Citation
Angel Island conference center

Material Information

Title:
Angel Island conference center [thesis notebook
Creator:
Pond, Stephen
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
87, [9] leaves : illustrations, charts, maps (some folded), plans (some folded) ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Convention facilities -- Designs and plans -- California -- San Francisco Bay Area ( lcsh )
Convention facilities ( fast )
California -- San Francisco Bay Area ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 86).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Architecture and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Stephen Pond].

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
16686428 ( OCLC )
ocm16686428
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1987 .P664 ( lcc )

Full Text
COfJb
CONFERENCE
CENTER


THESIS
NOTEBOOK
Stephen Pond Spring 1987 Univ of Colorado, Denver


CONTENTS
Paqe
THESIS PROJECT DESCRIPTION .......................... 1
Introduction, Description, Program Elements ............. 2
THESIS STATEMENT ................................................ 3
ANGEL ISLAND HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT ..................... 9
Introduction ............................................ 10
General Description ..................................... 11
Island History and Development
Indian Use, Spanish Era............................13
U.S. Development ..................................14
World War I........................................15
World War II, State Park Development...............16
CAMP REYNOLDS HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT .......................... 17
Camp Reynolds
Introduction ..................................... 18
Chronoloqy of Site History and Use.................19
Army Social Oraqanization ........................ 21
Camp Description...................................22
Physical Description
Location...........................................24
Site Description...................................25
Views..............................................26
Present Conditions ............................... 28
Existing Buildings Condition Summary ............. 30
Physical Conditions
Biological Features .............................. 33
Physical Features ................................ 34
Climate............................................35
Utilities and Engineering Evaluation ............. 42
ZONING AND CODES.................................................47
Zoning Check ............................................ 48
Building Code Check.......................................49
PROGRAMMING......................................................56
Conference Center Organization and Program Summary ... 57 Program Elements Summary
Conference Facilities, Food Service .............. 58
Admin./Support Services, Residences .............. 59
Design Patterns ......................................... 60
Organization Diagrams and Spatial Descriptions
Conference Facilites ............................. 65
Food Service.......................................72
Administration and Support Services .............. 76
Residential Accomodations ........................ 79
APPEND ICIES.....................................................84
Footnotes.................................................85
Bibilioqraohy ........................................... 86
Suoplamental Information: ............................... 87
Topographical Maps
Historic American Buildinqs Survey Sheets Measured Drawings


THESIS PROJECT DESCRIPTION
^GEL ^


THESIS PROJECT DESCRIPTION
Introduction: The land comprising the former U.S. Army Installation, Camp Reynolds, on the Western shore of Angel Island, in San Francisco Bay is the location of my thesis project. Camp Reynolds was constructed during the period 1863 64, as a civil war garrison and bay defense post. After completion of the war, the camp continued to garrison soldiers through the turn of the century at which time it was essentially abondoned. The camp consisted of various structures typicall of such an outpost: officer's quarters, hospital, chapel, mess hall etc... Presently the entire island is administered by the State of California Department of Parks and Recreation and serves as a state park and wildlife refuge. Some of the buildings at Camp Reynolds have been renovated and are used for interpretative and living history purposes.
Project Description: The thesis project proposed here envisions using the Camp Reynolds site and some of its exisiting structures for a small conference and seminar retreat center with overnight accomodations for 100 persons, and administrative and support facilities provided. Developed public outdoor spaces and a new marina will also be included in the facilities. The center will be intended to serve a variety of Bay Area academic, business and professional organizations. Use of the facilities by island visitors for interprative programs, or related cultural activities and events associated with the State Park will be accomodated as well. The island's location and environment provides a unique opportunity for a center of this type, one which is both simultaneously very accessible, yet physically separated from the region's busy activities. The program will specifically involve selected adaptive reuse of existing buildings on the site, and the construction of new facilites to accomodate conferences and seminars.
Program Elements: Approximate building sizes and space needs are summarrized as follows:
Conference Facilities: 12,000 s.f.
Food Service: 4,800 s.f.
Administration and Support Services: 4,800 s.f.
Residential Accomodations: 18,000 s.f.
Total 39,600 s.f.
** Note: this represents new housing construction and will be sufficent to house approximately half of the conference attendees, the remainder will be housed in the existing residential structures on the site, which are intended to be renovated for purposes of this project.
2


THESIS STATEMENT


THESIS STATEMENT
Angel Island is a mountainous, grass and forest covered island in San Francisco Bay offering spectacular overviews of Marin County, San Francisco, and the Golden Gate. Isolated by water from the cities around it, Angel Island is yet a part of San Francisco, historically and physically a short step from the city. In essence it serves as a unique regional park, set within the center of a densly populated metropolitan region. The island provides splendid opportunities to picnic and hike among the woods and grasslands, lie on the beach, or experience the views. Naturalists enjoy the 740-acre island because a wide variety of land and marine animals, birds, and plant life can be observed. The island also has a varied and fascinating military history stretching back to the American Civil War, and was an Indian fishing, hunting and residence site for thousands of years.(1) In 1863 the U.S. Army established Camp Reynolds on the western side of the island, and constructed gun batteries to help fortify the Bay's defenses. Following the war, the camp was used as a garrison for soldiers who served to protect the West's frontiers from Indian attack. The Camp continued in this manner until 1910 at which time it was essentially abandoned and subordinated to the newer and larger military installations on the eastern side of the island.
The buildings remaining at Camp Reynolds are only reminders of what was once a bustling military encampment; an environment fulfilling the needs of shelter, purpose and livelihood for the men and their families stationed there. The camp functioned as a self sufficent entity, though it was rigidly organized both in terms of physical design and its occupants social interactions through the strict regimen imposed on it by the military hierarchy. Memories of the camp and the life which occured there over the last century is all that is left today. What remains is the island, an isolated, physically seperated area within the highly developed and populated region of the San Francisco Bay Area. A beautiful and marvelously diverse ecological environment has been preserved, which provides a truly unique opportunity for recreation and enjoyment by the people of the Bay Area.
Redeveloping Camp Reynolds creates the opportunity to recapture the spirit of the sense of place once existing there through the development of a planned set of activities and programs, and the interjection of coincident physical forms on the site. While the new development will not resemble the former camp in terms of purpose, physical arrangement or hierarchy, it can nonetheless, use the infrastructure to help guide and organize the development of the new facilities. The intent here is to utilize the site of the former camp and its remaining structures for the development of a multifaceted conference and seminar center. The needs of this addition will comprise those of: sheltering island visitors; accomodating specific individual or group events, and creating an environment where at least temporarilly a sense of community is established among the visitors and participants.
4


The architectural issues which I wish to address in this project may be summarized as:
1) Contextual Response: the issue of incorporating the new development within the existing context of the former camp in ways respectful of the scale, rythym, and organization of its remaining structures.
2) Site Preservation: the concern for balancing the environmental implications of redeveloping the site with the sensitive environmental conditions present there.
3) Social Interactions: the challenge of providing an environment conducive to indepth experiences, individually and within the context of one's peers through group interactions and exchange.
Camp Reynolds presents an opportunity for historic preservation, through adaptive reuse efforts, to make a significant contribution to the amenities Angel Island State Park currently provides. These preservation efforts should be viewed from the multiple perspectives of good business sense, nice aesthetics, and provision of a link with the past. Over time our country's buildings have become extraordinary storehouses of our natural resources: of wood, stone, and steel. Simultaneously they have become repositories of cultural and social resources. Human effort, imagination and creativity are embodied in everything from simple and functionally designed houses to ornately decorated public monuments. Our buildings are the physical shells which have formed neighborhoods, shaped social contacts, and molded patterns of living and doing business to such a degree that destroying them today tears at our economic and social fabric.(2) In essence then, the real importance of preserving and restoring our stock of historic buildings is the benefits that result from maintaining and rejuvinating a critical part of our social heritage and economic infrastructure.
The opportunities for redeveloping Camp Reynolds carries with it the need to sensitively incorporate the existing buildings on the site within the overall project. By aligning the new elements of the thesis program within the existing historical conditions an immediate sense of belonging and a renewed recognition of the character of those qualities often associated with the past can be recaptured. Inherent in the design response to this problem is the aim of creating a civilized townscape where the new architecture is sympathetically integrated with the old. The underlying theme of this effort is an attempt to create a place reminiscent of what once existed there in the sense of providing an overall living and functioning community. A development where the buildings as a group, together with their interrelated exterior spaces become a complete architectural entity; where the buildings are grouped to shape and define exterior volumes, and placed to create closed or semi enclosed spaces best expressing and accomodating their function. The overall intention of this is the creation of a visually integrated, though not necessarilly stylistically homogenous townscape. A developed environment creating an exciting place, offering meaningful experiences.
5


"Sit a while and relax. Soon you will find yourself back in a busier, noisier world.
Breathe in the island's clean air, and open your senses to the special sounds and smells of this place. Feel the slow, steady pulse of this living island and take its peace home with you."
Dept, of Parks and Recreation
Responding appropriately to this site is an inherent challenge of this project. An understanding of the history of human events which occurred here and the infleunce they will exert on the new project is crucial. The island in general, and Camp Reynolds in particular have nearly gone full circle. Beginning as an undisturbed, virgin environment used by the native Indians and supporting an indigenous flora and fauna population; the island became a ravaged, denuded, and intensively used and inhabitated area before slowly healing itself and returning to a relatively natural condition under the State Park management and preservation program in place today. The return is not however, nor will it ever be totally complete. The presence of man's past activities on the island as seen by the abandoned buildings and bunkers, roads and piers, and the presence of non-native plant and animal species all combine to leave evidence strong enough that time will never completely return the island to what it once was.
This reality should not be viewed with trepidation, for the island has largely repaired itself from its most damaging uses, and the remains of what once existed there is providing the opportunity for new development. The important philosophy to be recognized and incorporated within the new design is the necessity of a sensitive approach towards redeveloping the site. This approach must attempt to achieve a harmonious balance between the site and the architecture, a coming to terms with its constraints and opportunities rather than pompously disregarding them, building with the site rather than leveling it, defining it rather than distorting it. By creating a successful union and balance between the natural and built environments, a larger and more comprehensive development may occur, a place where wonderful experiences may be enjoyed within the rich variety of forms and spaces to be developed for the participants. By incorporating the fundamental view that when you build on a site it must not merely be in isolation, but must also repair the world around it, and within it, so that the larger world at that one place becomes more coherent, and more whole, and the thing which you make takes its place in the web of nature as you make it, this intent can be achieved. (3)
6


"Human relationships and communion with nature are the ultimate sources of happiness and beauty."
Rene Dubos
Personal interactions and the relationships amongst people are crucial to their own and everyone eles's mental well being and psyche. A conducive atmosphere for meetings, personal interactions and exchanges is paramount in a conference and seminar center. The architecture must be designed and organized to facilitate these type of interactions, both professionally and socially, while simultaneoulsy providing sufficent opportunity and space for individual contemplation and introspection. The establishment of a sense of community, and the development of commaraderie among participants, no matter the duration of their stay, must be reinforced through the design and arrangement of the spaces in which the participants will live and work.
Two differing psychological needs must be be addressed in the design of this center. The first involves the creation of a place for spiritual uplifting, provided by a peacefull environment relaxing to the mind and body, where the ill effects of stress may be reversed.(4) The second is concerned with creating a place of meaningful social contact, conducive to a thoughtful exchange of ideas with one's collegues. Superficially these objectives may be seen as quite incompatible, but in essence they mirror most professional's daily routine, the dicotomy between one's career and family life. The unique characteristics of the situation here involves the combining of these activities within one setting, and the bringing together of many similar individuals under the auspices of a common purpose. The belief is that the natural amenities of the site; its location, views and general ambiance will provide the conditions of solitude and serenity necessary for a spiritually uplifting experience to occur. The developed center will act as the catalyst for dialouge and exchange by facilitating the formation of social groupings, easing communication and movement, and providing the desired levels of privacy.
The problems before me are multifaceted, involving physical, contextual, and programattic elements that must be resolved together to form a cohesive whole; an interdependant physical arrangement of structures, integrated within the confines of a partially developed site, and responsive to its user's diverse needs. Angel Island's, Camp Reynolds provides an excellent opportunity for such an undertaking, one where I may hopefully succeed.
7


Footnotes:
1. Excerpted from Angel Island State Park, page 1. State of California The Resources Agency, Department of Parks and Recreation, State Parks Commission, Sacramento, CA October 1976.
2. Business and Preservation, Raymer, Warner M. et. al., page 1. By Inform Inc., New York, 1978.
3. A Pattern Language, Christopher Alexander et. al., page xiii. By Oxford University Press, New York, 1979.
4. "A Maine Island Retreat" An architectural thesis by Scott Brown, presented to Univeristy of Colorado, Denver College of Architecture and Planning, May 1986, page 1.
8


ANGEL ISLAND
HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT


ANGEL ISLAND
Introduction: Angel Island State Park is located in the San Francisco Bay, just south of the Tiburon Peninsula. The island represents a unique phenomena in the State Park System, by virtue of its "islandness" and isolation. This setting presents an unusual opportunity for enjoyment of passive recreation, boating experiences and other appropriate forms of recreation. Visitors enjoy themselves in a quiet liesurely atmosphere, viewing some of the most outstanding vistas of the San Francisco Bay Area that can be experienced. (1)
Below: The Bay Bridge, San Francisco, and Alcatraz Island as seen from Angel Island.
Above: Angel Island as seen from Marin County.
10


General Description: Angel Island is located about one mile from Tiburon, two miles from Sausalito, three miles from San Francisco, and seven miles from Berkeley. The island has a shoreline of six miles which is rough and steep in places, and interspersed with protected coves and inlets, one mile of which is beach frontage. The only developed access available to the public is at Ayalya Cove, which provides facilities for private boaters and commercial ferries. Presently the island is serviced daily by ferry from Tiburon and San Francisco during the summer months and on weekends for the remainder of the year.
The largest island in the Bay, Angel Island has generally steep terrain, rising sharply from sea level to 776 feet at the top of Mt. Livermore. The island is a large block of Franciscan sandstone dotted with interesting rock formations. Grass covered slopes and patches of thick brush and timber cover the island, while numerous hiking trails allow access to its various areas and a road rings its perimeter. Plant life consists of many native and non-native species. There are deer and racoons on the island and bird and marine life is abundant. The natural character of the island is maintained through the management programs of the State Park System. (2)
11


Pt. Campbell
To the Northeast the view includes the Richmond San Rafael Bridge with a glimpse of San Pablo Bay through the nar row strait behind The Brothers Lighthouse. The hills of Sonoma and Napa Counties can be seen in the distance.
Winslow Cove
From the western slopes of Angel Island the view is dominated by the dramatic summit of Mount Tamalpais. Sausalito, Belvedere, and Tiburon are in the foreground.
Pt. Simpton NORTH GARRISON
Pt. Stuart
EAST GARRISOh-
WEST GARRISON (Camp Reynolds)
BATTERY WALLACE
BATTERY LEDYAR
Pt. Blunt
scale in feet 0 800 1600
scale in meters 0 60 1 20 180 240
Southwest of Angel Island the view from the summit of Mount Livermore includes the Golden Gate with its famous bridge. From Fort Point at the southern foot of the bridge the view sweeps on around the whole northern waterfront and includes much of San Francisco itself with Alcatraz in the foreground.
To the East and Southeast are the cities of the East Bay Richmond, Berkeley, Oakland, San Leandro and all the smaller towns in between. Even Mount Diablo thirty miles away in Contra Costa County can be seen on clear days looming up behind the East Bay Hills.
To the South the Oakland-San Francisco Bay Bridge, Treasure Island, and much of San Francisco Bay are visible.
Paved Road
Unpaved Road
---- Trails
Picnic Area Comfort Station
>2 Approx. Walking Time from Point to Point
OH Limits
Bicycles can be brought to Angel Island on the ferry and used to circle the island on the mam road. Most of the other roads on the island are either too rough or too steep for safe and pleasant cycling.
12


HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT
Indian Use of the Island: (3) Indian use of the island began some two thousand or more years ago when human beings first began to take up residence in the San Francisco Bay Region. The Coastal Miwok Indians who lived in what is now Marin County reached the island by means of boats made out of tule reads. Villages or camps were established at Ayalya Cove, West, East and North Garrisons the very places later chosen by the U.S. Army for development. The Indians who used the island were expert fisherman and also hunted deer, seals and sea otter. Several kinds of fish and shell fish were available the year round, and (then as now) salmon and other highly prized fishery resources were seasonally plentiful since the annual spawning runs were made through Raccoon Straights just offshore from the Island. The Indians also hunted quail, ducks and other sea fowl, and gathered acorns, buckeyes and other native seed crops as well as certain roots in order to round out their varied diet.
The Spanish Era: In August 1775, Lt. Jaun Manuel de Ayala brought his sailing ship, the San Carlos, into San Fransisco Bay and anchored it in what is now Ayala Cove. His mission was to develop an accurate description of San Francisco Bay that future Spanish ship captains could rely on. Ayala's pilot Don Jose de Canizares, explored the bay in the ship's launch and did the necessary map work the first maps ever made of the magnificent and now world famous harbor while the San Carlos remained at anchor beside the little island that Ayala christended Isla de Los Angeles. Alcatraz (Pelican) Island was also named at this time.
In 1814 the English 16-gun sloop-of-war, Raccoon, was damaged off the coast of northern California, but managed to stay afloat long enough to reach San Francisco Bay. In March and April of that year the ship careened and repaired on the beach at Ayala Cove. Today the deep water channel between Tiburon and Angel Island is named Raccoon Strait in honor of the old English sailing ship. In 1837 Antonio Maria Osio asked the then Spanish governor of California to give Angel Island to him for use as a cattle ranch, and General Vallejo, military commandent of Alta California, endorsed the petition with the proviso that some of the island be preserved for harbor defense purposes. In 1839 Osio's grant was approved and thereafter he kept cattle, up to 500 of them on the island and had several houses built for use by his herders and other attendants, althought he, himself never made his home on the island.
13


U.S. Development of the Island: After 1846 and the war between Mexico and the United States, Osio's title was disputed by various parties and a number of squatters took up residence on the island. In the early 1850's a quarry was developed on the east shore of the island and high quality sandstone was carved out of the cliffs above Quarry Point for use at Mare Island, San Francisco and elsewhere. The quarry continued in operation until the 1920s.
In 1863 and '64 Camp Reynolds was established at West Garrison and gun batteries were built near the camp, at Points Staurt, Knox and Blunt. A small hospital was built at Ayala Cove and Camp Reynolds was used as a depot for recruits arriving from the east coast for assignment in the west. Indian "wars" were the primary military preoccupations of the 1870s and '80s, but in 1886 the "Endicott Report" focused attention once again on the extreme weakness of Pacific Coast harbor defenses in general, and on the particular value of Angel Island for such purposes. Eventually, (during the Spanish-American War effort, 1898-1900) the report led to the development of new gun batteries on the southwest side of the island facing the Golden Gate. Batteries Ledyard, Wallace and Drew began to be constructed in 1898. All of them were in operation by 1904, and were decomissioned as obsolete in 1909.
Above left: five and eight inch rifles like these were mounted in Batteries Drew, Ledyard and Wallace between 1900 and 1909.
Above right: Men of the Sixth Artillery, Battery B, standing inspection on the old parade ground at West Garrison, 1892.
14


Meanwhile, a quarantine station was established at Ayala Cove, (then known as Hospital Cove) where ships arriving from foreign ports could be fumigated, and immigrants suspected of carrying contagious diseases could be kept in isolation. In 1899 a detention camp was established at East Garrison for veterans of the Spanish-American War who had contracted or been exposed to contagious diseases. As U.S. Troops began to return from the Phi Hi pines and elsewhere in 1901, this detention camp became a debarkation and discharge facility where some 87,000 men were returned to civilian status by 1904.
In 1905 an Immigration Station began to be constructed in the area known today as North Garrison. Surrounded by public controversy from its inception, it was finally put into partial operation in 1910. Built on a large scale, it was designed to handle the flood of European immigrants who were then expected to to begin arriving in California once the Panama Canal was opened. International events after 1914, including the outbreak of World War 1, cancelled the expected rush of European immigrants, but Orientals continued to arrive and go through immigration proceedures that despite the island's relative isolation were repeatedly haunted by various kinds of graft and corruption.
In 1901 and 1911 East Garrison was expanded into a major facility for receiving recruits and processing military personnel for overseas assignment. Construction included a huge 600 man barracks, mess hall, and hospital. During the next few years this construction made East Garrisom or Fort Mcdowell as the base on Angel Island was known from 1900 to 1946 just about the world's largest and most elaborate military induction center.
World War 1: In 1917, following U.S. declaration of war on Germany, the facilites at East Garrison were put to heavy use, and even the Immigration Station at North Garrison was pressed into service as a prison for enemy aliens. In 1918 Angel Island was used as a debarkation and discharge point for troops returning from the war. Thereafter, throughout the 1920's and '30's the busy East Garrison area discharged, inducted or handled the transfer of some 40,000 men per year, more that were processed by any other U.S. military post during those years. The reason for much of this activity was that from 1900 to 1941, the only U.S. military bases outside the Continental United States were in the Pacific, and Fort Mcdowell was the nation's only military overseas processing station. Due to this foreign orientation, the ordinary, routine military life of Fort Mcdowell acquired a unique and distincly international atmosphere.
15


World War 11: After the bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 and the outbreak of World War 11, the Immigration Station at North Garrison was turned into a prisoner of war camp, where Japanese war prisoners were temporarilly detained. At the same time, East Garrison beagn to serve as a major point of embarkation for troops headed toward the Pacific war zone. The busiest time of all for Angel Island, however, came in 1945 when the war ended and troops began to return home. This rush continued until 1946 and then tapered off rapidly so that in July of that year the army decided to close down East Garrison and declare the entire island surplus property.
Postwar Years: The movement to make the island into a public park got under way in 1947. A thorough study of the island's historical background was carried out by the National Park Service and in 1954 a citizen's group, the Angel Island Foundation, was finally able to acquire about 37 acres surrounding Ayala Cove. (The Quarantine Station had been relocated to San Francisco.) Meanwhile, however, the U.S. Army selected the island as a site for a Nike missle launching and radar control station. Additioanl acreage above the cove was nevertheless acquired by the State Park System in 1958 and the mountain top itself was rechristened Mount Caroline Livermore in honor of the dedicated Marin County conservationist who had played a leading role in the creation of the state park. In 1962 the Nike missle base on the south side of the island was deactivated and the army once again left the island. In December of that year the entire island was turned over to the State of California for park purposes and continues in that role today.
16


CAMP REYNOLDS
HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT


CAMP REYNOLDS
Introduction: Fears that Confederate ships might slip past Fort Point into San Francisco Bay lead, in 1863, to the construction of an artillery post on Angel Island. It was named for General John Reynolds who had just been killed in the Battle of Gettysburg. Today Camp Reynolds is a collection of the remaining wooden buildings erected during this time and in the subsequent years of military occupation through the turn of the century. Though presently boarded up and silent, the buildings give us some idea of what this area looked like 100 years ago. In its heyday in the 1880's Camp Reynolds housed an average of 200 soldiers and their families. Soldiers living here in the years following the Civil War were primarilly "Indian fighters" who were sent to various skirmishes in the western states and territories. While at Camp Reynolds troops mustered several times daily. The evening muster included a full dress inspection on the parade ground and drill to a marching band. (4)
First U.S. Infantry on Camp Reynolds parade ground standing a battalion muster, circa 189b
18


Chronology of Site History and Uses:
PREHISTORIC PERIOD.Coast Miwok Indians left shell middens along th* beach and on the ridge near the brick hospital. Some of the midden soi was transferred to the gardens at Camp Reynolds, such as in front of Qtrs 11. Shells and obsidian projectile points found in the garden are in thi Bake House display cabinet.
PRE-MILITARY PERIOD An 1852 U.S. Coastal Survey map shows two structure' surrounded by fence located approximately where Qtrs. 1 now stands. Thes. probably housed herdsmen employed by Capt. Wm. Waterman who rented pastur from Antonio Osio. In 1850 President Fillmore ordered that Angel Islant become a military reservation, and in 1856 a military commissioi
recommended fortifying its western shore.
CIVIL WAR TO 1866 The presence of the Confederate Navy off the coast o Calif, stimulated a public outcry demanding fortifications be constructed Aug. 24, 1863, Capt. R.S.Wi11iamson of the U.S. Army Enaineers surveyed
and graded the site of Camp Reynolds. Sept.,1863, Lt. John L. Tiersoi brought troops to Camp Reynolds and proceeded with constructi on bui 1 di n first the C.O.s Qtrs., the bakehouse, the mule barn, and the dock. He wa' first to occupy the C.O.s house, but was replaced early in 1864 by liajoi George B. Andrews, 3rd Artillery. Lt.Tierson became adjutant to the ne-C.O. It was then that the name Camp. Reynolds was given to this post i honor of the beloved Maj.Gen. John F. Reynolds, Com. Gen. 3rd Artillery who was killed at Gettysburg on July 2, 1863. The fortifications installe
were: on Pt. Stewart (just north of the dock) one 10inch howitzer an
:hree 32 pound smooth bore cannon; on Pt. Knox (south of dock) two 10 inch, one 3- inch, and seven 32 pounders; (north of the present 3-stor warehouse) three 32 pounders and three 24 pounders referred to as the"wats battery." The first person buried in the Camp Reynolds Cemetery (June 1864) was Mattie Andrews, child of Maj. Andrews.
POST CIVIL WAR TO 1870 Camp Reynolds was vacated between April an< October 1366 at which time it became a recruiting and training depot a well as headquarters for the 9th U.S. Infantry. Other units stationed her during this period were the 1st, 3rd, and 8th U.S.Infantrv (whose fla hangs in the bake .house.) All the buildings, being temporary bv arm policy. were soon worn out and needed constant repairs. A wood fram hospital built at Hospital (Aval a) Cove in 1363 was supplemented bv a ten hospital at Camp Reynolds in 1367, and this was replaced Py a wood fram' hosmtal (near the present brick building) in 1869. An inventory at thi time included houses for the band leader, sutler (post exchana
concessi onai re; carpenter shoo, quartermaster' s warehouse. kitchen-mes hall, bake house.laundry, wharf, and boat house.
INDIAN WARS 18701898. Camp Reynolds was used as headquarters and res and recuperation station for regiments whose separate companies would pi rotated through various remote posts in the western deserts.(se CRH.Reference 85) In 1374. recruits averaged 250, regular officers and me1 150.In 1381 two officers quarters built on Verba Buena in 1361 were barge to Camp Reynolds, and moved to the top of the parade ground as Qtrs. 11 an 2..the olaest buildings still standing on Angel Island.
19


PHILIPPINE INSURRECTION PERIOD 1885-1900 6.1). Col. Wm.R. Shafter became
C.O. and lived in Qtrs. 1 at the head of "officers row" from 18831896. Ir that year he was promoted to Brig. Gen. and moved to the Presidio of Sar Francisco as Com.Gen. In 1898 he was promoted to Maj.Gen. and was Com.Gen. of U.S. forces in Cuba during the short Spanish-American Warl Serving under him was Col."Teddy" Roosevelt and a young Lt.John J.Pershing (later Com.Gen. at the Presidio of S.F. and Com.Gen. for the Americar Expeditionary Forces in Europe in World War I. 6.1) During the 1890'=
S.F.Bay was defended by torpedos (now called mines) which were anchored ir a grid pattern and controlled electronically from "Mortar Hill" (where lthe remains of Battery Drew now stand.) A visual sighting device was used anc a manual electric switch to set off the torpedo nearest to the invadinc ship. In 1898 construction was started on the "Endicott Batteries" which were modern rifled cannon. 6.2)19001910 The three Endicott Batteries were in operation by 1902.Battery Ledyard had two 3 inch rapid fire riflec cannon on pedestal mounts. Battery Wallace- had a single 8-inch riflec cannon on a disappering type carriage mount,, and Battery Drew (at Mortar Hill) had a single 8-inch rifled cannon on a Barbette carriage. In 1909 the batteries were declared obsolete. In 1904- the brick addition to the hospital (still standing) was built and in 1908 the 3-story brick quartermaster's warehouse at the foot of- the parade ground replaced the burned-out wooden quartermaster's warehouse and sheds. The Spanish-Americar War was short but problems followed in the Philippines. In 1900 Angel Island was designated by the army as Fort McDowell with the headquarters at Camp Reynolds. A quarantine hospital was built on the other side of the island at Quarry Point later to become the East Garrison of Ft.McDowell. This was a military hospital and used to confine and treat personnel returning from tropical areas with diseases about which little was known at that time. With modertf buildings of permanent materials at East Garrison it
became the headquarters of- Ft.McDowell in 1910.
*
1910-1946 WORLD WAR I AND TI PERIODS Camp Reynolds became the West Garrison of Ft.McDowell serving as housing for officers. non-commissionec officers, and enlisted men. Some periods during WW I the parade ground wa= covered with tents due to a shortage of facilities. The large enlistee mens barracks that lined the north side of the parade ground were removec in the 1920's. The exact reason and date of their removal is lost ir military records. In 1946 the occupants of Qtrs. 11 were a dental officer and his wife (see CRH Sources) who now practises in the town of Clavton.
Following the end of WW II. in 1946, the army abandoned Ft. McDowell anc
left Angel Island.
BUILDING TOWARD A STATE PARK AND THE RESTORATION OF BUILDINGS 8.1)194: The remains of those buried in the Camp Reynolds Cemeterv were removed tc the Golden Gate National Cemetery. 8.2)1953 Thirty-five acres became available from the federal government. The Angel Island Foundatior persuaded the State IPark and Recreation Commission to acquire Aval= Cove.1958 The second parcel of 184 acres was transferred bv patent from the Bureau of Land Management to the State on Dec. 10. 1958. 1963 The thirc
oarcel was turned over to the State of Calif, for park purposes. This wa; 517 acres which excluded POINT BLUNT COAST GUARD STATION. POINT STEWART, and the POINT KNOX COAST GUARD STATION. 8.3) 1964The buildings at Came
Rsvnolds were boarded up to protect them from vandals and for the safety a*
the general outlie. At this time the trim and porches were removed anc
stored inside. 1980 New roofs were added and the foundations wers stabilized. 1981 The exteriors of all the duildinos were painted tc further protect them. IMPORTANCE OF SAVING: These buildings are the onl\ remaining COLLECTION of Civil War wooden, army buildings in the Umtec States.
20


Army Social Organization:
Separation of Officers and Enlisted Men The Parade Ground was symbolic of the separation of officers and enlisted men with its officers row on the south and the enlisted mens barracks on the north. The army recognized no fraternization except once a year when the officers joined the enlisted men for Christmas dinner. This meant the officers strolled in for a few minutes to chat and have a drinkthen they left the enlisted men to their own festivities. The parade ground was crossed by enlisted men only when they were summoned to work-in the yard of an officer, in his louse as an orderly or cook, or for casual work such as moving furniture from one quarters to another.
Bugles "We lived, ate, slept by the bugle calls. REVEILLE means sunrise, when a lieutenant must hasten to put himself into uniform, sword, and belt, and go out to receive the report of the company of soldiers, who stand drawn up in a line on the parade ground. At about nine oclock in the morning comes the GUARD MOUNT, a function which everybody goes out to see. Then the various drill calls, and RECALLS, and sick call and the beautiful stable call for the cavalry, when the horses are groomed and *atered, the thrilling fire call and startling assembly, or CALL-TQ-ARMS, when every soldier jumps for his rifle and every officer buckles on his sword, and a womans heart stands still. Then at night, TATOQ, when the :ompany officers go out to receive the report of all present or accounted /or"; shortly after that, the mournful TAPS, a signal'-for the barracks lights to be put out."
Army Pay After the Civil War the army paid salaries in gold. Because
of the weight and cost of shipping gold, the army went to paper money or
:hits. Most of the frontier merchants discounted up to 50%. On Angel [si and the bulky paper money was discounted 32%. When you consider that much of the pay was sadly in arrears in the first place, trying to live on such a discounted salary meant family life was pretty stringent at times.
Striker This was usually an older soldier of low rank that was assigned
to an officers house as a cook, housekeeper, and handyman. He was also
cnown as an "orderly" and derisively as a "dogrobber", because he had .:irst chance at the familys left-overs before feeding the dog. The striker received from S3 to S10 more than base pay per month for this work. The irmv prohibited the use of soldiers as servants from time to time, but the :ustom resurfaced when conditions permitted. In intermittent periods, the officers hired civilian servants, and Chinese immigrants often filled these jositions. At such- times the small sheds behind each officers quarters ere used as bunkhouses for the servants.
Bumping When an officer was ordered to a post he rated auarters iccording to his rank and length of service. regardless of whether or not the quarters he chase were already occupied. The occupants. forced.to 1eave when the higher ranking or senior officer move in. were similarlv jrivileged to choose the next best quarters, occupied or not. Often a cascade of moves, called "bumping" was generated. causing chronic social unrest and necessitating spartan furnishings and personal effects.
Advantages of Army Life For the enlisted man advantages of armv life were food. lodging. clothes, and security in a world where it was often lard to get a job. For aliens it was a guaranteed wav to get citizenship n three years. The army was a good place to learn English, required for J.S. citizenshin.
r% 1


Camp Description: The camp itself was organized around a traditional military quadrangle in the level ground between the hillsides. Officer's quarters and enlisted men's barracks flanked this area, which served as a parade ground for camp assembly activities. Supply store houses were positioned at the water's edge near the boat dock and the camp's stables, shops, and medical and religious facilities were located up the hill at the top of the parade ground.
The reproduced photograph on the following page shows the camp organization during its full occupation in the 1890's.
Camp Reynolds (West Garrison) as described in an official U. S. Army report dated January, 1877.
1. Officers Qtrs. 7. Ord. Storehouse 13. Blacksmith Shop
2. Barracks 8. Post Trader 14. Carpenter Shop
3. Offices 9. Com. Sgt. Qtrs. 15. Bakery
4. Messrooms 10 Old Schoolhouse 16. Laundress Qtrs.
5. Band Qtrs. 11. Chapel 17. Hospital
6. Guardhouse 12. QM Stables
22


Overall view of the camp looking south east as seen in an 1893 photograph. The parade ground is between the two primary rows of buildings on either side of the photograph, with the water's edge to the right, but not seen here. Note the absence of any significant tree cover


PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
Location: Camp Reynolds (West Garrison) is the area of Angel Island roughly encompassing the land between Points Stuart and Knox on the Western shore of the island and extending inland for approximately one-third of a mile. This area is roughly 100 acres in size with the remains of the camp occupying approximately 40 acres. The map below shows the island in total and indicates the extents of the proposed site.
AiWliL ISLAM)
Mic*i:;ioh:I C.i" Raf.ini limine with .1 ijlimnv of Son P.itiln Bay ihrooqh 'he nar row strait lielund The Riothers l_'f Uhosise The hills oi Sonoma .mu Napa Counties c-in be seen in tlie distance.
Pt. Campbell
wale n> Iret

Southwest > Anqci l*.isl tt view horn
!. n i nn with ils l.iniDiis hiione.
1..... hm Point jt the *00111*1-' loot oi
the I'fnlue the view .we-ns on Inui tl the whom northern .v.iierttont Jinl jinwi much ol San Puncisco nsrtif will* Alcal'J/ m the t xeqiound.
To the East >nrt Southeast urn the cities of
the Ej',1 U..| MiCMif.aot SefS-'ey I anil, Sun l ejliUtO utid all the stn. '"r >,vns in between Even Mount :* .tin 'v
v.-eii on lejr bays l-a*j*iMiM| n|> hen,r,'1 v
East 8ov hois.
r,. !; I'm* Ol. Hl.J n
B.v ti*> !.( Tiejsi *- !. iiiU iiiuc'i ut ;.ai Erancisco Bay ji* voule.
jrx.
*
(___*
P*ad Road J >nrvad Road r rails
Cumlnit Station
,.i'u Wjik.iif lima Irom Pom Mu Point If* limits
p.i ,r's *11 ie Mimmi1 r la Ah p't island !*
nd **- .1 ii>a othet leads in 'kii* "* rum in-i -uuiiii 01 ion neeo sal* and |n* isain
evli"t.
----APPROXIMATE SITE BOUNDRY
24


Site Description: The Camp Reynolds site is situated in between the higher grounds of Point Stuart and Point Knox in one of the few areas of the island where a large, relatively level expanse of ground is found. The heavilly tree and brush covered hillsides of the land masses forming the two points flank either side of the site, and define the natural boundries of the camp to the north and south as they rise above the more level ground (please refer to prior map). The paved perimeter road to the east which connects the site with Ayala Cove, the park entry point, parallels the higher ground and bounds the upper edge of the site which slopes gently westward towards the water. .
Seen in the photographs foreground, Point Stuart is the most westerly tip of Angel Island and for many years has been the site of a warning bell and light to protect sailors from fog in the bay. The high ground of Point Knox, seen in the distance, served as the location for the Army's placement of artillery for protecting the entrance to the bay, through the Golden Gate, located to the west (right), and not seen in this picture. The lower edge of the site along the water is seen as well as the remains of the wharf and the brick quartermasters house. The site slopes up the hill to the east (left) away from the water in this view. San Francisco is visible in the di stance.
25


Views: The reproductions on the following two pages describe and illustrate the views that the area around the Camp Reynolds site affords. The first is primarilly along the perimeter road approaching the old camp from Ayala Cove and describes the panarama seen to the west. The second is from above the camp near the tip of Point Stuart looking south. (5)
Tiburon/Belvedere
Dominating the skyline view to the northwest is Mt. Tamalpais, seen by the Indians as a "sleeping maiden". Can you see her head at the summit, her hair sweeping to the rig.nt. and her body, with her hands clasped across her stomach, and legs stretching to the left?
Directly across Racoon Strait is the community of Beivedere. Once an island, it is now connected to the mainland by a housing development surrounding a manmade lagoon that used to be a muc flat. Historically Belvedere was a fashionable summer community for wealthy San Francisco families. Many of their large, gracious homes can still be seen on the Belvedere hillsides.
On the water's edge to the right, is a large white building with columns the Corinthian Yacht Club. A little to the left is the San Francisco Yacht Club not in San Francisco but in Belvedere!
Shimmering between the Tiburon Peninsula and the foothills of Mt. Ta; alpais are the waters of Richardson Bay. It is frightening to imagine that, as late as the ISSOs. there was a plan to fill S00 acres of that bay for development. Fortunately, community pressure and careful planning have now preserved Richardson Bay for generations to come.
To the right is the Tiburon Peninsula. Long isolated from major transportation routes, the town of Tiburon has kept its village atmosphere and attracts artists, writers and others less concerned with the "mainstream" of life. Near the ferry-docks are several restaurants ar.i shops, as well as the site of the old railroad yards. Here entire freight and passenger trains from the nor.:. ere loaded onto ferries sailing for San Francisco.
From your vantage point, you can see many examples of how man's decisions affect the land. Clearly, many important human choices have made the unique communities which today are Tiburon and Belvedn. On the right .or eastern) side of the Tiburon Peninsula is a clearly discernabie line between the developed residential area (the city limit) and the open space that has been protected from development by the owners of large private estates there .
\n Tami;)ns
t .t mnihiiin Yi *:t ( hit i
Tibi n Frrry Dock
Old Hoiirond Yarns
/<
/
Tiburon P*nm 26


Golden Gate View
From Point Stuart, the western-most point of Angel Island, you can see the two land masses which define the west side of the Bay; the San Francisco Peninsula to the south, and the Marin County Peninsula to the north. They are connected by the Golden Gate Bridge which spans an underwater gorge 350 feet deep that has been gouged out by tidal action and the currents of the rivers which empty into the Pacific Ocean. At 4,200 feet long, the bridge has the one of the longest suspension spans in the world. It was completed in 1937.
For centuries the fog and the coastal mountains hid the narrow entrance to the Bay from seagoing explorers. Several East Coast cities were over 100 years old before the Spanish explorer Porto .a, traveling by land up the coast, finally came upon San Francisco Bay in 1796.
To the west across Richardson Bay is the residential community of Sausalito. In the early years many ships sought shelter there from the ocean waves and wind. Water from the springs in Sausalito was taken in barrels by boat to supply San Francisco, which had relatively little natural fresh water. The first steamboat on the Bay was assembled in Sausalito in 1S47, and today thousands of pleasure boats are berthed there.
Just above the town of Sausalito are the hills of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area a wonderful place to visit. The Park continues to the south of the Golden Gate and includes historic Fort Point (directly under the bridge), the Golden Gate Promenade, Fort Mason, and Aquatic Park, which line the shore from '.vest to east. Above the south end of the bridge you can see the greenery of the Presidio.
Further to the left you can see the city of San Francisco rising above the popular waterfront areas of Fisherman's Wharf and the commercial fishing piers. Look for the grid pattern of the streets. It is said they were laid out by an official in Washington D.C. who had never seen the city's hills! Compare this to the views of Sausaiito or Tiburor. where the streets closely follow old foot paths along the contours of the land. Think how different each of cities could have been if they had been laid out another way.
Between San Francisco and Angel Island lies Alcatrac. famous as the "inescapable'' island prison. As a part of GGNRA it is open to public tours, and car. be reached by ferry from Pier 43 in San Francisco.
Far to the left is iie Oakland 3av Bridge. Completed in 1937, it spans a total of S miles in two sections, connecting San Francisco to Oakland and the communities of the East Bay.
27


Present Site Conditions: The reproduced photograph on the following page and below shows the condition of the site today. As seen, sig-nifcant tree cover has returned. Of the original 24 buildings comprising the site, 15 remain today. The following section discusses in detail the condition of these remaining structures. The bake house and an officer's quarters, seen in the upper left corner of the photograph below, have been adaptively restored and are open to the public for tours and interprative history programs. The remaining buildings were stabilized and weather proofed against further deterioration (the structures had been open to the elements for approximately 40 years) by state park personnel in 1973 and await further restorative efforts.
28


View of the site looking east up the parade ground. The Quartermaster's house is seen in the foreground. The tree coverage obscures the view of the remaining officer's quarters houses. The Point Knox gun batteries are to the right and the Point Staurt light is to the left in the picture though not visible here.


Existing Buildings Condition Summary: State Park architectural consultants surveyed and inventoried the buildings of Camp Reynolds in 1966. Their documentation was incorportated within the Park's General Development Plan of 1979. This data has been reproduced here and is included on the following pages in tabular and map form. The material summarizes the condition of the remaining buildings at Camp Reynolds and notes their date of construction, style, size, construction type and overall condition. (6) Additional relevant information, including the Historic American Building Survey sheets used to document the building's conditions, measured drawings, and detailed site topographic maps are contained in the appendix.
The consultant's report with regards to the buildings of Camp Reynolds noted that:
"The buildings are stylistically very slender and undistinguished, being of simplified transitional renaissance. The houses and duplexes are of the typical style of the period, being adaptations of the suburban cottage design in vogue in the 1860's and 70's. The brick hospital and warehouse building built circa 1902-08 are anachronisms for their period as their designs were contemporary with the War between the States or perhapas earlier, and were erected to update the Camp Reynolds installation to garrison the personnel required for the new 5 inch and 8 inch gun batteries installed on the island during the period from 1898 to 1900." (7)
30


I I 7


UNCJEl ISLAND BUILDING EVALUATION WEST GAHRISON
t g Ud LLfNT G v GOOD c FAIR l, KiO* u TALLY
CrAlulv
Con*
C'Mh
Miilulllitl
S Cl. ml'iim
n*Mt Or Building
*tST GARRISON
Mus.hlal
Co-"font Olf.cni Ouorltii Cc NCO Quoilifi NCO Quoiitri NCO Wuoiin
NCO Gluorlatk N CO Gooi i N 10 Quoi lor *
NCO OuO'iru NCO Quniiin
Guonirrooilir' "onhiuii N CO OucMi'l Rum C. M. Boiiock t Rom* beltII) Dl*~ Lol'mo Reek Cr..sr>ir
f ACUITY NUMdih
84
72
Unlitfii
1934 1679 le?^ loci* lee 4 lrr.4 ido4 JbC 1969 leC9 1069 IdeV laeV 1669 ivud
ISfc4 I 3'j4
19 40
l.ananttnc*
Kvial
Sinipli lied
Seoul Dirt 1 iin it lion*i III
V So Col
to. Sc. Col.
OlUJI
19 th T i. Rr. It. R.n Ti. R.n T. R.n 11. R.n i oial Col. Tr. Rm.
NO Of STYLE fiOOH!
i. Rir.
li
! 5
FOUNDATION
IvEGE | DRAIN j ~
EXTERIOR hATlOM AGE I STATUS
e I £\i\ £
n
structural conoition class
PRESENT USE
H
!
9
10
I 2
I 3
15
16
F oundolion Rimomk Only
Siobilur o Siabiln* o


PHYSICAL CONDITIONS
Biological Features:(8) Angel Island has a diverse collection of plants and animals, resulting from natural infleunces and human activities. Several distinct native plant communities have evolved. Such factors as water (fog, rain, springs, ocean), solar exposure, temperature and soil conditions have favored growth of typical California communities: grassland, scrub, mixed evergreen forest, chaparral, coastal strand and riparian. Camp Reynolds has distinctive grassland, forest and coastal strand communities within its site area.
Native trees such as the Coast Live Oak, Madrone, and California Bay are commonly seen. Native shrubs occurring frequently are Poison Oak, Manzanita, Chamise, Gooseberry and Currant. Wildflowers, many of which are native, bloom extensively in the spring. Some of the more common ones are Soap Plant, Milk-Maid, Monkey Flower, California Poppy, Lupine, Shooting Star, and Fremont Star Lilly. Several native grasses inhabit the island slopes, including Purple Stipa, Pine Bluegrass, Meadow Barley, California Fescue and Torrey Melic. Human activities brought changes to the natural environment. During the first half of the 1800's, the island was almost completely denuded of tree cover by wood gathering. Annual European grasses replaced slower growing native perennials -- a process hastened by grazing livestock. Immigrants and military personnel brought plants and seeds from distant lands, adding exotic species to the landscape.
With the disappearance of grazing, cessation of tree cutting, and cessation of further introduction or cultivation of exotics, some native species have recovered to various degrees. Two introduced species, Eucalyptus and Broom now pose a real threat to other vegetation, because of their ability to grow and spread rapidly. Many of the other introduced plants have also become well established, some of these are Ice Plant, Century Plant, Pride of Maderia, Monterey Pine, and Monterey Cypruss.
Animal life provides a pleasing diversity, including marine and terrestrial species. Many resident and migrating birds brighten the island with song and activity; robins, scrub jays, hawks, grebes, cormorants, and pelicans are common. Sea lions bask in the sun on the rocks off Point Blunt. Raccoons reside among the trees and hollows, while deer are plentiful. Many small animal and reptiles, such as squirrels, chipmunks, skunks and rabbits normally found in forest habitats are only found in small numbers due to the difficulty of reaching the island from the mainland and establishing themselves there.
33


Along the water's edge below Camp Reynolds are a sandy beach and rocky cliffline south of the beach. Seaweed and other sorts of dead plants and animals wash up on the beach and provide food for many types of marine insects and small creatures. Sandpipers, marbelded godwits and other birds walk the beach stabbing the sand with their beaks to get food. On the shore live sand crabs, and other small animals which the birds feed on. At the foot of the cliffs can be found plants and animals that are especially adapted to living with the rise and fall of the tide. This intertidal life benefits from the action of the waves and changes in water level. These plants and animals include sculpin (a small fish), sea urchins, hermit crabs, starfish and some types of coldwater sponges, kelp and algae. Other animals, living higher up on the rocks include the California mussel, limpits, barnacles, and sea slugs. At the highest level shore crabs scamper amongst the rocks.
Physical Features:
Geology: Originally deposited as marine sediment, uplifted over millions of years of folding and faulting, separated from the Tiburon Peninsula by the ancient Sacramento River as it also cut Carquinez Strait and the Golden Gate, and isolated by the bay waters as the great continental glaciers melted, Angel Island stands before us today as nothing more, or less than one brief moment in the unending sequence of awesome events shaping and reshaping the earth's surface.
The island consists of sedimentary and igneous rocks, the latter metamorphosed. As the sandstone mountain arose, it was intruded with magma from below. As a result, the western point is largely igneous in origin; the ridges running from Mt. Livermore to Points lone and Campbell are similarly igneous. The igneous character of the Western point is highlighted by a dyke of serpentine, the California State Rock. The most prevelant rock type, however is Franciscan sandstone. Camp Reynolds' geolgy is designated as "slope debris and ravine fill" under the classification by the state geologic surveyors, and consists of angular rock fragments in a sand, silt and clay matrix with a maximum thickness of 80 feet.
Water: Angel Island is surrounded by the waters of San Francisco Bay. Daily tidal changes amount to five to six feet. Fresh water on the island is available from springs and wells. In earlier times the springs were a main attraction to passing ships in need of fresh water. Later, wells were drilled by the army, drawing from ground water stored in fractured bedrock and alluvial deposits.
34


Climate: The following reproductions provide a general summary of climatic patterns and conditions for San Francisco, the closest city for which such information existed. A general overview is provided along with the relevant statistical data (9), excerpts from the applicable state energy code requirements, and information on a unique San Francisco Bay characteristic, fog. (10) Specific climatic information for Angel Island is summarized as follows: (11)
"The island's climate is characterized by moderate yearly temperatures, due to the marine infleunce. It has dry summers and wet winters with an average rainfall between twenty five and thirty inches. A prevailing westerly wind blows through the Golden Gate and across the island. Summer fog is not considered a detriment to visitor activities, as experience shows they are typically undaunted by the fog."
Implications: The important facts regarding the island's climate and its design implications are: the need to consider the corrosive infleunces of moist salt-laden marine air and fog; the prevailing westerly wind which blows across the island; the distinctive winter and summer seasons, with the former characterized by periodic rain storms and cloudy periods interspersed with cool, clear weather, or the latter where moderate summer temperatures and periodic damp, cloudy weather results from the near daily presence of fog. It should be noted that the summer fog on the island is less persistent than in the city of San Francisco, generally burning off by noon. In summary, while the climate of the island is periodically subject to poor weather, i.e. severe rain and wind storms, or cold lingering fog, it's by and large quite pleasant with outdoor activities enjoyable throughout the year. (12)
Sun /'runout) often disappears beneath a summer fog bank, Inane inland through the wind gap of the Golden Gate.
35


SAN FRANCISCO (Fed. Bld g) CALIF.
San Franciscos unique location at the northern end of a narrow peninsula which separates San Francisco Bay from the Pacific Ocean and forms the southern- shore of the Golden Gate-the only sea level entrance through the Coastal Mountains into the Great Valley-causes San Francisco to be known as the air conditioned City with cool pleasant summers and mild winters. Flowers bloom throughout the year, and warm clothing is needed in every month.
Sea fogs, and the low stratus cloudiness associated with them, constitute another striking characteristic of San Franciscos climate. In the summertime, the temperature of the Pacific Ocean is unusually low near the coast and atmospheric pressure relatively high, while the interior of California is characterized by the opposite in both elements. This tends strongly to intensify the landward movement of air and to make the prevailing westerly winds brisk and persistent, especially during the period from May to August. The fog or low-lying stratus cloudiness off the coast is carried inland by strong westerly winds during the afternoon or night and evaporated during the subsequent forenoon. Notwithstanding the occurrence of these stratus clouds, the sun shines on an average of 66 percent of the daylight hours in downtown San Francisco.
As a result of the steady sweep of air from the Pacific, there are few extremes of heat or cold. During the entire period of temperature records in San Francisco, temperatures have risen to 90 or higher on an average of but once a year and dropped below freezing less than once a year. As a rule, abnormally warm or cool periods last but a few days.
The diurnal land- and sea-breeze characteristic of many coastal regions does not prevail here. Winds from the land are extremely rare, and it is during these infrequent and brief interludes in the normal west wind of the warm months that the occasional hot days occur.
Pronounced wet and dry seasons are another characteristic of this climate. On the average, 82 percent of the total annual precipitation falls during the five-month period November to March, leaving but 18 percent for the remaining seven months of the year. Measurable amounts of precipitation fail on less than 70 days a year.
and duration of fogs or low cloudiness along the western or Pacific coastal side of the City.
The nearbv communities in Marin Countv. Iving just to the north across the Golden Gate and sheltered from the prevailing ocean winds by the fairly high peaks and riaces of the Coast Range, eniov generally warmer and sunnier weather than San Francisco. Their climate is further modified by proximity to San Francisco and San Pablo Bays to the east. In general, temperatures increase from south to north, with correspondingly greater daily ranges, and also increase slightly with distance from the days. Daily maximum temperatures for July average 16 warmer at San Rafael and 18 warmer at kentfield than at San Francisco. As in San Francisco, there are w'ell defined wet and dry season*, but rainfall amounts are strongly influenced by the topography of the Coast Range. Annual average rainfall varies from 26 inches at Hamilton Field to about 40 inches at San Rafael and 49 inches at kentfield. During the summer stratus season, low overcast frequently covers the entire area during the early morning hours, but clearing begins early in the forenoon, especially in the more northern portions of the County. Wind direction is a critical factor in the occurrence of late afternoon and evening toes or clouds in the Sausalito and Belvedere areas on the nonh side of the Golden Gate. Fog with winds from a direction slightly north of west seldom affects these areas, but ocean fog usually reaches them when the wind is a few- points south of west. This fog extends less frequently to more northern communities of the County.
The climate of the coastal strip from Half Moon Bay to the south, to Bolinas Bay to the north is characterized by cool, foggy summers and mild winters. July and August are the foggiest months, but even then there is often some midday clearing. Rainfall along the coastal strip averages slightly more than at San Francisco.
Simon S*N Mam IKT2
AISSIOM OOkOACS
Utftudi:
Longitudt: >" <"
Emotion (ground):
There are wide contrasts in climate within short distances in the San Francisco Bay area, some of which are described briefly for the Peninsula in the Local Climatological Data for San Francisco Airport, and for the East Bay area in the Oakland Airport Local Climatological Data. Moreover, even within the city of San Francisco there are differences in climate, the most obvious being the greater frequency
36


NORMALS*^ .* means; and%
^ EXTREMES-
* r .
I*IM l|Mlillton
r ; , . T J i l i Soiv*. Ilf |. in*
3 o 8 5 I : e E 2 Li >. I 5 8 j V: S 1 3 is : ! j \ S : 1 1 \lt\ ..
z
i (bt 33 33 1 33 1 1 35 j , 3?:
JAN A.35 10.6* 1932 1.00 1**8 1 3.*9 1956 T T 1962 4 | 1 1962* JAN
rca 3.66 8.-9 1938 0.0* 1933 2.3* 19*0 T T 1931 r 1951 fCB
HAA 2.93 8.22 19 3 8 0.12 1956 3.65 19*0 , T T 1031 i j 1951
APR l.** 5.*7 1938 T 1949 2.36 1953 0.0 0.01 < 0.0' APR
may 0.63 3.19 1937 T 1*69 4 1.28 1957 0.0 0.0 0.0 MAT
JUN 0.1* 1 *2 1967 0.00 1938 j 1.36 1*67 f 1 0.0 o.o! ' 6.01 JUN
JUL 0.01 0.06 il9664 o.oo 1967 0.06 119*94 0.0 0.0 0.0 JUl
AUG 0.0* 1 0 *9 1965 ,0.00 1 19434 | 0. *9 11965 0.0 0. o 1 0.0 1 AUG
SCP 0.22 2.06 1939 0.00 19704 | 2.06 1959 0.0 9.0 ' 0.0 1 SC*
OCT 0.9 5.51 1962 1 5 1959 3.11 >1962 o.o o.o: 0.01 OCT
NOV 1 2.00 6.** 1970 T .959 2 .** '9*2 o.o o.o* o.o: NOV
OCC *.27 11.*7 1955 0.37 1936 3.1* 17*3 T .9*1 r '9*1 OfC
DEC. SEP. MAR . J 'N JAN.
tfcAB 20.78 HI.*7 1933 o o o 19734 3.63 19*0 T . r :6. * T 19 .) 2 Tf AR
KVIative M.\
humility . Ji
uiiri'ii- .11-.
i | i Fa *t-s| mill* r ' to r
i i 5 5 ' i i J: j si Minv* : /.
= = = i 1 r a V I- i ;
. C J 3 ^ T
08 12 i i \ i _ / j 1 ^ - .J 'i -j, i -
l.. .i timet 2 £ = i. L v i<2 i "i J ' lr~ - J
1 - --* - - - -
16 28 28 8 3? 35 35 J * 33 .3 3 i a 33 3 5
82 68 6.7 *4 *7 1 SE .965 5* i 0 0 0 3
, 79 66 y 5 9 *7 39 138 63 10 ) 0 0 j 3
:?5 62 8.5 i *4 S 19*8 69 10 0 0 0 3
72 6* 9.5 * 38i 9 i 1965473! 6 c 0 0 0 3
55 66 110.* N - 91 19654 72 i 3 0 0 0 0
| 68 10.9 M *o| 9 19654.72| 1 0 0 0 0
8* 75 ' 11.2,9 381 1939 166 - 0 1 0 0 C
85 7* 10.51. 3* 9 i 19664 66 . 1 1 0 0 0 0
76 67 9.1 iW 32! 9 i 19364,73 0 0 0 3
156 62 ! 7.619 *3 SE 1950 7; * 0 c o 0
76 62 6.39 *1 : S 1933 63 e 0 : 0 0 0 3
!! 70 j 6.5 j j J AN .
! 78 67 <1.7. ' *7' SE 19634 67 6 7 0 2 1 0 0
37
altitude angles


Energy Issues and Codes: Resource and energy conserving design considerations which should be incorporated within the new conference center include:
A high standard of wall and roof insulation.
"Tight" construction to minimize infiltration.
Controlled cross ventilation.
Daylighting wherever possible, esp. public areas.
Individual HVAC controls for residential spaces, multiple zonal controls for public areas.
Water conserving plumbing fixtures.
The applicable state energy code requirements for new construction as developed by the State's Energy Resource and Conservation Division are:
Title 20, Chapter 2, Subchapter 4, Article 1, 1401 1410.
Title 24, Part 2, Chapter 2-35, 2-5301 2-5344.
The regulations of Title 20 and Title 24 relevant to the conference center include:
Minimum insulation requirement for the roof is R-19 for areas with less than 3000 heating degree days.
The total calculated annual energy consumption of the service systems shall include energy used for comfort heating, and cooling, ventilation, service water heating and lighting.
Climate zone for Angel Island is Zone 4.
The maximum annual allowable energy consumption for space heating in BTU's/SF of conditioned floor area is summarized as follows:
Dining and Drinking Establishments: 126,000 Auditorium: 154,000 Offices: 135,000 Classrooms: 118,000
A computer simulation of building thermal performance shall by done with an approved computer model in order to verify compliance with maximum allowable energy consumption requirements.
For purposes of these thermal performance calculations, the indoor design temperature shall be 70 degrees for heating and 78 degrees for cooling.
Electric resistance heating systems shall not be used for space heating unless used to supplement a heat pump system.
Lighting standards and maximum lighting loads by task and area.
38


TYPES OF FOG
Foga cloud that lies at or near the groundforms in two ways: when a moist body of air cools, raising the relative humidity 100% and condensing water vapor to droplets, or when loisture is added to the air until saturation is achieved and
condensation occurs. A kind of drizzle often results from fog. and the air usually feels raw and wet. There are four maior types. Evaporation fog forms when water vapor rising from a warm, moist surface meets a colder air layer; advection fog.
when warm air is transported over a cold surface and cooied to saturation; radiation fog, when nighttime cooling of the ground lowers the temperature of humid air: ups/ooe fog, wnen wind forces warm, moist air upward against a mountainside.
Probably the most striking element of coastal weather is sea fog, which can occur on a daily basis in the spring and summer seasons, and less frequently in winter. It forms over the oceans surface, sometimes hugging close to the waves, sometimes towering high above them. It is called advection fog, a type that in due course moves inland from the shoreline. It floats on the wind, through the natural gaps that connect the coast and the interior, such as straits, valleys, and mountain passes, or in lieu of these, it vaults its barriers. It comes in the night, when the earths surface is cool; by morning, when the sun is rising, the inland valleys and perhaps even coastal highlands are sodden and cool beneath an overcast. The low clouds are a confusion to easterners more familiar with humid climates of summer storms, where such clouds normally bring rain; on the West Coast they bring sunshine, as the fog screen usually evaporates by noon.
By definition, advection means that horizontal movement is required to make a sea fog. When warm, rnari-time air makes contact with, and flows over, a surface that is colder than itself, such as cold ocean water, the air cools, and its relative humidity rises. Condensation begins when the air can no longer contain the moisture as a gas. Water droplets, often with beads of salt from sea spray as cores, form fog, a cloud on the surface of the earth. Turbulence within the air is common with an advection fog, occurring because wind drag against the wavy surface of the water induces a slight mixing motion of the air. The cooling that began within the lowest layers of air spreads upward to higher levels, increasing the depth of the fog. As the air continues to flow over the cold water, the air becomes colder, until it, rather than the water, chills fog into the air. The fog thus formed is above the water and is called high fog, or stratus fog, the major and most dramatic of sea fogs along the West Coast. High fog is capable of rushing landward like a river in the air, spreading into inland valleys and cascading over coastal hills.
T he fog belt of the West Coast is found between central Oregon and Point Conception, California. This range is no coincidence, but is the by-product of a zone of cold water that hugs the shoreline. The cold water appears first in May off Cape Mendocino and reaches its maximum north-south extent by August, when the
39


oceans surface along an eighty-mile belt averages about two degrees (F.) lower west of San Francisco than it did in July. Off the coast of San Francisco, surface water temperatures have reached about 56 F., or slightly colder than the waters off Cape Flattery, the northernmost point on Washingtons coastline. Spring and summer ocean temperatures within the cold-water belt are in fact colder than in winter.
The cold water is an upwelling from deep within the ocean that is present throughout much of the year, but most pronounced in summer. Winds sweeping around the North Pacific High blow along the Pacific Coast in summer and drag the coastal water with them. The ocean currents, like the winds, are deflected by the Coriolis force (see page 75). which turns them away from the coast. Somewhere below, cold water flows toward the shore and up to the surface, to replace what the wind and the ocean currents took away. Thus, every spring a cold ocean strip forms near shore and provides the cooling that builds sea fogs.
Distribution of fog is the work of the wind. Along the log belt of the central California coast, the wind is strong and steady, blowing from the northwest or west with constancy. It does not even allow development of the onshore and offshore breezes whose diurnal rhythm is characteristic of most coastlines, including the Los Angeles region. The reason for this is twofold: high atmospheric pressure from the Pacific High and low atmospheric pressure from a trough extending northward from the deserts to the Central Valley. The result is a great landward movement of air on a one-way street, termed by some meteorologists a monsoon.
The striking dissimilarities of climate that exist between the usually cool roast and the usually warm in-tcrior occur because of the relief etched on the landscape. There is a very short coastal plain, immediately backed by mountains that rise, in the Santa Cruz range, to just over ;.8oo feet. In the shadow of the Coast Ranges lie San Francisco Bay and the coastal valleys, including the Santa Clara and Salinas valleys. Beyond them is a second mountain chain, and finally the Central Valley as close as forty miles from the coast. Over that distance, air temperatures rapidly increase with distance trom the coast. One major gap in the Coast Range, the Golden Gate, and one inland waterway, the Carquinez Strait at the north end of the bay, connect the ocean to the in-terior. At the end of that route, because of infiltrating ocean air, summer temperatures are the lowest of any part ,>l the Central \ alley.
It is primarily through the Golden Gate and over the peninsular hills that the wind brings in the sea fog. The process is predictable, beginning late in the afternoon,
after the hot part of the day. When fog first passes through the Gate, it mixes with warm air and evaporates. Over the hills, it cascades down eastern slopes, evaporat-ing on the leeward side, where the descending air is warmed by compression. Usually it is not until after sundown that the fog is able to form a continuous and spreading cloud mass. The winds determine which valley sections are fogged first. Most often the fog spreads from the eastern side of the bay back to the leeward sides of the coastal hills, and to the northern and southern ends of the bay. Winds through the Golden Gate split, pushing the fog north into the Napa Valley and south to San Jose/ Even inland valleys such as the Livermore Valley can sometimes have fog.
As the sun rises in the morning, the fog at first holds fast, reacting slowly to incoming solar radiation. Then gradually the edges and base of the fog bank begin to dissipate. The white top of the fog, because it tends to reflect solar heat rather than absorbing it, does not evaporate quickly. Holes in the fog may break first on the leeward sides of the hills, where air descending to the valley floor is warmed because of compression, or where the edge of the fog rests against hillsides newly warmed by the sun. The fog layer breaks leisurely at first, but then dissipates at accelerating rates. The windward slopes, such as the Berkeley Hills and ridges east of Monterey Bay, clear last, as they are in the mainstream of upward moving, and therefore cooling, air. While the fog bank proper retreats toward its source, the ocean, remnants may linger for hours, or even until the fog's return in late afternoon; in full retreat the fog will leave the coastline but remain offshore for the next daily cycle.
This rhythmmorning overcast, daytime retreat, eve-ning advanceis only the most conspicuous of the fog banks cycles. In an approximately weekly pattern, cool, foggy marine air rushes inland to the warm Central Valley, pulled by the low pressures of its interior, ['here it reduces temperatures, equalizes pressures, and. in response to the declining interior pressures, penetrates less each day. Once the fog no longer reaches the interior, the pressure and temperature imbalances slowly return, and fog is again drawn inland from the coast. The full cycle occurs roughly once every seven days, ['here is also a seasonal cycle, waxing in spring, waning in fall the same cycle displayed by the offshore upwelling. the fog's progenitor.
On cooler days, fogs tend to be wet and drippy. What is called Oregon mist" collects on the leaves and branches of trees, and forms wet spots where the moisture is shed. Measurements of fog drip in the Berkeley Hills, dircctlv opposite the Golden Gate, show the gathering of approximately ten inches of moisture, or an amount
40


nearly half as great as Berkeleys annual rainfall. Such fog usually begins fat out at sea, having had time for the droplets to merge and grow in the fog mass. Dry fog does not have drip characteristics, being formed just offshore or over the coastal hills.
It is no accident that the fog belt and what remains of the coastal redwood groves coincide. Because redwoods can absorb water through their needles, the steady summer fogs help to ease them through what would otherwise be a long dry season.
During the winter certain areas of California have a different kind of fog, described as radiation fog. The winter rains thoroughly soak the earth, and humidity remains high, even during the periods when the rain ceases. In the longer nights of this season, the land cools by radiating its heat, chilling the moist air until the dew point is reached and condensing water vapor to fog. The inland areas, without benefit of the warming influence of the ocean, are more susceptible to radiation fog, which forms most frequently over swamps, rivers, and ponds. Because tules (and other marsh plants) grow in these areas, the fog is known in the Central Valley and San Francisco Bay region, where it is found, as tale fog.
If a cold, windless spell persists, the tule fog accumulates with each passing day. Fog depths of several hundred feet often occur in the Sacramento River Delta or the Livermore Valley. In winter the inland areas are colder (and air pressures therefore higher) than the coast, with the result that the high pressure pushes the tule fog into the San Francisco Bay Area through Carquinez .'strait, the Hayward Pass, and other low points in the East Bay hills. Thus, in winter San Franciscos fog comes overland, and in summer it comes from the ocean.
Local climate is affected to a large extent by the geography of the area, some of it submarine. Along the southern coast of California, there is an oceanic platform with canyons and ridges whose peaks form such islands as Catalina, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and several small islands extending west to San Miguel Island and south to San Clemente Island. The irregular ocean floor concentrates some water along channels and allows other water to remain quiet, almost motionless in its basins. The still waters warm in the summer sun and are therefore less likely to form fog than waters north of Point Conception. Moving south along the California coast from San Francisco, the incidence of fog decreases dramatically, with Santa Maria showing an average of 88 days of fog a year; Los Angeles airport, 53 days; and San Diego, 30 days. When fog does occur in the Los Angeles areausually during the colder monthsit is not the result of warm air flowing over cold water but is, rather, radiation fog formed in the Los Angeles Basin.
I 1
41


Utility and Engineering Evaluations (13)
An extensive system of utilities, roads, and related site improvements was developed throughout the historic periods, to serve the then-burgeoning use and building construction on the island. Much of what was once developed fell out of use and was abandoned during the post-WW II era, with the exception of minor federal construction in the vicinity of Point Blunt (U.S.C.G. and Nike missile site development).
Although the department has maintained the original systems on the island, much of what remains today is as it was at the close of WW II. The existing conditions and evaluations are discussed below, and graphically depicted on the engineering evaluation plan (figure 20).
Water System
The potential water supply for Angel Island is provided by seven wells and one spring. A description of the wells and their capacities is set forth in a report prepared by the Department of General Services, dated October 9, 1969. The location of the producing wells and three dry wells is shown on the attached drawing. The water supply for the island is presently provided by wells nos. 1, 3, 4, and 7. Well no. 1, and the spring located near the two 500,000-gallon concrete reservoirs, are the primary water sources for the buildings and grounds in the area of the firehouse, East Garrison, Point Blunt, West Garrison, and the summit. Well no. 3, located north of the two large reservoirs, is used on demand to keep the 500,000-gallon reservoirs full. The distribution of this system is shown on the attached drawing.
In addition to the two 500,000-gallon concrete reservoirs mentioned above, the distribution system includes a 2,000-gallon transfer tank above the Nike missile site, a 2,000-gallon storage tank at the summit, and a 160,000-gallon concrete reservoir above West Garrison. These facilities are all in good condition, except for the roof on the storage tank above West Garrison, which needs to be resheeted and reshingled.
The water from the two large reservoirs flows by gravity to the 160,000-gallon reservoir above West Garrison and to the points of service discussed above, with the exception of the summit, and terminates at a fire hydrant in West Garrison near the old hospital. A pump at the 2,000-gallon transfer tank provides service to the summit.
The water service at Ayala Cove is developed from wells nos. 4 and 7, which pump alternately into a 50,000-gallon redwood tank near the loop road above Ayala Cove. The wells, the tank, and the distribution system in the Ayala Cove area are in good condition.
Even though the driest years of record are being experienced in California, all reservoirs and tanks discussed above are full of water; as reported -by park maintenance, there has been no problem in keeping them full.
With the exception of the pumper truck, immediate fire protection at North Garrison is limited to the area of the shops and firehouse. However, there is an unused underground 250,000-gallon concrete reservoir in North Garrison near the immigration building. While this has been unused for quite some time,
42


The main terminal house for telephone facilities on the island is located in the finance building at East Garrison. The telephone company is in the process of moving these facilities to an underground vault near the old administration building, also in East Garrison.
Sewer System
A 5,000-gallon septic tank, constructed in 1968, serves a comfort station next to the wharf at Ayala Cove. The remainder of the wastewater in Ayala Cove is discharged to a 10,000-gallon septic tank, with overflow to a 10,000-gallon holding tank which also receives the wharf area wastewater. Pumps discharge the septic tank effluent from the holding tank through a 3-inch force main over Point lone. The latter facilities were constructed in 1958, and were improved in 1968.
At East Garrison, a sanitary sewer system has been developed that serves the rangers' residences on Officers' Row and a small ranger residence near the chapel. The collector line is behind Officers' Row, and leads to an outfall through the seawall near the southeastern side of East Garrison.
The ranger's residence between East Garrison and the firehouse has a single discharge line leading directly to the bay. The firehouse located near North Garrison is served by a septic tank and leach field constructed in 1975. The rangers' duplex residence at Point Blunt is served by a septic tank and leach field.
Eight pit privies are now in use on the island. There are two at East Garrison, four at West Garrison, and two at the summit.
Five alternatives to the existing sewer system are under study at this time.
It is anticipated that a new system will be constructed in about two to three years that will serve Ayala Cove, North Garrison, and East Garrison. In the interim, the state plans to install a package treatment plant capable of treating 50,000 gallons per day. Currently, on a peak day, 20,000 to 25,000 gallons of waste are generated. It is anticipated that this plant will be located at Point lone, to serve the Ayala Cove area. The effluent from this plant will be monitored over the next two years, to determine if it is of a suitable quality for reclamation and landscape irrigation.
At North Garrison, the wharf has been removed; however, it was reported by park maintenance staff that there may be some underwater hazards remaining in this area. This will require reconnaissance by divers to determine the extent of any underwater hazards that may be in this area, before placement of pleasure boat moorings.
The wharf at East Garrison is in very poor condition, and would appear to have no further functional use in connection with Angel Island, except the possibility of interpretive value. The substructure, consisting of metal piles with metal braces, is badly rusted throughout. The wooden fender piles at the edge of the wharf, the caps, the stringers, and the deck are all in
43


very poor condition. The last appraisal of the wharf was made in 1974 by the California Department of Transportation. At that time, considerable bore damage and rot was noted in the caps and piles. No remedial measures have been taken since that time, and the condition of the wharf has deteriorated considerably. The Department of Transportation's 1974 report estimated that it would cost about $150,000 to repair the parts of the pier that could be used, and to remove the unusable parts.
The wharf at West Garrison has had the deck and a section of the stringers removed, to keep people from climbing out on the old structure. The remaining structure consists of metal pilings with metal braces, all in very poor condition. There are some wooden caps on the tops of the piles. Park personnel indicate that these provide roosting places for migratory pelicans; consideration should be given to leaving these caps in place.
Sea Walls
Three sea walls around the perimeter of Angel Island are located at Ayala Cove, East Garrison, and West Garrison. The sea wall at Ayala Cove is basically in good condition. However, there are some problems with voids in the rock rubble wall that are creating a leaching of the material behind the wall, and are causing subsidence. One problem area is near the east side of the grassy area, in front of the headquarters building. This could be repaired in two different ways: (1) excavate a new footing in front of the wall, place the footing, and grout the voids in the rock wall; (2) excavate behind the wall, place a stabilizing material against the wall, and backfill. Excavation behind the wall presents a problem, since sewer, water, and power lines are buried in that area. There are other areas of the wall where it looks like some guniting or grouting of the voids would be desirable. The sea wall near the Department of Parks and Recreation boat launching ramp is also in poor condition. Part of the decorative rock wall at this point has fallen down, due to subsidence behind the wall. The flat area behind the wall is not in use at this time. However, if this area is to be protected for future use, it will be necessary to make repairs to the sea wall. This will require excavation behind the sea wall, placement of a new concrete footing, reconstruction of the wall that has failed, and backfilling with stabilizing material.
The condition of the seawall at East Garrison is generally good. However, there is a break in the wall at the southwest end near the sandy beach area.
At this point, about thirty feet of the concrete wall has fallen over. There is no immediate danger of erosion to slopes behind the wall, due to a twenty-foot stable flat rubble area between the wall and the bluff. However, continued loss of the wall may occur if steps are not taken to repair this area. This can be corrected by repositioning the broken wall and replacing the concrete as necessary. Another point of the seawall under consideration is a spot at the end of the wharf, where subsidence is occurring in a small area. The extent of this problem is unknown, because it is directly under the point where the wharf meets the seawall. Excavation of the subsidence area
44


will be required to determine its magnitude. Also, north of the wharf about 200 feet, and immediately behind the mess hall/gym building, is a small area where there is an indication of old slippage. There does not appear to be any immediate problem in this area; it should be watched for future movement.
This movement appears to have been caused by small particles washing out of the rock rubble seawall at this point. If further movement occurs, the area behind the wall should be excavated, and a stabilizing material should be placed behind the wall.
At West Garrison, the sea wall is broken near the old wharf. There is a span of about 125 feet that has failed completely. Consideration should be given to reconstructing this wall with a wall very similar to the existing rock wall. The existing wall is about 500 feet long, extending south beyond the quartermaster building. The quartermaster building is within 100 feet of the point where the wall is broken, and continued erosion of the bank could put the building in jeopardy in the future. Also, on the seawall and about 200 feet south of the quartermaster building, are two small areas where the wall is showing failure. Subsidence behind the wall has occurred here due to leaching below the wall, causing partial breaks and deterioration of the wall. Replacement and repair of this wall will require construction of concrete footings, reconstruction of the rock wall, and backfilling behind the wall with stabilizing material.
Roads
Roadbeds on the island are basically in good condition. The surface of the main loop road is paved from Battery Ledyard, around the north side of the island, to and including East Garrison. The main loop road on the south side of the island is unpaved. The surface of the unpaved road is in good condition. The surface of the paved road is in fair condition for the most part, but is deteriorating somewhat along its route. Considering that the General Development Plan may be activated some three years or more in the future, consideration should be given to resurfacing the paved road within the next two years. This should consist of a minimum of a slurry seal. The surfaces of the paved roads in the area of the rangers* residences at Ayala Cove and around the parade ground at West Garrison are in poor condition. Consideration should be given to an asphaltic concrete overlay in these areas. The surface of the paved road to the summit is also in poor condition. Application of a double slurry seal or an asphaltic concrete overlay on this road would seem appropriate.
The downdrains and cross drainage for the loop road are generally in good condition. Two areas were noted near the Nike missile site where an erosion problem is occurring on the downhill side. These areas are noted on the attached drawing. Rock protection or additional downdrains should be installed in these areas. Also, after rainfall and drainage return to normal following the drought, it is suggested that an additional reconnaissance covering roads and drainage be requested.
45


LEGEND
---W---- Water
---P----Power
-T-- Telephone
Paved Roads :^ - Unpaved Roads
Trails
Locations of Utility Lines Shown is Approximate.
cwno^a mri*^ vs lt
S
i i
a *
! S £ 3 i
8 o
3 S
s *
E
<
16631
EXISTING UTILITIES


ZONING AND CODES


Project Name: Location: ____
aasSaa SOiaaS
Angel Island Conference Center
Angel Island State Park, San Francisco, CA
Applicable Zoning Ordinance:
bite is Tn btate Park:, current ly no applicable zoning ordinace is in effect, therefor tor purpose s oT thesis ass ume zoning is N/A.
Zoning Check By:
St p p h p n_Pond
Date: ____i ? /fifi
Section Page Item __________ ______ Proposed uses
Present Zoning Classification Applicable Allovable Uses _____
Zone Change Required? Minimum Lot Size
area: __________________
width: _______________________
Minimum Yard Requirements
front: _______________________
48


aamaasi saas @z$3S2
Project Name:___Angel Island Conference Center______________
Location:_______Angel Island State Park, San Francisco, CA
Applicable Code Name- UBC ~ 1985 upc ~ 198 2-_______________
Code Check By-_________Stephen Pond___________ Date- 12/86
S.tioa Paac
Chpt 5
60 1 43
70 1 47
1201 71
190 1 99
2201 106
Table 5-B 40
Item
Fire zone________________
Occupancy classification
Principle A3 : Aud i t o r ium
Others (snecifv) B 2 : Conference Facilities:
Offices, Lounge, Dining ...
R3 : Residences

Construction Lvne A3, B2: TvDe II 1 hour
R3: Type V 1 hour
a/a
Occupancy separations required_______________________ a/a
to B 2 1 hours
to . R3 ! hours
to rs 1 hours
to . hours
to . hours
Changes in occupancy__________________________________ n/a
A3: 13,500 B2: 18,000
Maximum allowable floor area r ^ __ i ; ; r 9 h_ n/a
506
506
506
505
a 32 If adjacent to open area on two or more sides Tf over one story See code for n/a
b 30 specific that are increases pe rmirf^d
c 32 If sprin tiered - n/a
e 30 Increases for fire separations n/a
49


Table 5D 42
507 33
Table 5A 37
types)
Maximum allowable height
n/a
Feet
A3 : 65
B 2: 65 R3: 50
n/a
Stories
A3 : 2
B 2 : 4
R3 : 3
n/a
Unlilimited
id for storage
i f
u n l n I am
ih ab i t e d
Towers, spires, steeples LUL b L u L and o
tire re sis t an tma t e rials greater than 20 if comb
Fire resistance of exterior vails (see occupancy deconstruction
comp Ik ft. or, aot u s t i b 1 e .
not eJ y
A3 : 2 hours less than 3', lhour less than 40
B 2 : 1 hour less than 20 '
R3 : lhour less than 3
Table 5A 37
Setbacks requiring protection of openings
A3: not permitted less
permittei less than 10'.
in exterior walls n/a
than 5', protected
B 2 :
tl
II
R3: not permitted less than 3'.
Location within city/ location on property
Use of Public Property _____________________________________,n/a
Doors prohibited from swinging into city property?---------
Restrictions on marquees, conopies. etc. ------------------
605 705 ,
1 205
504 c 1 206
605 705 ,
1 205 1207 a
Other projections__________
^ 3 4 8 Windows required in rooms _
A3/B2 not less than 1/10
Window area ope rah 1 e __O
Yes
me cn
if
- artificail ventilation
light and not pro^i dec
total floor and:___1 e-s-s__th-a-a.
area 1 /.JQ
with f.l.ao r
1
area
30 73
and minimum of 10 s.f., baths: operable, and not less than 1/20 of taotal floor are;
Enclosed or semi-enclosed courts size rqd. _See page, 73 .
45,48
Yentilation requirements
72
See above
n/a
73
Minimum ceiling heights in rooms
rA notless
50
dining,
Habitable
TT
than T7" 6 not less
sPacesn/a
Kitchen, ha than 7'.


120 7 b
74
Table 17A 89
R3: one room TTO s f. ,
Minimum floor are* of rooms all other rooms / 0 s jj^o r
Fire resistive requirements__
Exterior bearing walls 17 0 5 d Interior bearing walls_______
One
Exterior non-bearing walls __
Structural frame _______1/02
Permanent partitions 1/05 b
Exit corridor wails_______3 J 0 D g
Vertical openings_________1706
Floors________________
1904
Roofs
1906
Exterior doors
1903, 2203
n/a
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
Exit doors U frames Inner court walls _
3305 h Not less than 20 minutes
_______________________________ hrs
5Q4 c
One
hrs
Mezzanine floors (area allowed)
716 No more than 1/3 of roc
hrs
area.
Roof Coverings 3202 b R3: ordinary A3, B2: Class o r
shakes or shingles.
Boiler room enclosure _------------------------------- hrs
Chanters 24 -27 Structural re a u ire meats n/a
1901, 2201 Framework Iron, steel, concrete, One hrs
Stairs Masonry, wood. Non combustible const.(Ext.) hrs
1905, 2204, 3 306 m Ch p t . 33 Floors Fire resistive (interior) Non combustible, may have hrs
1806 Roofs wood surface. Fire retardent hrs
190 1 Partitions _ Fire retardent trearted wood hrs
Chapter 33 5 54 + Exits
The occupant load permitted in any building shall be determined by dividing the floor area assigned to that use by the square feet per occupant (basis) as set forth in Table 33-A.
Occupancy Load basis (square feet/occupant) Occupant Load = Floor Area/SF/Occupant
51


Occupancy Type
Basis
Actual Load
Auditorium Meeting Room Dining Room Locker Rooms Commercial Kitchen Offices Residences
50 100
15 50
15 50
50 10
200 3
100 5
200 2
3303 a, 556
33 18 a 573
Table 33A 582
3303 b 557
3303 c 557
3303 H -LLZ
3303 e _112
3304
3304 e 559
3304 f It
3303 b 557
3 304 b 558
3305 56 1
3305 b
3 305 e
Number Of exits required One required, not less than n/a 2 required where specified by Table 33-A. Second story must provide 2 exits when occupant load greater than 10 Occupants above second floor shall have access to not less than two exits. Group A3 occupancies greater than
shall not,have lathched or locked doors unless it is panic hardware. . . , ,, . .
Minimum Width Of exits Total width of exits in teet fl/a
shall not be less than the total occupant load divided
by 50, and divided approx, equally among separate exits
and including a % of the occupant loads of adjacent flo
Exit separation arrangement1 f 2 required: placed dis t^^c e
apart equal to not less than 1/2 length of max. overall
diagonal dimension measured Tn straight Line b'ween exi If 3 required: arranged reasonalbe distance apart so iT one is blocked others available.
Maximum allowable travel distance to exit LLQ-1_______________ n/a
2 0 0'
With sprinklers_________________________________I_____________
Exit sequence (through adjoining or accessory areas) n/a
Rooms may have one exit through adjoining room which
pj:.a.Y ide s direr. c QbviQu.fi and u, n a b s r. r u r. t. e, d means o f
egress from the building, provided the total distance of travel does nor exceed rhar pprmi rrpd hv rhp code.
Exit doors
n/a
Minimum width 6c height_3' 6 8"
Maximum leaf width _______3 2"
Width required for number of occupants See above.
Swing In direction of exit travei when serving hazardous area.
flh-.vngein firmr level ,vr dnnr Provide landing on either side of
door, floor/landing w/in 1/2" of
Exit Corridors __________one another.__________________ n/a
Required width 0 c 1 e s s
it ft
Required heighL ________________
Dead end corridors length No c
52
than 44"
" 84" (7')
mo re than 20'


3305 h 562
3306 563
Openings Stairs _
Pro
con
E?8f
e d b1 assi
m

. smoke ire pro
tnd draft ection not
than 20 minutes. Non door openings protected fixed 1/4" thick wired glass in steel f^^e .
25% of
Total non Min. widt.hc orridoor
door
wall
opening
(fc?c? Ibad of
area less than 25!
Not less than 4^ load of 50 +
_3<£cc. load of__________2______1
occ. load of
3306 c 563
II It
3306 d-f II
3306 g 56 3-4
Maximum riser allowed__________________________
1 1 "
Minimum tread allowed _________________________
Winding, circular, spiral stairs t.p p 1 1L d D "_111
Refer to code for specifics.
n/a
n/a
n/a
Landings
Every Tn
landing shall have a fife direct ion Of travel equal
dimension measured
Minimum width rqd.
width of the stairway
Maximum width rqd. _______44 "__________________________
Vertical distance between landings Not more than 12"
Handicap refuge space
3306 0 565 Stair to roof rqd 7 In bldg. 4+ stories, if roof slopq^/a
3306 h 564 less than Stair to basement restrictions . 4:12. See code for specifics. A.i
3309 566-7 Every Stair enclosure rad ? interior stairway or ramp en n/a
3306 P 565 as specified in section, R3 exempt Stair headrnnm Not 1£SS than 6' 6 n/a
3306 j 564 Handrails n/a
Rqd. at each side? ___________________________________
Intermediate rails rqd.? If width Iess than 88"_______
Max. width between interior rails EqaaI., S-p^a-lr_-S.l w 1 dCh Rqd. height___________________________________________
Max. openings in rails E q u a 1 b p a c 'l a g'_____
30" 34"
Height above nosing __________________________________
53


Extension of railing Projection from wail
Rails shall be continuous for full, leng
?Ja!EajSf Bandraif pshl?f ?S! t e n! C ai tS L e s
than 6" beyond Not less than
top and bottom risers
L ii
between wall and rail
Exceptions
See page 564.
3 308
3307
566
565-6
Horizontal exit requirements
only exit from a portion more exits are required width may ITe horizontal
Shall not serve as the^y^ o t a building, and when 2 or no more \ of total exits or exi exits.
Ramps
n/a
Width
As required for stairs.
Maximum slope Landings _____
1:12
Required at top and bottom for ramps witti slopes greater than l:T5, with intermediate
landing providedfor everyyu Of run.
Handrails ____Required for ramps with slopes greater than
1:15.
Exit, signs rqtl Installed at required exit doorways and whe
otherwise necessary to clearly indicate .direction of egress when exit serves an occupant load of 50 +
Toilet room requirements (code utilized?! __________n/a
UPC - 1982
Fixture requirements (basis?) ______________________ n/a
Women Conf. 2 lavs, 3 w.c. Audit. 2,3 Dining 1 ,2
Conf. 2 lavs, 3 w.. c . 1 urinal Audit. 2,3,1 Dining 1
Men _____________________________________________
3301/3 3 04
Drinking fountains None required.___________________ fl/a
Showers One per occupant unit.______________________ Q/a
Handicapped Requirements ___________________________
Site An accessible site shall meet the following minimum requirements: provide for one accesssible route provided from public transportation stops, accessible parking spaces, accessible passenger loading zones if provided, and public streets, or sidewalks to an accessible building entrance. At least one accessible route shall connect accessible buildings, facilities, elements, and spaces that are on the same site.
1213 /3 301 e 7 6 ,5 prtlIfA Dwelling units to be accessible to the
physically na ndicappea ETy level dnt ry ramp 6 r elevator Portions of buildings shall be accessible as required
by Table 33A, page 582, and at least one primary entranc cq meet___a.h,QY.£. stated r.sipgnt§ .____________
54


5 11 a/b 35 Arr^cihl. W i t h exception of dwelling units and
guest rooms facilities must be available to all occupant and both sexes._________________________
Doorways width greater than 32"
Clear space of 44" on each side of doors leading to batl
Clear space of 60" with rooms with TT" door encroach-
ment permitted.___________________________________
Clear space in front oT w. c greater than 42" and 48"
in length ._______________________________________
Compartment width 32" or greater .
Grab bars 33" to 36" high.
Accessible housing _____________________________________ n/a
Number Of Units One unit per each 99 dwelling uni t s .
Minimum requirements ___________________________________
Special rqmts. not listed
a/'a
55


PROGRAMMING


CONFERENCE CENTER ORGANIZATION
Description: The conference center is intended to serve a variety of Bay Area academic, business and professional organizations. Use of the facilities by island visitors for interprative programs, or related cultural activities and events associated with the State Park will be accomodated as well. Overnight accomodations for 100 persons at a time, plus dining and recreation opportunites will be provided. These accomdations will consist of: 2 suites for use by distinguished conference guests; 6 (4 person) cluster houses; 24 individual private rooms; and additional accomodations for 50 persons provided through renovation and adaptive reuse of the existing housing stock on the site, these renovations will be modeled after the cluster house's organization. The conference facilities will consist of: an auditorium, various sized meeting rooms, and preperation and support areas for the participants. Public outdoor spaces, a new marina and the existing natural amenities of the park will act as complements to the center's developed areas.
PROGRAM SUMMARY
Program Elements Net S.F.
Conference Facilities: 10,150
Food Service: 4,050
Administration and
Support Services: 3,975
Residential Accomodations : 15,500
Sub-Total: 33,675
Circulation Allowance: 6,735 **
Total: 40,410 S.F
* Note: This program and accompanying support materials are adapted from Kelly Karmel's and Mathew McMullen's theses, May 1985, and May 1986 respectively.
** Note: Assume 20% increase for circulation.
57


PROGRAM ELEMENTS SUMMARY
Conference Facilities:
Space No. Size Net S.F.
Lobby/Reception 1 1 ,600 1,600
Auditorium 1 4 ,000 4,000
A/V Control Room 1 150 150
Large Meeting Room 2 675 1,350
Small Meeting Room 4 300 1,200
Small Gathering Area 4 100 400
Coffee Break Area 2 200 400
Cloakroom 1 250 250
Toilet Rooms 2 250 500
Storage 1 300 300
Sub-Total: 10,150
Circulation Allowance: 2,030
Total: 12,180 S
Food Service:
Space No. Size Net S.F.
Large Dining Room 1 1 ,000 900
Small Dining Room
(Cafe and Bar) 1 500 400
Kitchen 1 1 ,000 1,000
Serving/Food Prep. 1 200 200
Food Storage 1 200 200
Wine/Liquor Storage 1 250 250
Bakery 1 250 250
Cleaning Area 1 200 200
Delivery and Disposal 1 200 200
Toilet Rooms 1 250 250
Sub-Total: 4,050
Circulation Allowance: 810


Administration and Support Services:
Space No. Size Net S.F.
Director's Office 1 225 225
Assit. Dir. Office 1 150 150
Secretary 1 125 125
Food Service Director 1 150 150
Residence Director 1 150 150
Personnel Offices 1 375 375
Preparation space 1 800 800
A/V Office/Equip. 1 250 250
Service Delivery 1 200 200
Dance/Exercise Studio i 1 500 500
Weight Room 1 200 200
Jacuzzi/Saunna 2 200 400
Lockers/Shower Room 2 200 200
Laundry 1 250 250
Maintenance/Shop 1 250 250
Sub-Total: 3,975
Circulation Allowance: 795
Total: 4,770 S.F.
Residences:
Space No. Size Net S.F.
Suite: 2 400 800
(Room 160 s.f.,
Sitting room 160 s.f. , Bath 80 s.f.)
Private Room: 24 275 6,600
(Room 200 s.f., Bath 75 s.f.)
Residents Lounge: 2 300 600
Cluster Housing: 6 1,200 7,200
(4) 225 s.f. housing units,
plus 300 s.f. shared common space comprises a cluster house.
Maid Closet 4 75 300
Sub-Total: 15,500
Circulation Allowance: 3,100


DESIGN PATTERNS
The following "patterns" are excerpted from Christopher Alexander's A Pattern Language. This book is a compilation of theories and methods of design in which the attempt is made to develop systematic, step-by-step processes to assist designers in producing and evaluating plans and designs; a thorough collection of proposed organizations of space and materials in the form of what the authors call "patterns". It is my intention to try to incorporate these patterns within my design solution(s), in order to clarify and guide the nature and organization of the elements specified within the program; and to help define the essence of the spaces comprising the complex.
37. Housing Cluster; People will not feel comfortable in their homes unless a group of houses forms a cluster, with public land between them jointly owned by all the householders. Therefore, arrange houses to form very rough, but identifiable clusters of 8 to 12 households around some common land and paths. Arrange the clusters so that anyone can walk through them without feeling like a trespasser.
53. Main Gateways: Any part of a town, large or small, which is to be identified by its inhabitants as a precinct of some kind, will be reinforced, helped in its distinctness, marked, and made more vivid, if the paths which enter it are marked by gateways where they cross the boundary.
67. Common Land: Provide over 25% of the land in house clusters to common land which touches or is very near, the homes which share it.
88. Street Cafe: Encourage local cafes to spring up in each neighborhood. Make them intimate places, with several rooms, open to a busy path, where people can sit with coffee or a drink and watch the world go by. Build the front of the cafe so that a set of tables stretch out of the cafe, right to the street.
several rooms
tables
U _J

(£&> 4*
terrace
nctvspapei
busy path
91. Travellers Inn: Make the traveller's inn a place where travellers can take rooms for the night, but where, unlike most hotels and motels, the inn draws al its energy from the community of travellers that are there on any given evening. The scale is small, 30 to 40 guests per inn with meals offered communally, and a large space ringed round with beds in alcoves.
conviviality
sleeping rooms anti alcoves
communal meals
95. Building Complex: Never build large monolithic buildings. Whenever possible translate your building program into a building complex, whose parts manifest the actual social facts of a situation. At low densities, a building complex may take the form of a collection of small buildings connected by arcades, paths, shared gardens and walls.
collection of small buildings
60
social components


minor entrances
minor realms
iO
98. Circulation Realms: Lay out very large buildings and collections of small buildings so that one reaches a given point inside by passing through a sequence of realms, each marked by a gateway and becoming smaller and smaller, as one passes from each one, through a gateway, to the next. Choose the realms so that each one can be easily named, so that you can tell a person where to go, simply by telling him which realms to go through.
high roof
99. Main Building: For any collection of buildings, decide which building in the group houses the most
essential function which building is the soul of the group, as a human institution. Then form this building as the main building, with a centrally positioned, higher roof. Even if the building complex is so dense that it is
a single building, build the main part of it higher and
more prominent than the rest, so that the eye goes
immediately to the part which is the most important.
104. Site Repair: On no account place buildings in the places which are most beautiful. In fact, do the opposite. Consider the site and its buildings as a single living ecosystem. Leave those areas that are the most precious, beautiful, comfortable, and healthy as they are, build new structure in those parts of the site which are least pleasant now.
r-A"V
J i
105. South Facing Outdoors: Always place buildings to the north of the outdoor spaces that go with them, and keep the outdoor spaces to the south. Never leave a deep band of shade between the building and the sunny part of the outdoors.
106. Positive Outdoor Space: Make all the outdoor spaces which surround and lie between your buildings positive. Give each one some degree of enclosure; surround each space with wings of buildings, trees, hedges, and arcades until it becomes an entity with a positive quality and does not spill out indefinitely around corners.
convex shape
views
partia,
enciosi
108. Connected Buildings: Connect your buildings up, wherever possible, to the existing buildings round about. Do not keep set backs between buildings; instead try to form new buildings as continuations of the older buildings.
110. Main Entry: Place the main entrance of the building at a point where it can be seen immediately from the main avenues of approach and give it a bold, visible shape which stands out in front of the building.
114. Hierarchy of Open Spaces: Whatever space you are shaping: garden, street, park or courtyard, make sure of two things. First, make at least one smaller space, which looks into it and forms a natural back for it. Second place it, and its openings, so that it looks into a least one larger space.
61
back


115. Living Courtyards: Place every courtyard in such a way that there is a view out of it to some larger open space; place it so that at least two or three doors open from the building into it and so that the natural paths which connect these doors pass across the courtyard. And, at one edge, beside a door make a roofed veranda or porch, which is continuous with both the inside and the courtyard.
116. Cascade of Roofs: Visualize the whole building, or building complex, as a system of roofs. Place the largest, highest and widest roofs over those parts of the building which are most significant: when you come to lay the roofs out in detail, you will be able to make all lesser roofs cascade off these larger roofs and form a stabe self-buttresssing system, which is congreunt with the heirarchy of social spaces underneath the roofs.
127. Intamacy Gradient: Lay out the spaces of a building > so that they create a sequence beginning with the entrance and the most public parts of the building, then^*^* leading into the slightly more private areas, and finally^ to the most private domains. entrant
public
semi-public pri
128. Indoor Sunlight: Place the most important rooms along the south edge of the building, and spread the building out along the east-west axis. Fine tune the arrangement so that the proper rooms are exposed to the south-east and south-west sun, e.g. common area full southern exposure, bedrooms south-east, porch south-west.
center of gravity of social lif
129. Common Areas at the Heart: Create a single common area for every social group. Locate it at the center of gravity of all the spaces the group occupies, and in such a way that the paths which go in and out the building lie
tangent to it. tangent paths
communal functions
134. Zen View: If there is a beautiful view, don't
spoil it by building huge windows that gape incessantly at it. Instead, put the windows which look onto the view at places of transition, along paths, in halls, on stairs piaceof etc... If the view window is correctly placed, people transition will see a glimpse of the distant view as they come up to the window or pass it: but the view is never visible from the places where people stay.
/7
distant view
plenty of room
139. Farmhouse Kitchen: Make the kitchen bigger than
usual, big enough to include the "family room" space, and place it near the center of the commons, not so far back in the house as an ordinary kitchen. Make it large enough to hold a good big table and chairs, with counters and stove and sink around the edge of the room; and make it a bright and comfortable room.
counter
148. Small Work Groups: When more than half a dozen people work in the same place, it is essential that they not be forced to work in one huge undifferentiated space, but that instead, they can divide their workspace up, and so form smaller groups.
rnmmon ntr
two to six people
views of one anothc
62


Break the areas into small, spatially identifiable work groups, with less than half a dozen persons in each. Arrange these work groups so that each person is in at least partial view of the other members of his own group; and arrange several groups in such a way that they share a common entrance, food, office equipment, and bathrooms.
149. Reception Welcomes You: Arrange a series of welcoming things immediately inside the entrance: soft chairs, a fireplace, food coffee. Place the reception desk so that it is not between the receptionist and the welcoming area, but to one side at an angle so that he or she can get up and walk toward the people who come in, greet them and invite them to sit down.
151. Small Meeting Rooms: Make at least 70% of all meeting rooms really small, for 12 persons or less. Locate them in the most public parts of the building, evenly scattered among the workplaces.
152. Half-Private Office: Avoid closed off, separate, or private offices. Make every workroom, whether it is for a group of two or three people or for one person, half-open to the other workgroups and the world immediately beyond it. At the front, just inside the door, make comfortable sitting space, with the actual workspace(s) away from the door and further back.
fire
through working areas
159. Light on Two Sides of Every Room: Locate each room so that it has outdoor space outside it on a least two sides, and then place windows in these outdoor walls so that natural light falls into every room from more than one direction.
according to their nature, to form enclosures, avenues, groves and single spreading trees toward the middle of open spaces. And shape the nearby buildings in response to trees, so that the trees themselves, and the trees and buildings together form places which people can use.
63


cultivated plants growing wild
'frT'"!
U.ZT* C^'

172. Garden Growing Wild: Grow grasses, bushes, flowers and trees in a way which comes close to the way that they occur in nature; intermingled, without barriers between them, without bare earth, without formal planting beds and with all the boundries and edges made in rough stone and brick and wood which becomes a part of ther natural growth.



rough natural ed(j
179. Alcoves: Make small places at the edge of an common room, usually no more than 6 feet wide and 3 to 6 feet deep. These alcoves should be large enough for two people to sit, chat, or play, and sometimes large enough to contain a desk or table.
181. The Fire: Build the fire in a common space, where it can provide a natural focus for talk and thought. Adjust the location until it knits together the social spaces and rooms around it, giving them each a glimpse of the fire; and make a window or some other focus sustain the place during times when the fire is out.
Family room alcoves.
182. Eating Atmosphere: Put a heavy table in the center of the eating space, large enough for a whole family or the group of people using it. Put a light over the table to create a pool of light over the group, and enclose the space with walls or with contrasting darkness. Make the space large enough so the chairs can be pulled back comfortably, and provide shelves and counters close at hand for things related to the meal.
183. Workspace Enclosure: Give each workspace an area of at least 60 square feet. Build walls and windows around each workspace to such an extent that their total area (counting windows at one-half) is 50 to 75% of the full enclosure that would be there if all four walls around the 60 square feet were solid. Let the front of the workspace be open for at least 8 feet in front, always into a larger space. Place the desk so that the person working at it has a view out, either to the front or to the side. If there are other people working nearby arrange the enclosure to two or three others; but never put more than eight workspaces within view or earshoot of one another.
view out
wall behind
192. Windows Overlooking Life: In each room place the windows in such a way that their total area conforms roughly to the approporiate figures for your region (25% for the San Francisco Bay Region), and place them in positions which give the best possible views out over life: activities in streets, quiet gardens, anything different from the indoor scene.
views over
64


CONFERENCE CENTER FACILITIES
Organizational Diagram
Service
Personnel
Offices
Participant1 Office Space_______j
65


SPACE:
LOBBY/RECEPTION
80
120 persons, 1600 S.F.
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
The lobby will be the first space encountered by visitors, and thus should set the tone for the entire experience through the attention given to the scale, view, lighting and materials of the space. As the major indoor circulation space, the lobby will be active most of the day and therefore needs a light, pleasant atmosphere through which to pass or pause and confer with fellow participants. The reception area will serve the function of a central information spot, and provide access to nearby Center personnel offices as necessary. Flexibility within the overall space is paramount with the ability to handle overflow auditorium crowds, host receptions and accomodate special events.
ACTIVITIES:
Main entry and exit.
Reception and registration area for part ic ipant s .
Informal meetings and/or social events.
EQUIPMENT/FURNITURE:
Reception counter.
Pleasant furnishings: couchs, chairs, plants, art etc...
Provide public telephones.
NOTES:
Provide views to outdoor areas, and strong connection with outdoor areas.
Provide natural light where possible.
Resilent flooring surfaces in high traffic areas .
CHECKLIST:
ZONE Public
Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
Versa tillty
None
SUPERVISION Required
Moderate
None
VIEW OUT Oe sirable
Optional
None
VIEW IN Desirable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
Moderate
Special
Fie xlble
Natural
NOISE CONTROL Required
None
VENTILATION/ CLIMATE CONTROL High
Normal
Special
66


RPAP.F: A/V CONTROL ROOM
2 persons,
150 S.F .
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
The A/V control room is the booth located adjacent to the auditorium. Functions include the control of light levels, and sound and visual images on the porjection screen. The space may also be used to produce and/or record sound, plus store small amounts of equipment. The room is to be staffed by trained personnel during conference activities or performances.
ADJACENCIES--
ACTIVITIES:
Projection of visual of presentations. Control of light levels and direction. Production and recording of sound.
EQUIPMENT/FURNITURE:
Slide and movie projectors, lights, and recording equipment.
Special electrical supply system, and controls for lights and sound system.
NOTES:
View out into auditorium space.
Acoustic seperation between adjacnet spaces and this area.
CHECKLIST:
ZONE Public
Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
Versa tillty
None
SUPERVISION Required
Moderate
None
VIEW OUT De sirabfe
Optional
None
VIEW IN De slrable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
Moderate
Special
Fie xlble
Natural
NOISE CONTROL Required
None
VENTILATION/ CLIMATE CONTROL High
Normal
Special
67


SPACE:
AUDITORIUM: 80 - 120 persons, 4000 S.F.
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
The auditorium is the space where all conference functions come together. It acts as the initial meeting area, and as the final arena for presentation of ideas and information to the conference partici pants as a whole. The auditorium should have the flexibility to be utilized for lectures, visual presentations, and artistic performances. This space will be the largest single element in the complex and it should convey a sense of elegance and importance. Together with the lobby/ reception area the auditorium should act as the central element of the conference facilities .
ACTIVITIES:
Large group meetings or lectures. Presentations of slides, videos or movies. Performances by musical or theatre groups .
EQUIPMENT/FURNITURE:
100 Built-in seats.
20 Movable shairs.
Projection Screen, Speakers Podium.
! NOTES:
Acoustics should allow speech or music to be heard without electrical amplification.
i
Elevated stage needed for performances. Chairs may be brought in for large crowds.
CHECKLIST:
ZONE Public
Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
Versa tlllty
None
SUPERVISION Required
Moderate
None
VIEW OUT Desirable
Optional
None
VIEW IN Oe sir able
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
Moderate
Special
Fie xlble
Na tural
NOISE Required
CONTROL None
VENTILATION/ High
CLIMATE Normal
CONTROL Special
68


SPACE:
LARGE MEETING ROOM
24 30 persons, 675 S.F.
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
A private environment to be used for large meetings by individual groups. Since these rooms must accomodate multiple conversations between several people the spaces should facilitate interactive conversation This is best generated by either circular or face-to-face arrangements of persons. There should be a more intimate atmosphere than that found in the auditorium. Views to the outside are appropriate here as is natural light.
ADJACENCIES:
ACTIVITIES:
Medium sized lectures or meetings Presentation of slides or movies.
EQUIPMENT/FURNITURE:
24 moveable chairs, tables.
Blackboard, projection screen.
A/V equipment.
j NOTES:
1
The room should be versatile enough to accomodate either group meetings or small lectures.
Seating should be arranged in a face-to-face or circular arrangement.
CHECKLIST:
ZONE | Public
Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
Versa tlllty
None
SUPERVISION Required
Moderate
None
VIEW OUT Desirable
Optional
None
VIEW IN De slrabie
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
Moderate
Special
Fie xlble
Na tural
NOISE Required
CONTROL None
VENTILATION/ High
CLIMATE Normal
CONTROL Special
69


SPACE: SMALL MEETING ROOM 10 15 persons, 300 S.F.
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
The small meeting rooms are intended for meetings of a more intimate scale. This space becomes the setting for working and discussion. The spaces will be more formal than those of the large meeting areas, with warm materials and controllable 1ight ing leve1s .
ADJACENCIES:
Sma11 j Meet ing; Room
Coffee
Area
Toilet
Room
Large!
Meeting
Room
Sma 11 Gathering Area
ACTIVITIES:
Seminars or small presentations of speciallized material best suited to a more intimate setting.
EQUIPMENT/FURNITURE:
10 moveable chairs, table.
Blackboard.
NOTES:
Materials within the rooms should vary to set a personal mood.
j
j
Moveable partitions allowing for the expansion between adjacent rooms to create a temporary larger space may be
CHECKLIST:
ZONE Public
Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
Versa tlllty
None
SUPERVISION Required
Moderate
None
VIEW OUT 0 e sirable
Optional
None
VIEW IN Desirable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
Moderate
Special
Fie xlble
Natural
NOISE CONTROL R e quire d
None
VENTILATION/ CLIMATE CONTROL High
Normal
Special
appropriate.
70


SPACE: SMALL GATHERING AREA 4-8 persons, 100 S.F.
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
Small areas where people can gather in intimate groups to further discuss the day's activities and conference issues in depth are important spaces. These areas can also fufill the need for providing a space for an individual's contemplation. Seating should consist of ledges or immoveable fixtures along with moveable furniture and soft cushions that can be arranged to suit, the user's needs.
Location adjacent to the meeting rooms and lobby area is desirable.
ADJACENCIES:
ACTIVITIES:
Informal discussion by a small group. Reflective thought by an individual.
EQUIPMENT/FURNITURE:
Ledges, moveable chairs.
Low table, throw cushions.
Indoor plants.
f NOTES:

Views in and out should be indirect to provide a sense of privacy and intimacy within the spaces.
CHECKLIST:
ZONE Public
Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
Versa tlllty
None
SUPERVISION Required
Moderate
None
VIEW OUT Desirable
Optional
None
VIEW IN De slrabie
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
Moderate
Special
Flexible
Na tural
NOISE CONTROL R e quire d
Nona
ventilation/ CLIMATE CONTROL High
Normal
Sp ecia 1
71


FOOD SERVICE
Organizational Diagram
Service
Entry
0
To Residences
To Conference Facilities
72


SPACE:
LARGE DINING ROOM
60 persons, 1000 S.F.
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
The dining room should be an elegant space allowing for the presentation of full banquets. This elegance should be tempered somewhat by recognizing that more mundane meals, specifically breakfast and lunch will be taken here as well. Rearrangements of tables and chairs should be easily accomplished allowing for a variety of seating arrangements. Special attention should be paid to the selection of materials for the dining room. The space should be refined through attention to its materials and their texture, color, and pattern. An outdoor view and connectio is desirable to allow dining activity to extend to the outside.
n
ADJACENCIES:
ACTIVITIES:
Service of breakfast, lunch and dinner. Formal and informal gatherings.
EQUIPMENT/FURNITURE:
Tables of different sizes, ranging in size from 4-8 persons. The tables should be able to be pushed together for larger seat ings.
Comfortable chairs.
1 NOTES:
Seating arrangements should be flexible allowing for differnet types of gatherings
Illumination varies throughout the day, from natural during the morning and mid day to subdued during dinner.
I
CHECKLIST:
ZONE Public
Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Ex pandablllty
Versatility
None
SUPERVISION Required
Moderate
None
VIEW OUT Desirable
Optional
None
VIEW IN De slrable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
Moderate
Special
Fie xlble
Na tural
NOISE R e quire d
CONTROL None
ventilation/ High
CLIMATE Norma 1
CONTROL Sp ecia 1
73


SPACE:
SMALL DINING ROOM, CAFE/BAR
30 persons,
500 S F .
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
The small dining room will house a variety of activities, though primarilly intended to serve breakfast, lunch and dinner on a smaller more intimate scale. The cafe will be used mostly in the morning and late evening when the other dining facilities are closed. It will include a grill providing food on an intermediate basis between the three daily meals. A bar will also be included to allow for infromal socializing and nightlife activity. Connection with the outdoors is desirable to allow dining activity to extend outside.
ADJACENCIES:
ACTIVITIES:
Service of breakfast and light meals.
Informal meetings, lively social gatherings, dancing and drinking.
EQUIPMENT/FURNITURE:
Dining tables and chairs.
Bar and stools.
NOTES:
Flexibility should allow for multiple \ activities: dining, dancing and drinking.
Lighting should respond to the activity of the mome n t.
Durable, washable materials necessary.
CHECKLIST:
ZONE | Public
Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
Versa tlllty
None
SUPERVISION Required
Moderate
None
VIEW OUT Desirable
Optional
None
VIEW IN Desirable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
Moderate
Special
Flexible
Na tural
NOISE CONTROL Required
None
VENTILATION/ CLIMATE CONTROL High
Normal
Special
74


SPACE:
FOOD SERVICE, PREPARATION & STORAGE 20U - 1000 S.F.
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
Food service and storage should be accomplished in a logical, progressive fashion allowing food to be stored and prepared easily, as well as served in an efficent manner. Flexibility in the food service area should allow the space to serve either large banquets and buffet gatherings or small cafe activity. Liquor will be served in the. dining rooms as well as premium California wines, therefore storage space has been provided.
ACTIVITIES: CHECKLIST:
Food delivery, storage, preparation, cooking and service. Cleaning and waste disposal activities. Liauor and wine storage. ZONE Public
Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
Versa tillty
None
SUPERVISION Required
EQUIPMENT/FURNITURE: Moderate
None
Commercial kitchen cooking and preparation equipment, including refrigeration. Special ventilation, plumbing and elect-ricall supply as required. Salto ry H i s p 1 a y r p p p and sfnractp slial vas . VIEW OUT Desirable
Optional
None
VIEW IN Desirable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
NOTES: Durable, washable materials needed. Bright lighting necessary over food prep-eration areas, and special ventilation required in kitchen area. Acoustical sepeartaion from dining requirt d Moderate
Special
Fie xlble
Na tural
NOISE CONTROL R equlred
None
VENTILATION/ CLIMATE CONTROL High
Normal
Special
75


ADMINISTRATION & SUPPORT SERVICES
Organizational Diagram
76


SPACE: OFFICES 1 plus persons, 1975 S.F. total
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
The office space sizes variy due to the needs of the various users. Offices directly related to the management and supervision of the Center should be relatively permanent. Office space related to conference services and participants should be more flexible and should allow for the users to personalize the spaces as they see fit. All office space should be relate to the rest of the conference facilities directly and located (at least in part) near the reception area and highly visible The Center Director's office should be the main focus of the office network because of his/her role as the major administrator in the Center's operations. Flexible, well equipped preparation space is very important to include.___
d
ADJACENCIES:
Reception Resident
Director
Food
Director Service
. -1 \ Director
Secretary. Assist Director Prep Space
ACTIVITIES:
Organization and management of the Conference Center functions.
Participant office preparation space with access to phones, copy machines, compu-t e r s etc..._____________________
EQUIPMENT/FURNITURE:
Desks and Chairs.
Bookshelves, filing cabinets.
!
Phones, copy machines, computers, typewriters, etc...
|________________________________
NOTES:
The service personnel and participant preparation space should be flexible enough, large enough and well equipped to meet any group's needs.
CHECKLIST:
ZONE Public
Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
Versa tillty
None
SUPERVISION Required
Moderate
None
VIEW OUT Desirable
Optional
Nona
VIEW IN Desirable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
Moderate
Special
Fie xlble
Natural
NOISE R equlred
CONTROL None
ventilation/ High
CLIMATE Normal
CONTROL Special
77


SPACE:
EXERCISE FACILITIES
15 40 persons, 1100 S.F. total
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
Formal recreational opportunities are provided through the various exercise facilities. These will include a dance and exercise studio, wieght room, saunna/jacu-zzi, and lockers and showerroom. The facil ities provide the opportunity to suppla-ment the running and hiking trails available on the island. Classes and instruction may be offered to conference participants.
ACTIVITIES:
Exercise: running, weight training, aerobics, dance ....
Relaxation in the jacuzzi or spa.
Changing and showering in the locker room.
EQUIPMENT/FURNITURE:
Mirrors for dance studio, stationary bicycles, wieghts.
I
Lockers and benchs, bathroom hardware. Special plumbing for jacuzzi and showers.
I NOTES:
Walls and ceilings resistant to moisture | and humid i t y .
Floors of non-skid impervious material or synthetic carpeting.
Provide water fountains.
CHECKLIST:
ZONE Public
Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
Versatility
Nona
SUPERVISION Required
Moderate
None
VIEW OUT Desirable
Optional
None
VIEW IN De slrabie
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
Modera te
Special
Flexible
Na tural
NOISE Required
CONTROL Nona
VENTILATION/ High
CLIMATE Normal
CONTROL Special
78


RESIDENCES
Organizational Diagram
i Outdoor Space
i_________i
79


SPACE: SUITE
1 2 persons, 400 S.F.
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
Suite rooms are intended for keynote speakers or distinguished guests of specific conferences. Such visitors should be provided with comfortable and elegant acommodations Extra space has been included for use as a sitting room. This space can function as a small informal meeting or preparation area, or in a pinch serve as an extra bedroom.
ADJACENCIES:
CHECKLIST:
ZONE Public
Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
Versatility
None
SUPERVISION Required
Moderate
None
VIEW OUT De sirable
Optional
None
VIEW IN Desirable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
Moderate
Special
Flexible
Na tural
NOISE Required
CONTROL None
VENTILATION/ High
CLIMATE Normal
CONTROL Special
ACTIVITIES: Overnight accomodations for distinguished speakers and guests. Informal small meetings. Accomodations for famillies.

EQUIPMENT/FURNITURE:
Bed, desk and chair, bureau and dresser. Comfortable chairs, or couch and low table for sitting room. Bath and toilet fixtures.

NOTES: An outdoor view is very desirable here. : i i | Noise control between the rooms is impt. Interior decor should be elegant, but nothing to fancy or pretentious.
80


SPACE: PRIVATE ROOM 1 2 persons, 275 S.F.
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
The private rooms are intended for use by conference attendees. The accomodations are less luxurious than the suites, but still comfortable and pleasant. Some of the rooms are connected to provide expand-ibility for couples or famillies. The private rooms do not include sitting rooms. The need by occupants for informal meetings is met throught adjacent resident lounges. Separate entry spaces to each room are included to give a sense of privacy. Outdoor balcony, patio or terrace space is desirable. As an alternative communal outdoor spaces may be grouped near the rooms.
ACTIVITIES:
Overnight accomodations for conference participants.
Sleeping, reading and relaxing.
EQUIPMENT/FURNITURE:
Bed, dresser.
! Desk and chair.
j
Bath and toilet fixtures.
I______________________________
NOTES:
A pleasant view is highly desirable.
Acoustical seperation between adjacent rooms is critical.
Adjacent rooms should be able to be connected together---------------------
CHECKLIST:
ZONE Public
Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
Versa tillty
None
SUPERVISION Required
Moderate
None
VIEW OUT Desirable
Optional
None
VIEW IN Desirable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
Moderate
Special
Fie xlble
Natural
NOISE CONTROL R e quire d
None
ventilation/ CLIMATE CONTROL High
Normal
Special
81


SPACE:
CLUSTER HOUSE 4 persons, 1,200 S.F.
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
The cluster house accomodations combine the aspects of the private rooms and the resident lounges together under one roof. Individual sleeping and bath areas are provided, with the entry and common spaces shared among the four occupants. These common spaces will serve as informal meeting and social gathering areas. Entertainment equipment will be kept in the common spaces. A close connection with the outdoors is highly desired.
ADJACENCIES:
ACTIVITIES:
Overnight accomodations, space for sleeping, reading and study.
Informal gathering, conversing, realxing with one's collegues, etc...
EQUIPMENT/FURNITURE:
Bed, dresser, desk, chair, and bath and toilet fixtures.
Comfortable chairs and couch, table, stereo, television, books and games for common space.
NOTES:
Common space should be rooms and serve aspubl accessible to all ic focus for house.
Pleasant view out and is desirable. outdoor connect ion
Acoustical separation between r o oms i s
necessary. 82
CHECKLIST:
ZONE Public
Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
Versa tillty
None
SUPERVISION Required
Moderate
None
VIEW OUT Oesirable
Optional
None
VIEW IN Desirable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
Moderate
Special
Flexible
Na tural
NOISE CONTROL Required
None
VENTILATION/ CLIMATE CONTROL High
Normal
Special


SPACE:
RESIDENT'S LOUNGE 8-12 persons, 300 S.F.
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
The lounge becomes a shared space between a cluster of private rooms. In essence, providing the opportunity for occupants to gather in a common space outside of either meeting spaces or their rooms, and discuss the day's events, relax and chat among themselves. This space is intended to serve a similar role to that of the common space in the cluster houses. Audio and visual equipment, plus games and reading materials will be provided.
ADJACENCIES:
ACTIVITIES:
Informal gatherings of participants.
Reading, conversing, playing games, watching television, etc....
EQUIPMENT/FURNITURE:
Comforatble chairs and couchs, plus tables and lounges.
Bookcases, stereo, te1evision/vcr .
! NOTES:

i
Space needs to be versatile enough to j accomodate range of activities.
View in and out is desirable.
j
Illumination should be combination of I natural and artificial light to serve activities at certain times.
CHECKLIST:
ZONE Public
Semi-Public
Restricted
FLEXIBILITY Expandability
Versa tillty
None
SUPERVISION Required
- Moderate
None
VIEW OUT De slrable
Optional
None
VIEW IN Desirable
Optional
None
ILLUMINATION Bright
Moderate
Special
Flexible
Natural
NOISE R equired
CONTROL None
ventilation/ High
CLIMATE Normal
CONTROL Special
83


SaiOIdN3d

Footnotes
1. Excerpted from Angel Island State Park Resource Management Plan, General Development Plan, and Environmental Impact Report, page 3. State of California The Resources Agency, Department of Parks and Recreation, State Parks and Recreation Commission, Sacramento, CA July 1979.
2. Excerpted from General Development Plan page 4.
3. This section, Island History and Development, is excerpted from Angel Island State Park, pages 1 10. State of California The Resources Agency, Department of Parks and Recreation, State Parks and Recreation Commission, Sacramento, CA October 1976.
4. This section, Camp Reynolds History and Development, is excerpted from material provided by the Angel Island Association for their interprative and living history programs, copyright 1985, by Angel Island Association, Tiburon California.
5. Angel Island State Park Pocket Guide pages 18-19, 32-33.
Researched and Published by The Institute for the Human Environemnt, San Francisco, CA 1985.
6. General Development Plan, pages 116-117.
7. Report and Recommendations on Angel Island 1769 1966, pages 5-Compiled and published by Marshall McDonald and Associates, Oakland, CA 1966.
8. General Development Plan, pages 35 37.
9. The Weather Almanac, James A. Ruffman editor, published by the Gale Research Company, Detroit, MI 1984.
10. Weather in the West, pages 119-125, Bette Rode Anderson, published by American West Publishing, Palo Alto, CA 1975.
11. General Development Plan, page 36.
12. To a large degree the new building's thermal performance will be dictated by the State Energy and Resources Code, which specifies levels of energy efficency based on use and climatic zone. This code is detailed in the following pages of this section.
13. General Development Plan, pages 119-125.
14. Report and Recommendations on Angel Island.
15. Drawings and maps were provided courtesy of the Department of Parks and Recreation Staff.
85


Bibliography
Alexander, Christopher et. al., A Pattern Language, New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.
Alexander, Christopher et. al., The Timeless Way of Building, New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.
Anderson, Bette Rode, Weather in the West, Palo Alto, CA: American West Publishing, 1975.
Brolin, Brent, Architecture in Context: Fitting New Buildings with Old, New York: Van Norstand Reinhold Co., 1980.
Cullen, Gordon, The Concisce Townscape, New York: Van Norstand Reinhold Co., 1961.
Goldfinger, Myron, Villages in the Sun, New York: Praeger Publishers, 1969. -------------------
Institute for the Human Environment, Angel Island State Park Pocket Guide, San Francisco: Institute for the Human Environment, 1985.
Lynch, Kevin, Site Planning, Cambridge, MA M.I.T. Press 1971.
McDonald, Marshall and Associates, Report and Recommendations on Angel Island 1769-1966, Oakland, CA: Marshall McDonald and Associates, 1966.
Raymer, Warner M. et. al., Business and Preservation, New York: Inform Inc., 1978.
Ruffman, James A., ed. The Weather Almanac, Detroit MI: Gale Research Company, 1984.
Simonds, John Ormsbee, Landscape Architecture The Shaping of Man's Environment, New York: McGraw Hill Books, 1961.
State of California The Resources Agency, Department of Parks and Recreation, State Parks and Recreation Commission, Angel Island State Park: Resource Management Plan, General Development Plan,
Environmental Impact Report, Sacramento CA: State of California The Resources Agency, 1979.
State of California The Resources Agency, Department of Parks and Recreation, State Parks and Recreation Commission, Angel Island State Park, Sacramento, CA: State of California The Resources Agency, 1976.
Van der Ryn, Sim and Calthorpe, Peter, Sustainable Communities, San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1986.
86


Appendix: This section contains pertinent information regarding the building stock found at Camp Reynolds, included is: Historic American Building Survey inventory sheets (14); measured drawings; and site topographic maps. (15) The map shown below is numerically keyed to the HABS sheets.
87


f orm 10-445 5/62)
u
M
LU
X
<
H
LU
LU
2
C
Q
LU
O
o
<
LU
C2
>-
<
c
X
CL
b
2
<
2
o
2
LU
X
Q.
CL
3
J
A- NOTABLE FEATURES, HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND DESCRIPTION
i. state California
county Marin
TOWN VICINITY
STREET NO.
Angel Island State Park original ownerU.S. Government original use Hospital present owner State of California present use None WALL CONSTRUCTION Brick
no. of stories Three with Basement.
HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY INVENTORY
2. name BLDG. 82, OFFICE & BARRACKS
West Garrison, Fort Me Dowell
DATE OR PERIOD c. 190A
style Modified Italian Renaissance architect Office of Surgeon Gen. U.S.A, builder U.S. Army
3. FOR LIBRARY OF CONGRESS USE
OPEN TO PUBLIC NO
While erected in the year 190A, this structure's design could and has misled authorities into believing it could have been erected during the Civil War, being the anachronism it is.
Building 82 is one of two such buildings known to have been erected in the San Francisco Bay Area, the other having been built in Fort Mason and now functions as the Admisistration Building there. Both, however were built as hospitals. How many others exist nationally, is not known as Building 82 and the Administration Building at Fort Mason were constructed from what were standard plans that had might have been developed forty years before.
Wood joist floors rest on brick bearing walls. Non-bearing walls are wood stud, lath and plaster construction and the timber roof is roofed with slate,

5. PHYSICAL CONDITION OF STRUCTURE Endongefed No,
Interior* Fair Poor Condition
Exterior: Good Fair Condition
SEE ACCOMPANYING
MAPS
A. LOCATION MAP (Plan Optional)
7. PHOTOGRAPH
3- PUBLISHED SOURCES (Author, Title, Pages)
INTERVIEWS, RECORDS, PHOTOS, ETC.
National Archives, Washington D.C,
9. NAME, ADDRESS AND TITLE OF RECORDER
Marshall W, McDonald, Architect Division of Beaches & Parks Department of Parks & Recreation State of California Resources Agency
DATE OF record September 1966__________


|0fm 10-445
1
z
o
3
u
2
UJ
f
R
z
u
X
X
X
3
i. state Callfortda
county Marin
TOWN VICINITY
STREET NO.
Angel Island State Park original ownerD.S. Government original use Bakery present owner State of California present use None wall construction Frame no. of stories One.
HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY
INVENTORY
2. name BLDG. 68, NON-COMMISSION ED OFFICERS QUARTERS, West Garrison,Ft.McDowell date or period Prior to 1865 style Cottage
architect Quartermaster General, U.S.A. builder Quartermaster, U.S. Army.
3. FOR LIBRARY OF CONGRESS USE
4. NOTABLE FEATURES, HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND DESCRIPTION
OPEN TO PUBLIC NO.
One of the first service buildings built for Camp Reynolds, Building 68 was originally erected as a bakery, and later was extensively reconstructed for use as quarters for non-commissioned officers.
Early photographs of this structure indicate that it housed a large brick oven of commercial size.
5. PHYSICAL CONDITION OF STRUCTURE Endangered NO
Interior: Poor Condition Exterior: Fair Condition SEE ACCOMPANYING MAPS
6- LOCATION MAP (Plan Optional)
7.PHOTOGRAPH
3- PUBLISHED SOURCES (Author, T/W, Pogat) INTERVIEWS, RECORDS, PHOTOS, ETC.
National Archives, Washington D.C,
9. NAME, ADDRESS AND TITLE OF RECORDER
Marshall W. McDonald, Architect Division of Beaches & Parks Department Of Parks & Recreation State of California Resources Agency
date of record September 1966


SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION AND PHC ^APHS MAY BE ADDED ON SHEET OF SAME SIZE
f orm 10-
W
445
i. state California
county Marin
TOWN
VICINITY
STREET no.
Angel Island State Park original owne r U.S. Government original use Mule Barn present owner State of California present use None wall construction Balloon Frame no. of stories One with hay loft
HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY
INVENTORY
2. name BLDG. 69, MULE BARN, West Garrison Fort McDowell.
DATE OR PERIOD 0.1864
style None
architect Quartermaster General ,U.S.A. builder Quartermaster, U.S. Army.
3. FOR LIBRARY OF CONGRESS USE
4. NOTABLE FEATURES, HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND DESCRIPTION
OPEN TO PUBLIC NO
Building 69 is what remains of what was a much larger structure. Photographs taken during the 1880's show it an "ell" shaped building with decorated barge boards on the gables and a large ornamented roof ventilator at the juncture of the two wings all done in the "Queen Ann" style.
A structural inspection indicated a serious amount of dry rot in the mud sills and floor structure.
5. PHYSICAL CONDITION OF STRUCTURE Endangered Yes
Interior: Fair Condition Exterior: Fair Condition SEE ACCOMPANYING MAPS.
6- LOCATION MAP (Plan Optional)
7. PHOTOGRAPH
3- PUBLISHED SOURCES (Author, Title, Paget)
NTERVIEWS, RECORDS, PHOTOS. ETC.
National Archives, Washington D.C.
9. NAME, ADDRESS AND TITLE OF RECORDER
Marshall W. McDonald, Arc?itect Division of Beaches & Parks Department of Parks & Recreation State of California Resources Agency
date of record September 1966
...9
I


*
ir0rm 10-445
*>)
UJ
<
O
H-
Z
c
Q
UJ
O
Q
<
111
LO
>-
<
2
c
H
c
X
CL
I
z
<
I
I
(
I
l
L
1. STATE COUNTY TOWN
STREET NO.
California
Marin
VICINITY
Ansel Island State Park
original owner U.S. Government original USE Officers* Quarters present owner State of California present use Vacant wall construction Ballon Frame
NO. OF STORIES TwO .
HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY INVENTORY
2. NAme ELDG.I43 N.C.O.Quarters Camp Reynolds (West Garrison) Ft. McDowell
DATE OR PERIOD l861|
style 19th Century Suburban Cottage architect (office of Quartermaster builder (General, P.S. Army____________
3. FOR LIBRARY OF CONGRESS USE
4. NOTABLE FEATURES, HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND DESCRIPTION
OPEN TO PUBLIC NO
Built at the time when the first fortifications were placed on the island, this structure with Buildings Nos. hh i U5 were erected in 186U, at the same time the two barrack buildings Nos. Ii2. This whole group comprised the nucleus of Camp Reynolds.
Building h.3 is stylistically very slender and undistinguished being of simplified transtional renaissance. However, it is typical of the style of what was then contemporized as suburgan cottage design.
On the first floor was the verandah, stair hall, front and rear parlors, dining room, library in which Col. William R. Shafter who later achieved fame at the Battle of Santiago in the Spanish-/,merican War, personally built a fireplace viiich still remains. Also on the first floor-were the kitchen, pantry and storeroom. Second floor contained bedrooms, two with fireplaces, bath and servants' quarters.
5. PHYSICAL CONDITION OF STRUCTURE
Endangered: Yes
Interior: Poor & Damaged Exterior: Poor
SEE ACCOMPANYING MAPS
6. LOCATION MAP (Plan Optional)
7.PHOTOGRAPH
PUBLISHED SOURCES (Author, Title, Pages)
INTERVIEWS, RECORDS, PHOTOS, ETC.
National Archives; Society of California Pioneers; Modem Architecture in
"The Home Library" as edited by R.S. Peale, Chicago, 1893
9. NAME, ADDRESS AND TITLE OF RECORDER
Marshall W. McDonald, Architect Division of Beaches & Parks Department of Parks St Recreation
State of California Resources Agency date of record September, 1966


I
orm 10*445
t"
I
<
UJ
LLI
I
O
Q
UJ
a
Q
<
UJ
UJ
>-
r
x
CL
a
Z
<
Z
o
c
LL
z
_l
<
-
z
UJ
X
Q_
Q.
3
i
*
P
4- NOTABLE FEATURES, HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND DESCRIPTION
i. state California county Marin
TOWN VICINITY
STREET NO.
Angel Island State Park original ownerU.S. Government original USE Officers' Quarters present OWNER State of California
PRESENT USE None
WALL construction Balloon Frame NO. OF STORIES WQ
HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY
INVENTORY
2. nameBLDG'S UU & U5 NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS' QTRS. West Garrison DATE OR PERIOD Oct. 1863 style Transitional Renaissance. architect U.S. Quartermaster Corps U.S.A builder Quartermaster U.S. Army__________
3. FOR LIBRARY OF CONGRESS USE
OPEN TO PUBLIC NO
The duplex is typical in style of the period, being adaptions of the suburban cottage design in vogue during the 1860's and 70's. It is stylistically very slender and undistinguished, being of the simplified transitional renaissance but predominantly influenced by the Greek Revival widely used in the earlier years of the nineteenth century.
S. PHYSICAL CONDITION OF STRUCTURE Endangered N0
Interiors Poor condition
Exterior: Fair Condition
SEE ACCOMPANYING MAPS.
6- LOCATION MAP (Plan Optional)
i^>tt*i.. '
7. PHOTOGRAPH
3- PUBLISHED SOU RCES (Author, Title, Paget) INTERVIEWS, RECORDS, PHOTOS, ETC.
9. NAME, ADDRESS AND TITLE OF RECORDER
Marshall W. McDonald, Architect. Division of Beaches & Parks Department of Parks & Recreation State of California Resources Agency date of record September 1966___________


SUPPLEMENTAL INFOKMATION AND PHOTC *>HS MAY BE ADDED ON SHEET OF SAME SIZE
? orm 10-445
c/62)
i. state California
county Marin
TOWN VICINITY
STREET NO.
Angel Island State Park original owneru.S. Government original use Officers Quarters present OWNER state of California
PRESENT USE None
wall construction Balloon Frame
NO. OF STORIES TWO .
HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY INVENTORY
2. nameBLDG'S.A6,A7,50,51 NON COMM. OFFICER QUARTERS, West Garrison,Ft. McDowell date or period June, 1869 style Transitional Renaissance. architectU.S, Quartermaster Gen. U.S.A. builder Quartermaster, U.S. Amy___________
3. FOR LIBRARY OF CONGRESS USE
4. NOTABLE FEATURES, HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND DESCRIPTION
OPEN TO PUBLIC NO
About June 30, 1869, Camp Reynolds (West Garrison, Ft. McDowell) became headquarters for the 12th Infantry, and the Secretary of War on June 5, 1869 approved the construction of additional facilities on the post.
These four single residences were a part of that program. They too are of a simplified transitional renaissance design and are less distriguished architecturally than the officers' quarters put up during the 1863 program. The only recall to the earlier classicism widely used is in the design of the front window heads and the panel design of the original front doors indicated the transition from the classic designs to the early rocco styles as typified in the eclecticism of the "General Grant Period."
5. PHYSICAL CONDITION OF STRUCTURE Endangered NO
Interiors Poor Condition Exterior: Fair Condition SEE ACCOMPANYING MAPS.
6. LOCATION MAP (Plan Optional)

A Typical Single Residence
7.PHOTOGRAPH
3- PUBLISHED SOURCES (Author, Title, Pages) 9. NAME, ADDRESS AND TITLE OF RECORDER
INTERVIEWS, RECORDS, PHOTOS, ETC. Marshall W. McDonald, Architect. Division of Beeches & Parks Department of Parks & Recreation State of California Resources Agency date of record September 1966


SUPPLLMENTAL INFOkMATION AND PHOTC ^HS MAY BE ADDED ON SHEET OF SAME SIZE
orm 10-44S
i. state California
county Marin
TOWN VICINITY
STREET NO.
Angel Island State Park original owner D.S. Government original use Officers' Quarters present owner State of California present use None wall construction Balloon Frame no. of stories Two
HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY
INVENTORY
2. nameBLDG'S. A8 & A9,N0N-CCMM. OFFICERS' QUARTERS, West Garrison Ft.McDowell date or period June, 1869 style Transitional Renaissance. architect U.S. Quartermaster Gen. U.S.A. builder Quartermaster, U.S. Arqy__________
3. FOR LIBRARY OF CONGRESS USE
4. NOTABLE FEATURES, HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND DESCRIPTION
OPEN TO PUBLIC NO
This double officers' quarters was erected after plans were approved by the Secretary of War on June 5, 1869 and was completed by December of that year*
With window shutters, as were all the residences in Camp Reynolds, this structure with its stylized cornices at the window heads and eaves is typical of the frame house built in the West during the"General Grant Period".
5. PHYSICAL CONDITION OF STRUCTURE Endangered NO
Interiors Poor Exterior: Fair SEE ACCOMPANYING MAPS
6- LOCATION MAP (Plan Optional)
7.PHOTOGRAPH
3- PUBLISHED SOURCES (Author, Title, Paget) INTERVIEWS, RECORDS, PHOTOS, ETC.
9- NAME, ADDRESS AND TITLE OF RECORDER
Marshall W. McDonald, Architect Division of Beaches & Parks Department of Parks & Recreation State of California Resources Agency
September 1966__________
DATE OF RECORD


i. state California
county Marin
town vicinity
STREET NO.
Angel Island State Park original ownerU.S. Government original use Officers' Quarters
present owner state of California
present USE K0ne.
wall construction Balloon Frame
NO. OF STORIES TWO
HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY
INVENTORY
2. name BLDG'S. 52 & 53, COMPANY OFFICERS' QUARTERS, West Garrison,Ft.McDowell DATE OR PERIOD 1879 style Modified "Southern Cottage" architect Quartermaster General, U.S.A. builder Quartermaster, U.S. Army.________
3. FOR LIBRARY OF CONGRESS USE
4. NOTABLE FEATURES, HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND DESCRIPTION
OPEN TO PUBLIC NO
These two houses are architecturally significant because they represent the completion of the transition from the first building styles which were still influenced by the Greek Revival, through the "General Grant Period" to the Italian Rocco and "Queen Anne" styles that became popular in the 1880's throughout the United States.
Buildings 52 and 53 were originally designed in 1869 in the Rural Gothic Revival. Side dormers on the front with two windows in each were added at the time the two houses were built and they destroy the effect of the original design. However, the original roof line still recalls the style of the rural gothic cottage. The protected heads of the windows on the lower fir on each side, and the arched windows on the second floor were typical of the so-called "SxiutherrUlattsge Style". Instead of the decorative barge board on the ^projecting gable rafter, the whole gable is cased inland "Italian" rocco paneling and brackets at the side wall face is substituted in a unique fashion. The use of a modified classical column detail on the.front porch in conjunction with the rest of the architectural treatment has produced a restrained design for a period that was krlown' for its flambdyancy in its architecture.
Herein lies the architecural significance and value of Camp Reynolds, as side by side can be traced the development of what was principally rural American Architecture and the changes in American taste.
5. PHYSICAL CONDITION OF STRUCTURE Endangered No.
Interior: Poor Condition
Exterior: Fair to Poor Condition.
SEE ACCOMPANYING
MAPS
6. LOCATION MAP (Plan Optional)
Buildi9gpf^G^Bldg. 52 Identical)
PUBLISHED SOU RCES (Author, Title, Pages)
INTERVIEWS, RECORDS, PHOTOS, ETC.
National Archives, Washington D.C. "The Home Library" Published 1888 in Chicago, 111.
9. NAME, ADDRESS AND TITLE I'F RECORDER
Marshall Welch McDonald, Architect Division of Beaches & Parks Department of Parks & Recreation State of California Resources Agency.
date of record September, 1966


orm 10-445
5/62)
L
o
Q
<
LU
ill
>-
*
CL
O
z
c
z
U.J
2.
Q_
Q.
3
m
i. state California HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY
county Marin INVENTORY
TOWN VICINITY STREET NO. 2. name BLDG. 84, QUARTERMASTER STOREHOUSE
Aneel Island State Park West Garrison, Fort Me Dowell
original ownerU.S. Government DATE OR PERIOD c# 1908
original use Coast Artillery Warehouse style Nineteenth Century Industrial
present own er State of California architect U,S. Engineers, U.S.A.
present use None builder U.S. Engineers, U.S.A.
wall construction Brick Bearing Wall. 3. FOR LIBRARY OF CONGRESS USE
no. of stories Three.
4. NOTABLE FEATURES, HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND DESCRIPTION OPEN TO PUBLIC flQ
Building 84 as with the Hospital, is an, anachronism for the period of its construction because the building resembles one of the big factories or any one of a number of large warehouses of the Civil War Period.
In a broader sense, this building would not be completely out of place if it had been erected at Ostia, the sea port for the ancient City of Rome with its Romanesque style accented by the arched windows protected by the overhanging gables of its slate roof. Yet it is an excellent speciman of an American building with its plain undisguised brick walls with all openings cut very cleanly into the flat surfaces; all of which are indegenous of the American scene and have been one of the basic elements in its architecture.
The warehouses brick appears to be a fine "high fired" brick not usually manufactured locally on the west coast and probably was brought around the Horn as ballast, as often was the case until recent years. The window and door sills as well as the girder sill plates are of Angel Island sandstone. Floor construction is of laminated two inch thick material on heavy timber which is in turn supported on the brick masonry and appears capable of easily supporting between 150 and 250 pounds per square foot.
The warehouse is probably the finest building architecturally on Angel Island, being well proportioned and consideration having been given to the persective and scale of the whole and its parts.
3- PUBLISHED SOU RCES (Author, Title, Pages) INTERVIEWS, RECORDS, PHOTOS, ETC. 9. NAME, ADDRESS AND TITLE 1'F RECORDER Marshall W. McDonald, Architect Division of Beaches & Parks Department of Parks & Recreation State of California Resources Agency
date of record September 1966
4


CONFERENCE
CENTER
AN ARCHITECTURAL THESIS COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, DENVER BY STEPHEN POND 8 MAY 1987
(
(