Citation

## Material Information

Title:
Alternate title:
Alternate title:
Creator:
Milan, J. Mark
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
approximately 125 leaves in various foliations : illustrations, charts, maps, color photographs, plans ; 28 cm

## Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Hotels -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Jefferson County ( lcsh )
Conference rooms -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Jefferson County ( lcsh )
Convention facilities -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Jefferson County ( lcsh )
Conference rooms ( fast )
Convention facilities ( fast )
Hotels ( fast )
Colorado -- Jefferson County ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

## Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
At head of title: Project title.
General Note:
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the reguirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Architecture and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
J. Mark Milan.

## Record Information

Source Institution:
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
16721764 ( OCLC )
ocm16721764
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1987 .M534 ( lcc )

Full Text
MILA/J
PROGRAM FOR:
J. MARK MILAN
SPRING _1987

TITLE PAGE
AN ARCHITECTURAL THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING, UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE
J. MARK MILAN
SEMESTER AND YEAR: SPRING, 1987
AL

The Thesis of J. Mark Milan is approved
University of Colorado at Denver Spring 1987

1200 SOUTH
MKADOWHIIOOK LAN U UlPEli DEAR CREEK EV ERCREEN, COLORADO HO ID!) 303 674-5014
April 15, 1987 TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN
For his final design project, Mark Milan has selected an exciting site and an interesting design problem.
I have been delighted to guide him through various preliminary alternatives, so that he could come up with a final solution that is well thought-out.
Mark's design concept, to create a transitional motif from the foothills to the plains, is an original one. His project for a mixed use development, placing a hotel and commercial office complex in a park setting, makes a strong point that a development of this nature should combine qualities of the country with the amenities of the city.
The land selected for this project has many interesting features which had to be taken into account, and which affected the design layout. The most important of these were: the existing buildings surrounding the site, the adjacent major thoroughfare, and the factors of orientation and slope.
I feel that Mark has worked hard and diligently on his project to create a fine solution.
I regret that I will not be able to attend Mark's final design presentation on May 4th, as I will be out of the country to attend the convention of the International Union of Architects in England.
I

I. INTRODUCTION HYPOTHESIS
II. CONTENT
A. SITE ANALYSIS........................................II-A-1
B. MARKET ANALYSIS .................................... II-B-1
C. REGIONAL ANALYSIS .................................. II-C-1
D. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS ............................. II-D-1
E. SUPPLY AND DEMAND ANALYSIS ......................... II-E-1
F. FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS ........................... II-F-1
G. PROGRAM ............................................ II-G-1
III. BIBLIOGRAPHY
IV. drawings/model photographs/conclusions
V. APPENDICES
A. BUILDING CODE........................................ V-A-l
B. ZONING............................................... V-B-l
C. SOILS................................................ V-C-l
D. DRAINAGE............................................. V-D-l
E. CONSTRUCTION COSTS .................................. V-E-l

INTRODUCTION
ARCHITECTURE, AS DEFINED BY WEBSTER, IS THE ART AND SCIENCE OF BUILDING. HOWEVER, ARCHITECTURE AS VIEWED BY THE PRACTITIONER MUST BE A CONSTANT EFFORT TOWARD SOLVING PROBLEMS OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT ON A PROJECT BY PROJECT BASIS.
A DYNAMIC FEATURE OF HUMAN BEINGS IS TO FORM WHATEVER SITUATION THEY ENCOUNTER INTO AN INTEGRATED WHOLE. MAN CANNOT PROCEED TO A NEW SITUATION WITHOUT ORDERING HIS REACTIONS,* MAN CANNOT SURVIVE WITHOUT ORDERING HIS PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT. THE VERY FOUNDATION OF MAN'S EXISTENCE IS THE CREATIVE ABILITY TO CONSTRUCT HIS ENVIRONMENT IN TERMS OF HIS NEEDS, A RELATIVE EQUILIBRIUM.
ARCHITECTS MUST UNDERSTAND THE VALUES AND NEEDS OF HUMANITY IN ORDER TO BE RESPONSIVE THROUGH THE DESIGN PROCESS. AESTHETIC VALUES, CULTURAL VALUES, AND SOCIAL VALUES ARE THE FOCUS IN THIS DESIGN PROJECT. THE NEED FOR VISUALIZING AND CREATING IMAGES, THE NEED FOR A SENSE OF BELONGING OR COMMUNITY, AND THE NEED FOR HUMAN INTERACTION WILL BE CONSIDERED AS A BASIS FOR THE DESIGN PROCESS.
HYPOTHESIS 1
AESTHETIC VALUES EVOKE EMOTION, PLEASE THE EYE, AND IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF LIFE. THE AESTHETICS OF PENETRATING SPACE, REGARDLESS
1-1

OF THE SPACE BEING ENTERED, MUST BE CONSIDERED AS HAVING SIGNIFICANT IMPACT ON THE VIEWER.
ARCHITECTS ARE IN A POSITION TO INFLUENCE THE PERCEPTIONS AND EMOTIONS OF THE OBSERVER THROUGH AN ARTICULATED GATEWAY.
THE OPENING STATEMENT IN THIS DESIGN PROJECT SATISFIES AN AESTHETIC VALUE BY PROVIDING AN IMAGE OF ENTRY INTO THE DENVER METROPOLITAN AREA FOR MOTORISTS ARRIVING FROM THE WEST FOOTHILLS. THIS IMAGE ENHANCES THE TRANSITIONAL IMPACT FROM THE MOUNTAINS TO THE PLAINS BY PROVIDING AN ENTRANCE THAT IS NOT AVAILABLE FROM THE NORTH, EAST, OR SOUTH.
HYPOTHESIS 2
CULTURAL VALUES PROVIDE FOR FINDING YOUR NICHE IN THE COMMUNITY AND YOUR PLACE IN SOCIETY. PEOPLE GROUP TOGETHER TO SATISFY COMMON PHILOSOPHICAL NEEDS. ARCHITECTS, WHEN CONCEIVING AN ENVIRONMENT CONDUCIVE TO SATISFYING NEEDS MUST PERCEIVE COMMON DENOMINATORS SPECIFIC TO A CULTURAL GROUP.
THE 'GENIUS LOCI' IN THIS DESIGN PROJECT SATISFIES A CULTURAL VALUE BY PROVIDING A SPACE WITH DEFINED BOUNDARIES, THUS CREATING A SENSE OF BELONGING FOR MEMBERS OF THE BUSINESS COMMUNITY CULTURE. THIS CENTRAL LOCATION PROVIDES THE MARKET PLACE IN WHICH BUSINESS PEOPLE CAN FUNCTION IN THEIR SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENT. THEREFORE, THIS CENTRAL
1-2

LOCATION MUST BE PERCEIVED AS HAVING COMMUNITY BUSINESS QUALITIES THAT ARE NOT AVAILABLE IN OTHER LODGING PLACES.
HYPOTHESIS 3
AS HUMAN BEINGS LIVE TOGETHER, AS A GROUP, IN SITUATIONS WHICH REQUIRE INTERACTIONS, THEY SATISFY THEIR NEED TO BE PART OF THE SOCIAL FABRIC. ARCHITECTS MUST DIRECT THEIR ENERGIES TOWARD CREATING AN ENVIRONMENT WHICH RESPONDS TO SUCH HUMAN NEEDS.
THE 'SELECTED MIX OF SPACES/HOTEL TYPOLOGY' IN THIS DESIGN PROJECT SATISFIES A SOCIAL VALUE BY PROVIDING COMMON PLACES FOR HUMAN INTERACTIONS CONDUCIVE TO BUSINESS ACTIVITIES. THE MIX PROVIDES FOR CHOICE OF ACTIVITIES AND INTERACTION BOTH INSIDE AND OUTSIDE OF TRADITIONAL BUSINESS SETTINGS. THEREFORE, SPECIFIC BUSINESS HOTELS MUST BE PERCEIVED AS HAVING ADAPTABLE SPACES, PLACES, AND EQUIPMENT WHICH ARE NOT AVAILABLE IN OTHER TYPES OF HOTELS.
THE ABOVE HYPOTHESES ARE NECESSARY BUT NOT SUFFICIENT STATEMENTS TO ARTICULATE A COMPLETE DESIGN SOLUTION. THE 'OPENING STATEMENT', 'GENIUS LOCI' AND 'SELECTED MIX OF spaces/hotel typology' ARE INTERRELATED AND INTERDEPENDENT, AND CANNOT IN REALITY BE ISOLATED IN THIS MANNER. HOWEVER, THEY PROVIDE FOR THE BEGINNING TO MY INTEGRATED DESIGN SOLUTION.
1-3

SITE ANALYSIS
THE SITE FOR THE PROPOSED BUSINESS HOTEL IS LOCATED IN JEFFERSON COUNTY, COLORADO, AN AREA WHICH HAS EXPERIENCED RAPID GROWTH IN RECENT YEARS. THE COMMERCIAL OFFICE PARKS, THE DENVER FEDERAL CENTER AND THE AREA'S RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS SHOULD PROVIDE A GOOD ENVIRONMENT FOR THE BUSINESS HOTEL. OFFICE SPACE PRESENTLY UNDER CONSTRUCTION AND PLANNED FOR THE AREA SURROUNDING THE PROPOSED SITE SHOULD FURTHER ENHANCE ITS OPERATION. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS IN THE IMMEDIATE AREA AND TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS TO THE SITE ARE ALSO SUPPORTIVE OF HOTEL DEVELOPMENT.
THE BUSINESS HOTEL WILL BE LOCATED WITHIN A MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENT WHICH WILL INCLUDE OFFICE SPACE, ATHLETIC CENTER AND CONVENIENCE RETAIL FOR THIS NEIGHBORHOOD. THE SITE IS UNDER THE DIRECTION OF MR. JOHN W. O'DORISIO, SR. OF THE GENERAL AMERICAN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY WHICH OWNS THE PROPERTY. PRESENTLY THERE IS A LOW RISE, 25,000 SQUARE-FOOT, FULLY OCCUPIED OFFICE BUILDING AND A 140,000 SQUARE-FOOT MID-RISE OFFICE BUILDING. THE MASTER PLAN CALLS FOR AN ADDITIONAL 150,000 SQUARE FEET OF OFFICE SPACE TO BE CONSTRUCTED AT A LATER PHASE. A CONVENIENCE RETAIL CENTER WAS CONSTRUCTED DURING 1984; IT CONTAINS APPROXIMATELY 14,000 SQUARE FEET OF SPACE.
APPROXIMATELY ONE-QUARTER MILE WEST OF THE SITE IS THE JEFFERSON COUNTY FAIRGROUNDS, WHICH ENTERTAINS APPROXIMATRELY 257,000 VISITORS ANNUALLY. ACTIVITIES AT THE FAIRGROUNDS INCLUDE, AMONG OTHERS:
II-A-1

MEETINGS AND BANQUETS, RODEOS AND MIDGET SIZE CAR RACING.
IMMEDIATELY EAST OF THE SITE IS AN APARTMENT COMPLEX. APPROXIMATELY ONE-HALF MILE EAST OF THE SITE, VIA FRONTAGE ROAD, IS THE RED ROCKS CAMPUS OF THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE OF DENVER. SOUTH AND NORTH OF THE SITE ARE RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITIES.
ACCESSIBILITY AND VISIBILITY
THE ACCESSIBILITY AND VISIBILITY OF A SITE CAN SIGNIFICANTLY IMPACT THE OPERATION OF A HOTEL. THE SITE FOR THE PROPOSED BUSINESS HOTEL ENJOYS EXCELLENT ACCESSIBILITY FROM THE SIXTH AVENUE DIAMOND INTERCHANGE. DIRECT ACCESS TO THE SITE WILL EITHER BE VIA INDIANA STREET OR VIA FRONTAGE ROAD. HOWEVER, THIS IS DEPENDENT ON THE FINAL SITE PLAN. BOTH INDIANA STREET AND THE FRONTAGE ROAD PROVIDE CLEAR, EASY ACCESS TO THE SITE.
THE SITE SLOPES FROM A LOW POINT NEAR THE INDIANA STREET AND FRONTAGE ROAD INTERSECTION TO ITS APEX AT THE SOUTHEAST CORNER. THIS WILL ENHANCE THE VISIBILITY OF THE PROPOSED BUSINESS HOTEL FOR EASTBOUND TRAFFIC ON U.S. HIGHWAY 6. BECAUSE OF SURROUNDING HILLS, WESTBOUND TRAFFIC WILL HAVE LIMITED VISIBILITY. THE ELEVATION OF THE SITE AND THE SURROUNDING AREA WILL PROVIDE ADEQUATE VISIBILITY FROM INTERSTATE
70.
II-a-2

LEGAL DESCRIPTION
A PORTION OF BLOCK 25, EXCEPT PARCEL NO. 1, DEEDED FRONTAGE ROAD RIGHT OF WAY, AND OFFICE TRACT
BLOCK 25, SIXTH AVENUE WEST SECOND FILING, ACCORDING TO THE RECORDED PLAT AS RECORDED IN PLAT BOOK 36, AT PAGES 13 AND 14, JEFFERSON COUNTY, COLORADO, EXCEPT PARCEL NO. 1, DEEDED FRONTAGE ROAD RIGHT OF WAY AND OFFICE TRACT, MORE PARTICULARLY DESCRIBED AS
follows:
BEGINNING AT THE NORTHWEST CORNER OF SECTION 7, TOWNSHIP 4 SOUTH, RANGE 69 WEST OF THE 6TH PRINCIPAL MERIDIAN; THENCE S
00"04'48' e 568.00 feet along the westerly line of said section 7; thence s 89"58'00' e 50.00 feet; thence s 00"04'48' e 162.00 feet
ALONG THE EASTERLY RIGHT OF WAY LINE OF INDIANA STREET TO THE TRUE POINT OF beginning; THENCE ALONG THE SOUTHEASTERLY RIGHT OF WAY LINE OF SAID DEEDED FRONTAGE ROAD FOR THE FOLLOWING FOUR COURSES:
1. ) THENCE N 89"-55'12' E 13,00 FEET.
2. ) THENCE ALONG A CURVE TO THE LEFT, HAVING A CENTRAL
ANGLE OF 57"20'45' AND A RADIUS OF 180.00 FEET, AN ARC LENGTH OF 180.16 FEET.
3 ) thence n 32"34'27' e 53.60 feet.
4.) THENCE ALONG A CURVE TO THE RIGHT, HAVING A CENTRAL
ANGLE OF 25"19'20' AND A RADIUS OF 490.87 FEET, AN ARC LENGTH OF 216.94 FEET TO THE NORTHERLY LINE OF SAID BLOCK 25, AS PLATTED.
THENCE S 89"58'00' E 218.97 FEET ALONG THE SAID NORTHERLY LINE OF block 25; thence s 17"56'00' w 325.00 feet; thence s 72"04'00' e 165.00 feet; thence n 17"56'00' e 378.29 feet to the said northerly LINE OF BLOCK 25; THENCE S 89"58'00' E 200.00 FEET ALONG SAID NORTHERLY LINE OF BLOCK 25 TO THE NORTHEASTERLY CORNER OF SAID BLOCK 25, AS PLATTED,* THENCE ALONG THE BOUNDARY OF SAID BLOCK 25, AS PLATTED, FOR THE FOLLOWING 10 COURSES:
1. ) THENCE S OS^'OO' E 8.86 FEET.
2. ) THENCE ALONG A CURVE TO THE RIGHT, HAVING A CENTRAL
ANGLE OF 10"49'30' AND A RADIUS OF 207.09 FEET, AN ARC LENGTH OF 39.13 FEET.
3. ) THENCE ALONG A CURVE TO THE LEFT, HAVING A CENTRAL
ANGLE
OF 14Ar05'48' AND A RADIUS OF 200.00 FEET, AN ARC LENGTH
OF 49.21 FEET.
4. ) THENCE ALONG A CURVE TO THE RIGHT, HAVING A CENTRAL
ANGLE OF 24"55'18' AND A RADIUS OF 200.00 FEET, AN ARC LENGTH OF 86.99 FEET.
5. ) thence s 17"56'00' w 468.90 feet.
6. ) THENCE ALONG A CURVE TO THE RIGHT HAVING A CENTRAL
ANGLE
OF 71/Ir59,12' AND A RADIUS OF 328.13 FEET, AN ARC LENGTH
OF 412.26 FEET.
7. ) thence s 89/ir55'12' w 272.65 feet.
8. ) thence n 68/r16'42' w 53.79 feet.
9. ) thence s 89y,r55'12' w 150.00 feet.
10.) thence n 00"04'48' w 557.30 feet to the true point of
BEGINNING. (CONTAINING 13.65 ACRES MORE OR LESS.)
II-A-3

CLIMATE
THE CLIMATE OF THE JEFFERSON COUNTY AREA IS GENERALLY SUNNY,
SEMI-ARID AND MILD. WEATHER EXTREMES ARE INFREQUENT AND OF SHORT DURATION. THE EASTERN SLOPE IS SUBJECT TO THE CHINOOK EFFECT. IN THIS EFFECT, EASTWARD MOVING AIR MASSES LOSE THEIR MOISTURE ON THE WESTERN SLOPE AS THEY RISE TO AN ALTITUDE OF AT LEAST 13,000 FEET. COMPRESSION DUE TO RAPID ALTITUDE LOSS FROM 13,000 TO 5,000 FEET CAUSES THE AIR TO WARM AS IT DESCENDS OVER THE FRONT RANGE. HIGH WINDS, WITH GUSTS UP TO 120 M.P.H., ARE COINCIDENTAL WITH THIS PATTERN, ALTHOUGH THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS TEND TO BLOCK LONG-DURATION STEADY WINDS FROM IMPACTING THE REGION.
THE AREA RECEIVES 15 TO 20 INCHES OF TOTAL PRECIPITATION ANNUALLY,
70% TO 80% FALLING DURING THE PERIOD FROM APRIL TO SEPTEMBER. ALL FORMS OF FROZEN PRECIPITATION TEND TO DISAPPEAR RAPIDLY IF EXPOSED TO THE SUN. THE CHINOOK EFFECTS OF LOW MOISTURE AND HIGH WINDS COMBINE WITH ERRATIC PRECIPITATION PATTERNS TO DRY OUT SOILS IN THE AREA, WHICH FURTHER CONTRIBUTE TO EROSION AND RUNOFF PROBLEMS.
DUE TO ITS LOW HUMIDITY, THE DENVER AREA RARELY EXPERIENCES FOG, ALTHOUGH AIR POLLUTANTS, PRIMARILY FROM AUTOMOBILES, ARE TRAPPED BENEATH LOW LYING INVERSIONS DURING THE FALL AND WINTER.
THE REGION POSSES AN EXTREMELY HIGH PERCENTAGE OF POSSIBLE SUNSHINE
(70% yearly), a low relative humidity and low average precipitation;
MAKING SOLAR ENERGY AN EXCELLENT ALTERNATIVE.
II-A-4

BUILDINGS IN THIS CLIMATE SHOULD BE PROTECTED FROM THE COLD WINTER
WINDS. EARTH BERMS, LANDSCAPING, VESTIBULE ENTRIES, AND AUXILIARY SPACES PLACED ON THE COLD SIDE OF THE BUILDING, ARE EXAMPLES WHICH ACT AS BUFFERS TO WINTER WINDS. INSULATION AND MASSIVE, HEAVY BUILDING MATERIALS SHOULD BE USED TO TEMPER OUTSIDE TEMPERATURE EXTREMES AND STORE INTERNAL HEAT GAIN. WINTER SUN SHOULD BE ALLOWED TO PENETRATE INTO THE BUILDING TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF DIRECT SOLAR GAIN.
II-A-5

LAFAY
BRIGHTON
SUPERIOR
BROOMFIELD
HENDERSON
ROCKY FIATS
SE HAZELTINI
RIVERDALE
/ IRONDALE ^DUPONT /
WELBY
WHEAT RIDGE
LAKEWOOD
DENVER
MORRISON
CHERRY HILLS VILLAGE
GREENWOOD VILLAGE
LITTLETON
Hotchkiss
DENVER
thoroughfares
ACEQUIA
v 1 \ J
T ALAMCOA AVt LOWRY TRAJMNG C&fTtt 3

PROJECT AREA

Applewood Valley
6043
~coi*ooc: GfOve\ Snooping Center
rOLF-i
Calvarv
Ch.
Reservoir
Welchester
Sch
^ PleaiiantJ View Sch.
Ct>nununity<^lU*y^ <4 Denver /
' RecHl(cks C;tfnpu.-*i

t
PROPOSED HOTEL
SITE MAP
!

altitude angles
JUN 21 SUMMER
MAR/SEP 21 SPRING/FALL
DEC 21
WINTER

MONTH
| JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CLIMATE
80* F 60* F 40* F 20* F
TEMPATURE
MEAN MAX.--
MEAN MIN.--
ANNUAL MEAN MAX. 87.9 ANNUAL MEAN MIN. 21.4
2 IN 1 IN.
RAINFALL
18.39 IN.
14 IN. 10 IN. 6 IN 2 IN
SNOWFALL
ANNUAL 84.9 IN.
AM %
PM %
HUMIDITY
SW MPH
HEATING
COOLING
8 9 9 2 9 9 103 9.5 9 0 8.5 82 8.1 8.1 8.5 ea |
992 826 809 482 236 88 6 0 139 367 690 905
0 0 0 8 29 154 282 234 109 26 0 0
WIND
DEGREE DAYS
TOTAL HEATING 5540
TOTAL COOLING 842

MARKET ANALYSIS
ECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION INDICATE THE RELATIVE STRENGTH OF A GIVEN MARKET AREA. THE GROWTH OR DECLINE OF THE LOCAL ECONOMY COULD POTENTIALLY EITHER ENHANCE OR PRECLUDE THE CONSTRUCTION OF DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS.
GENERAL
THE DENVER STANDARD METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA (SMSA) IS LOCATED IN CENTRAL COLORADO AT THE EASTERN EDGE OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS. THE SMSA IS COMPRISED OF SEVEN COUNTIES: ADAMS, ARAPAHOE, BOULDER, DENVER, DOUGLAS, GILPIN AND JEFFERSON. IT SURROUNDS THE INTERSECTION OF THREE MAJOR INTERSTATE HIGHWAYS. THE SITE OF THE PROPOSED BUSINESS HOTEL IS WITHIN JEFFERSON COUNTY. THE AREA ENJOYS A TEMPERATE CLIMATE, OFFERS EXTENSIVE OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITIES AND MAINTAINS A RELATIVELY LOW POPULATION DENSITY.
THE ABUNDANCE OF NATURAL RESOURCES IN THE REGION AND THE RELATIVELY HIGH QUALITY-OF-LIFE, COUPLED WITH STRATEGIC LOCATION, HAVE MADE DENVER, THE STATE'S CAPITAL, A SUITABLE LOCATION FOR A LARGE NUMBER OF ENERGY, HIGH TECHNOLOGY AND OTHER FIRMS. THE LOCAL, STATE AND REGIONAL ECONOMIES HAVE FLOURISHED IN RECENT YEARS DESPITE THE ECONOMIC DECLINE EXPERIENCED IN OTHER AREAS OF THE COUNTRY.
II-B-1

POPULATION
THE DENVER SMSA EXPERIENCED RELATIVELY STABLE POPULATION GROWTH DURING THE PAST DECADE,* CERTAIN AREAS HAVE EXHIBITED HIGHER RATES OF GROWTH THAN OTHERS. ENCOMPASSING LAKEWOOD AND GOLDEN, JEFFERSON COUNTY IS AMONG THE FASTEST GROWING AREAS. THE FOLLOWING TABLE PRESENTS HISTORICAL GROWTH PATTERNS FOR SELECTED AREAS.
POPULATION
YEAR GOLDEN LAKEWOOD JEFFERSON COUNTY DENVER SMSA
1970 9,800 92,700 235,400 1,239,000
1980 11,300 112,800 371,700 1,604,300
1985 17,600 160,700 447,600 1,888,700
PERCENTAGE increase:
1970-80 15% 22% 58% 29%
1980-85 56 42 20 18
sources: u.s. dept, of commerce, bureau of the census;
DENVER REGIONAL COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS
II-b-2

AS INDICATED IN THE PRECEDING TABLE, THE NEARBY COMMUNITIES ARE EXPECTED TO EXPERIENCE POPULATION GROWTH RATES WHICH EXCEED THAT PROJECTED FOR THE SMSA.
EMPLOYMENT
THE JEFFERSON COUNTY WORKFORCE AND THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE EMPLOYED HAVE EXHIBITED STABLE GROWTH IN RECENT YEARS. JEFFERSON COUNTY
EXPERIENCED BOTH A GREATER GROWTH IN WORK FORCE AND LOWER
UNEMPLOYMENT THAN THE REST OF THE DENVER LABOR MARKET AREA (LMA).
THE DENVER LMA CONSISTS OF THE FOLLOWING COUNTIES: ADAMS, ARAPAHOE,
BOULDER, CLEAR CREEK, DENVER, DOUGLAS, GILPIN AND JEFFERSON COUNTIES.
BELOW ARE SELECTED WORKFORCE AND EMPLOYMENT DATA:
WORKFORCE DATA
JEFFERSON COUNTY % INCREASE DENVER LMA % INCREASE
1977 1982 1977-82 1977 1982 1977-82
WORKFORCE 166,000 214,800 29.4 737,000 935,800 27.0
EMPLOYED 158,000 202,400 28.1 693,000 873,800 26.1
UNEMPLOY-
MENT RATE 4.8% 5.8% 6.0% 6.6%
SOURCE: COLORADO DEPARTMENT OF EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING
II-B-3

PROVIDING THE AREA WITH A RELATIVELY STABLE ECONOMY, THE LABOR MARKET AREA WORKFORCE IS BALANCED AMONG THE MAJOR CLASSIFICATIONS. AS A RESULT OF CORPORATE RELOCATIONS AND EXPANSIONS WITHIN THE GREATER DENVER AREA, PROFESSIONAL, MANAGERIAL, AND TECHNICAL WORKER EMPLOYMENT HAS STABILIZED. THE MAJORITY OF THIS SLOWDOWN HAS BEEN GENERATED BY HIGH TECHNOLOGY COMPANIES AND BY FIRMS PROVIDING ENERGY-RELATED SERVICES AND SUPPLIES, SPECIFICALLY THOSE FIRMS ENGAGED IN THE EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION OF OIL, COAL AND GAS,
HAVING TROUBLED TIMES.
THE GREATEST MAJORITY OF THESE FIRMS ARE LOCATED IN THE DENVER CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT (CBD> OR THE SUBURBAN OFFICE PARKS. ALSO, URANIUM AND SOLAR ENERGY FIRMS AND STATE AND FEDERAL PUBLIC AGENCIES INVOLVED IN ENERGY ACTIVITIES HAVE OPENED OFFICES IN THESE SAME AREAS.
INCOME
MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD EFFECTIVE BUYING INCOME (EBl) IS A RELIABLE INDICATOR OF INCOME LEVELS IN A GIVEN AREA. PERTINENT DATA REGARDING EBI, PRESENTED IN STATED YEAR DOLLARS, ARE INDICATED IN THE FOLLOWING
table:
II-b-4

JEFFERSON
YEAR LAKEWOOD COUNTY DENVER SMSA
1976 $17,753$ 17,401 $15,134 1977 19,674 19,283 16,465 1978 20,724 20,305 17,952 1979 23,731 23,249 20,369 1980 24,739 24,237 21,800 1981 27,950 27,372 23,727 PERCENTAGE INCREASE 1976-81 57.4% 57.3% 56.8% source: sales and marketing management magazine. HISTORICALLY, LAKEWOOD AND JEFFERSON COUNTY SHOW A MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME ABOVE THE SMSA AVERAGE. THIS IS FURTHER PROOF OF THE RELATIVE STRENGTH OF THE WEST DENVER MARKET. II-B-5 REGIONAL ANALYSIS THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A SITE AND ITS IMMEDIATE SURROUNDING AREA AFFECT THE RELATIVE SUCCESS OF ITS POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT. THIS IS PARTICULARLY TRUE FOR COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENTS WHICH DEPEND ON THE PERCEPTION OF THEIR MARKET. A HOTEL'S PERFORMANCE IS PARTICULARLY SENSITIVE TO LOCATIONAL DIFFERENCES, DEVELOPMENTS IN THE IMMEDIATE SURROUNDING AREA, VISIBILITY, ACCESS TO AND EGRESS FROM THE SITE, GENERAL AREA TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND THE AREA'S AESTHETICS. THE PROPOSED BUSINESS HOTEL WILL BE LOCATED IN THE WEST SECTOR OF THE DENVER SMSA. THE WEST SECTOR OR MARKET AREA IS ONE OF THE FASTEST GROWING RESIDENTIAL, COMMERCIAL, AND RETAIL AREAS IN THE SMSA. THE MAJOR FACTORS AFFECTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THIS SECTOR HAVE BEEN THE EXCELLENT TRANSPORTATION PROVIDED BY INTERSTATE 70 (l-70) AND US HIGHWAY 6 (U.S. 6), THE AMOUNT OF AVAILABLE, DEVELOPABLE LAND AND THE DESIRABILITY OF THE AREA BECAUSE OF ITS PROXIMITY BOTH TO THE FOOTHILLS AND TO ATTRACTIVE RESIDENTIAL AREAS. THE SITE IS APPROXIMATELY NINE MILES WEST OF THE DENVER CBD AND APPROXIMATELY 16 MILES WEST OF STAPLETON INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. INTERSTATE 70, U.S. HIGHWAY 6 AND U.S. HIGHWAY 40 (U.S. 40) CONVERGE APPROXIMATELY ONE MILE WEST OF THE SITE. SPECIFICALLY, THE SITE IS LOCATED IN THE SOUTHEAST QUADRANT OF THE U.S. HIGHWAY 6 AND INDIANA STREET INTERSECTION. II-C-1 OFFICE SPACE SEVERAL COMMERCIAL OFFICE DEVELOPMENTS EXIST IN THE AREA WHICH ARE EXPECTED TO PROVIDE SUPPORT FOR THE PROPOSED BUSINESS HOTEL. THROUGH 1983, DEVELOPMENT AND ABSORPTION OF FIRST-CLASS OFFICE SPACE HAD BEEN VERY STRONG. HOWEVER, THERE HAS BEEN AN INCREASE IN OFFICE VACANCIES THROUGHOUT THE METROPOLITAN AREA BECAUSE OF THE RECENT PERIOD OF UNPARALLELED CONSTRUCTION. BASED ON THE AVAILABILITY OF LAND, RELATIVELY LOW LEASE RATES, AND THE PROJECTED STRENGTH OF DEMAND FOR FUTURE OFFICE SPACE, THE OFFICE MARKET SUPPLY IN THIS AREA IS EXPECTED TO CONTINUE HAVING HIGH VACANCY RATES IN THE FORESEEABLE FUTURE. IN JANUARY 1983, AN ANNUAL SURVEY CONDUCTED BY THE DENVER BUILDING OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION (BOMA) AND THE DENVER CHAMBER OF COMMERCE SHOWED THAT THE WEST DENVER OFFICE MARKET AREA ACCOUNTED FOR 15.9 PERCENT OF THE TOTAL OCCUPIED OFFICE SPACE IN THE DENVER METROPOLITAN AREA. THE SAME SOURCE REPORTS THAT IN JANUARY OF 1983 THERE WERE 13 BUILDINGS UNDER CONSTRUCTION, TOTALING 949,000 SQUARE FEET, IN THE WEST DENVER MARKET AREA. A SUMMARY OF HISTORICAL ABSORPTION OF OFFICE SPACE IN THE WEST DENVER AREA IS SHOWN IN THE FOLLOWING TABLE: II-C-2 DENVER WEST OFFICE PARK THE DENVER WEST OFFICE PARK IS AN ESTABLISHED MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENT, LOCATED APPROXIMATELY ONE MILE NORTHEAST OF THE SITE NEAR THE INTERSECTION OF INTERSTATE 70 AND U.S. HIGHWAY 40. THE DEVELOPMENT INCLUDES LOW TO MID-RISE BUILDINGS INTERSPERSED WITHRESTAURANTS AND A MARRIOTT HOTEL. DURING 1982, 42.000 SQUARE FEET OF SPACE WAS ABSORBED. AS OF JANUARY 1983, A TOTAL OF 899,000 SQUARE FEET OF SPACE WAS OCCUPIED OUT OF A TOTAL SUPPLY OF 1,027,000 SQUARE FEET. ADDITIONALLY, NEARLY 375.000 SQUARE FEET WAS UNDER CONSTRUCTION. UNION SQUARE THE UNION SQUARE DEVELOPMENT SOUTH OF THE INTERSECTION OF SIXTH AVENUE AND UNION STREET IS APPROXIMATELY ONE MILE SOUTHEAST OF THE SITE. THIS DEVELOPMENT INCLUDES: OFFICE SPACE, RESTAURANTS, A RECENTLY OPENED SHERATON INN AND CONVENIENCE RETAIL SPACE. DURING 1982, OCCUPIED OFFICE SPACE IN UNION SQUARE INCREASED FROM 487,000 SQUARE FEET TO 732,000 SQUARE FEET. THE JANUARY 1983 BOMA SURVEY INDICATED THAT THE VACANCY RATE AT UNION SQUARE WAS 34.1 PERCENT AND THAT NEARLY 200,000 SQUARE FEET OF OFFICE SPACE WAS UNDER CONSTRUCTION. II-C-4 DENVER FEDERAL CENTER THE DENVER FEDERAL CENTER IS LOCATED IN THE SOUTHEAST QUADRANT OF THE INTERSECTION OF U.S. HIGHWAY 6 AND UNION STREET, EAST OF THE UNION SQUARE DEVELOPMENT. THE FEDERAL CENTER IS THE LARGEST FEDERAL EMPLOYER IN THE NATION WITH THE EXCEPTION OF WASHINGTON, D.C. THE CENTER CONSISTS OF 94 INDEPENDENT GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND EMPLOYS APPROXIMATELY 7,500 PEOPLE. THE FEDERAL CENTER HAS DRAWN A SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF SUPPORT BUSINESS TO THE AREA. SUMMARY OVERALL, RISING VACANCY RATES ARE NOT EXCLUSIVE TO THE WEST DENVER AREA. AN OVERSUPPLY OF OFFICE SPACE IS EXPECTED TO EXIST FOR THE NEAR FUTURE. HOWEVER, VARIOUS STUDIES HAVE PROJECTED THAT THE WEST DENVER OFFICE SPACE ABSORPTION RATE INDICATES THAT OVERALL DEMAND IS ANTICIPATED TO SLOWLY CONTINUE TO INCREASE. II-C-5 TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AUTOMOBILE IN ORDER TO DETERMINE VARIOUS TRENDS OF GROWTH IN DENVER'S HIGHWAY TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM, CONSIDERATION MUST BE GIVEN TO BOTH THE AVAILABLE SERVICES AND TO THEIR DEGREES OF UTILIZATION. SUCH ANALYSES PROVIDE MEASURES OF SOME SOURCES OF LODGING DEMAND. INCREASES IN AUTOMOBILE TRAFFIC ON THE MAJOR THOROUGHFARES AND HIGHWAYS HAVE BEEN SIGNIFICANT NEAR THE SITE. DATA INDICATING THESE INCREASES ARE SHOWN IN THE FOLLOWING TABLE. AVERAGE DAILY TRAFFIC COUNTS AT SELECTED POINTS 1974 1981 AVERAGE ANNUAL PERCENTAGE INCREASE INTERSECTION COUNT COUNT 1974-1981 EAST OF 1-70 ON 6TH AVE. WEST OF 1-70 ON 6TH AVE. EAST OF 1-70 ON U.S. 40 WEST OF 1-70 ON U.S. 40 1-70 NORTHEAST OF U.S. 23,900 30,300 14,400 16,900 10,500 13,200 4,500 10,000 3.8% 2.5 3.7 17.5 40 17,500 27,300 8.0 1-70 BETWEEN U.S. 40 AND 6TH AVE. 15,000 17,700 2.6 1-70 SOUTHWEST OF 6TH AVE. 24,500 31,100 3.8 SOURCE: COLORADO STATE DEPT. OF HIGHWAYS II-D-1 THE DATA INDICATES THAT AUTOMOBILE TRAFFIC IN THE AREA HAS INCREASED MODERATELY IN RECENT YEARS. THIS INCREASE CAN BE ATTRIBUTED TO THE RECENT DEVELOPMENT OF COMMERCIAL OFFICE SPACE AND TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF RESIDENTIAL HOUSING THAT HAS TAKEN PLACE IN THE MARKET AREA. INTERSTATE 70 AND U.S. HIGHWAY 6 PROVIDE EXCELLENT ACCESS TO THE AREA'S DEVELOPMENTS, TO THE CBD AND TO STAPLETON INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. MAJOR ROADWAYS WEST 6th AVENUE THE WEST 6TH AVENUE FREEWAY (U.S. HIGHWAY 6 IS THE MOST SIGNIFICANT ROADWAY WITH RESPECT TO THE BUSINESS HOTEL. THE FACILITY IS A SIX-LANE FREEWAY FROM ITS INTERCHANGE WITH 1-70 NINE MILES EAST TO KALAMATH STREET IN DENVER. THE FREEWAY'S INTERCHANGE WITH INDIANA STREET, LOCATED ONE-EIGHTH MILE NORTH OF THE NORTHEAST CORNER OF THE DEVELOPMENT IS THE MOST IMPORTANT ROADWAY INTERSECTION SERVING THE COMPLEX. SOUTH FRONTAGE ROAD OF WEST 6TH AVENUE THE SOUTH FRONTAGE ROAD IS A CONVENTIONAL TWO-LANE FRONTAGE II-D-2 ROAD ON THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE FREEWAY, EXTENDING FROM ONE MILE WEST OF INDIANA STREET TO UNION BOULEVARD, A DISTANCE OF THREE MILES. THE FRONTAGE ROAD PROVIDES PRINCIPAL ACCESS TO THE BUSINESS HOTEL, RED ROCKS COMMUNITY COLLEGE AND A LARGE PORTION OF THE UNION SQUARE RESIDENTIAL AREA. t INDIANA STREET INDIANA STREET IS A NORTH-SOUTH ARTERIAL STREET WHICH HAS CONTINUITY FROM SOUTH GOLDEN ROAD ON THE NORTH TO ELLSWORTH AVENUE ON THE SOUTH, A DISTANCE OF APPROXIMATELY 1.75 MILES. A SOUTHWESTERLY EXTENSION OF INDIANA STREET IS STARTED THROUGH THE 6TH AVENUE WEST ESTATES DEVELOPMENT, TYING TO WEST ELLSWORTH AVENUE. THE ROADWAY WOULD TRANSITION FROM AN ARTERIAL DESIGNATION AT 4TH AVENUE TO A COLLECTOR STREET DESIGNATION ALONG THE ELLSWORTH ALIGNMENT. INTERSTATE HIGHWAY 70 1-70 IS A SIX-LANE FREEWAY RUNNING IN A GENERALLY SOUTHWESTERLY-NORTHEASTERLY DIRECTION. ITS INTERCHANGE WITH 6TH AVENUE IS DIRECTIONAL, PROVIDING MOVEMENTS FROM WESTBOUND 1-70 AND FROM EASTBOUND 1-70 TO EASTBOUND 6TH AVENUE. II-D-3 THE FOLLOWING CONCLUSIONS FROM THE TRAFFIC STUDY PREPARED BY LEIGH, SCOTT & CLEARY, INC., CAN BE DRAWN CONCERNING THE ACCESS AND TRAFFIC IMPACT OF THE BUSINESS HOTEL: 1. THE BUSINESS HOTEL IS PLANNED IN AN AREA WHICH HAS SIGNIFICANT TOPOGRAPHIC AND MAN-MADE BARRIERS TO MOVEMENT. THESE INCLUDE GREEN MOUNTAIN ON THE SOUTH, 1-70 ON THE WEST, AND THE 6TH AVENUE FREEWAY ON THE NORTH. 2. THE DISTRIBUTION OF TRAVEL TO AND FROM THE BUSINESS HOTEL IS RELATED TO THE TRAVEL DISTRIBUTION AT THE 6TH AVENUE FREEWAY/lNDIANA INTERCHANGE. IT IS ESTIMATED THAT ABOUT 29 PERCENT OF THE TRAVEL AT THIS POINT WILL BE ORIENTED TO AND FROM THE NORTH, ABOUT 49 PERCENT TO AND FROM THE EAST AND 16 PERCENT TO AND FROM THE WEST. 3. NEW COMMERCIAL LAND USES IN THE VICINITY OF THE 6TH avenue/indiana INTERCHANGE ARE EXPECTED TO GENERATE AN ADDITIONAL 4,400 NEW TRIPS PER DAY. DEFINITIONS APPLICABLE TO LEVELS OF SERVICE AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS (REFER TO EXHIBIT TABLES) II-d-4 LEVEL OF SERVICE A: (MORNING) DESCRIBES A CONDITION WHERE NO VEHICLE WAITS LONGER THAN ONE RED SIGNAL INDICATION. TYPICALLY, THE INTERSECTION APPROACHES APPEAR QUITE OPEN, TURNING MOVEMENTS ARE EASILY MADE, AND NEARLY ALL DRIVERS FIND FREEDOM OF OPERATION, THEIR ONLY CONCERN BEING THE CHANCE THAT THE LIGHT WILL BE RED, OR TURN RED, WHEN THEY APPROACH. LEVEL OF SERVICE B: (EVENING) REPRESENTS STABLE CONDITIONS WHERE AN OCCASIONAL SIGNAL PHASE IS FULLY UTILIZED AND A SUBSTANTIAL NUMBER ARE APPROACHING FULL USE. MANY DRIVERS BEGIN TO FEEL SOMEWHAT RESTRICTED WITHIN GROUPS OF VEHICLES. II-D-5 I TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH CENTER CRITICAL MOVEMENT ANALYSIS I rvlD I ANA FRONTAGE RD-AM-EX I ST I NG DATE 11-11-83 ************ **********-*-*-* *****++ LEVEL OF SERVTCE. - SATURATION CRITICAL N/S VOL 3S3". CRITICAL E/W VOL ^A-0 CRITICAL SUM 7'Q<5> **+*************#************ LANE GEOMETRY NORTHBOUND SOUTHBOUND EASTBOUND WESTBOUND LANE MOV WIDTH MOV WIDTH MOV WIDTH MOV WIDTH 1 RTL 15. 0 R. . 11.4 RTL . 9. 9 RTL 14. 2 T. . 12.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 m m m L. . 11.7 000 0000 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 m m m m m m m m 00m 0000 0 0 0 0 0 0 -J m m m m m * a a a a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 m m m m m m ... m 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TRAFFIC VOLUMES NORTHBOUND SOUTHBOUND EASTBOUND WESTBOUND LEFT 2 403 140 0 THRU 259 84 28 28 RIGHT 3 191 5 358 TRUCKS (7.) LOCAL BUSES <#/HR) PEAK HOUR FACTOR NORTHBOUND 2 0 .83 SOUTHBOUND 1 7 85 EASTBOUND 0 2 .82 WESTBOUND 0 4 .89 PHASING N/s :l. NEITHER TURN PROTECTED E/W si. NEITHER TURN PROTECTED PEDESTRIAN ACTIVITY : 1. 0 - 99 <3PEDS/HR) CYCLE LENGTH : 90 SECONDS CRITICAL LANE VOLUMES BY MOVEMENT NORTHBOUND SOUTHBOUND EASTBOUND WESTBOUND U -RIGHT 289 132 321 406 LEFT 0 383 0 0 LEFT TURN CHECK NORTHBOUND SOUTHBOUND EASTBOUND WESTBOUND UT VOLUME 2 403 140 0 JUSTED VOL 0 383 243 0 'F'ACITY 157 0 0 85 IVEMENT OK NO NO OK transportation research cent ef. CRITICAL MOVEMENT ANALYSIS INDIANA Â£< FRONTAGE RD Pn EXISTING DATE 11-11_8 LEVEL OF SERVICE E SATURATION <Â£>-4 CRITICAL N/S VOL CRITICAL E/W VOL ~7"Z2. 1 CRITICAL SUM 1 1 <Â£> O -*-* ****** -***-*#-*.-*-*-*-#*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*#-*- *** -* LANE GEOMETRY NORTHBOUND SOUTHBOUND EASTBOUND WESTBOUND LANE MOV WIDTH MOV WIDTH MOV WIDTH MOV WIDTH 1 RTL 15.0 R. 11.4 RTL . 9. 9 RTL 14 2 T.. .12.7 m m m m ... . L. 11.7 m m ... 4 5 m m m m m m m . m m m ... 6 . .... TRAFFIC VOLUMES NORTHBOUND SOUTHBOUND EASTBOUND WESTBOUND LEFT 6 484 236 1 THRU 95 197 42 29 RIGHT 3 172 34 5 TRUCKS C/.) 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SUPPLY AND DEMAND ANALYSIS
THIS SECTION REVIEWS THE PRESENT SUPPLY OF LODGING ACCOMMODATIONS, AS WELL AS ANY PLANNED ADDITIONS TO OR DELETIONS FROM THE FUTURE SUPPLY OF LODGING ACCOMMODATIONS. THE PRESENT DEMAND AND ITS MARKET COMPOSITION ARE ANALYZED IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE FUTURE SUPPLY OF LODGING ACCOMMODATIONS. ANY FUTURE CHANGES THAT OCCUR ARE ALSO DISCUSSED AS THEY RELATE TO THE FUTURE DEMAND FOR LODGING ACCOMMODATIONS.
GENERAL
THE LODGING MARKET AREA PROXIMATE TO THE PROPOSED BUSINESS HOTEL SITE IS PRESENTLY SERVED BY TWO FIRST-CLASS HOTELS, THE SHERATON INN, AND THE MARRIOTT. BOTH HAVE EXTENSIVE BANQUET AND MEETING FACILITIES. HOWEVER, THERE ARE FIVE PROPERTIES WITHIN THE IMMEDIATE AREA OFFERING A TOTAL OF 1,226 ROOMS, WHICH ARE CONSIDERED COMPETITIVE, IN VARYING DEGREES, WITH THE PROPOSED BUSINESS HOTEL.
THE ESTIMATED COLLECTIVE 1985 YEAR-END OCCUPANCY AND AVERAGE RATE PER OCCUPIED ROOM FOR THESE SIX PROPERTIES WAS 73 PERCENT AND $45.00, RESPECTIVELY. THESE PROPERTIES ACCOMMODATE A PORTION OF AREA LODGING DEMAND IN THE COMMERCIAL, GROUP, TOURIST AND GOVERNMENT DEMAND SEGMENTS THAT COULD BE EXPECTED TO UPGRADE IN QUALITY TO THE PROPOSED II-E-1 BUSINESS HOTEL. THEREFORE, WHILE THESE PROPERTIES HAVE IN THE PAST ACCOMMODATED DEMAND WHICH IS EXPECTED TO UPGRADE TO THE BUSINESS HOTEL, THEY ARE NOT CONSIDERED DIRECTLY COMPARABLE IN TERMS OF PRODUCT OFFERING AND PRICE/VALUE RELATIONSHIP. HOWEVER, DUE TO THEIR PROXIMITY TO THE PROPOSED PROJECT, THEY ARE CONSIDERED IN THE MARKET AREAS COMPETITIVE SUPPLY. PRESENT SUPPLY A SUMMARY DESCRIPTION OF EACH PROPERTY AND ITS OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS ARE PRESENTED BELOW. HOLIDAY INN-WEST THIS IS AN 20-YEAR-OLD, 225-ROOM FACILITY, LOCATED NEAR THE INTERSECTION OF 1-70 AND U.S. 40. SEVENTY-EIGHT ROOMS WERE ADDED TO THIS FACILITY IN 1978, AND A FINAL ADDITION OF 100 ROOMS IS RUMORED. THE HOLDAY INN-WEST HAS MEETING FACILITIES TOTALING ABOUT 6,000 SQUARE FEET. THE PROPERTY ALSO HAS A HOLIDOME, WHICH HOUSES ITS SWIMMING POOL. THE HOLIDAY inn-west's 1984 OCCUPANCY is estimated to be three to six PERCENTAGE POINTS ABOVE THE MARKET AREA AVERAGE. MARKET SEGMENTATION IS PREDOMINATELY COMMERCIAL AND CORPORATE GROUPS. II-E-2 RAMADA INN-FOOTHILLS THIS IS A 16-YEAR-OLD, 202-ROOM FACILITY, LOCATED AT THE INTERSECTION OF U.S. HIGHWAY 6 AND SIMMS STREET. A 50-ROOM ADDITION OPENED IN JULY, 1982. 1984 OCCUPANCY WAS ESTIMATED TO BE SIX TO EIGHT POINTS BELOW THE AREA-WIDE OCCUPANCY; THE AVERAGE RATE WAS SLIGHTLY LOWER THAN THE AREA-WIDE FIGURE. THE ROOMS AND PUBLIC SPACE IN THIS PROPERTY ARE PRESENTLY IN FAIR CONDITION. THE RAMADA INN FOOTHILLS HAS LIMITED MEETING SPACE. THE INN CURRENTLY ATTRACTS A HIGH PERCENTAGE OF GOVERNMENT GENERATED ROOM NIGHTS BECAUSE OF ITS PROXIMITY TO THE DENVER FEDERAL CENTER AND BECAUSE OF FAVORABLE RATE STRUCTURE THAT IT OFFERS TO GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES. RAMADA INN, 1-70 THIS IS AN TEN-YEAR-OLD, 137-ROOM PROPERTY, LOCATED ON 1-70 AT KIPLING STREET. THE PROPERTY HAS APPROXIMATELY 3,500-4,000 SQUARE FEET OF MEETING SPACE AND DERIVES ITS BUSINESS PRIMARILY FROM COMMERCIAL- GENERATED ROOM NIGHTS. THEIR 1984 OCCUPANCY WAS ESTIMATED TO BE SLIGHTLY BELOW THAT OF THE MARKET AREA AVERAGE AND THEIR AVERAGE RATE WAS ESTIMATED TO BE SLIGHTLY ABOVE THAT OF THE MARKET AREA AVERAGE. DAYS INN DENVER WEST THIS IS A FIVE-YEAR-OLD, 182-ROOM PROPERTY, LOCATED ON U.S. 6 ADJACENT TO THE HOLIDAY INN WEST. THE PROPERTY HAS A 44-SEAT, 24-HOUR COFFEE SHOP AND TWO SUITE-SIZE CONFERENCE ROOMS. THE DAYS INN OFFERS A COMBINATION OF AN ATTRACTIVE ATMOSPHERE, CLEAN FACILITIES, AND A REDUCED ROOM RATE STRUCTURE THAT MAKES IT ATTRACTIVE TO TOURISTS AND PER DIEM BUSINESS PEOPLE. OCCUPANCY AND AVERAGE RATE FOR 1984 WERE ESTIMATED TO BE MODERATELY BELOW THAT OF THE MARKET AREA AVERAGE. KIPLING INN THIS 150-ROOM PROPERTY IS AFFILIATED WITH FRIENDSHIP INNS AND IS LOCATED OFF U.S. 6 AT KIPLING STREET, DIRECTLY ACROSS FROM THE FEDERAL CENTER. THE PROPERTY IS WELL MAINTAINED AND IS ABLE TO OBTAIN AN OCCUPANCY LEVEL ABOVE THE MARKET AVERAGE BECAUSE OF ITS PROXIMITY BOTH TO THE FEDERAL CENTER AND TO UNION SQUARE. THE KIPLING INN OFFERS ONE MEETING ROOM, WHICH CAN ACCOMMODATE 75 PEOPLE, AND AN OUTDOOR POOL, BUT IT HAS NO FOOD AND BEVERAGE OUTLET WITHIN IT. II-E-4 SHERATON-INN THIS 249-room property opened in MARCH 1983 AND is located on UNION STREET SOUTH OF SIXTH AVENUE. THE HOTEL OFFERS: 245 ROOMS, 2 LUXURY SUITES, 12,500 SQUARE FEET OF MEETING SPACE, A HEALTH CLUB, A MILE JOGGING TRACK, A RESTAURANT, LOUNGE, COFFEE SHOP, NIGHTCLUB AND TWO LOBBY SHOPS. THE FRANCHISED SHERATON IS OPERATED BY AN INDEPENDENT MANAGER AND WILL NOT HAVE THE CORPORATE SUPPORT OF A MANAGEMENT COMPANY. THE SHERATON IS EXPECTED TO COMPETE FOR THE PREVIOUSLY MENTIONED UPGRADED DEMAND BASE. HOWEVER, THE ADDITION OF SEVERAL FIRST-CLASS LODGING FACILITIES SHOULD HAVE A POSITIVE EFFECT ON THE MARKET AREA'S ABILITY TO ATTRACT AND RECAPTURE FIRST-CLASS LODGERS, WHO BECAUSE OF THE LACK OF SUPERIOR FACILITIES, EITHER DOWN-GRADED OR SOUGHT ACCOMMODATIONS OUTSIDE THE IMMEDIATE MARKET AREA. MARRIOTT HOTEL THIS 306-ROOM HOTEL IS LOCATED ON 1-70 DIRECTLY ADJACENT TO DENVER-WEST OFFICE PARK. THE PROJECT OPENED IN JANUARY 1984. THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN INTERCHANGE ON 1-70 AT THE MARRIOTT SITE HAS BEEN COMPLETED. THE FACILITIES AT THE MARRIOTT % INCLUDE: TWO RESTAURANTS, A LOUNGE, MEETING AND BANQUET SPACE, TOTALING 8,700 SQUARE FEET, POOL, GAME ROOM AND GIFT SHOPS. THE MARRIOTT'S HISTORICAL STRATEGIES WHEN ENTERING A NEW MARKET II-E-5 INDICATE THAT THEY MAY HEAVILY DISCOUNT THEIR RATE IN THE INITIAL YEARS OF OPERATION. THE MARRIOTT'S STRONG MARKETING EXPERTISE IS EXPECTED TO DRAW A GROUP DEMAND WHICH IS NOT PRESENTLY IN THE MARKET AREA BY PROVIDING A MORE DIVERSE DEMAND BASE TO THE AREA. FUTURE SUPPLY RUMORED PROPERTIES OR EXPANSIONS WITHIN THE MARKET AREA INCLUDE: A 200 ROOM BUDGET HOTEL, A 100-ROOM EXPANSION TO THE HOLDIAY INN WEST AND A 262-ROOM RAMADA RENAISSANCE HOTEL IN UNION SQUARE. AS PREVIOUSLY MENTIONED, DURING 1982 THERE WERE NO FIRST-CLASS LODGING FACILITIES IN THE SUBJECT MARKET AREA. THE RECENTLY OPENED SHERATON INN AND THE MARRIOTT ARE NOW THE ONLY FIRST-CLASS HOTELS IN THE WEST DENVER MARKET AREA. HOWEVER, WHEN THE BUSINESS HOTEL IS CONSTRUCTED, IT WILL COMPETE MOST DIRECTLY WITH THE SHERATON INN AND THE MARRIOTT HOTEL. MARKET COMPOSITION THE ECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MARKET AREA SERVE AS INDICATORS OF THE POTENTIAL GROWTH IN DEMAND FOR LODGING FACILITIES IN THE DEFINED MARKET AREA. THE PRIMARY MARKET SEGMENTS WHICH CONSTITUTE THE TOTAL DEMAND IN THE AREA ARE AS FOLLOWS: II-E-6 COMMERCIAL CORPORATE GROUP TOURIST GOVERNMENT A DISCUSSION OF EACH MARKET SEGMENT FOLLOWS: commercial: commercial demand results from business, industry AND GOVERNMENT SUPPORT SERVICE. IT INCLUDES TWO TYPES: LOCAL, INDUSTRY-RELATED DEMAND AND TRANSIENT, COMMERCIAL DEMAND. LOCAL INDUSTRY-RELATED DEMAND CONSISTS OF TRAVELERS AFFILIATED WITH AREA FIRMS WHO ARE VISITING FOR PURPOSES SUCH AS TRAINING, RELOCATIONS, INSPECTIONS AND CONSULTING. THIS MARKET SEGMENT IS CHARACTERIZED BY A DESIRE FOR FIRST-CLASS LODGING AND FOOD AND BEVERAGE FACILITIES, GUARANTEED RESERVATIONS, PROXIMITY TO BUSINESS ACTIVITY, EASY HIGHWAY ACCESS, SUBSTANTIAL AMENITIES, AND BY A WILLINGNESS TO PAY PREMIUM RATES. THESE TRAVELERS NORMALLY REQUIRE ACCOMMODATIONS DURING THE WEEK FOR TWO OR THREE NIGHTS, AND THEY USUALLY DESIRE SINGLE OCCUPANCY. AS WITH ALL COMMERCIAL SEGMENTS, DEMAND NORMALLY DECREASES DURING THE SUMMER MONTHS AND AROUND HOLIDAYS. THE SECOND TYPE OF COMMERCIAL DEMAND IS FROM COMMERCIAL TRAVELERS NOT ASSOCIATED WITH LOCAL INDUSTRY. THESE PROVIDE II-E-7 SUPPORT OR SALES SERVICES. THIS DEMAND CONSISTS OF VENDORS AND SALES REPRESENTATIVES WHO ARE VISITING AREA COMPANIES. BUSINESSES, THE FEDERAL CENTER AND RETAIL MARKETS. THESE TRAVELERS ARE GENERALLY RATE-SENSITIVE. THE AVERAGE LENGTH OF STAY IS TYPICALLY ONE NIGHT WITH PRIMARILY SINGLE OCCUPANCY. CORPORATE GROUP: THE CORPORATE GROUP IS CLOSELY RELATED TO THE COMMERCIAL MARKET SEGMENT SINCE DEMAND IS GENERATED BY BUSINESSES, ASSOCIATIONS AND GOVERNMENT EXECUTIVES ATTENDING SEMINARS, DISTRICT AND REGIONAL MEETINGS, STAFF MEETINGS, SALES TRAINING SESSIONS AND OTHER GATHERINGS FOR BUSINESS PURPOSES. THE MEETING AND CONFERENCE SEGMENT REQUIRES HIGH-QUALITY, WELL-EQUIPPED GUEST AND MEETING ROOMS ALONG WITH EXCELLENT FOOD AND BEVERAGE OUTLETS. THIS DEMAND OCCURS PREDOMINANTLY DURING THE WEEK FOR THREE OR FOUR NIGHTS AND USUALLY HAS A HIGHER PERCENTAGE OF DOUBLE OCCUPANCY THAN THAT OF THE COMMERCIAL SEGMENT. HISTORICALLY, MOST OF THIS DEMAND HAS HAD TO MOVE OUTSIDE OF THE MARKET AREA TO FIND FIRST-CLASS MEETING AND GUEST ROOM FACILITIES. tourist: composed mainly of transient and destination/leisure TRAVELERS, THIS SEGMENT GENERATES THE GREATEST DEMAND IN THE SUMMER SEASON. THIS SEGMENT ALSO INCLUDES VISITORS TO AREA RESIDENTS, AS WELL AS VARIOUS UNCATEGORIZED SOURCES OF DEMAND. II-E-8 CHARACTERISTICALLY, TOURIST ROOM DEMAND IS MORE PRICE CONSCIOUS THAN THE COMMERCIAL TRAVELER, AND THE TOURIST TRAVELER TENDS TO BE NATIONAL CHAIN ORIENTED. ACCESS IS A MAJOR CONSIDERATION FOR THIS SEGMENT. THUS PROPERTIES LOCATED NEAREST TO AND VISIBLE FROM HIGHWAY EXCHANGES CAPTURE MORE THAN THEIR PROPORTIONATE SHARE OF THE DEMAND. THIS MARKET SEGMENT ALSO PLACES A HIGH PRIORITY ON AMENITIES SUCH AS RESTAURANTS, POOLS, AND OTHER RECREATIONAL FACILITIES. government: composed of federal employees traveling for BUSINESS, THE SEGMENT IS EXTREMELY CONCERNED WITH PROXIMITY TO THE FEDERAL CENTER. FEDERAL EMPLOYEES ARE RATE SENSITIVE BECAUSE THEY ARE REIMBURSED FOR EXPENSES ON A PER DIEM BASIS. THIS SEGMENT COULD BE EXPECTED TO HAVE A HIGH PERCENT OF DOUBLE OCCUPANCY. FUTURE DEMAND FUTURE LODGING DEMAND IS A FUNCTION OF PRESENT DEMAND AND OF GROWTH RATES ASSOCIATED WITH IT. THE PRESENT DEMAND RELATED TO THE MAJOR MARKET SEGMENTS IN THE REGION IS EXPECTED TO SHOW A SUBSTANTIAL RATE OF GROWTH. II-E-9 THE GROWTH RATES FOR THE COMMERCIAL AND MEETING CONFERENCE MARKET SEGMENTS ARE BASED ON SUCH INDICATORS LIKE: GROWTH IN OFFICE SPACE SUPPLY AND ABSORPTION, EMPLOYMENT, AREA DEVELOPMENTS, AREA TRANSPORTATION AND INTERVIEWS WITH THE MAJOR COMMERCIAL INTERESTS AND DEVELOPERS IN THE MARKET AREA. THE PROJECTED ANNUAL RATE OF GROWTH IN THE COMMERCIAL SEGMENT RANGES BETWEEN SEVEN AND TEN PERCENT DURING THE PROJECTION PERIOD. THE GROWTH RATES USED IN THE MID-1980'S ARE SUPPORTED BY THE HISTORICAL AND THE PROJECTED RAPID GROWTH IN OFFICE SPACE IN THE WEST DENVER AREA SURROUNDING THE PROPOSED BUSINESS HOTEL. TO A LIMITED EXTENT THE EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN POPULATION, INCOME, AND RETAIL SALES ARE ALSO CONSIDERED. THE GROWTH OF THE CORPORATE GROUP MARKET SEGMENT IS SOMEWHAT DEPENDENT OF THE AMOUNT OF AVAILABLE MEETING SPACE WITHIN A LODGING MARKET AREA. ASSUMING ADEQUATE MEETING SPACE, THIS SEGMENT'S GROWTH CAN BE EXPECTED TO PARALLEL GROWTH OF THE COMMERCIAL SEGMENT. HISTORICALLY, GROWTH OF THE CORPORATE GROUP SEGMENT HAS BEEN REDUCED DUE TO THE LACK OF A SUFFICIENT AMOUNT OF FIRST-CLASS MEETING SPACE IN THE AREA. HOWEVER, THE OPENING OF THE SHERATON INN, MARRIOTT HOTEL, AND PROPOSED BUSINESS HOTEL WILL RESULT IN ADDITIONAL SQUARE FEET OF FIRST-CLASS MEETING SPACE TO THE MARKET AREA. THIS MEETING SPACE AVAILABILITY AND THE NATIONAL SALES AND MARKETING CAPABILITIES OF THESE NEW HOTELS WILL RESULT IN FUTURE GROUP MEETINGS BEING HELD II-E-10 IN WEST DENVER WHICH HAD PREVIOUSLY NOT CONSIDERED THIS AREA. THIS SEGMENT'S GROWTH IS PROJECTED TO BE VERY STRONG AS THESE HOTELS OPERATE DURING THE NEXT FEW YEARS. TOURIST DEMAND GROWTH RATES ARE BASED ON AREA TRANSPORTATION, POPULATION, INCOME AND RETAIL SALES GROWTH. IN THE TOURIST SEGMENT, THE ANNUAL RATE OF GROWTH IS PROJECTED TO BE FIVE PERCENT. GOVERNMENT DEMAND WAS PROJECTED TO EXPERIENCE A MODERATE ANNUAL GROWTH OF 2 TO 3 PERCENT. THIS GROWTH RATE REFLECTS THE PRESENT ADMINISTRATION'S EFFORTS TO CONTROL FEDERAL SPENDING. SUMMARY ON THE BASIS OF ITS ANTICIPATED COMPETITIVE POSITION IN THE MARKET, THE PROPOSED BUSINESS HOTEL IS PROJECTED TO CAPTURE MORE THAN ITS FAIR SHARE OF THE MARKET AREA DEMAND IN ITS STABILIZED YEAR; IT WILL ACHIEVE AN APPRECIABLY HIGHER AVERAGE RATE THAN THAT OF THE MARKET AREA. HOWEVER, AS PREVIOUSLY MENTIONED, THE MAJORITY OF THE EXISTING LODGING SUPPLY WOULD NOT BE DIRECTLY COMPARABLE WITH THE PROPOSED BUSINESS HOTEL IN TERMS OF AMENITIES, FACILITY QUALITY AND PRICE-VALUE RELATIONSHIPS. THEREFORE, THE DIFFERENTIAL IN RATES OFFERED IS MINIMIZED BY THE BUSINESS HOTEL'S SUPERIOR QUALITY OFFERING. II-E-11 w*L__L_l__i~iKT^-i rv^n , "~=Pi i .1 3--K1 _ |.fl j v;j >w ; < a3 ___\_ msL~ |J !j^ =3fy XJ fgj id ;_ ^r< 'v a 7 lj I ^ C-~~S^ Arr 'rTi I. vfji *rr_ ._jt Fsf? ,t 5i !-! ------*rr *j f liu~r * a a i 2 , n iiii-STrV !?jfgs jir j 3 N ? 1 i^=rT^=-l | glaau j -* I 7 4 ' ^ T>' < 1 rr* m E4 \Tlw73F- . ^Li'-Hr -a H Ji i 1 ~^Z rH*? -j 2 I i I IJ J-> I rl 11 IJdUpgfrifF Lji \pi i -=mr r^r 1^;n r-^s-h I 15 = .VP J =-ejrrra;.- MStftf =iÂ£Tr_j ! IIIIJ LJ 1 II JJ U 1 J '.1 'LL 11 J-LJ LLLL nrr[3.!i-- l .i n !d M 1 i0 j.j iv JI 11 m j xj * 11 J171 a ; q *; ; ', !-?! HTs^. JPrlJJpffc.: fS 11 I. I J i . ILL LI H "-- ^ao { - B._ p*.* r* ji i ^ i r^wr" vi -atssi i 3d* ifad l LAKEWOOD J J133 13285 H ^ Ml .__ c -rnruuu j <=-? iriSEStoiE1^ <3 HOTEL kfy A RAMADA INN 1-70 3 KIPLING Â£ B. MARRIOTT HOTEL HOLIDAY INN WEST DAYS INN RAMADA INN FOOTHILLS SHERATON HOTEL KIPLING INN 1*. tjn (HSSd?:3 lc\x l **, XT. V ni. i JJ i Z 3 R -i It-N ^ 'a2K r.vs I j ' HOTEL COMPETITION WgE&fflk gprlW . .Li. * k ~n *. vr\ (j -iKi hJ:LLl y ; r-s-x ^'l-1 ^ ,TLLL/rt~->- -iiifei* **VJ FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS WILLIAM B. TABLER HAS BEEN INVOLVED IN THE PLANNING AND DESIGN OF MORE HOTELS THAN ANY ARCHITECT IN HISTORY. IN NEARLY THIRTY YEARS OF PRACTICE SINCE HE FOUNDED THE NEW YORK FIRM THAT BEARS HIS NAME. MR. TABLER HAS BEEN CLOSELY INVOLVED IN THE PLANNING AND DESIGN OF MORE THAN 150 HOTELS AROUND THE WORLD, FOR SUCH MAJOR HOTEL CORPORATIONS AS STATLER, HILTON, INTERCONTINENTAL, STOUFFER, SHERATON AND SONESTA AMONG OTHERS. MR. TABLER SAYS IT TAKES FROM TWO TO FIVE YEARS, SOMETIMES EVEN TEN YEARS, TO PUT TOGETHER A LARGE HOTEL. THERE IS THE MATTER OF LAND ACQUISITION, ARCHITECTURAL PLANNING, FINANCING, AND FINALLY THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE BUILDING. 'RULES OF THUMB' FOR HOTEL PLANNERS MR. TABLER HAS LISTED EIGHT 'RULES OF THUMB' FOR PLANNERS OF COMMERCIAL HOTELS. 1 1. THE COST OF CONSTRUCTION PER ROOM SHOULD EQUAL ABOUT$1,000 PER \$1 OF AVERAGE ROOM RATE. THIS INCLUDES THE COST
II-F-1

OF THE PUBLIC AND SERVICE AREAS
PER ROOM COST IN A HOTEL
IS TOTAL COST DIVIDED BY THE NUMBER OF ROOMS.
2. AT LEAST 50 PERCENT OF THE TOTAL SPACE IN A COMMERCIAL HOTEL SHOULD BE GIVEN OVER TO BEDROOMS. IT MAY SEEM STRANGE THAT THE HOTEL MAY HAVE MORE PUBLIC AND SERVICE SPACE THAN BEDROOM SPACE BUT IT IS QUITE POSSIBLE. PUBLIC AND SERVICE SPACE HAS BEEN RESPONSIBLE FOR 60 TO 65 PERCENT OF THE CONSTRUCTION COST IN SOME HOTELS.
3. THE HOTEL SHOULD BE PLANNED SO THAT IT CAN BE OPERATED WITH LESS THAN ONE EMPLOYEE PER ROOM.
4. THE COST OF LAND, IN MOST CASES, SHOULD NOT EXCEED 10 PERCENT OF THE BUILDING COST. WHERE LAND COSTS ARE EXCEEDINGLY HIGH, THE ALTERNATIVE IS TO PUT MORE ROOMS ONE ON TOP OF EACH OTHER, STRETCHING THE HOTEL SKYWARD, THUS REDUCING THE PER ROOM COST OF LAND.
5. WHAT PROFIT SHOULD BE EXPECTED FROM EACH DEPARTMENT IN A HOTEL? MR. TABLER SAYS THAT DEPARTMENTAL PROFIT SHOULD BE 70 PERCENT FOR ROOMS AND 50 PERCENT FROM THE SALE OF BEVERAGES. RETAIL SHOULD BRING IN 20 PERCENT OF THE HOTEL'S TOTAL REVENUE. NO PROFIT AT ALL IS EXPECTED FROM THE SALE OF FOOD.
6. THE HOTEL MUST HAVE AT LEAST 60 TO 65 PERCENT OCCUPANCY TO BREAK EVEN FINANCIALLY. IN DESIGNING A HOTEL, MR. TABLER SAYS THE DESIGN SHOULD ALLOW FOR THE REDUCTION OF OPERATING COSTS WHEN OCCUPANCY DROPS.
II-F-2

7. IF ROOM RATES ARE TO DIFFER DEPENDING ON THE SIZE OF THE BEDROOMS, TO QUALIFY FOR A HIGHER RATE A ROOM MUST BE AT LEAST 20 SQ. FT. LARGER THAN THE ROOM BEING RENTED AT THE NEXT LOWEST RATE. A SMALLER DIFFERENTIAL IS NOT NOTICEABLE TO THE GUEST,* HE EXPECTS TO SEE AN APPRECIABLY LARGER ROOM IF HE IS BEING CHARGED A HIGHER RATE.
8. THE MINIMUM SIZE FOR A BEDROOM IS 90 TO 110 SQ. FT. FOR A SINGLE ROOM; 130 TO 150 SQ. FT. FOR A DOUBLE ROOM; 160 TO 180 SQ. FT. FOR A TWIN BEDROOM.
CURRENT TRENDS
THERE IS A PATTERN DEVELOPING THAT IS THE PATTERN OF HOTEL COMPANIES INCLUDING THE GREAT OLD NAMES NOT TO BUILD HOTELS, BUT RATHER SIMPLY TO MANAGE HOTELS BUILT BY OTHERS. IN MOST OF THE ATTRACTIVE RESORT AREAS IN THIS COUNTRY, THE DEVELOPMENT OF HOTELS IS BEING HANDLED BY THE REAL ESTATE INTERESTS PEOPLE OF FIRMS LIKE LAWRANCE ROCKEFELLER'S; THE AGA KHAN, WHO HAS PROJECTS IN SARDINIA AND NORTH, WEST, AND EAST AFRICA; MOSHE MAYER, AN ISRAELI ENTREPRENEUR,* AND OLIN CORPORATION, WHICH IS PLANNING A CHAIN OF LODGES IN EAST AFRICA. A SIMILAR PATTERN IS DEVELOPING IN MAJOR COMMERCIAL CENTERS EXCEPT HERE HOTELS ARE BEING USED AS CATALYSTS FOR COMMERCIAL GROWTH. FOR EXAMPLE, IN KANSAS CITY, HALLMARK IS DEVELOPING A NEW INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL CENTER AROUND ITS PLANT, AND BUILT THE CROWN CENTER HOTEL
II-F-3

WHICH IS BEING OPERATED FOR THEM BY WESTERN INTERNATIONAL.
SIMILARLY, THE MUCH-TALKED ABOUT REGENCY HYATT IN ATLANTA WAS BUILT BY THE ARCHITECT, JOHN PORTMAN, AS PART OF HIS DOWNTOWN RENEWAL PROGRAM, AND TAKEN OVER BY HYATT FAIRLY LATE IN THE GAME. ONE OTHER EXAMPLE IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF HOTELS AS A CATALYST TO LAND SALES IN THE AREA. OFTEN A REAL ESTATE DEVELOPER WITH A LARGE TRACT WILL BUILD A HOTEL TO MAKE THE LAND AROUND IT MORE VALUABLE THAN IT WAS BEFORE.
JOHN PORTMAN USES THE TERM 'BUILDING BIRTH CYCLE' TO DESCRIBE THE LONG AND COMPLEX PROCESS OF WHICH BUILDING DESIGN IS JUST ONE PART. THE ARCHITECT'S ROLE DOES NOT USUALLY BEGIN UNTIL MANY IMPORTANT DECISIONS HAVE BEEN MADE ABOUT LOCATION, SIZE, CHARACTER, AND BUDGET. THESE DECISIONS GREATLY RESTRICT THE NUMBER OF ALTERNATIVES OPEN TO THE ARCHITECT, AND OFTEN ASSUMPTIONS HAVE BEEN MADE WITHOUT ANY REAL UNDERSTANDING OF THEIR EFFECT ON DESIGN. IF ARCHITECTS COULD PARTICIPATE IN THESE EARLY DECISIONS, THEY COULD DESIGN BETTER
buildings; but for their suggestions to be taken seriously they must
UNDERSTAND THE OTHER ISSUES INVOLVED. PORTMAN DEFINES SEVEN ASPECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS THAT ARCHITECTS MUST MASTER TO PARTICIPATE IN ALL THE CRITICAL DECISIONS ABOUT A BUILDING: 1
1. THE STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF THE CITY AND ITS EXISTING GROWTH PATTERNS.
II-F-4

2. THE REAL ESTATE MARKET AND THE EFFECT OF DESIGN AND COST ON MARKETABILITY.
3. THE PREPARATION OF STUDIES THAT MEASURE FEASIBILITY; ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL.
4. PROJECTIONS OF TOTAL DEVELOPMENT COST, OF WHICH BUILDING COST IS A SUBSTANTIAL PERCENTAGE BUT BY NO MEANS THE WHOLE STORY.
5. PROJECTIONS OF INCOME AND EXPENSES OVER A LONG PERIOD OF TIME, USUALLY CALLED THE 'FINANCIAL PRO FORMA'.
6. THE FINANCIAL MARKET AND THE WAYS TO PUT TOGETHER THE FINANCING OF A BUILDING.
7. THE RENTING AND OPERATION OF THE COMPLETED BUILDING.
PORTMAN'S ORGANIZATION HAS GROWN PROGRESSIVELY, ADDING ONE REAL ESTATE CAPABILITY AFTER ANOTHER, UNTIL HE HAS SUCCEEDED IN COMBINING ARCHITECTURE AND REAL ESTATE INTO A SINGLE, FULLY INTEGRATED OPERATION. EACH OF THE SEVEN ASPECTS OF REAL ESTATE DEVELOPMENT HAS SIGNIFICANT IMPLICATIONS FOR THE DESIGN PROCESS, AND DESIGN CAN HAVE AN IMPORTANT IMPACT ON REAL ESTATE DECISIONS AS WELL.
WHY CAN'T ARCHITECT-DEVELOPERS OR ARCHITECT-DEVELOPER TEAMS BECOME THE COORDINATORS OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT?
II-F-5

PROGRAM AREA SUMMARY
CATEGORY SQUARE FEET
PUBLIC SPACE
entry/lobby....................3,000
lobby/lounge...................1,500
REGISTRATION.................... 500
PUBLIC TOILETS
MEN........................ 400
WOMEN...................... 450
5,850...................5,850
GUEST ROOMS
suite____(18 @ 850 so. ft.)..15,300
DOUBLES..(72 0 450 SQ. FT.)..32,400 SINGLES..(108 0 400 SQ. FT.).43,200 HANDICAP.( 2 0 400 SQ. FT.).. 800
91,700...................91,700
II-G-1

CATEGORY
SQUARE FEET
MEETING ROOMS
THEATER..............(50 SEATS)
MULTIPURPOSE (1 0 1200 SQ. FT.)
BOARD ROOMS...(5 0 750 SQ. FT.)
CONFERENCE__________(4 0 600 SQ. FT.)
MEETING.............(2 0 400 SQ. FT.)
FOOD & BEVERAGE
upscale/intimate DINING.. KITCHEN..................
COFFEE SHOP...................
KITCHEN..................
KITCHEN/BAR STORAGE...........
EMPLOYEE DINING...............
RECEIVING ROOM................
GARBAGE ROOM..................
1,000
1,200
3,750
2,400
800
9,150...................9,150
2,000
500
1,800
400
300
250
400
350
6,000.....................6,000
II-g-2

CATEGORY SQUARE FEET
RETAIL
speculative/leaseable 10,000
DRY CLEANERS . 1,500
BRANCH BANK . 1,200
BEAUTY SHOP . 850
BARBER SHOP . 700
newstand/magazines/books... 500
14,750.................. 14,750
MANAGERS OFFICE . 150
ACCOUNTING (2 OFFICES) . 200
HOUSEKEEPING OFFICE . 150
LINEN ROOM 500
LAUNDRY EMPLOYEE LOCKERS . 1,000
MEN . 600
WOMEN MAINTENANCE SHOPS . 600
PLUMBING & ELECTRICAL. 350
CARPENTRY & UPHOLSTERY. 350
II-G-3

CATEGORY
SQUARE FEET
PAINT & VARNISH......... 350
FURNITURE STORAGE............ 600
5,000.................... 5,000
MECHANICAL & ELECTRICAL..................................... 2.500
SUB-TOTAL 134,950 CIRCULATION, EQUIPMENT & STRUCTURE (10%) X 1.10
TOTAL AREA 148,445
PARKING
GUEST ROOMS 1 space/room 200
MEETING ROOMS 1 space/5 seats 35
EMPLOYEES 1 space/3 employee.. 25
RETAIL ....5.5 SPACES/ 1000 SQ FT 82
TOTAL SPACES REQUIRED 342
II-G-4

BIBLIOGRAPHY
ARCHITECTS' JOURNAL, ED. PRINCIPLES OF HOTEL DESIGN. THE ARCHITECTURAL PRESS, LONDON, 1970.
ARCHITECTURAL RECORD BOOK, WM. DUDLEY HUNT, JR. A.I.A.ED. MOTELS, HOTELS, RESTAURANTS AND BARS. PUBLISHED BY F.W. DODGE CORPORATION, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER
59-15178, 1960.
ARCHITECTURAL RECORD BOOK, JEANNE M. DAVERN ED., PLACES FOR PEOPLE: HOTELS MOTELS RESTAURANTS BARS CLUBS COMMUNITY RECREATION FACILITIES CAMPS PARKS PLAZAS PLAYGROUNDS. MCGRAW HILL BOOK COMPANY, NEW YORK, 1976.
END, HENRY, A.I.D., INTERIORS BOOK OF HOTELS AND MOTOR HOTELS. WHITNEY LIBRARY OF DESIGN, NEW YORK, 1963.
KOCH, ALEXANDER, HOTELBAUTEN. VERLAGSANSTALT SLRCSNFRT KOVH GMBH STUTTGART, GERMANY, 1958.
LAWSON, FRED. HOTELS, MOTELS AND CONDOMINIUMS: DESIGN, PLANNING AND MAINTENANCE. THE ARCHITECTURAL PRESS LTD 9 QUEEN ANNE'S GATE, LONDON SWIH 9by, 1976.
LIMERICK, JEFFREY, ET AL. AMERICA'S GRAND RESORT HOTELS. PANTHEON BOOKS, A DIVISION OF RANDOM HOUSE, INC. NEW YORK, 1979.
III-l

LUNDBERG, DONALD E. THE HOTEL AND RESTAURANT BUSINESS,* THIRD EDITION CBI PUBLISHING COMPANY INC. BOSTON, MASS., 1979.
PORTMAN, JOHN, AND JONATHAN BARNETT. THE ARCHITECT AS DEVELOPER. MCGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, NEW YORK, 1976.
RUTES, WALTER A., AND RICHARD H. PENNER. HOTEL PLANNING AND DESIGN. WHITNEY LIBRARY OF DESIGN, NEW YORK, 1985.
MAGAZINE ARTICLES
ARCHITECTURAL RECORD EDITORS. 'BUILDING TYPES STUDY 361, HOTELS,
MOTELS, RESORTS' IN ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. AUGUST 1966, V 140, PP 125-138.
ARCHITECTURAL RECORD EDITORS. 'BUILDING TYPE STUDY 403. RESORT HOTELS' IN ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. DECEMBER, 1969. Vl46, PP 119-134.
ARCHITECTURAL RECORD EDITORS. 'BUILDING TYPE STUDY 428. 'RESORT
HOTELS AND CONDOMINIUMS DESIGNED FOR ROMANTICS IN SEARCH OF JUST THE RIGHT AMBIANCE' IN ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. NOVEMBER
1971. v 150, PP 95-112.
ARCHITECTURAL RECORD EDITORS. 'BUILDING TYPE STUDY 441. 'RESORT HOTELS' IN ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. NOVEMBER 1972. V 152 PP
121-136.
III-2

CARLSON, DAVID B. 'GRAND HOTEL-1960 STYLE' IN ARCHITECTURAL FORUM.
august 1960 v 113 pp 94-99.
CARLSON, DAVID B. 'THE CHANGING HOTEL MARKET' IN ARCHITECTURAL FORUM
august 1960 v 113 pp 92-93.
HEAP, ROBISON. 'THE HOTEL AS AN ORGANISM' IN ARCHITECTURAL RECORD.
September 1943. v 94 pp 67-74.
PROGRESSIVE ARCHITECTURE EDITORS. 'HOTELS AND MOTELS' IN PROGRESSIVE ARCHITECTURE. APRIL 1952 V 33, PP 101-113.
PROGRESSIVE ARCHITECTURE EDITORS. THE HOUSE THAT WALT BUILT' IN PROGRESSIVE ARCHITECTURE. AUGUST 1971 V 52 PP 64-65.
SONNABEND, ROGER P. 'HOTEL ARCHITECTURE: A MANAGEMENT VIEW' IN ARCHITECTURAL RECORD AUGUST 1962 V 132 PP 127-146.
TADLER, WILLIAM B. 'NEW FORCES AT WORK ON THE IN-CITY HOTEL' IN ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. JULY 1968 V 144 PP 133-148.
CODE BOOKS
DE CHIARA, JOSEPH, MCGRAW HILL
ED. TIME SAVER STANDARDS FOR BUILDING TYPES. BOOK COMPANY, NEW YORK, 1980.
III-3

NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION. LIFE SAFETY CODE HANDBOOK. SECOND EDITION EDITED BY JAMES K. LATHROP. NFPA, QUINCY,
MASS., 1981.
PACKARD, ROBERT T. ED. RAMSEY/SLEEPER ARCHITECTURAL GRAPHIC
STANDARDS. SEVENTH EDITION, JOHN WILEY & SONS, NEW YORK, 1981
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF BUILDING OFFICIALS, WHITTIER, CALIFORNIA, 1985.
ZONING RESOLUTION, COUNTY OF JEFFERSON, STATE OF COLORADO. PUBLISHED JANUARY 1980.
III-4

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THESIS CONCLUSION
THE EARLY PORTION OF THE THESIS SEMESTER WAS SPENT RE-ANALYZING AND RE-MANIPULATING THE PROGRAM TO MORE FULLY RESPOND TO MY ORIGINAL THREE HYPOTHESES. IN RE-TESTING THE SMALL PROGRAM AREA IN COMPARISION TO THE LARGE SITE AREA; IT OPENED UP DIFFERENT ALTERNATIVES, SOME OF WHICH WERE EXPLORED IN THE EARLY MASSING SCHEMES. I EXPLORED THE OPTION OF MY BUILDING HAVING A LONG LINEAR PROFILE VERSUS A TALL MONUMENTAL FORM. DECISIONS HAD TO MADE ON HOW TO HANDLE THE AUTOMOBILE. IS THE AUTOMOBILE OUT FRONT ON A "SEA OF ASPHALT" OR A MIXTURE OF SURFACE PARKING AND UNDERGROUND PARKING OR SHOULD THE PARKING BE COMPLETELY SUPPRESSED AND ALLOW THE LANDSCAPE TO BE OPEN FOR MAXIMUM USE BY PEOPLE. VIEWS BECAME AN IMPORTANT DETERMINANT IN THE BULDING FORM. THE SPECTACULAR MOUNTAIN VIEWS FROM THE SOUTHWEST TO THE NORTHWEST AND CITY VIEWS TO THE EAST BECAME A CONTROLLING FACTOR IN MY FINAL DESIGN. MY CHOSEN SITE IS LOCATED AT THE CITY'S EDGE SERVING AS TRANSITION BETWEEN MOUNTAIN AND PLAIN.
ALSO THE INTEGRATION OF STRUCTURES, HVAC, SITE ENGINEERING AND LIGHTING HAD TO BE DEMONSTRATED IN THIS PROJECT.
IN RESPONDING TO MY FIRST HYPOTHESIS OF PROVIDING AN IMAGE OF ENTRY OR "OPENING STATEMENT" INTO THE DENVER METROPOLITAN AREA, I CHOSE TO HAVE MY BUILDING TAKE A TALL, MONUMENTAL 25-STORY TOWER FORM. THIS ACHIEVES A STRONG IMAGE FOR THE MOTORIST ON SIXTH AVENUE AND
IV-1

INTERSTATE 70 TO HELP GIVE IDENTITY TO THE MIXED-USE PROJECT. THE TALL FORM TAKES ADVANTAGE OF MAXIMUM VIEWS WHILE ALSO REDUCING THE FOOTPRINT AREA ON THE SITE, THEREFORE, GIVING THE OPPORTUNITY FOR ADDITIONAL LANDSCAPING. TO SYMBOLICALLY RESPRESENT THE TRANSITION OF MOUNTAINS TO PLAINS ,THE NORTH AND WEST OR PRINCIPAL ELEVATIONS, HAVE ERODED AWAY WITH A MATERIAL CHANGE FROM POLISHED GRANITE TO A GLASS CURTAIN WALL SYSTEM. THIS EROSION OF THE BUILDING MIMICS THE GEOLOGICAL FORCES OF ONE LAYER OF ROCK THRUSTING AGAINST ANOTHER.
RED ROCKS PARK, JUST MINUTES FROM MY SITE, IS AN EXCELLENT EXAMPLE OF THIS GEOLOGICAL PROCESS. THIS DESIGN PARTI OF EROSION EVOLVED INTO AN ARTICULATED GATEWAY PROVIDING AN IMAGE OF ENTRY INTO DENVER.
MY SECOND HYPOTHESIS WAS TO DEAL WITH "GENUS LOCl". I ALSO WANTED TO CREATE A SENSE OF PLACE OR "PLACE TO GO". THE 25-STORY TOWER PROVIDES IMAGE AND DRAWS THE USER INTO THE MIXED-USE COMPLEX. THE LANDSCAPED INTERIOR COURTYARD PROVIDES ENTRY INTEREST TO THE VIEWER AS HE APPROACHES THE SITE. USING A SMALL AMOUNT OF SURFACE PARKING AND SUPPRESSING THE MAJORITY OF PARKING UNDERGROUND, ALLOWS AN INTERESTING ARRIVAL SEQUENCE TO THE SITE. AFTER THE USER PARKS HIS CAR, HE ENTERS DIRECTLY INTO A GLASS- COVERED RETAIL ARCADE WHICH IS ADJACENT TO THE LANDSCAPED COURTYARD WITH A DOMINANT VIEW OF THE FRONT RANGE.
THE VITALITY OF THE COMPLEX WILL BE MAINTAINED BY THE UNIQUE MIX OF THE MIXED-USE PROJECT. THIS MIX INCLUDES SPECULATIVE OFFICE SPACE,
IV-2

SPECULATIVE RETAIL, A FULL-SERVICE ATHLETIC CENTER AND THE BUSINESS HOTEL. THIS MIX ALLOWS THE COMPLEX TO BE OPEN DURING NON-BUSINESS HOURS, SUCH AS EVENINGS AND WEEKENDS, THEREFORE, TAKING THE PLACE OF THE "TOWN CENTER" OF THE PAST WHICH WAS THE CENTER OF ACTIVITY FOR THE COMMUNITY.
IN DEALING WITH MY THIRD HYPOTHESIS OF USING HOTEL TYPOLOGY TO ACHIEVE MY FIRST TWO HYPOTHESES, I DEVELOPED A PROGRAM FOR MY HOTEL WHICH IS A HYBRID MIX OF TRADITIONAL HOTEL TYPOLOGIES. THIS HYBRID MIX ALLOWS MY BUSINESS HOTEL TO OFFER CONFERENCE ROOMS, BUT NOT BALLROOMS, CONFERENCE SUITES FOR FORMAL MEETINGS AMD LANDSCAPED GATHERING AREAS IN THE INTERIOR COURTYARD FOR INFORMAL GATHERINGS. THE UPSCALE BUSINESS CLUB RESTAURANT ON THE 23RD FLOOR ALLOWS THE OPPORTUNITY FOR A FORMAL DINING EXPERIENCE IN A BUSINESS ATMOSPHERE.
THE CRITIQUE WAS SPIRITED WITH DISCUSSION CENTERING AROUND SOME FUNDAMENTAL DESIGN ISSUES. IT WAS DISCCUSED IF THE RETAIL SPACE IN A LANDSCAPED COURTYARD WOULD BE ECONOMICALLY FEASIBLE TO A DEVELOPER. ALSO, WOULD THE USER OF THE CENTER BE RESPONSIVE TO THE SUPPRESSED PARKING ARRANGEMENT. THE SIZE OF THE TOWER WAS DISCUSSED AS TO WHETHER THE SCALE WAS APPROPRIATE TO THE NEIGHBORHOOD, OR WAS THE
25-STORY' height warranted in order to draw user to the complex, the
JURORS APPRECIATED THE INTEGRATION OF THE SITE ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF
IV-3

MY DESIGN, SPECIFICALLY SURFACE DRAINAGE BEING INCORPORATED INTO AN AESTHETIC WATER FEATURE IN THE LANDSCAPED COURTYARD. ALTHOUGH THERE WERE SOME RESERVATIONS ABOUT THE CONCEPT IN SOME OF THE JURORS MINDS, THE OVERALL FEELING WAS THAT THE PROJECT COULD BE AN EXCITING PLACE TO BE AND AN INNOVATIVE MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENT. I BELIEVE ALL SEVEN JURORS WERE PLEASED WITH THE PROJECT AND THE CRITIQUE ENDED ON A POSITIVE NOTE.
IV-4

CODE
THE BUSINESS HOTEL IS LOCATED IN UNINCORPORATED JEFFERSON COUNTY. THE 1985 EDITION OF THE UNIFORM BUILDING CODE IS IN FORCE.
location:
JEFFERSON COUNTY COLORADO HAS ADOPTED THE 1985 U.B.C. FOR LOCAL CODE ENFORCEMENT.
FIRE ZONE DESIGNATION:
ZONE 3
OCCUPANCY classification:
1-1 HOTELS (TABLE 5-a)
GROSS BUILDING AREA:
30,000 SO. FT.
BUILDING SHALL HAVE FULLY AUTOMATIC SPRINKLERS
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TYPE:
YARD SEPARATIONSFOUR SIDES=100% INCREASE BASIC ALLOWABLE AREA=UNLIMITED (TABLE 5-C)
MINIMUM TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION SHALL BE: TYPE I F.R.
V-A-l

EXTERIOR WALL FIRE RATINGS
TWO HOUR
EXTERIOR WALL OPENING LIMITATIONS: NONE
PARTITION FIRE RATING:
ONE HOUR, TWO HOUR IF EXIT CORRIDOR
EXITS required:
MINIMUM 2/AREA, 3 IF MORE THAN 500 OCCUPANTS/FLOOR.
stairways:
number required: 2/floor, if area is greater than 2,000
SQ. ST., OR IF MORE THAN 10 OCCUPANTS ARE SERVED.
width: minimum of 44 inches,
landings: equal to stair width
VERTICAL RISE BETWEEN LANDINGS: 12 FEET STAIR rail: rail REQUIRED, 30-34 INCHES above
NOSING ON EACH SIDE OF STAIR. IF WIDTH EXCEEDS 88 INCHES, INTERMEDIATE RAILS REQUIRED.
\
RISER TREAD LIMITS: MAXIMUM RISE =7.5 INCHES
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ramps:
MAXIMUM SLOPE 1 IN 12 LANDING REQUIRED/5 FOOT OF RISE TOP LANDING = 5 FT. MINIMUM BOTTOM LANDING= 6 FT. MINIMUM
corridors:
MINIMUM WIDTH=44 INCHES
TRAVEL DISTANCE-300 FEET IF SPRINKLERED
200 FEET IF NOT SPRINKLERED DEAD END LIMITS-20 FEET
doors:
width-36" at exits 6'8" height
FIRE RATING: 20 MINUTES 0 CORRODORS
1 1/2 HOURS 0 STAIR ENCLOSURES AND AT HAZARDOUS AREAS SUCH AS BOILER ROOMS SWING: MINIMUM 90 OPENING IN DIRECTION OF EXIT closers: required at all openings to corridors, at all exit and
STAIR ENCLOSURES
ELEVATOR DOORS: SEE ATTACHED PUBLICATION CEILINGS
height: minimum in corridors 7'0"
MINIMUM, ALL HABITABLE AREAS 7'6"
FIRE RATING: 1 HR. FIRE RESISTIVE IF SPRINKLERED
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LIGHT AND VENTILATION
1/10 OF FLOOR AREA WITH MINIMUM OF 10 SQ. FT. AT LEAST 1/2 OF WINDOW MUST BE OPERABLE, OR MECHANICAL SYSTEM/PROVIDING 2 CHANGES OF AIR/HR
HANDICAPPED FACILITIES:
access:
HANDICAPPED UNITS:
PUBLIC toilets: atrium:
OPENINGS: LEAST OPENING DIMENSIONS- THIRTY (30) FEET
sprinklers: building must be fully sprinklered
openings: tempered or laminated glass for windows, if atrium
EXCEEDS THREE FLOORS, HIGH RISE CODE RESTRICTIONS MUST BE FOLLOWED
DOORS MUST BE TWENTY MINUTE TYPE WITH AUTOMATIC CLOSURES
ACTIVITATED BY FIRE ALARM SYSTEM MECHANICAL SYSTEM: AUTOMATIC EXHAUST AND MAKE-UP SUPPLY SYSTEM
REQUIRED TO EVACUATE SMOKE INDEPENDENT OF THEIR AIR HANDLING SYSTEMS
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LEVEL ENTRY, RAMP OR ELEVATOR NUMBER OF GUEST ROOMS EQUIPPED FOR HANDICAPPED- 100 AND OVER = ONE PLUS ONE FOR EACH ADDITIONAL 100 UNITS OR FRACTION THEREOF
1 HANDICAPPED STAFF/SEX/ROOM

100' 100
ccIe ApplicATioNS ANd Interpretationsczzzr
(All Interpretations are oaseo on tne 1 S7? ecition^ unless otherwise specified
HO"
1 11' 11 ^rH2L

>
i >
OFFICE C
AREA r^= ^1
i i
X
>
OFFICE
AREA
TTiTiT'
TTTTTTT
TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN UPPER FLOORS
FIGURE NO. 1
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
Subsections 3304 (g) and (h) and Subsections 1706 (a) and (b)
Q. Referring to Figure No. 1 which is the typu < m plan ior upper floors o; .1 four-siurv onicr* bun;: ing, would the elevator lobby be permitted to be part ot tec exit corridor without a separation from the exit cornoor It appears to me that this would not be permitted unless the elevator doors met both the requirements for a one-hour tire protection rating and also complied with the 20-minute smoke- and draft-control assembly provisions im ludmg gasketing.
A. From a technical standpoint, you are correct ir > that it the elevator lobbv was open to and par: o: the exit corridor, 'he provisions of Sections 170(> (bi ano 3304 (h) would apply to the openings penetrating the elevator hoistway shaft enclosure. From a practical standpoint compliance is presently achieved only bv a separating of the elevator lobby from the exit corridor by protection as specified in Section 3304 th), in which case the openings mto tne elevator hoistway shaft enclosure nped onlv meet the provisions of Section 1 706 (b). The kov point is that if there is no separation between an elevator lobbv and the exit i orridor which in this case serves greater than 30 ot cupants, t ompii-ance with both the protection requirements of Sections 1706 (bi and 3304 (h) is necessary. The problem whicn
80'
TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN UPPER FLOORS
FIGURE NO. 2

.,v, i>. liu* test .l.irui.iKi' !ur .'i .-hour tire-resistive 11ii>i\ ,irc different Hum tii.it o: a 20-mmuie rnoke- and onimi .lAvemblv. Tin* tatter e- permitted .1 lewr allow -pellet tion and in addition muM in.* provided with sioe-'u; top i.imii gasketing. This ix not to say that a particular -sonihlv could not be made and installed which wouid ice! botn criteria, but at present we are un.ivvare of an
elevator door ass,. ..oiy which meets both criteria im fore. it is genera IK- mandatory that trie elevator Ini >bv .u in the cave illustrated b\ Figure No 1 would have separated from tin* exit corriuur as illustrated m Figure* N 2 and 3.
A similar question would are-e hi a core-type buiio illustrated in Figures Nos. 4, 5a and 5b.
120'
c
CO
Of net Uasi ASIA
TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN UPPER FLOOR
FIGURE NO. 4
FIGURE NO. 5a
FIGURE NO. 5b (ALTERNATE TO 5a)

ZONING
THE ZONING RESOLUTION OF
ZONING PROVIDES FOR THE ORDERLY GROWTH OF COMMUNITIES THROUGH THE
DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR EACH TYPE OF DEVELOPMENT SUCH AS
#
RESIDENTIAL, AGRICULTURAL, COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL. ALL FOUR TYPES OF ACTIVITY ARE ESSENTIAL TO THE ECONOMY OF AN AREA, AND YET IT IS NOT DESIRABLE FOR THE ENTERPRISES WHICH PRODUCE ODORS, NOISE, DUST OR SMOKE TO BE LOCATED IN THE MIDST OF A HEAVILY POPULATED RESIDENTIAL DISTRICT. ZONING ALLOWS AMPLE AREA FOR ALL ACTIVITIES WHILE MAINTAINING PROPERTY VALUES THROUGH THE DESIGNATION OF SPECIFIC AREAS FOR EACH.
IN PURSUANCE OF THE AUTHORITY CONVERRED BY CHAPTER 92, SESSION LAWS OF COLORADO, 1939, THIS RESOLUTION IS ENACTED FOR THE PURPOSE OF PROMOTING THE HEALTH, SAFETY, MORALS, CONVENIENCE, ORDER, PROSPERITY AND WELFARE OF THE PRESENT AND FUTURE INHABITANTS OF JEFFERSON COUNTY BY LESSENING THE CONGESTION IN STREETS OR ROADS, SECURING SAFETY FROM FIRE AND OTHER DANGERS, PROVIDING LIGHT AND AIR, AVOIDING UNDUE CONGESTION OF POPULATION, FACILITATING THE ADEQUATE PROVISION OF TRANSPORTATION, WATER, SEWAGE, SCHOOLS AND OTHER PUBLIC REQUIREMENTS,
V-B-l

SECURING PROTECTION OF THE TAX BASE, AND BY OTHER MEANS IN ACCORDANCE WITH A COMPREHENSIVE PLAN. (ORIG. 5-6-46)
THE SUBJECT SITE IS UNDER THE JURISDICTION OF AN 'OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN'. THE O.D.P. IS BASED ON THE C-l COMMERCIAL ONE DISTRICT REGULATIONS. THE FOLLOWING IS A SYNOPSIS OF THE REQUIREMENTS.
C-l COMMERCIAL ONE DISTRICT
A. GENERAL REGULATIONS:
1. MULTIPLE BUILDING PERMITS PER LOT MAY BE ISSUED ONLY FOR PROPERTY PLATTED PURSUANT TO THE JEFFERSON COUNTY LAND DEVELOPMENT REGULATION ENACTED JULY 24, 1978.
2. SIGN REQUIREMENTS HEREIN SUPERCEDE SECTION 22: OUTDOOR ADVERTISING TO THE EXTENT THEY ARE IN CONFLICT.
b. definitions:
AS SET FORTH IN THE RC-1, RESTRICTED COMMERCIAL-ONE DISTRICT,
V-B-2

SECTION 11, PARAGRAPH B
C. SUB-DISTRICT CATEGORIES!
THE COMMERCIAL-ONE DISTRICT IS DIVIDED INTO VARIOUS SUB-DISTRICTS BASED ON MINIMUM LAND AREA IN SINGLE OWNERSHIP AS SET FORTH BELOW:
1. CONVENIENCE LEVEL:
MINIMUM AREA 1 ACRE.
2. NEIGHBORHOOD LEVEL:
MINIMUM AREA 6 ACRES.
3. COMMUNITY level: [REQUIREMENTS FOR THIS O.D.P.] MINIMUM AREA 10 ACRES.
4. REGIONAL LEVEL MINIMUM AREA 30 ACRES.
D. SUB-DISTRICT REGULATIONS:
THE SPECIFIC REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO EACH OF THE SUB-DISTRICTS ARE AS FOLLOWS:
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3. COMMUNITY LEVEL
A. INTENT AND PURPOSE:
(1) TO ALLOW FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF USES APPROPRIATE FOR COMMUNITY BUSINESS DISTRICTS.
(2) TO PROVIDE FOR A WIDE RANGE OF GOODS AND SERVICES IN COMMUNITY LEVEL AREAS.
B. PERMITTED USES:
(1) ALL USES PERMITTED IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD LEVEL;
(2) DEPARTMENT STORES AND/OR DISCOUNT STORES WITH LESS THAN 75,000 SQUARE FEET GLA;
(3) NIGHTCLUBS, DISCOTHEQUES;
(4) ENTERTAINMENT FACILITIES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO MOVIE THEATERS, BOWLING ALLEYS,
SKATING RINKS, POOL HALLS;
(5) BUILDING MATERIALS RETAIL STORES;
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(6) RECREATIONAL FACILITIES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO SWIMMING, TENNIS, HEALTH AND COURT SPORTS facilities:
(7) HOTELS AND MOTELS.
C. MINIMUM AREA REQUIREMENT:
TEN (10) ACRES, WHICH MAY BE SATISFIED BY EITHER OF THE following:
(1) AREA OF LOT OR TRACT, OR THE TOTAL AREA OF TWO OR MORE CONTIGUOUS LOTS OR TRACTS HELD IN SINGLE
ownership; or
(2) AREA OF PLAT OR EXEMPTION FROM PLATTING IN WHICH SUBJECT LOT IS LOCATED, PROVIDED THAT SAID PROPERTY TOGETHER WITH SUFFICIENT CONTIGUOUS PROPERTY TO SATISFY THIS MINIMUM AREA REQUIREMENT WERE IN THE COMMERCIAL-ONE (C-l) ZONE DISTRICT OR WERE IN A COMPARABLE COMMERCIAL USE AREA OF A PLANNED DEVELOPMENT (P-D> ZONE DISTRICT AT THE TIME OF SUCH PLATTING OR EXEMPTION.
D. OPEN space:
SITES SHALL BE REQUIRED TO COMPLY WITH THE FOLLOWING OPEN
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SPACE REQUIREMENTS. SUCH REQUIREMENTS SHALL BE
INCORPORATED INTO THE LANDSCAPE PLAN SUBMITTED PURSUANT TO THE JEFFERSON COUNTY LAND DEVELOPMENT REGULATION WHERE PLATTING IS REQUIRED.
(1) MINIMUM OPEN SPACE ARE 15 PERCENT;
(2) MINIMUM AVERAGE OF 10 FEET LANDSCAPING STRIP ADJACENT TO ROADWAYS AND RESIDENTIAL AREAS.
(3) LANDSCAPING SHALL ALSO BE DISPERSED THROUGHOUT THE PARKING AREAS TO DIMINISH THE OVERALL IMPACT OF SUCH AREAS.
E. PARKING INDEX:
(1) MINIMUM 5.5 SPACES PER 1,000 SQUARE FEET GLA FOR RETAIL GOODS AND SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS;
(2) MINIMUM 3.3 SPACES PER 1,000 SQUARE FEET GLA FOR OFFICE uses;
(3) MINIMUM 25 SPACES PER 1,000 SQUARE FEET GLA FOR FAST-FOOD, DRIVE-IN OR CARRY-OUT RESTAURANTS;
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(4) MINIMUM 10 SPACES PER 1,000 SQUARE FEET GLA FOR ALL OTHER restaurants;
(5) MINIMUM 1 SPACE PER ROOM ACCOMMODATION WITHIN A HOTEL OR MOTEL PLUS MINIMUM PARKING STANDARDS FOR OTHER USES SET FORTH ABOVE.
F. GROUND AND BUILDING LIGHTING:
(1) GROUND AND BUILDING LIGHTING SHALL BE CONFINED TO THE PROPERTY AND SHALL NOT CAST DIRECT LIGHT OR GLARE ON ADJACENT PROPERTIES OR PUBLIC RIGHTS-OF-WAY.
(2) MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF POLE LIGHT 25 FEET.
G. SIGNS/FREESTANDING LOT IDENTIFICATION SIGN:
(1) MAXIMUM NUMBER ONE PER MAJOR ACCESS;
(2) MAXIMUM FACES 2 PER SIGN;
(3) MINIMUM SIGN SETBACK 10 FEET,*
(4) MAXIMUM HEIGHT 10 FEET;
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(5) MAXIMUM FACE SIZE ACCORDING TO THE FOLLOWING
TOTAL SIGN
AREA (SQ. FT.)
COLLECTOR
15
MINOR ARTERIAL
40
MAJOR ARTERIAL
90
(6) ILLUMINATION FROM GROUND OR WITHIN. NO FLASHING OR MOVING SIGNS PERMITTED.
H. FASCIA. WALL SIGNS AND WINDOW GRAPHICS.
(1) FASCIA OR WALL SIGNS ONE PER TENANT, NOT TO EXCEED 30 PERCENT OF THE 'SIGNABLE' AREA.
(2) WINDOW GRAPHICS MAY NOT OCCUPY MORE THAN 25 PERCENT OF THE TOTAL AREA OF THE WINDOW IN WHICH THEY ARE DISPLAYED.
I. SETBACKS:
(1) MINIMUM STRUCTURAL SETBACKS:
(A) FRONT 50 FEET.
(B) SIDE 50 FEET.
(C) REAR 50 FEET.
J. BUILDING HEIGHT:
MAXIMUM HEIGHT 60 FEET.
V-B-8

K
ENCLOSURE OF ACTIVITIES
(1) COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES, EXCEPT RESTAURANTS, CHILD-CARE FACILITIES, PLANT NURSERIES, ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATIONAL FACILITIES SHALL TAKE PLACE IN A COMPLETELY ENCLOSED BUILDING.
(2) TRASH CONTAINERS SHALL BE SCREENED FROM PUBLIC VIEW. L. FENCES AND RETAINING WALLS:
(1) MAXIMUM FENCE HEIGHT: 8 FEET.
(2) FENCE PERMITS ARE REQUIRED FOR ANY FENCE OVER 42 INCHES IN HEIGHT.
(3) RETAINING WALLS OVER 42 INCHES IN HEIGHT WHICH ARE WITHIN 3 FEET OF A PUBLIC RIGHT-OF-WAY OR PUBLIC UTILITY, DRAINAGE OR OTHER EASEMENT SHALL REQUIRE A CERTIFICATION BY A PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER AS TO DESIGN STRUCTURAL STABILITY.
(4) NO BARBED WIRE SHALL BE PERMITTED AS MATERIAL FOR A BOUNDARY OR PERIMETER FENCE.
V-B-9

(5) NO ELECTRIC FENCE IS ALLOWED AS A BOUNDARY OR PERIMETER FENCE.
(6) FENCES ON CORNER LOTS MUST COMPLY WITH THE VISION CLEARANCE REQUIREMENT OUTLINED IN THE 'GENERAL REQUIREMENTS' PORTION OF THIS SECTION.
(7) WHERE ALLOWED, ACCESSORY OUTSIDE STORAGE SHALL BE ENCLOSED AND CONCEALED BY A CLOSED FENCE (ONE PREVENTING VIEW) AT LEAST 6 FEET IN HEIGHT.
V-B-10

SOILS REPORT
THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION WAS EDITED FROM A SOILS REPORT PREPARED ON AN ADJACENT SITE BY CHEN AND ASSOCIATES.
SCOPE OF STUDY
A FIELD EXPLORATION PROGRAM WAS CONDUCTED TO OBTAIN INFORMATION ON SUBSURFACE CONDITIONS. SAMPLES OF MATERIAL OBTAINED DURING SUBSURFACE INVESTIGATION WERE TESTED IN THE LABORATORY TO PROVIDE DATA ON THE CLASSIFICATION AND ENGINEERING CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SUBSOILS.
THIS REPORT HAS BEEN PREPARED TO SUMMARIZE THE DATA OBTAINED AND TO PRESENT OUR CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS BASED ON THE CONDITIONS ENCOUNTERED. DESIGN PARAMETERS AND A DISCUSSION OF GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO CONSTRUCTION OF THE PROPOSED BUILDING ARE INCLUDED IN THE REPORT.
SITE CONDITIONS
AT THE TIME OF OUR INVESTIGATION, THE SITE WAS AN UNDEVELOPED GRASS-AND WEED-COVERED FIELD. THE TOPOGRAPHY OF THE SITE IS GENTLY
\
\
V-c-1

ROLLING WITH A MODERATE SLOPE FROM SOUTHEAST TO NORTHWEST AND A MAXIMUM ELEVATION DIFFERENCE OF APPROXIMATELY 17 FEET BETWEEN TEST HOLES. JUST NORTH OF HOLMAN WAY, THE PROPERTY SLOPES STEEPLY TO THE WEST. THERE ARE NO CREEKS, DRAINAGE DITCHES OR PONDS ADJACENT TO THE SITE.
FILL MATERIAL CONSISTING OF CLAY, CLAYSTONE, SAND AND GRAVEL WAS BEING STOCKPILED AROUND THE PERIMETER OF THE BUILDING SITE AT THE TIME OF OUR INVESTIGATION.
SUBSOIL CONDITIONS
SIX EXPLORATORY HOLES WERE DRILLED TO DETERMINE THE GENERAL SUBSOIL CONDITIONS. GRAPHIC LOGS OF THE TEST HOLES ARE INCLUDED. A THIN VENEER OF TOPSOIL WAS ENCOUNTERED ACROSS THE SITE OVERLYING 2 TO 11 FEET OF MEDIUM TO VERY STIFF, SLIGHTLY TO HIGHLY CALCAREOUS, SANDY CLAY. BENEATH THE SANDY CLAY, BEDROCK WAS ERRATIC VARYING FROM SANDSTONE TO CLAYSTONE TO INTERBEDDED CLAYSTONE-SANDSTONE TO MAXIMUM DEPTH EXPLORED, 34 FEET. THE SANDSTONE WAS FINE TO MEDIUM GRAINED, CEMENTED, AND BLUE TO BROWN. THE CLAYSTONE WAS HIGHLY PLASTIC, VERY HARD TO HARD, DARK BROWN TO BLUE. SWELL-CONSOLIDATION TESTS PERFORMED ON SAMPLES OF THE SANDY CLAY AND CLAYSTONE BEDROCK SHOW NIL TO HIGH POTENTIAL TO SWELL UPON LOADING AND WETTING. SEVERAL HAD SWELL PRESSURES IN EXCESS OF 10,000 PSF. WATER WAS ENCOUNTERED AT
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APPROXIMATELY 30 FEET BELOW GROUND SURFACE AT THE TIME OF DRILLING. WHEN MONITORED 23 DAYS LATER, ONE TEST HOLE SHOWED FREE WATER AT 23 FEET BELOW GROUND SURFACE.
FOUNDATION RECOMMENDATIONS
WE BELIEVE STRAIGHT-SHAFT PIERS DRILLED INTO BEDROCK SHOULD BE UTILIZED TO SUPPORT THE PROPOSED BUILDING. BUILDINGS FOUNDED ON SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS PLACED ON SWELLING SOILS AND/OR BEDROCK, SIMILAR TO THOSE ENCOUNTERED AT THIS SITE, CAN EXPERIENCE STRUCTURAL DEFORMATION IF THE SOILS AND/OR BEDROCK ARE SUBJECTED TO CHANGES IN MOISTURE CONTENT. THE DRILLED PIER FOUNDATION WILL PLACE THE BOTTOM OF THE PIERS IN A ZONE OF RELATIVELY STABLE MOISTURE CONTENT AND MAKE IT POSSIBLE TO LOAD THE PIERS SUFFICIENTLY TO RESIST UPLIFT MOVEMENTS.
UTILIZING THIS TYPE OF FOUNDATION EACH COLUMN IS SUPPORTED ON A SINGLE DRILLED PIER, AND THE BUILDING WALLS ARE FOUNDED ON A GRADE BEAM SUPPORTED BY A SERIES OF PIERS. LOAD APPLIED TO THE PIERS IS TRANSMITTED TO THE BEDROCK PARTIALLY THROUGH PERIPHERAL SHEAR STRESSES WHICH DEVELOP ON THE SIDES OF THE PIER AND PARTIALLY THROUGH END BEARING PRESSURE.
IN ADDITION TO THE ABILITY TO REDUCE DIFFERENTIAL MOVEMENT CAUSED BY
V-C-3

EXPANSIVE MATERIALS, STRAIGHT-SHAFT PIERS HAVE THE ADVANTAGE OF PROVIDING HIGH SUPPORTING CAPACITY. THE PIERS CAN BE CONSTRUCTED QUICKLY AND WILL EXPERIENCE A RELATIVELY MINOR AMOUNT OF SETTLEMENT.
DESIGN DETAILS
THE FOLLOWING DESIGN DETAILS SHOULD BE OBSERVED FOR A
STRAIGHT-SHAFT PIER FOUNDATION SYSTEM:
1. PIERS SHOULD BE DESIGNED FOR A MAXIMUM END BEARING PRESSURE OF 45,000 PSF AND A SKIN FRICTION OF 4,500 PSF FOR THE PORTION OF THE PIER IN BEDROCK.
2. PIERS SHOULD ALSO BE DESIGNED FOR A MINIMUM DEAD LOAD PRESSURE OF 20,000 PSF BASED ON PIER END AREA ONLY. IF THE MINIMUM DEAD LOAD REQUIREMENT CANNOT BE ACHIEVED, THE PIER LENGTH SHOULD BE EXTENDED BEYOND THE MINIMUM PENETRATION TO MAKE UP THE DEAD LOAD DEFICIT. THIS CAN BE ACCOMPLISHED BY ASSUMING 1/2 THE SKIN FRICTION GIVEN ABOVE ACTS IN THE DIRECTION TO RESIST UPLIFT.
V-C-4

3. PIERS SHOULD PENETRATE AT LEAST 3 PIER DIAMETERS INTO THE BEDROCK OR A MINIMUM PENETRATION OF 6 FEET INTO THE BEDROCK. A MINIMUM PIER LENGTH OF AT LEAST 12 FEET IS RECOMMENDED.
4. PIERS SHOULD BE REINFORCED THEIR FULL LENGTH WITH ONE #5 REINFORCING ROD FOR EACH 18 INCHES OF PIER PERIMETER TO RESIST TENSION CREATED BY THE SWELLING MATERIALS. STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS MAY REQUIRE THE USE OF MORE REINFORCING STEEL.
5. A 4-INCH VOID SHOULD BE PROVIDED BENEATH GRADE BEAMS TO PREVENT THE SWELLING SOIL AND BEDROCK FROM EXERTING UPLIFT FORCES ON THE GRADE BEAMS AND TO CONCENTRATE THE PIER LOADINGS.
CONSTRUCTION DETAILS
THE FOLLOWING CONSTRUCTION DETAILS SHOULD BE INCLUDED IN THE PROJECT SPECIFICATIONS AND IMPLEMENTED AT THE TIME OF
construction:
1. PIER HOLES SHOULD BE PROPERLY CLEANED PRIOR TO THE PLACEMENT OF CONCRETE.
V-C-5

2. THE PRESENCE OF WATER IN SOME OF THE EXPLORATORY HOLES INDICATES THAT THE USE OF CASING MAY BE REQUIRED TO REDUCE WATER INFILTRATION INTO THE PIER HOLES. REQUIREMENTS FOR CASING CAN SOMETIMES BE REDUCED BY PLACING CONCRETE IMMEDIATELY UPON CLEANING AND OBSERVING THE PIER HOLE. IN NO CASE SHOULD CONCRETE BE PLACED IN MORE THAN 2 INCHES OF WATER.
3. CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN TO PREVENT FORMING MUSHROOMS AT THE TOPS OF THE PIERS SINCE THIS CAN INCREASE UPLIFT PRESSURES ON THE PIERS AND REDUCE THE AFFECTIVE DEAD LOAD PRESSURE.
4. A REPRESENTATIVE OF THE SOIL ENGINEER SHOULD OBSERVE PIER DRILLING OPERATIONS.
FLOOR SLABS
CONSIDERING THE TOPOGRAPHIC MAP AND THE PROPOSED FINISHED FLOOR ELEVATIONS, THE FLOOR SLAB MAY BE RESTING ON NATURAL SANDY CLAYS, BEDROCK OR COMPACTED FILL. SWELL-CONSOLIDATION TESTS INDICATE THE NATURAL CLAYS AND BEDROCK POSSESS A SWELL POTENTIAL WHICH IS CAPABLE OF HEAVING AND CRACKING FLOOR SLABS PLACED ON IT SHOULD IT BECOME WETTED. FLOOR SLABS PRESENT THE GREATEST PROBLEM WHEN SWELLING MATERIALS ARE PRESENT NEAR FLOOR SLAB ELEVATION BECAUSE SUFFICIENT
V-C-6

DEAD LOAD CANNOT BE IMPOSED UPON THEM TO RESIST THE UPLIFT PRESSURE
GENERATED WHEN THE MATERIALS ARE WETTED AND EXPAND. BASED ON THE MOISTURE-VOLUME CHANGE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MATERIALS ENCOUNTERED AT THIS SITE, WE BELIEVE THE ONLY COMPLETELY SAFE WAY TO CONSTRUCT FLOOR SLABS AT THIS SITE WILL BE TO CONSTRUCT STRUCTURAL FLOOR ABOVE A WELL-VENTED CRAWL SPACE. THE FLOORS SHOULD BE SUPPORTED ON GRADE BEAMS AND PIERS THE SAME AS THE MAIN STRUCTURE.
SLAB-ON-GROUND CONSTRUCTION MAY BE CONSIDERED AS AN ALTERNATE FOR THE FLOOR SLABS PROVIDED THE INCREASED RISK OF DISTRESS RESULTING FROM FLOOR SLAB MOVEMENT IS RECOGNIZED AND PRECAUTIONS ARE TAKEN TO REDUCE THE EFFECTS OF MOVEMENT.
IF SLAB-ON-GROUND CONSTRUCTION IS CHOSEN, THE FOLLOWING MEASURES SHOULD BE TAKEN TO REDUCE MOVEMENTS SHOULD THE UNDERSLAB MATERIALS BE SUBJECTED TO ALTERNATE WETTING AND DRYING:
1. FLOOR SLABS SHOULD BE SEPARATED FROM ALL BEARING WALLS AND COLUMNS WITH AN EXPANSION JOINT WHICH ALLOWS UNRESTRAINED VERTICAL MOVEMENT.
2. INTERIOR PARTITIONS RESTING ON FLOOR SLABS SHOULD BE PROVIDED WITH A SLIP JOINT AT THE BOTTOM SO THAT IF THE SLABS MOVE, THE MOVEMENT CANNOT BE TRANSMITTED TO THE UPPER STRUCTURE. THIS DETAIL IS ALSO IMPORTANT FOR WALLBOARDS AND DOOR FRAMES.
V-C-7