CO.
J. KEVIN MCMAHON ARCHITECTURE THESIS UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO MAY 8, 1987
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MARKET SQUARE
A MIXED USE PROJECT AT 16TH AND MARKET ST. DENVER, CO.


To Sherri, for being with me through this whole experience


TABLE OF CONTENTS


Introduction
Thesis Statement
Site Data
Code Search
Programming
Bibliography
HVAC Summary
Presentation Drawings
i


INTRODUCTION


The Site and Development Potential
The site of my thesis project is two parcels of land in lower downtown. It consists of lots 25-32 in block 42 East Denver. These lots were until recently two separate parcels. Old Mint Plaza Associates owned lots 25-28 since May, 1985. This was the location of the old Seattle Fish Co. building. These buildings, originally constructed in 1985 were demolished in April, 1986. The land was cleared for a proposed development, but construction was never begun. The building on lot 25 remains standing, there are partition wall conflicts between this building and the building at 1529 Market. Lot 25 will not be available for new development. Lots 29-32 were warranty deeded to Old Mint Plaza Associates from Mr. Bernard Blecker in Dec. 1985. The original Denver Mint of Clark Gruber and Co. stood on this site. A later building constructed by Charles Boettcher was razed in 1981 and there has been a parking lot there since that time. Recently both sites were foreclosed on by Colorado National Bank.
The sites either singly or in combination have been the focus of considerable development interest since 1980. Several schemes have been proposed which address the potential of the Market St. Plaza area and its attractiveness as the hub of the mall shuttle system. The B-7 zoning encourages a mix of retail, residential and office uses to take advantage of the floor area ratio premiums offered in this zone. Buildouts to the maximum F.A.R. require inclusion of residential and retail space. (See zoning premiums for B-7.)


The high level of pedestrian traffic and the easy auto access from Speer Blvd. provide a market for retail merchants. The inclusion of retail units encourages more constant building use than exists with single use office buildings. The development of the individual parcels has been hindered by a lack of square footage at street level. It is diffucult to provide the necessary retail, office, and commercial lobby space at ground level within the individual parcel 10,000 square foot footprints. Combining the two parcels gives the project greater flexibility to acheive a more economical F.A.R. By enlarging the development site to 20,000 square feet, the zoning premiums can be better utilized to more efficiently package the retail, office, resedeential, and parking requirements. B-7 zoning premiums must be utilized to optimize the economic efficiency of the building in relation
to expensive land costs.


In 1983 RTD constructed its bus station on the whole block
between 16th and 17th. and Market and Blake St. Most of the bus activity occurs underground, and with the exception of the mail shuttle does not significantly Impact the west corner of 16th. and Market. The Dave Cook store Is directly across the street to the east. Towards the east across from the RTD plaza on Market St. Is a very nice row of 1880*5 3 and 4 story brick buildings. These contain restaurants and small stores at ground and basement level .with offices above. There are two new buildings on the north and east corner of 17th. and Market St. Recently constructed JP Plaza occupies the north corner of 16th and Blake. The new buildings are speculative office buildings with some retail on the ground floor.


LOWER DOWNTOWN DENVER


THESIS STATEMENT


Introduction and Short History
"Before I knew it we were going over the wholesale fruit markets outside
Denver; there were smokestacks, smoke, railyards, red brick buildings, and
the distant downtown greystone buildings and here I was in Denver. He let
me off at Larimer Street. I stumbled along with the most wicked grin of
joy in the world, among the old bums and beat cowboys of Larimer Street."
Jack Kerouiac On The Road
The lower downtown historic district in Denver is located between Cherry Creek north to 21st. Street, and between the alley separating Market St. and Larimer St. west to the tracks behind Union Station. The Denver Urban Renewal Authority spared this area in its Larimer Street redevelopment in the late 1960s. The lower downtown area was part of the original development of Denver in the 1880s. Construction along Larimer and towards Union Station was fueled by the silver boom in the mountains around Leadville and Central City. The boom was shortlived and their has been little building activity in the area had been in decline since the Silver Bust of 1893. The Silver Bust destroyed the booming economy and freewheeling lifestyle of hotels, restaurants, and fine shops. By the 1960s the buildings along Larimer St. and in lower downtown were old and run down. The wholesale demolition of Larimer Street north of 16th. St. by DURA distroyed some of the finest old buildings in downtown Denver. These included the Tabor Block, the Windsor Hotel, and the Barclay Hotel. The preservation movement eventually saved the 1500 block of Larimer. Market and Blake St. were the commercial support areas to Larimer St. and the railroads. They never developed the sophistication of hotels and shops on


Larimer. The primary building types in the lowere downtown were small warehousing and rooming houses. Because of this the area never acheived the notorious seediness of Larimer St., and indirectly saved itself from the wreckers ball.
Historically lower downtown Denver has been a mixed use place. Its workman, factories and warehouses supported the industry and commerce of the rest of the city. A workingmans neighborhood is active and sometimes chaotic. Activity is fueled by regular paydays and the slow trickle of money through stores and businesses. Liquor flows at the comer bar. The area of lower downtown has always had a different sense to it. As Denver developed at the turn of the century the middle and upper class moved away from the factories and warehouses of lower downtown. Inexpensive hotels and rooming houses provided shelter for the new workers. By 1910 lower downtown contained the wests most notorious red light district, the city council even voted to rename the original Holliday Street to Market St. Hopefully this didnt confuse too many of the customers.k By the 1950's lower downtown had lost much of its stable residential population. Even lower class neighborhoods are more residential than lower downtown. Their populations are more stable, families live there. Their nature is not transient even though it is poor. The decline of lower downtown was a result of inexpensive roominghouses and a cheap lifestyle. Work was available and lifestyles were uninhibited. The economic vitality of light industry and its attendent services gave way in the 1950s and 60s. Lower downtown was bypassed as railroads succumbed to highways then to air travel. Cheap housing provided a place to flop for the new residents who


couldnt or wouldnt work. Many were unable to break the cycle of whiskey and temporary sobriety. The lower downtown became the end of the line. The only people who remained were those who could live without money or hope. Pawnshops, bars, secondhand stores, and flophouses catered to those who stayed down on their luck.
The life of a city is full of cycles. Money travels to where opportunity is. Lower downtown had set itself up to service the down and out underside of Denver. By the 1960s the movers and shakers ran the Rocky Mountain Region from their bank their bank towers and corporate boardrooms. Denver was becoming reenergized by yet another mineral boom. Lower downtown became the place for the central business district to expand into. Goodby gutted warehouses,goodby winos, goodby a low income economy, money was talking. Lower downtown was too valuable an area to be wasted on ten cent a beer bars and seedy hotels, the economic life blood of Denver was ready to move into it.
In 1983 RTD constructed its bus station on the whole block between 16th and 17th. and Market and Blake St. Most of the bus activity occurs underground, and with the exception of the mall shuttle does not significantly impact the west comer of 16th. and Market. The Dave Cook store is directly across the street to the east. Towards the east across from the RTD plaza on Market St. is a very nice row of 1880s 3 and 4 story brick buildings. These contain restaurants and small stores at ground and basement level with offices above. There are two new buildings on the north and east comer of 17th. and Market St. Recently constructed JP


The Development of Market Square
Denver has several downtown elements which give coherence to a conceptual urban plan. The Sixteenth Street Mall is its circulation artery. The Tabor Center is the focal point or landmark of the downtown area. There exists along the downtown artery the opportunity find necessity to create secondary nodal points to focus the energy of the city in its path towards the landmark area. My thesis proposes to create a nodal point at the Market Street RTD station, to create an entirely different arterial experience, an urban square with the potential to revitalize lower downtown. It will include a square enclosed and protected by surrounding buildings and the creation of an indivdual building which would give a coherent form to this closure.
The transit station at the end of the Sixteenth Street Mall is a powerful magnet for pedestrians and shoppers. The proportions of the aboveground plaza and the steady rythym of 3 and 4 story buildings along Market St. establish a square at the end of the Mall. The open deck of the bus terminal provides a place to peoplewatch on the surrounding streets. The creation of a square ringed by the combination of old and new buildings is appealing as a method of focusing the activity of lower downtown into a specific area. An urban square is defined by the buildings around it. .Any new building would need to allow people to look into Market Square, to capture the vitality of the area. Except for an occasional bum searching through the trashcans or sleeping on the grass, the activity is mostly office and professional people on breaks or going to their jobs. The


necessity to provide a place in the city that becomes a part of the existing scene becomes more and more important as the empty blocks of lower downtown are infilled. It is necessary that any new construction enhances the present feeling of place especially one that has as much potential as Market Square.
The lower downtown area presently fulfills almost all the conditions which Jane Jacobs deems necessary for maintaining the vitality of the city. These are; Condition 1: The district and indeed as many of its internal parts as possible must serve more than one primary function, preferably more than two. These must ensure the presence of people who go outdoors on different schedules and are in the place for different purposes, but who are able to use many facilities in common. Condition 2: Most blocks must be short, that is streets and opportunities to turn comers must be frequent. Condition 3: The district must mingle buildings which vary in age and condition, including a good proportion of old ones. Condition 4: The district must have a sufficently dense concentration of people for whatever purpose they may be there. This includes people there because of residence.
Lower downtown has the potential of becoming a vital urban neighborhood. There has been encouraging progress in reintroducing residential into the existing mix of retail and commercial. The Blake St. Raquet and Tennis Club and residential development of warehouse loft space are two examples. Many of the older businesses still remain and new ones have located in some renovated buildings. The problems associated in its development reflect


in a general way the current overbuilt stock of buildings in Denver. A lot of its older buildings have been demolished to clear the way for new construction. The greatest danger to lower downtown results from increasing land values fueled by speculation. These make it impossible to redevelope with anything other than upscale retail or commercial. The deteriorated buildings have no value other than the land they sit on. They remain derelict, rents remain low. It has become unfeasible to restore many existing buildings because physically they are inadequate and cannot produce value commensurate with the land they sit on. At the present time a considerable number of properties in lower downtown including my thesis site are under foreclosure. Speculation and declining land values have finally caught up with many investors.
The site of my thesis is an integral one for any continued redevelopment of lower downtown. The west comer of 16th and Market is the missing piece of the frame of any potential Market Square. The question becomes how does one organize a place so that it contributes and perhaps becomes the perfect element that makes a place whole. Kevin Lynch writes "It is the match between place and whole patterns of behavior that is intimately on culture, expectations, norms, and customary ways of doing things. A vital city is an intricate arrangement. All the elements of place and activity must relate to each other. Cities need a sense of uniqueness, an identity distinct from other places, a character of its own. An effective city has a sense of specialness, it engages perception and provides a peg on which to hang personal memories, feelings and values. It provides a sense of familiarity. It is necessary for a specific city location to orient you.


It is necessary to create a mental landmark. Ancient cities like Athens and Delos were organized around a landmark like the agora with secondary activity areas which related to them. Medival cities like Florence used their cathedrals as pionts from which the city radiated. Modem cities cluster around shopping and business concentrations. The circulation patterns become obvious, in relation to the clustering of retail at the comers of significant streets and in chains along main roads. These provide eloquent representations of the patterns of movement through the community. Natural centers develop through repeated patterns of use. A pattern is beginning to develop in the Market Square area. The bus system funnels its ridership into the transit center. Pedestrians take the mall shuttles or walk across the district to the Auraria campus. People who work in either the light manufacturing or more recent professional offices near Union station crisscross the RTD plaza on their way to the mall. The patterns of city circulation are becoming more evident as the density slowly grows. The nature of the area has never been heavily residential but there seems to be a type of person specifically attracted to the lower downtown area. Fortunately, there has been no reorganization into residential blocks like western Larimer Street. The nature of the lower downtown is beginning to change. The seedy history of the area is being replaced by the critical mass of so called productive and energetic crowds at least during the day. The slightly funky mix of new and old, togeather with its close proximity to the central business district gives the lower downtown the potential to become an area with a lot of human scale elements, with more sunlight and less crowding than the central business
district.


The notion of urban scale has been reinvestigated over the past several decades. Planners generally have sought to simplify the perceived randomness of historical urban developement. The complex texture of urban districts whether in ancient Greece, Italy, Modem Europe or new world Denver is the attraction that causes people to gravitate to them. Urban design is not a monolithic concept. Until recently redevelopment money was available only for large scale urban renewal. It is unlikely that DURAs wholesale destruction for Skyline Urban Renewal would be acceptable today. The growth patterns of older cities are being rediscovered and their assets reexamined. The very nature of a few planners determining the living patterns of the great majority of urban citizens is antithetical to the personal enjoyment of city life. It is evident that for all our investment in the complexity of buildings on one hand and the elaborate engineering infrastructures on the other, we have failed to acheive a human and coherent physical setting for a social life at a time when the abstract setting for that life is increasingly bureaucratized and constrained. What is necessary is an assault on the control our architecture has over us. Weave, flow, and fabric are all words which describe the potential of lower downtown. Lower downtown is a great place in relation to the other ,city districts. It is not limited to the upscale shopping culture of Cherry Creek. It has urban density that the outlying neighborhoods lack. Its lack of tall buildings make it much more light and airy than the highrise CBD. Finally it has a great variety of building styles and volumes which provide visual interest while walking or driving.


How Do We Maintain The Character Of Lower Downtown?
Karl Marx said "by acting on the external world and changing it man at the same time changes his own nature." Camillo Sitte in 1899 said "We look at the city as a system, circulation, services, economic vitality, etc., yet suppression or sacrifice of every ingenious touch that might give real expression to the joy of living is truely the mark of our times." This brings us to the basic notion of the character of the district. If what we enjoy is the variety and character of building styles and uses of lower downtown, how do we maintain it if it is undergoing a transition or how do we influence it so what is important is not lost when we rebuild. Corbu believed that all architectural products, all city neighborhoods or cities ought to be organisms. He said nature presents itself to us as chaos, but the spirit which is nature is the spirit of order. New projects in lower downtown need to maintain the existing scale and variety. The current new construction around the Market Square area; JP Plaza, and Alamo Plaza are rather conventional office towers which do not reflect the scale and detailing of the lower downtown area. Their uses do not express themselves at the street like the older buildings. The notion of storefront below residence or commercial is not maintained in the image of present construction. Other elements which need to be maintained are the relation of the building to the street, the zero lot line clearences to the sidewalk, and the rectangular comer piece.
What Shall We Create for Lower Downtown?
Ungers asks in Lotus 25 of an imaginary Marco Polo. "Does your journey take


place only in the past?" The implicit idea emerges that the past changes according to the route that we follow. Its not appropriate to recreate 1890s Denver in new construction of lower downtown, we dont live in that age any more. Every decision we make about neighborhood, mixed use, and the organizing circulation, becomes our reference for the eventual coherent form of the object we create. If our city is alive and we who use it are alive then our expression of it must not be dead. It must be part of us, it must be usable and focused. It must fit in as part of the whole character of scale, activity, materials, and convienence which make the district unique.
"In cities today we must think beyond the design of buildings and circulation systems. We must establish volumes of space which are in scale with the need of the present time and defined by means which are in harmony with modem technology. The volumes of space must be infused with a spirit which is generated by architectural forms. In this way richness and variety can be established in the city and through the cumulative effect of various kinds of associations with the different parts of the city, its citizens may build up loyalty to it."
Edmund S. Bacon
Design of Cities
Bacon writes about places that encourage human participation in his book Design of Cities. Urban areas develop according to the nature and wishes of the people who use them. It is necessary to have a variety of activities occuring if a city is to develop a long range attractiveness to use. It is necessary to provide focal points to infuse the space with a


spirit that relates to the activities that will take place in it and which stir the senses and emotions of the people who use it. The relationship between building and open space must be carefully scaled to maintain a relationship to the people using it. The city is not a park, and the misuse of the relationship between object and field at city scale does more to distroy the sense of place than anything else. Architectural forms, textures, materials, modulation of light and shade and color are our experience in the city landscape. The constantly changing forms and energy of people and traffic in motion and the pull of an urban destination is what makes a city vibrant. The failure of much urban architecture and developement is a result of the architects refusing to project himself into the mind and spirit of people who are to experience their designs. The patterns and potential of lower downtown are what will determine its uses. Until there is a hypothesis of what the city ought to be there is nothing to accept, reject or modify. Important considerations of the design affect the impact of the project on the site. The elements of a successful project and in fact of an architectural experience include; how it meets the sky and ground, presenting focal points in space, the setbacks of the physical and visual experience, design with perspective, ascent and descent through the project, relationship to man, repetition of forms, and penetration into depth of space. The elements create a composition which becomes a whole experience. The use of a building is not the only factor in determining its success as architecture. It must also accomadate movement and transition through space. There must be an experience of truely arriving somewhere different from where you started. At a street scale it is important to create movement systems of different speeds and perceptions to be as satisfying to automobile traffic as pedestrians.


The site needs to be organized in relation to a clearly expressed movement system of circulation so that individual designs relate as a whole and reinforce the historically pedestrian nature of lower downtown. The sense of order to the circulation of the mall encourages a central organizing element ( Tabor Center ) with smaller related elements around it. Successful cities have an organizing principle, whether it be geographic, religious, or commercial. People accept this organization because it reinforces our notion of orientation in space. The energies put out by the design structure are ineffectual unless they are received by an instrument that is attuned to than. That instrument is the sensibilities of the people of the cities. The ordering of grids and landmarks gives us reference, a sense of belonging to a common experience, the evolutionary developement of these patterns reinforces our attachment to them. The people and buildings of a city create our loyalty to it. We become part of the experience we help to create and therefore establish our community and its symbology.


SITE DATA


29
Climate
Characteristics of Denver climate: o low relative humidity o light to moderate winds o mile average temperature
o wide swing in diurnal and seasonal temperature o light precipitation o high degree of solar radiation o rarely persistent snow cover
o "heat island" effect in urban area raising local
temperature due to lack of vegetation and predominance of heat-storing mass
o presence of air pollution reducing solar radiation received, lowers air temperature.


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Geology and Soils
The soil on site is composed of fill, clayey sand to sandy clay. It is siight.y gravelly, with fine to coarse grained sane to a depth of approximately 10. Below the sandy layer is a layer of gravel whim is approximately 18 deep. A layer of sand, medium to dense, moist to wer, with a texture which runs from fine to coarse with occasional cobbles, lies below the gravel bed. In parts there is a layer of sandstone, slightly clayey, of varying texture which is very hard and moist. Below these layers, at a depth of approximately 30 is the ciaystone bedrock. The bedrock is slightly sandy, very hard, medium moist, and blue grey in appearance. Ground water is approximately 20 below the surface.
Refer to soil engineers report.


chen and associates, inc.
CONSULTING ENGINEERS
SOIL & FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
96 SOUTH ZUNI STREET DENVER, COLORADO *0223
303/744.7105
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Subject:
COMCO Holdings, Ltd.,
Joint Venture with Westminster and
Country Properties, Limited
c/o C. W. Fentress
511 16th Street
Suite 600
Denver, Colorado 80202
Attention: Mr. Jim Bradburn
Gentlemen:
We have completed drtiling and testing for the two test holes which were deepened in accordance with our letter dated October 30, 1981. Presented here are the revised foundation recommendations based on the results of the additional field and laboratory investigations.
Subsurface Conditions: Test Holes 2 and 3, located as shown on the attached F^lg. I, were redrilled to a bedrock penetration of hO feet in order to investigate the bearing capacity of the bedrock at these depths. Logs of Holes 2 and 3 are shown on the attached Fig. 2. Results of unconsolidated, undrained triaxial compression tests performed on samples obtained from the deeper penetrations are presented on the attached Figs. A through 6 and the attached Table I. Results of the triaxial tests and standard penetration tests indicate the bedrock is very hard at the depths sampled.
November 18, 1981
Revised Recommendation, Soil and Foundation Investigation,
Old Mint Place, 16th Street and Market Street, Denver, Colorado.
Job No. 22,107B
OFFICES: COLORADO SFUNGS, COLORADO / OlfNWOOD SPRINGS, COLORADO / CASPER, WYOMING


COMCO Holdings, Ltd. November 18, 1981 Page 2
Groundwater level measurements made when the holes were redrilled and five days after redrilling indicate the groundwater level Is at a depth of about 22 to 23 feet corresponding to elevations of about to 75 feet. These levels are about 2 feet below the levels measured when the holes were originally drilled.
Foundation Recommendations: The standard penetration tests indicate the bedrock strength increases below a bedrock penetration of about 20 feet. Based on our analyses, we recommend that piers be designed for a maximum end bearing pressure of 60,000 psf and a skin friction of 6,000 psf for penetrations up to 20 feet Into the unweathered bedrock. Pier penetration exceeding 20 feet into the unweathered bedrock may be designed for a maximum end bearing pressure of 70,000 psf and a skin friction of 7,000 psf. All other recommendations presented in our original report under Job No. 22,107* dated Hay 6, 1981, should be followed.
Underdrain System: We understand a floor slab system which would allow groundwater to flow above the floor slabs during periods of high water level is being considered in lieu of the underdrain system recommended in our letter of October 30, 1981. The proposed system would consist of a floor slab with pressure relief holes through to the underslab gravel.
The highest groundwater level measured during our investigation was about 1 foot above the proposed floor slab elevation of 80. Conceptually, we believe the proposed floor slab system could perform properly with respect to its ability to relieve hydrostatic pressures on the floor slabs during periods of high groundwater level. However, the owner should be aware that the floor slab level appears to be within the range of normal groundwater fluctuation. This could result In floor slab inundation. In addition, relatively minor changes In the groundwater geology could result In long-term inundation of the floor slab if an underdrain system is not used. We recommend that multiple sumps be placed beneath the floor slab so that pumps can be installed in the sumps to remove the water In the event prolonged Inundation does occur.
If you have further questions concerning these matters or If we can be of additional assistance, please call us.
i
cc: KKBNA
Sincerely
CHEN AND ASSOCIATES, INC
Bruce E. Berends, P.E
Attention: Mr. Bill O'Neal


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Utility Contacts
Telephone:
Jack Hansen, Asst. Manager for Network Distribution
Mountain Bell
775-4806
Waste Water:
Don Stinson
Wastewater Management, City and County of Denver 629-1451 x252
Water:
Randy Christensen or Jerry Walden Water Board, City and County of Denver 623-2500
Cast
Pete McNeil
Public Service Co. of Colorado 571-8676
Electricity1
Steve Douglas
Public Service Co. of Colorado 571-8572 or 571-8829
Utility Easement Abandonment:
Bill Melton
Design Engineering of Public Works, City and County of Denver 575-2605
Fire Protection:
Eric Neff
Denver Fire Department 575-2540
Mass Transit:
Ron Clark
Regional Transportation District 759-1000 x497
ZONING
VOFMf WPfi 575 Zl $0lLPfK& Pm .


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LOWER DOWNTOWN
Zoning and Preservation Information Packet for the B-7 Zone District
Prepared for:
THE DENVER PARTNERSHIP by:
LISA PURDY, CITISCAPE, LTD.
Funding provided by: .
THE NATIONAL TRUST FOR HISTORIC PRESERVATION
SEPTEMBER, 1985


LOWER DOWNTOWN ZONING AND PRESERVATION INFORMATION PACKET
This packet is written for property owners in the Lower Downtown B-7 zone district. It guides owners through the B-7 zoning ordinance and lays out the incentives available for the renovation of older buildings and compatability of new buildings. For those wishing to preserve their buildings, this manual will outline the benefits and restrictions of historic designation and list the necessary steps for such designation.
Because of renewed interest in revitalizing Lower Downtown, and because the Downtown Area Plan committee has decided that this has the potential for becoming Denver's "old town" and entertainment district, research has been complied on the economic benefits to property owners of a unified, well-marketed historic area. Seattle's Pioneer Square provides an excellent example of a neighborhoods' ability to upgrade property values and increase lease rates substantially due to common marketing and historic designation of a district.
As you begin to read and use this manual you will notice that although there is enough information to analyze the options for your property, additional information from a specific agency may be warranted. As often as possible, the resource agency and phone number is listed. In addition, The Denver Partnership is available to answer questions, make referrals, or provide information on the overall direction of Lower Downtown.
Most importantly, it is strongly recommended that your attorney, tax advisor, appraisor, or other qualified professional be consulted for guidance relevant to your specific situation. The facts of any specific case must be examined to determine whether the information offered herein is applicable to your situation.


B-7 ZONING


B-7 ZONE DISTRICT REGULATIONS
BASIC
MAXIMUM GROSS FLOOR AREA 2:1 F.A.R.
SUPPLEMENTARY MAXIMUM GROSS FLOOR AREA
2:1 Basic F.A.R. +2:1 Supplementary 4:1 Total F.A.R.
As stated in the regulations, the intention of the B-7 zone district is to:
"provide for and encourage the preservation and vitality of older areas that are significant because of their architectural, historical and economic value. A variety of land uses will be permitted in order to facilitate the reuse of existing structures. .New residential development is encouraged. The design of new structures should recognize the style and character of adjoining building exteriors, i.e., cornice lines and building materials and colors should be similar wherever possible."
Within this ordinance, an owner may automatically build a structure up to 2:1 F.A.R. (Floor Area Ratio) containing any of the allowable uses listed in the zoning ordinance. These include most office, retail and residential uses. This 2:1 F.A.R. limit is described as the basic maximum gross floor area.
In order to build more than the 2:1 limit, an owner must include items for which additional floor area premiums are available. The maximum additional square footage that may be achieved through any combination of these premiums is an additional 2:1 F.A.R This higher maximum of 4 F.A.R. is called the supplementary maximum gross floor area.
Floor area premiums are given for the following:
PREMIUMS Enclosed plaza (6:1) For each square foot of enclosed plaza, an additional six square feet may be added to the building floor area up to a maximum not exceeding 5% of the zone lot area. Certain landscaping and access criteria must be met.
* Unenclosed arcade (3:1) For each square foot of unenclosed arcade, an additional 3 feet of floor area may be added to the building floor area. Certain depth, height, and periphery use criteria must be met.
Enclosed arcade (2:1) For each square foot of enclosed arcade, an additional two square feet may be added to the building. The arcade must meet specific height and depth requirements and tie accompanied by certain periphery uses.
Underground parking (.75:1) For each square foot of underground parking, an additional .75 foot of floor area may be built. The parking surface must be located a minimum of five feet below the street grade and conform to certain design requirements.
-4-


METHODS FOR EXCEEDING 4 F.A.R.
* Atrium (3:1) For each square foot of atrium, three additional square feet may be added to the building.
* Set-back or low-level light (3:1) This premium allows for 3 additional feet of floor area for every square foot of setback on the building that
(1) sets back a minimum of 15 feet between the 2nd and 6th floors, and, which
(2) is built out to the front line of the zone lot on the first floor.
Residential (1:1) This premium allows for an additional one square foot of floor area (of any use) for each square foot of floor area maintained and operated as dwelling units.
There are several options for developers wanting to build structures that exceed 4:1 F.A.R. These options involve the purchase of transferable development rights (TDR's), development of housing, provision of ground floor retail, or a combination of all three. However, in order to do this the structure must conform to the set-back requirements mentioned earlier (under set-back premium) and be set back 15 feet from the rear and side lines of the zone lot at 160 feet above street level.
2:1 Basic F.A.R.
+2:1 Supplementary +.4:1 Retail Allowance 4.4:1 Total F.A.R.
2:1 Basic F.A.R.
+2:1 Supplementary +.4:1 Retail Allowance +2:1 TDR 6.4:1 Total F.A.R.
Retail Allowance r
In order to encourage active ground floor uses, floor area, (1) that is within 50 feet of the front line, and (2) which includes display windows (and/or windows affording views into the interior areas), and, (3) which contain more active retail uses, and, (4) which provides direct access to the street (i.e., a door), is uncounted floor area. This usually amounts to about .4 F.A.R. that may be added to the building.
Transfer of Development Rights (TDR's)
Through this mechanism, an owner may buy the right to build additional floor area (for any use) by purchasing unused development rights from designated historic buildings within the B-7 zone district. The maximum amount of floor area that can be bought is 2 F.A.R. allowing a project to increase its density to a maximum of 6.4:1. (See TDR's under the Preservation Incentives section of this manual for a better explanation of how this works. Also, see Illustration A.)
-5-


Residential Incentive
2:1 Basic F.A.R.
+2:1 Supplementary +. The ^:1 F.A.R. may also be exceeded when housing is built. One square foot of additional floor area (of any use) may be added for each square foot of residential floor area built up to maximum of 2 F.A.R. (Illustration B).
2:1 Basic F.A.R.
+2:1 Supplementary +.^:1 Retail Allowance +2:1 TDR (any use)
+ 1:1 Residential Allowance 7 A: 1 Total F.A.R.
Projects may exceed 6A F.A.R. only if residential floor area is built and if TDR's are bought from a historic building. In this case a maximum of about 7A F.A.R. may be achieved. (Illustration C).
or
2:1 Basic F.A.R.
+2:1 Supplementary +.*f:l Retail Allowance +2:1 Residential Allowance +1:1 TDR 7A: 1 Total F.A.R.
It is extremely difficult to interpret the zoning ordinance regarding these complex regulations. Please contact the Zoning Administration staff (575-2191) for questions regarding specific applications.
\


Project Rime: Location: ____
Wm&m SOioaS
^iih^t (£\n\vr \(o^ llifi'&rt Applicable Zoning Ordinance: C^bj QM^ CvUsfy £j
Zoning Chech By: __________________________ Date: H
Section Pare Item
________________Proposed uses &\iw\\jA IW^^qJ tefaiL hui-
^HbrL_________________________________________
Z-llk. 'J&f\ present Zoning Classification
11 Applicable Allovable Uses ^ l j
Zone Change Required? Minimum Lot Size area: width:
lur
*1 Id.
i 'ou
Minimum Yard Requirements
front: 2M \AlUti
1


rear:
side:
*
M tu'i
Ziro lb! ht;,)
both sides:
iin? jo-f jjit
5V%>0 jpM' <5V%>6
allowances for overhangs:

UixIbub FAK
jM
Available Bonuses
1^ [Wiiiuvn
FftVoO 4of
Haziaua Height
feet: __________
lUllilH
itW!
stones:
Bulk Planes
\^' IfaQ1
|5 ' Z0- tP
birt
W

Off street Parking
rqd. spaces by use: _i_41
rqd spaces for project:
l UO-y^O
parking permitted in setbacks?:
2



Open Space Requirements
Landscaping Rqmts.
/I
Fences
WhJL

Sign Restrictions
kr-hdjL 4
Othar Sntciftl fieauireaents ")]>#'' (jb&^ dUiK U
(kteuwM oK tMistfS
0 Vwt (jil^I [N aidds u
(jyjclim uKfh>
0>t£Q (itw tohjl/ &/ jffW/pflm rf
MAhK
3


amaaaas suits @3332
Project Najae. Lo cation:____
UbiM ^auAu>.
uj&j (j)\\Al (r
0
\(o^ ad fllfl/i M ITT
Applicable Code f (jPUJa^y fr| ~\)-£l'd}W ^\bU
Code Check y vlM______________________________ Date-____^_________________
Section Pane Item
5-A U £-11
u
I&02, 10H
6-1^ 6'Pb


Fire zone.

n/a
Occupancy classification
Principle _2I____________
Others (specify).
ft z2l
(*-*>
cL II
if
1^
n/a
&-
X
Construction type
Occupancy separations required.
F to to - 1
r to pH 1
K\"0 to 2-
, .j^_ to F-1 -
Changes in occupancy .
n/a
hours
hours
£S
hours
________________n/a
liazinua allowable floor area

If adjacent to open area on tvo or more sides
If over one story__________________________
If sprinklered_____________________________
Increases for fire separations
KffHJKAS
___n/a
___n/a
___n/a
___n/a
1



\too 16-1
types)
J1C
\XX2JL
(3 OV' b
Maximum allowable height Feet ( rChT'')
/nTsT^l
Series
"TWers, spires, steeples \ / Ai /a
Fire resistance of exterior walls (see occupancy 6c construction
North South East West _

Setbacks requiring protection of openings in exterior vails n/a
North________________________________________________________
South________________________________________________________
East_________________________________________________________
West fl ^ /___________________________________________
Location within city/ location on property___________________n/a
Use of Public Property
n/a
Doors prohibited from swinging into city property ?_I4_^ Restrictions on marquees, conopies, etc. £.\C'?/\
_______________Wiling HmemCC__________________
Other projections__________
Windows required in roo
Window area__________
0M\r[i9 a -jJm/cJ LizL W'x'L
Enclosed or semi-enclosed courts size rqd Ventilation requirements____________

n/a
Minimum ceiling heights in rooms
5Q/j>7' foftl (fi


n£\ u ec
|1A
Hlfc
Minimum floor ore* of rooeu Fire resistive requirement* Mkoof 1
o/a
Exterior hearing walls 4 hrs
Interior beering vails 3 hrs
Exterior non-beering walls 4 hrs
Structural frame 3 hrs
Permanent partitions 1 hrs
Exit corridor walls 3 hrs
Vertical openings V hrs
Floors 3 hrs
Poofs 1s hrs
Exterior doors % hrs
Exit doors & frames Y4 hrs
Tnner court walls Yf hrs
Mezzanine floors (area allowed) . //s am Poof coverings 3 A mJfr / hrs
Roiler room enclosure ! {'\ r hrs
Structural requirements n/a
Framework 3 hrs
Sui*. jtc- hrs
Floors hrs
Poofs l/ hrs
Partitions 1 hrs
Frit* ^ \fM l' un
' t Occupancy Rasis Actual Toad
3



Number of exits required iM-fili? -4.^_'0 ^ jcilSi
1y
Minimum width of exits
its jjjkJf CUUpa^ j&A Jo/*'A 'X,fO
Exit separation arrangement
dsa-fr zdks
hK ; -
n/a

Maximum allowable travel distance to exit____________________n/a
With sprinklers______________________________________________
Exit sequence (through adjoining or accessory areas)_________n/a

Exit doors
Minimum width 5c height
0,[ Y A'V*
l
Maximum leaf width
ZL 4-~:
Width required for number of occupants
^0"
n/a

Swing___Li
m dt-rf H>&
Change in floor level at door Exit Corridors___________
Required width____
Ml
Required height
1
Dead end corridors length
4
zzz'ZO
n/a


'

Openings Stairs _
A11
I/&J tKK f'.W A {^<&
Min. width


20
occ load of
'**50
Maximum riser allowed Minimum tread allowed
occ. load of
<£HO
occ. load of_____________
occ. load of
nK1
2 10
Winding, circular, spiral stairs
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
3=50 S,

*7 >'l
?PiOb
Tendings_______________________________________________n/a
Minimum width rqd. ^ ^ ^ fc sf.7-?r _________
Maximum width rqd. i!.DT fc* -fv -Q(<
Vertical distance between landings_____ ^______________
Handicap refuge space ^ I . . I
42-^
/T
O
Rqd. at each side?
Intermediate rails rqd.?
j^2
2: SS!i
Max. width between interior rails_________________
Rqd. height ahfv£ % ,v.

Max. openings in rails Height above nosing _
^ f a

5


Extension of railing____
Projection from wall____
Exceptions
L> f! lOJ'-M A-5
\lL ff__________
JwK(n^
1 1 " j' " 1 1

Horizontal exit requirements ___riA'^UL&____n/a
stfCUX Q.t\TtCcyCu-54 Sumps__________________________________________________n/a
Vidth do c-foii S____________________________
Maximum slope i ^ QrtA^l. f' & Cijl Ladings % and x?ffe/U_
Handrails (u.V"? #f~ 0 T£4j9_____________
5-.
64^_______
ALi
Exit signs rqd.
Toilet room requirements
Fixture requirements (basis?)
44^2- (code utilized?) i-^'-^L
Women Men _
!l
Drinking fountains Showers____________
/ : *75 p> 0 I -j/6 i^ipiTL
n/a
n/a
n/a
,n/a'
Handicapped Requirements
Site_______________________
Accessible Routes
A+3
6


Accessible bathrooms
Accessible housing
Number of units_____
Minimum requirements
n/a
Special rqmts. not listed

/
n/a
'Pit'A
7


PROGRAMMING


Preliminary Square Foot Calculations Assume Buildout to B-7 Maximum: 6.4 F.A.R.
E£Q3£aiQIIl&£LA££a i£U^££_£.££
Anchor Tenent 20,000 sq
Reta i 1 (within 50* of street) 11,875
Lobby - Off ice 350
Atrium 1 000
Leaseao le Office Space 76,750
Lobby - Res i dent i a 1 250
Residences Studio 15 Units at 550 sq ft. eacn 8,250
- 1 Bedroom 15 Units at 600 sq . ft . each 9,000
- 2 Bedroom 15 Units at 800 sq . ft . each 11,000
Loading - 2 at 260 sq. ft. each ZZQ
Tota I
140,000


APJA6C-H6Y MATRIX
stfcbt
ANO-t^F-TE-HE-HT p-E-TA IL A£dApE.
ATTE-lUM__________
CEfiCe- Loe&Y LEAAA'PL'E- SfACt. fU&UI6 F&TT^QgH6 gg^iPEnfiAp L-OEAY 6TUP|0____________
1 ftgpp-ogKl
2 gEpE.ocVl
LgAPIHfc POCK2
I e^UALt? M^T IMppfcTANT 2? ue^r important


SPACE:, ah crisis. tbnpNT
DESCRIPTION:
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this f^uiLpiN^ Alp inc^ease-THE E> UNLESS OF THE SHAt-UBF-
TEMEKTS, ancHpf Tenemts Alb usually pefaptment stcte
f3tfT peCENTLy THEY INCLUFB mcle upscale na^e^a/bf-
ST0E££, I.B, SPOILS BE£TftFL6
butths, upnlahs, &?iiPMer Tv00 HAWET5, Prc.
SQUARE FOOTACES:
a 20, ACTIVITY: '
perAiL 6Ales
s
USER:
f^DESTElANS ^-eSlPElHT^
' CPr ice-
DIAGRAMS:
NEEDS:
^fACE 0N SEVERAL- L-EVEUS 4 INTBLNAU INTERCONNECTIONS 4 PEHAtcy access -p stleet
DESIGN
CHARACTERISTICS:
- fPlHAP-Y ACCESS TPOM STF-EE" AhP MAE PET SQUARE VOLUME DP SToFE- EXPRESSED | HPBPEM.PETLY ctS FAcAPE EASY Accept BETWEEN fU0£S
ADJACENCIES:
STFeer
> ATbiUM
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SPACE: AIL
DESCRIPTION:
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q^HouLP ^e,
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Pop (MraL^e- StiofPtN^, PHpitin^ Apeas w'irHiM 50' or PTpeer can (H cu a pep in TeA.p.. ppeMiUH^/
SQUARE FOOTAGES:
5 ZXlCfc&'S (£? zr>'*75'-T^oo tt3uaf-e reer eroFA^e fi -y^. raar/brc^ \ooo ^auApe peer
ACTIVITY:
0 peTAlU SALPS
USER:
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Pe^ipexriAu
PEPeeTP-iAH
DIAGRAMS:
NEEDS:
pa^y A^ess pctp- repeATHA1
0 PToRA^e APBA
9 PA^iuy ee^apep (1 pntpan HA^p i cap Pcce^^ue.
0 eNTPAKC£c, ahcuup -p?e jp(e.nte
TO MtNiyUPfc, NORTH expgyupe
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CHARACTERISTICS:
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* TPAN£,PARE 1ST ViNpowS Pcfc. M&fR|F a cc?N'/iEt4eNT rcr- iKf uuse eays
ADJACENCIES:
0 M APFEI" ~->C? Li APB-' ATPPE-r ATFiclH Af cAp*e.
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SPACE: Af-cm?-
DESCRIPTION:
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ftETWEBM 1TB- AsH'P
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AM(7 A TTcrrECTtDH PPce\
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DIAGRAMS:
SQUARE FOOTAGES:
* AP£A.pf- li? V ^ fT MAk-
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ACTIVITY:
CIRCULATION PA-VT ^rtTTUS6 PftTTECTIoiS tPOM WEATTie?-
USER:
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* fEPp^TPAKA ALOHA -TTFE-T
NEEDS:
Him \ol Wioe
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DESIGN
CHARACTERISTICS:
PUN 101 tA/tpa 5 0£r£NT 1b TAF£- ACYM1TA6a CUN
.fAyiN6 HTalLP 62MT7TW/AiPEv^
ADJACENCIES:
* ArTeer
i KMA-ET A<£UAPC.
* 'PETAiu


SPACE: ATFiiM
DESCRIPTION:
A mult\ otfn rfA^s
To uuf OdrtHECT TffiS.
i3imspNt Levfla cp the FiilLPINC (T 0P£NP THE IHT-FPtoP of rrie tbWlpiNd? an^> ALLOWS Ud.nr T? PEACH ASeAS
Tit at A?e AwAy ff&h tail outfits- wa-if ir Allows pe^pi^. TO LoOA INTO1 AN (NTEf-i^p-6FA6B ant Fee Ac.rn/ity oN cthep usveus. rriNcpEAree
THE V^UUKe op AN iNTEPloP 6PACE. Ho THAT IT EBOOKES Here SI6HIT(CA.W IN TUB-l£E OF THE ^LULPIMO.
SQUARE FOOTAGES:
T*5o [Too F>&UA£E FEET
ACTIVITY: '
fUl^LUL CIRCULATION.
. t^tiet
EtfEuTeP FF^H WFATHEP
USER:
* OPriCF-
' RETAIL FflOfnsPS
FEPBFTPIAHF
DIAGRAMS:

fti
^seaessMB^
gas
iiida
Si. i
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jt
1
NEEDS:
' PKOULP EE OFhEnTEp Tc?PW|n EUNUCHT INTO INTEPIOP op THE BUILpinC
(ADLATEP rF-OM W*EATTEF-
2S3.
35s8
St.
W- eawiwffi!piur
SP*
DESIGN
CHARACTERISTICS:
' TFOVlPe interior epAce w/ ^pANPEF. SCAUE
* epould mahe u^=e of trans-fAPSNCy c?F THE EFACP-
* CoHNECT INTEpoiz cES To Common A?-eA
ADJACENCIES:
* PETAL- office i^Fe^y .pe^lTFNTlAU loEPy


SPACE:
.DESCRIPTION:
TTt'E. u/He&e. urr\o&
\s!oPt-z&b hnv v^\top> ekh^ TtiE IT f^ow\ry^,
Ttte Fd^T (MPFC^loN -£?p the-&J4A.U+Y ,ANP UKU2ue8T2#> tfr irte r>a(UP(HO>, rr CMu? &z
ACC'%&7Mbt& GfS. OFF
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SQUARE FOOTAGES:
* Uffc>Y ;
ACTIVITY: 1
* 1YAIT(K6 TZ>P-- INTIMATION ft>F \/WS
USER:
* VKW1^> to OrF?ce
* OfFlC^
* -tETVICE. w^pcffs
DIAGRAMS:
NEEDS:
p ^I^-UOOO t7£tT-S
o ORIENT T> Minimise nof-th
^Fbsap-E-
DESIGN
CHARACTERISTICS:
o *5f\oU UP EE 4-fZiEp T>
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o May meet -^li&rrY 04app
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ADJACENCIES:
4TPE£r FETAlo.
PARON6?


SPACE: OFFICE SF/^613-
DESCRIPTION:
Fi-SLXlfrue- l^A^A^LE. ^TAce AVAILABLE |H ANY 662UApiE FTOTA&e. THIS 4FAO= (S COHrL-tTB uy UNFINtVl&P excerr fpp- H^ctfANtcAUANP
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T^HeNr (s fAo\/ippip A j^DcTUP-tS- ANP ftARDWAPE AU-W/AN6& A4
i^AA*^. THE ePACS- HU^T^e. AEi_e. T£ &E eu?>tWiPE.p iHTtf ANy CONFIGURATION,
SQUARE FOOTAGES:
^OiOOd bo{ooo oAOAPe P^e&r
perenpin6 cm ear. Miy.
ACTIVITY:
' 0PFI6E.
USER:
' £>PFI£E V/opFERS 5 V(^ \Tbf-$
DIAGRAMS:


FLEXlEi-E OfEK 6FACH.

G0fitT£R ^xf^ujce.
Q_______JD

XL
NEEDS:
* UNF^T^cfiVE- Pf\c£.
4 Access -pfk?M ATAeST
* ^LEVATC^ ABP/IC£.
* CONVENIENT TAfHNC
DESIGN
CHARACTERISTICS:
Pf£N ^5pAcE
o connection vtf/ Atrium
Gof-NEE cFplC&.'S
ADJACENCIES:
- Bijs-vw&tz. u?ie^


SPACE: pllfbUIC l^ATiiP^H^
DESCRIPTION:
&AT F£K. F.E.T"A. IL. ANP
CoMHeTLCiAL. ^fAce*. TWc> 0(s SAGtf FUoop.
SQUARE FOOTAGES:
2. EACft FUJOp. (?
Arrox. 3'xiz.' -72-^U/vpe Ft
160 FGUAF-E f£BT F£R PL-OCP-
ACTIVITY:
USER:
NEEDS:

DIAGRAMS:
DESIGN
CHARACTERISTICS:
, HAMFi£AF ACCC^I&Lg-
ADJACENCIES:
. pll&UC. CIRCULATION OFFICE- ClRRULA-TtON


SPACE: £g6(peHTlAL
DESCRIPTION:
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iris mt fip^t apa^e ^ vistrocz-ENtefs iVttew he. o>Mest?see-a pe^iofe-Kr. (t is the fe^km
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SQUARE FOOTACES:
* ', f^FT
ACTIVITY: f
0 fiec&WJ(N6 WAlL-
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USER:
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DIAGRAMS:
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NEEDS:
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CHARACTERISTICS:
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* F-EEp EHAll. T^ETPVATE Cll^li LAT (PH
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ADJACENCIES:
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1 ENTRANCE IP PEtAlL-
FfcOM ^T&r


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ZONING-OFF-STREET PARKING
CHART 1
OFF-STREET PARKING
LARGE CARS
a b C d e f V
parking angle stall width stall aisle to curb width 19' long stalll curb length per car center to center width of two-row bin with access road between curb to curb overlap cc
fl IS 17.0 73 0 29 0
u t*0" to 170 73 0 30 0 -
30' 1*4" 14.9 11.0 17 0 44 1 37.4
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45' 1*4" 19.4 ns 170 57 3 44 3
to" 111 no 177 S7 4 44 7
60' 1*4" 20 7 IIS 11 Stt SS.4
t' 0" 210 110 104 40 0 SSS
90* *4" 19 0 33 0* IS 41 0
0" 19 0 7J 0* to 41 0
* Two way circulation
COMPACT CARS
a b c d e {' P
parking angle stall width stall to curb 15' long stall aisle width curb length per car center-to-center width of two-row bin with access road between curb-to-curb overlap cc
0' 7.5 7.5 11.0 i9.a 26.0 26.0
30' 7.5 14.0 11.0 150 39.0 326
45' 7.5 15.9 11.0 10.6 42.8 37.9
60' 7.5 16.7 14.0 8.7 47.5 40.4
90' 7.5 15.0 18. o 7.5 48.0 48.0
Two way circulation
4
Supp. No. 5
4363


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| 59-596
DENVER CODE
ARTICLE VI. OFF-STREET LOADING REQUIREMENTS
Sec. 59-596. Scope.
The regulations set forth in this article shall apply and govern in all districts except in the P-1, RS-2, RS-4, R-0, R-l, R-X, R-2, R-2-A, R-3, R-3-X and 0-2 districts in which districts these regulations shall be of no force ancJ gffcct.
(Code 1950, § 615.1; Ord. No. 598-80, § 1, 11-24-80)
Sec. 59-597. Duty to provide off-street loading space.
The duty to provide and maintain off-street loading spaces shall be the joint and several responsibility of the operator and owner of the structure for which off-street loading spaces are required to be provided. No new structure shall be designed, erected, altered, used or occupied unless the off-street loading space herein required is provided in the amount herein set forth, and the number of off-street loading spaces for structures actually used, occupied and operated on the effective date of this chapter shall be reduced below the minimum number of spaces required by this chapter. If such occupied structures are enlarged or expanded, there shall be provided for the increment only the amount or number of off-street loading spaces that would be required hereunder as if the increment were a separate structure.
(Code 1950, § 615.2; Ord. No. 598-80, § 1, 11-24-80)
Sec. 59-598. Location of off-street loading space.
Except as otherwise provided in section 59-599, off-street loading spaces shall be located on the same zone lot as the structure for which provided and shall be composed of one parcel.
(Code 1950, § 615.3; Ord. No. 598-80, § 1, 11-24-80; Ord. No. 57-83, § 1, 1-31-83)
Sec. 59-599. Amount of off-street loading space required.
At least the following amounts of off-street loading space shall be provided, plus an area or means Supp. No. 5
adequate for maneuvering, ingress and egress, except as provided in paragraphs (3) and (4) below. Each loading space shall be at least ten (10) feet wide, twenty-six (26) feet long and fourteen (14) feet high, except that warehousing uses shall have loading spaces at least thirty-five (35) feet long with the same width and height as required for other loading spaces.
(1) Offices, hotels, multi-family dwellings, and all other uses except those listed below:
Square Feet of Gross Floor Area
Up to 25,000
25.001 to 250,000
250.001 to 500,000
500.001 to 750,000
750.001 and above
Required Number of Spaces
None
One
Two
Three
Four
(2) Sale at retail, wholesale and warehousing:
Square Feet of Gross Floor Area
Up to 15,000
15.001 to 50,000
50.001 to 200,000
200.001 to 350,000
350.001 and above
Required Number of Spaces
None
One
Two
Three
Four
(3) If the provision of off-street loading spaces creates site or building development problems on buildings requiring only one space, the zoning administrator may permit the temporary use of the required off-street parking spaces for loading operations in lieu of the off-street loading space.
(4) The zoning administrator may refer a proposed development plan to the manager of public works where such plan meets the following conditions:
a. The proposed development requires two (2) or more off-street loading spaces; and
b. The site area is unusually small or irregularly shaped so that the reasonable development of the zone lot with the required off-street loading spaces is difficult to achieve.
4354


BIBLIOGRAPHY


Alexander, Christopher, et al. A Pattern Language. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.
Arps, Louisa Ward. Denver In Slices. Athens, Ohio: Swallow Press, 1983.
Bacon, Edmund N. Design of Cities. New York City, New York: Penguin Books, 1985.
DeChiara, Joseph (editor). Time Saver Standards for Building Types. New York City, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1980.
Denver Planning Office, Denver Partnership Inc.; Downtown Area Plan. 1986
Gallion, Arthur and Eisner, Simon. The Urban Pattern. New York City, New York: D. Van Nostrand and Company, 1980.
Garnham, Harry Launce. Maintaining the Spirit of Place. Mesa, Arizona: PDA Publishers Corp., 1985.
Gosling, David and Maitland, Barry. Concepts of Urban Design.
New York City, New York: Academy Editions / St.
Martins Press, 1984.
Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York City, New York: Random House, 1961.
Kerouac, Jack. On The Road. New York City, New York: Viking Press, 1955.
Krier, Rob. Urban Projects 1968 82. New York City, New York: Rizzoli International Publications, 1982.
Lynch, Kevin. A Theory of Good City Form. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1981.
Lotus International Volume 24. New York City, New York: Rizzoli International Publications, 1979.
Noel, Thomas J. Denvers Larimer Street. Denver, Colorado: Historic Denver Inc., 1981.
Porphyrios, Demetri. ed. Architectural Design Volume 54 7/8. New York City, New York: St. Martins Press, 1984.
Smiley, Jerome C. History of Denver. Denver, Co.: The Sun-Times Publishing Co., 1901.
Sterling, James. Architectural Design Profile. London, England: Academy Editions/St. Martins Press, 1982
Sterling, James. Buildings and Projects. New York City, New York: Rizzoli International Publications, 1984


HVAC SUMMARY
i
I


HVAC SUMMARY
Penthouse Equipment -gas fired boiler -chiller -elevator machine rooms -fan room for air circulation into office areas -cooling tower on roof under false roof
Residential -individual fan coil units fed by four pipe system from penthouse equipment -ductwork in dropped ceiling -individual electric hot water heaters -individual electric metering
Of f ice -forced air from penthouse equipment -VAV boxes in suspended ceiling to office areas -perimeter ceiling mounted hot water radiant p>anels
Retail -individual fan coil units fed by four pip>e system from penthouse equipment -ducts in suspended ceiling -individual electric metering
Parking -fan room in NW corner provides positive ventilation


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1 BEDROOM


PRESENTATION
DRAWINGS


BUILDING DESIGN SUMMARY
i
The building is designed to contribute to the creation of the RTD Plaza as an urban square. It reinforces the longitudinal axis of the RID Station and presents its major face to the plaza. It is designed to conform to the maximum Floor Area Ratios of the B-7 zoning district. The first two floors are retail. The building extends to the lot lines on these levels. Floors three through eight are speculative offices. At the third level the building steps back fifteen feet along Market St. and the alley. These
setbacks allow greater rental flexibility in the office spaces for small tenents. The office and retail along 16th St. are organized around a 90 x 40 foot atrium extending to the eighth floor. The atrium establishes an axial relationship between the building and the RTD Station and is the central architectural element of the building. The building steps back 50
feet in two steps along 16th St. This admits additional light into the RTD
|
Plaza and the building atrium. It also exposes the frame of the atrium as a marker on the 16th St. Mall.
The buildings structure is a mix of cast in place and precast concrete with a stone and brick veneer on steel lintels attached to the frame. The two levels of underground parking for 94 cars are cast in place columns and post-tensioned slabs with a 9 foot floor to floor height. The first eight floors above grade are precast columns and beams, with a prestressed double-T floor system. The longitudinal office and residential setbacks are carried on an interior column line located 15 feet inside the lot line. Floor height for the first retail floor is 15 feet. Succeeding floors are
12 foot floor to floor. There are 48 residential units on four levels


above the offices. Each unit has a private outdoor deck.
The residential
floors are cast in place columns with post-tensioned beams and slabs. Floor to floor height is 9 feet. The boiler, chiller-cooling tower, and elevator penthouse are on the roof.
The building is clad with stone at the ground levels. The office and residential levels are covered with brick. The brick wails allow the windows to be recessed to create shadow and texture in the elevations. This follows the common style of the turn of the century buildings in the area.
i


MARKET STREET ELEVATION
Scale 1/16' : I'-O*


16TH STREET ELEVATION
Scale 1/16' : 1'-0*


I
i
BLAKE STREET ELEVATION 15TH STREET ELEVATION
Scale 1/16' : 1'-0'


SECTION A
Scale 1/16' : 1'-0'
>Y.v;v//:

SECTION B


GROUND FLOOR PLAN
Scale 1/16' : 1'-0'




RESIDENTIAL PLAN FLOORS 11-12


PARKING PLAN-
LEVEL 1
Scale 1/16*: V-0'
PARKING PLAN
LEVEL 2


STUDIO 1 BEDROOM
RESIDENTIAL PLANS
.Scale 1/4' : 1'-0*
2 BEDROOM