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Thesis preparation document

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Title:
Thesis preparation document
Creator:
Richardson, Frank ( author )
Publication Date:
Language:
English
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1 electronic file (85 unnumbered leaves illustrations, charts, maps, plans) : ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Spiritual retreats -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Crestone ( lcsh )
Spiritual retreats ( fast )
Colorado -- Crestone ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 76-78).
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System requirements: Adobe Reader.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Architecture and Planning.
General Note:
"Lindesfarne Mountain Retreat in the San Luis Valley, Crestone. Colorado."--p,1
Statement of Responsibility:
Frank Richardson.

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Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
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Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
on10153 ( NOTIS )
1015342390 ( OCLC )
on1015342390

Full Text
Frank Richardson 15 January, 1987
Thesis Preparation Document Table of Contents:
Section 1 Introduction
2 Thesis Statement
3 Project Background
4 Site
5 Programming
6 Climate Analysis
7 Zoning
8 Code Analysis
9 Annotated Bibliography
10
Appendix


Introduction:
I propose as ray project for an architectural thesis to work towards the design of a complex of temporary housing and gathering places for the Lindesfame Mountain Retreat in the San Luis Valley; Crestone, Colorado. The Lindesfarne Mountain Retreat offers seminars and workshops in the study and practice of sacred architecture and traditional and sacred forms of dance, pottery, and building construction.
It also functions as the beginning of a community of artisans and contemplative scholars dedicated to the recovery of the traditions of a sacred cosmology in the arts and crafts, with particular emphasis on the study and construction of sacred architecture.
The Lindesfame Mountain Retreat is located in the San Luis Valley of southern Colorado. This is the largest high alpine valley in the world, and is understood to be sacred land to Native American people of the Hopi, Navajo, Ute and Zuni nations.
I do not align myself wholly with the intents and spiritual principles of this client group as I have found them; however, the special nature of this site and their interest in architecture as a spiritual matter presents a proving ground for the design of an architecture that truly brings life. This thesis is an opportunity for me to work through and within a context of ideas relating to the spiritual meaning of my chosen profession. I have been led to this perspective through personal experiences which I believe have been shaped by my faith in Jesus Christ.
The notion of the study of sacred architecture had seemed to be very close to my thoughts and feelings that architecture can be -literally- alive. I thought that the study of architecture that is sacred could lead to an architecture of the spirit. The question remained- of what spirit is sacred architecture? From what I have found as evidence in the literature and upon reflection of my experience in working for an architect involved in this study and practice, sacred architecture as it is being popularized today is more a work of the intellect than of the heart and soul. It mixes the sources of a variety of spiritual traditions in working to create a body of knowledge and practice that is somehow comman to all faiths but owned by none.
I prefer to work within the freedom granted to me by my chosen spiritual tradition; that of the Christian Church. Architecture is at its source a spiritual matter and practice. Buildings can and do speak of an individual's, an institution's, or a culture's relationship to the invisible. Buildings can manifest a spiritual life in themselves and the people that interact with them.


It is a matter of history that traditional buildings have served to concretize the spiritual nature of places and of the people involved in the building's creation. Somewhere at the close of the European Midieval period the nature of things made by man began to change radically from a basis in spiritual roots. This change had resulted from a great change in man himself; the change of man's perspective of his place in the universe- the loss of contact with God and the belief in the supremacy of man.
With the beginning of the Renaissance and the dawn of the scientific method, mathematics, science, and rational thought replaced man's relationship with God as the basis of understanding nature, existence and man's place in the universe Architecture in the late 20th century shows just how far this perspective has taken us; the architectural profession's current trend of diconnected formal aesthetic manipulation stems from having no basis in spirit. Its outright ugliness is a reflection of culture's current ugliness and loss of spirit.
This thesis is an attempt at working towards an architecture that is beyond the knowable and observable.
Its aspiration is to be above all, a work of Architecture as spirit.


Thesis Statement
Logic is unshakable, but it cannot withstand a man who wants to live. -Franz Kafka: The Trial
This thesis explores the capability of architecture to be of the spirit, to be alive and therefore, sacred. As life itself may be seen as being of a spiritual basis, the earth and natural universe may be seen as being alive and sacred in their incredible beauty. I offer that anything built upon the earth must qualify to maintain and further this integrity and sanctity.
I take the position that to not have this as an ideal is to greatly cheat the sacred act of building. I believe we as human beings have a resposibility to be stewards of the earth; caretakers and guardians of it. We are responsible for the welfare of something greater than our individual selves. The earth is a being with a life of its own, created by God. Architecture can be a means of continuing and communicating that life and God-given spirit into built form.
The site I will be working on is considered sacred ground. It has been revered by the Native American people of the Hopi, Navajo, Ute and Zuni nations to be the most powerful and sacred land of the north american continent. This is a very special place. In designing a complex of buildings to become part of this place, it is of great importance to see that one is obligated to respect the complete grace that exists here in the land's untouched form. The land in its present state deserves the implied loyalty cornman between one living being and another. There is a felt spiritual vitality in this place; a life that is present in the land, that most importantly must be embodied in the architecture of whatever is designed to be built upon it.
I believe that Architecture is capable and has a responsibility to embody this spirit. Buildings, I have found, are living entities which speak; not specifically as with with words, but lyricly as does instrumental music. Buildings speak of spiritual life or spiritual death. Buildings of spiritual life have a presence that expesses the quality of life, the spirit, that has been put into their making. Buildings can contribute to or take away this same spirit; from the land they are built upon, from the individual people who come in contact with a building, from the street, and from the sense of community. This is a matter of life versus death, connection to God or seperation from God, good versus evil.
An Architecture that is connected to God, humanity and the earth is able to contribute to the spiritual life of its


participants. For example; vernacular and indigenous architecture and construction, often able to make do with only the simplest of means of building and materials available, as a rule expresses a native pride and ingenuity of the art of building through necessity. Look at the mud hut villlages of Africa, the mud brick cities of Arabia and compare them to an American downtown. Buildings of glass and steel are more sophisticated, technologicly and materially, yet what of the spirit of the way we build? Is it a necessary evil that as a culture becomes more "advanced" it must let drop away the spiritual basis of building?
Simplicity in form and in spirit speaks to the question of how to build, how to be. Frank Lloyd Wright had this to say about simplicity; from the chapter "The Cardboard House" in The Future of Architecture; "Organic somplicity is the only simplicity that can answer for us here in America that pressing, perplexing questionnow what architecture? This I firmly believe. It is vitally necessary to make the countenance of simplicity the affirmation of reality, lest any affectation of simplicity, should it become a mode or fashion, may only leave this heady country refreshed for another foolish orgy in surface decoration of the sort lasting thirty years "by authority and by order" and by means of which democracy has already ruined the look of itself for posterity, for a half-century to come, at least.
Well then, and again"what architecture?"
Let us take for text on this, our fourth afternoon, the greatest of all references to simplicity, the inspired admonition: "Consider the Lilies of the fieldthey toil not, neither do they spin, yet verily I say unto thee Soloman in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these." An inspired sayingattributed to an humble architect ijn ancient times, called carpenter, who gave up architecture nearly two thousand years ago to work upon its source."
Architecture can be a manifestation and a means of return to the spirit. It is not an end in itself, but a reflection of what is beyond, the glory of God.
I have been taken with this idea of an architecture of the spirit for many years. I have been mystified by it, called it silly, naive, curious, and incommunicable, but I have experienced the reality of feeling it enough times to know that it is what I would choose to w/ork towards learning about in the practice of architecture were I given the choice to learn anything I wished.
I claim no access to a hidden knowledge or proven recipe method for producing this quality of design and dwelling. I personally believe that if such a method were to exist, it would be a false one. Upon beginning this task, I recognize myself to be a true beginner with a smattering of aquired skills. I am relying upon-the grace of God for insight. I recognize the site as a being with a life of its


own and an inherent ability to communicate its needs to one who listens.
I came to be aware of and experience the quality of an Architecture of the spirit the first time I visited New York City ten years ago. This was long before I became interested in becoming an Architect, but I also believe this experience has had a great deal to do with that decision. I thoroughly enjoyed being in New York, as it felt to me to be different from anywhere else I had ever been; a place where anything could happen. The experience that made the greatest impression on me, though, was the feeling I had when I went into the main interior space at the ground level of the Frank Lloyd Wright's Guggenheim Museum. I remember vividly how I actually lost my breath in that space, as one would feel looking down a great chasm. I was taken away by the feeling of that room, not as one would feel a fear of falling, but as one could percieve the potential of ascending, rising into that space. I felt some part of myself then soar up and fill the great volume. I felt a great elation, unbounded by walls. Rather, the form of the walls that defined the space served to help create this feeling of spiritual and spatial experience.
The skylight at the top of the volume is an integral part of this experience; it admits a gentle diffuse light to the space's interior. The light attracts one's attention upward to something beyond the limits of the building's interior. There is a felt spiritual life in that building that corresponds with the spiritual life of nature. The skylight at the top of the structure admits light not as a "solar collector" or a "light monitor", but in a way that "gives back" some of the quality of spirit that is daylight. It acknowledges and gives thanks for the energy that is spirit.
From this experience and others since I have come to know that architecture is capabable of being alive and that real beauty in a work of Architecture comes from this life. Architecture's spiritual nature derives it's quality from the very being of the building. It is not a shell with a skin-deep facade of intellectual aesthetic interest on the building's surface, but exists in accord with its basic nature throughout its construction.
Architecture which possesses this beauty may make use of the most advanced building technologies available, yet the source or the soul of the building does not derive from technology but from spirit and from the relationship the building has to its living environment, the earth, the immediate landscape and to God. It may be necessary to refrain from using some building technologies due to the overwhelming nature of their deadness or machine-intelligence control.


"The extraordinary thing about the modem "life sciences" is that they hardly ever deal with life as such..., but devote infinite attention to the study and analysis of the physiochemical body that is life's carrier. It may well be that modem science has no method for coming to grips with life as such. If this is so, let it be frankly admitted; there is no excuse for the pretense that life is nothing but physics and chemistry."
E.F. Schumacher: A Guide for the Perplexed
The ancient greeks had a word Techne that is the root of the word technology (technology is science made manifest Heidegger). Techne means "making in art". Art is meant here in the spiritual sense; from the heart and soul, as opposed to making in science (which inevitably is a departure from art). Science is founded upon the reduction and objectification of things observable by the senses. Art has to do with the expression of things invisible, not detectable through sensual experience. Science and technology as we know it are unconcerned with the invisible, the things of God.
"Lord, grant us a vision of your being and beauty; that we may work... Without haste ...and without rest."
-Fr. Jim Mckeown; (weekly closing benediction from Mass at St John's Episcopal Church, Boulder)
True Beauty is a concern of the spirit. As opposed to aesthetics (surface beauty of the senses), Beauty is of the soul. Aesthetics leads to spiritual death. Beauty is a true healing force, a source of hope and a natural force of life. A beautiful thing is percived through feeling. Beauty is not a matter of being in the eyes of the beholder; it is knowable precisely through feeling. To make beauty is to make life.
Buildings with this beauty are far more than machines. Architecture, at its best rises above functional reguirements of the building program to the realm of living art. To make Architecture in this way is the making of living entities-beings. This is not a metaphor. Yet, importantly, Architecture is not an end in itself, but a means to raise us up, as human beings, to the glory of God. In order to make more beautiful buildings we must first make ourselves more beautiful.
Martin Buber, a Jewish theologian and philosopher said that there are only two basic relationships: I and Thou, and I and It. When I relate to you as a fully human being, then I am adressing you as a Thou. If I see you as a thing to be manipulated for my own purposes, then to me you are an It.
A being is something one can enter a relationship of I-and-Thou with. A being is not an it. One recognizes that a being is made as one's soul is made. A building made as a Thou would be approached in a feeling of awe, wonder and joy.


From An Opportunity for a New Architecture of the Spirit, the architect Jim Toohey has written that to qualify as a being, a building must be made as the world is made. These conditions must be met:
-The building must have concrete form. As opposed to abstraction, it must have a powerful "thereness" which makes it unforgettable, as a human being is unforgettable.
-It must exist as a manifestation of how the earth is at the building site's place and time. This is the "genius loci", the spirit of place, known from time immemorial. This is the opposite of an "international style". It values every place as unique and concretizes the spirit of that place in the building. In his excellent book, Genius Loci: Toward a Phenomenology of Architecture, Christian Norberg Schulz describes the archetypal landscapes, which he terms romantic, classical and cosmic. He then shows how romantic, classical and cosmic architectures have risen as organic expressions of these landscapes.
-It must be centered. The plan of the building, whether open and flowing or consisting of distinct rooms must provide a centered spatiality for the well being of its occupants.
-It must live in symapthy with its surroundings. It cannot be designed to "take advantage of anything, whether it be views, sunlight, a feature of the site or whatever. It can stand in relation to these things in a beautiful way, which means to "give back", in terms of its form and use, an acknowledgement of of the gifts it recieves from nature.
This is why "solar architecture" as we know it is so soulless and ugly. It reaches outy intyo the environment, grabs this "energy" (actually spirit), drags it in and uses it, It makes no acknowledgement of thanks or praise for the existence of theis wonderous being, the sun. It turns it instead into a technological resource, merely a source of British Thermal Units.
-It must possess a living geometry. That geometry must evoke the Thou-essence of life in all its manifestations throughout the structure.
-It must be beautiful clear through. All parts of the building must be made in a beautiful fashion whether we can see it or not. What is inside a wall is just as important as its surface in making the wall beautiful. Ugliness can be felt even if not seen. Remember, these are not cosmetic issues.
-It must have texture and form at every scale. Slick, abstract surfaces are not in the nature of the world. Detail


on a wall must continue down below the threshold of seeing, just as does the detasil of a person's skin.
-It must have a sense of timelessness. It must be beyond fad and style, into that realm of beauty which only improves with age.
-It simply must be. It cannot be a whim, a joke, a witty comment, an imitation or a reproduction of something else, an expression of a situation or idea, a machine, a billboard, ar anything else of the sort. It must simply be what it is.
A source of interest and correspondence with my feeling toward the spiritual nature of architecture is Christian Norberg-Schulz. "The task of the Architect is to create meaningful places whereby he helps man to dwell." -Christian Norberg-Schulz: Genius Loci; Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture
Our current approach to architecture has none of this quality. The issue of architecture acting as an "existential foothold", he writes, is a necessity for the psychic life of man: "I do not accept that architecture, vernacular or monumental, is a luxury or perhaps something which is made to impress the populus." In a spiritual sense, the effect of experiencing environments made from the "it-world" perspective causes the absence of that existential foothold. As one experiences a built world where nature, material, energy and man himself is treated as a resource to be used for whatever ends dictated by society, the corporation, or the political elite, the connection to spirit and the Thouness of life becomes further and further away from "reality". The real world, as put forth in our 20th century disconnected experience, is not real enough.
From Martin Heidegger's Building, Dwelling, Thinking: "What does it mean to build? The old German word for to build was "buan" and means to dwell. That is, to stay, to remain... The word "bin" (am) came from the old word to build, so that "I am, you are" means: I dwell, you dwell.
The way that you are and I am, the way men are on earth is "Buan", dwelling... Dwelling is the basic principle of -existence... to dwell does not only mean 'to be on earth', but also 'to be under the Heavens'. ...Mortals dwell inasmuch as they save the earth..."
To build, then, is a sacred act. It is connected to the essence of our being and our relationship to the earth, the landscape, the heavens and God. To build is to extend from an understanding of ones own position of being in the world and being under the Heavens. To leave out the aspect of spirit, of life, in architecture is to build for the spiritually dead.


To design towards building an architecture of the spirit is like swimming against the tide of the current world-view. "Do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewal of your mind, that you may prove what is the will of God, what is good and acceptable and perfect."-from the letter of Paul to the Romans, chapter 12, 2nd verse.
Christian Norberg-Schulz closed his work Existence, Space and Architecture with a quote from Antoine de St. Exupery's book, Citadelle that lends this dictum of encouragement:
"I am a builder of cities, I have stopped the caravan on its way. It was only a seed-corn in the wind. But I resist the wind and bury the seed in the earth to make cedars grow to the glory of God."


Background:
The Lindesfarne Mountain Retreat is one of several intentional communities in the pioneer stage of development in this part of the San Luis Valley, Colorado. The land which Lindesfarne is built upon is part of the Baca Grande, a Spanish land grant dating back to the time of the exploration of this region by the conguistidores of colonial Spain. This land has been revered to be the most sacred and powerful place on the continent by the native people of the region, the Ute, Navajo, Hopi, and Zuni nations.
The Baca, as it is called by the locals, is presently owned by a corporation headed by Maurice Strong, the former Canadian representitive to the United Nations. A real-estate development scheme in the 1970's, subdividing part of the land into single family lots failed. The land is now being deeded in large tracts to groups representing the major religeons of the world in order to establish intentional communities there. At this time, groups of individuals from Japanese-Zen Buddhist and Tibetan Buddhist sects, the Carmelite Catholic order, a Vedic Hindu sect from India and Lindesfarne are in the pioneer stage of developing communities at Baca.
According to Hopi prophecy, the Baca land in the San Luis Valley is to be the place where the spiritual traditions of the world will come together. Baca is to be a spiritually protected center of renewal for the human race, while much of the rest of the continment and the world will be destroyed. A great calamity is to occur, when the earth will be greatly changed and many people killed in earth guakes and natural disasters. The source of this change has to do with the earth reacting to the negligence and misuse it has been treated with by modem man. The gathering of the world religeons in this place is supposed to create a germ-seed of humanity that will start things right again, with a more understanding and cooperative connection to working with the earth, according to the Hopi prophecy.
The goal of the Baca community as a whole is to create an environment where harmony among the world religeous traditions may be created, leading to lessen the seperation between cultural and religeous groups around the world.
There is agreement among the groups at Baca that the earth cannot continue to support the present pattern of mass consumption and materialism maintained by western culture for very much longer. The communities aspire to a strong environmental ethic, with each of the groups concentrating on developing a piece of what a culture needs to survive a great change of the psychic as well as physical environment. Agriculture of food plants of ancient and pure genetic strains is a high priority. Non-hybridized food plants, while producing a more modest yield, do not reguire fertilizers and pesticides. The nutritional yield is much greater for these strains than for modem hybrid varieties.


Fertilizers, pesticides and hybridized seeds (presently produced or subsidized by oil and energy corporations), therefore all conventional means of food production are envisioned to be of uncertain supply after the "big change" has begun.
The Lindesfarne Mountain Retreat was the first community established at Baca and is one of several centers of the Lindesfarne Association, a group involving scholars, artisans, scientists, environmentalists and intellectuals. The association is named after the ancient Celtic monastary established on Holy Island in Northumbria in 635 A.D. Monks of the Lindesfarne monastary worked towards establishing a culture based upon Christianity against the background of the fading Graeco-Roman civilization. Lindesfarne endeavors to contribute to the transition of the present world-system to the next era, specifically towards the re-sacralization of culture. Central to the association's concerns are the re-establishment of the traditions of a sacred cosmology in the arts and crafts, with particular emphasis on the study and construction of sacred architecture. The Kairos school of sacred architecture is held at Lindesfarne each summer, led by Keith Critchlow and Robert Lawlor from London and Sydney, respectively.
The sacred architecture studies held at the Kairos seminar draw from research in the practice of sacred geometry. Man has worked with the geometry of nature and the paths of the sun, moon and planets since the beginning of civilization to understand his origins and the structure of the cosmos. Stonehenge, for example, is an edifice which shows that the Neolithic peoples of the British Isles possessed a high level of sophistication and understanding of complex geometrical relationships that were directly connected to the paths of the sun and moon, the seasons, and their spiritual world-pattern. These relationships of the bodies of the cosmos were integral to the Neolithic people's understanding of the workings of the gods; the principles of the created order they were able to percieve.
The term Neolithic refers to the stage of civilization when groups of people first developed the practice of agriculture (before the development of metals) as opposed to hunting and gathering to feed themselves. This is the first point in history when man had enough surplus time and energy remaining from the production of food and settled into one place long enough to develop and concretize a substantially developed cosmology.
The other major consequence of interest from man settling in is the beginning of real Architecture. The geometry that went into the building of the stone magaliths was spiritually based. These were both observatories and temples, with no seperation between observation and reverence. To the builders of the ancient stone temples, the gods were more real than the events of daily life on earth. As opposed to humanity after the establishment of scientific


method, Neolithic man believed more strongly in the invisible than what was actually observable by the senses.
Critchlow's book Time Stands Still documents his and others research into the geometrical structure of the stone megaliths at Stonehenge and other Neolithic building sites. The thesis behind Critchlow's work is that sacred architecture, geometry, numerology and the making of sacred objects have been made and used by man throughout the ages to connect with and understand the mystery of the universe and existence within its context. Man's work in the realm of the sacred reveal the unity between how the universe is made and man is made. Traditional societies have pursued this understanding so as to learn to live as the cosmos "lives", by perpetual renewal.
According to Critchlow, Modem western man is very different from traditional societies in that instead of aspiring to understand the wonder of the natural world in order to live as nature lives- in perpetual renewal -modem man explains the world in terms of reduction; eliminating anything that is beyond the mundane, the everyday, and outside the realm of the observable phenomena of science.
The sacred is termed unscientific, unprovable, and therefore meaningless. The aim behind this reduction is to conquer and master the natural world.
Lindesfame works toward re-establishing the sacred nature of human civilization. Being the first of the intentional communities established at Baca, Lindesfame is also a gathering place for the other communities in ceremonies held in comman between them. The Grail, or Chapel, at Lindesfame has been designed to be a place of comman ground for the various spiritual traditions involved in the larger community at the Baca. It is been designed for silent meditation, a domed circle where groups or individuals of differing religeous traditions may sit in silence.
Of personal importance to my involvement with this project is the nature of the new global structure the Lindesfame Association is working towards. In researching the work of Lindesfame's founder, William Irwin Thompson, I have found that I have strong apprehension and disagreement with the goals of the movement he is championing. The "next era" being ushered in is the popularized New Age, which among other things has to do with a mixing and blending of things spiritual. It involves the cultural change from a world-view or "faith" in science and technology (Wissenschaft) to that of knowledge-art (Wissenkunst) or myth.
I agree that the present world culture is in badly in need of a change, like bad oil in a car's engine but when you look closely, the new age does not have the clean amber color of fresh new oil.


As Thompson states in the epilogue of his book The Time Falling Bodies Take to Light; "A leader of a cult, whether the cult is religeous, political, or scientific, says: "I have the Truth, follow me!" But the Wissenkunstler knows that no one can monopolize the Truth. The truth cannot be monopolized in an ideology, for the Truth is that power which overlights the conflict of opposed ideologies. And so the Wissenkunstler does not seek to turn his narrative into an apology for a new cult or the propaganda for an aspiring class of priests in a new theocracy. As a revolutionary act of prophecy in an age of poltical science, Wissenkunst is a unigue and anarchic expression of freedom and not a new and aspiring system of indoctrination. If Wissenkunst is itself turned into political apologetics, then the fabulous plumed serpent is turned into a monster, a basilisk." (from Merriam Webster Dictionary, a basilisk is: a legendary reptile with fatal breath and glance)
Thompson, in his own words, is advocating the resacralization of culture, through a change in world view and, correspondingly, through the architecture and the arts. This is both an appealing and yet foreboding proposal to me. To resacralize a culture, that is to instill the presence and importance of sacred meaning in things of cultural significance appears to be a wonderful goal; one I aspire to as a designer of the built environment. But to resacralize a culture in a new-age way is to base this sacred nature primarily in the myths that man has made up since the beginning of time to attempt to explain why he exists. It is limited to the perspective of humanism.
This sacred nature, therefore, becomes limited and cheap. Man and man's myths are seen as the measure, much like man and man's scientific method were ushered in as the measure at the time of the renaissance in Europe. Where is God in this proposed re-sacralization of culture?
Much of the mythology Thompson borrows from is taken from the gnostic gospels, works declared to be heresy by the early Christian Church. The essense of the gnostic gospels, and much of the basis of the new age movement, is that man can become God. This is very different from the cononical books of the Bible as assembled by the early Christian church and maintained as scripture today. The gnostics insist that a "secret knowledge" has been preserved in the gnostic gospels that supposedly overrides and is from a higher authority than the teachings of the "ordinary" Christian Church. It is a distorted doctrine that borrows bits and pieces of the canonical books of the Bible, and mixes them with eastern philosophy and greek mythology. The gnostic gospels put man on a level egual to God, at times even ridiculing God. This "secret knowledge" is reserved for an elite group of "believers", those more adept in the gnostic doctrines, as opposed to anyone who simply believes in Christ for salvation and connection to God. The gnostic gospels are far away from Christ's admonition that: "Truly I


say to you whoever does not recieve the kingdom of God like a child shall not enter it." (The Gospel of Luke 18:17)
Wissenkunst, figuratively translated from the german, means knowledge-art or myth. As the gnostic gospels in some way may appear to liberate one from accepted doctrine, providing alternative religeous perspectives, they actually bind one to a perverse and limiting man-centered theology that appeals to the vain nature of humanity.
The reason I bring up this point is that I feel it is important to believe in what one chooses to devote one's work to. The process of getting to know the spiritual principles and intentions of Lindefame's founding director, and therefore to some extent, those of the Lindesfarne Association has caused me to look further into myself to define my position regarding my own spiritual orientation and how that directly relates to my chosen career.
I believe in the spiritual (and therefore truly sacred) basis of Architecture; this is what my thesis is based upon. I believe in the asccessibility of this guality to everyone as I believe in the asccessibility of God to everyone through Christianity. I accept the responsibility of having been commanded not to mix or dilute one's spiritual basis, faith or beliefs with that of other spiritual traditions. This is in direct conflict with the objectives of the new age movement, the Baca and Lindesfarne. For this reason I cannot say I approve of their intent as a whole.
Architecture as a means of return to the spirit can heal if blessed with the spirit of God. May this work serve to heal in the environment it is to be placed in.


Site:
The function of architecture is to create for man an "existential foothold". This is a necessity for the psychic life of man. In the process of creating a building, man identifies with the character of the existing environment, and looks for meaning in it. "The place is the concrete manifestation of man's dwelling and his identity depends on his belonging to places...The task of the Architect is to create meaningful places whereby he helps man to dwell.
"I do not accept that architecture, vernacular or monumental, is a luxury or perhaps something which is made to impress the populus." -Christian Norberg-Schulz:
Genius Loci; Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture
In the design process for temporary housing at the Lindesfarne Mountain Retreat, it is imperative that the architecture be sympathetic and correspond with the existing natural place. As seminar participants and contemplative retreat people come to the place where they will spend much of their unscheduled free time, they will experience a radical change of environment from the surroundings they are accustomed to. They will be removed from the urban areas of the outside world, by space; and somehow from my experience at Lindesfarne, also by time. The experience of being at Lindesfarne is akin to, as Don Juan admonishes to Carlos, "stopping the world". This is a place where the cultural trance may be broken.
It is important that when coming to this place that it be relatively easy to feel "at home" here. As opposed to people being alienated, creating a guality of dwelling is the goal: "Man dwells when he can orientate himself within and identify himself with an environment; when he experiences the environment as meaningful."
The natural environment at Lindesfarne is very close to what Christian Norberg-Schulz decribes as the classical landscape: "An intelligible composition of distinct elements- hills and mountains rarely covered with shaggy woods of the north. Clearly delimited, imageable natural spaces such as valleys and basins which appear as individual "worlds"; a strong and evenly distributed light and a transparent air which gives the forms a maximum of sculptural presence.. .Here the individual is neither absorbed by an abstract system, nor has to find his private hiding place. A true "gathering" thus becomes possible which fulfills the most basic aspects of dwelling... The genius loci of the classical landscape therefore is first of all manifest where clearly defined natural places are emphasized by the loving care of man."


This is the nature of the landscape at Lindesfarne. When approaching Baca from Poncha Pass at the top of the San Luis Valley, the landscape opens to a breathtaking vista along the Sangre de Christo mountain range as it stretches out to the south, parallel to the valley. This is the largest high alpine valley in the world. Viewing its length and breadth from any perspective makes one feel like a speck in a great space.
Driving here once in late August from Boulder I came into a heavy rainstorm as I climbed over the pass into the great valley. Dark clouds were thick and foreboding as we proceded, with bolts of lightning coming down from above. When we were closr enough to see Crestone Peak, however, directly above the Baca, we could see brilliant shafts of light breaking through an opening in the clouds, playing over the surface of the mountains and the foothills of the Lindesfarne site. This was the only break in the clouds all over the valley. The experience of seeing that light over Lindesfarne and the Baca has made me believe that there is something very special about this place.
Once one arrives at the point where Crestone Peak is distinguishable, the visual appearance of the landscape becomes more fathomable. There is a unigue point then to focus on in the Sangre de Christo range. Further south is the wavy outline and varying shade and shadow pattern of the Great Sand Dunes. This forms a boundary defining the limits of the Baca land to the south. The visual impression of the mountain range changes from a wall that defines one side of the valley to a spectacular point within this wall that leads to the destination.
As one turns off Rt. 17 to the road into Crestone, the mountains are faced directly. The spatial experience changes from being in a huge hall of the landscape to the sense of being in a grand comfortable room. The mountains appear majesticly tall, yet not intimidating. At this point, you have already arrived at a place more than still being on the way to someplace else. This is Baca's "Kekai" or spiritual boundary between its inside and outside. Being a true kekai, this transition zone gently introduces the traveler to the place's being.
The landscape's scale allows the sense of place to be identifiable here. As in Norberg-Schulz's description of the classical landscape, distinct elements of natural features-the projections and hollows of the mountainsides, brilliant white snowfields and cornices, bare grey rock areas contrasting with the green groves of pinion pine and juniper trees, all illuminated in a strong and evenly distributed light and the crisply transparent air that comes with being at an altitude of approximately 8500 ft.
There is a great deal of visual interest up high here, looking in the direction of the usually snow-capped mountain peaks rising to 14,000 ft., while'the ground plane is soft and even. The vegetation contributes to a welcome sense of


enclosure as it changes from the open valley's low plane of farm crops, low buffalo grass and sagebrush to tall cottonwood trees along the creek and blankets of pines and junipers along the hillsides. Here the sage and grasses grow taller as well.
As one gets closer to the Lindesfame site itself the land becomes very dry. Juniper trees grow randomly, allowing views out along the road to the valley that is now below and spreads out like the great planes with a horizon of far off mountain shapes. The soil is sandy with many arroyos coming out of the hillside that drains down across the road. The arroyos tell something of what this place is like in a heavy rainstorm. Prickly-pear cactus grow everywhere.
The road is a narrow corridor that leads from the grand room of the transition zone straight along the valley's shoulder and then winds up around a few snakey bends to the Lindesfame site. The Lindesfame site is itself a room of more modest scale, contained on all sides by low "walls" of pine and juniper. There are only certain places as one walks through the area where the trees open up to reveal zen views of the valley. It is not a picture-window experience of viewing "scenery" which becomes common, inevitably losing its quality of wonder due to being seen all the time.
The conference center is the first existing structure visible from the road as one enters the Lindesfame site.
The terraced garden spreads out before it, full of fresh vegetables depending on the season and a great attraction to the local deer population. The conference center building is multi-purpose and presently serves these functions:
Conference space: used for teaching during seminars and workshops, and as the dining area during this time as well as when there are enough guests to move the meal out of the kitchen, where smaller groups eat at the kitchen table. This room is also used as an overflow guest sleeping area.
Kitchen: a large farmhouse style kitchen designed for cooking meals for large groups of people, about 40 at a time when the maximum number of seminar participants, teachers and staff are present. The kitchen also provides a wonderful informal gathering place for people to drop by, have a cup of coffee or tea and talk for a while. I have had some wonderful casual conversations in this kitchen as well as some incredibly delicious home-made meals that included vegetables fresh from the garden outside. (Other food items are bought from the Crestone general store- 2 miles away in town.)


Garden: Directly outside the kitchen, big enough to grow much of the food for the staff and seminar participants. Attracts the deer even through the new fence.
Staff Housing: Private sleeping rooms for staff members. Special guests such as Keith Critchlow are put up in an octagonal bedroom at the high point of the building.
Office space- 2 offices are located adjacent to the kitchen area.
Bathrooms: 2 shared bathrooms each with bathtub, shower, sink and toilet.
Service areas: laundry room for staff members, equipment and food storage areas.
The workshop building is just up the hill from the conference tenter it provides:
Wood shop: a sheltered place to work on small building projects, and also houses the woodworking tools and power tools.
Ceramic studio: Pots and ceramic artwork are made here. Turning wheels and other tools are stored. Architectural models are also made here.
Office: desk workspace, word processer, library, drawing board, drawing files and architectural models are in this space, which usually has a slightly cluttered lived-in appearance to it.
Open space defined by the conference center and workshop buildings: There is an open area between the conference center and workshop where cars are parked randomly. It seems to me that this parking situation takes away from the pristine nature of this site and should not be repeated in the design of a housing complex where more cars will be brought into the site- perhaps as many as 40 additional cars at one time. It would be valuable to plan a method of parking these cars so that they are not as visible when first entering the site.
The Graile, or chapel is just a bit further in the same direction. It is a domed open interior space constructed of intersecting glu-lam members that form a basket-weave filament structure derived from sacred geometry The chapel has been designed to be a place for silent meditation for individuals and groups of a variety of spiritual traditions. It was built by people involved in the Lindesfame community. Two of the builders, Michael Barron and Bobby Troutman are now year round staff members. Michael is involved in administration of the Retreat while Bobby continues the practice of his building craft skills throughout the local area.


In the undeveloped land at Lindesfarne there is a feeling of wilderness. The buildings are hidden by trees until you get very close to them. There are special places throughout the immediate area, defined by natural clearings as the vegetation varies. Tall pines are more prevalent in some areas, low junipers in others and open places in between. These natural clearings feel like a series of small rooms in a great house.
The building site for the housing complex lies to the southeast through a screen of trees from the chapel. It has been cleared, cut and leveled by bulldozer a few years ago and now forms an open clearing. As one walks into the building site from the path leading from the conference center, the clearing opens to face a snow-capped mountaintop due east from the point of entry. In keeping with Lindesfarne's work in sacred geometry, which in its origins deals with the cycles of the sun and moon; this appears as an opportunity to make a- formal relationship within the building site between the entry into the site, the built form of the housing and outdoor spaces, and the mountain. An example would be responding to the sun's azimuth at equinox as it would rise directly over the mountaintop.
PHOTOS BY STEPHEN J HUME


There is a steep cut into the hillside along the site's northeast exposure with a rough existing fire road beyond a screen of trees. This road could be developed to serve as a vehicular access route. Behind this road the land levels off, and could serve as a place to park cars somewhat invisibly. The cut into the land reveals a sandy soil throughout the site with many stones strewn about and in the earth. Red ants are enough in number to warrant avoiding bare feet or open sandles in this place.

The views from this site are unique and very special. The valley draws the most attention, stretching out from the southeast to the west. The building site is a shelf in the landscape that looks out on a great sea of space beyond. Walking out to the edge of the shelf and looking away from the valley-sea, the rough spine and needle of Crestone Peak can be seen above the building site at 14,000 ft. Looking down range to the eastern edge of the valley, the great sand dunes, a national monument reveal their shimmering form of light and shadow. To the west, uprange, come spectacular sunsets from the expanse of the length of the valley. There is something special to gaze at in every direction from this site. The valley seems a great public view, a cosmic setting of;great space, while the point views of the peaks and the sand dunes are more intimate, possibly lending themselves to framing through landscaping and cropping of vegetation in the outdoor spaces fronting the building site.


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Climate Analysis:
Data has been gathered for Alamosa and Crestone. At this point the data is raw and needs to be digested. Along with this data is qualitative information on winds that I gathered from talking to Nolan Doeskin of the Colorado Climate Center of Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
According to Mr. Doeskin, the winds at Crestone are not ovewrly strong in any direction. The most severe winds come in the spring when storms come in over the Colorado and Wyoming region. These are the same winds that carry the sand down the San Luis Valley to deposit it and form the great Sand Dunes at the end of the valley. There is also the effect of the drainage winds coming down from the south-facing hillsides that serve to keep the Crestone area warmer than Alamosa, which is out in the basin of the San Luis Valley.
I intend to run my data through Dr. Donald Woollard's CLIMAT program to get some basic information regarding climate response from that perspective.


eOLAs seseapch institute
cCOLORADO 804QI
COLORADO SOLAR RADIATION DATA With Supplemental Climatic Data
t
Nolan J. Doesken, Thomas B. McKee, and David M. Ebel
Colorado Climate Center Department of Atmospheric Science Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO 80523
(303) 491-8545
August, 1982
Climatology Report No. 82-2


16
ALAMOSA
CLIMATE
Alamosa is located on the Rio Grande River near the center of the broad, flat San Luis Valley. The climate is characterized by abundant sunshine, low relative humidity, light to moderate winds, large day to night temperature variations, and very light precipitation. The average monthly temperature varies from 16 F in January to 65 in July. Winters are very cold, and temperatures drop to 0 F or colder an average of about 50 nights per year. Summer temperatures are pleasant, and daytime temperatures rarely exceed 90. Precipitation is very light averaging only about 7 inches annually. Light summer thunderstorms, which move in from the surrounding mountains, account for much of the precipitation. Winter snowfall is quite light (38 inches per year on the average), but because of the cold temperatures it often remains on the ground for many weeks.
DESCRIPTION OF SOLAR RADIATION DATA
The Public Service Company of Colorado established a solar radiation measurement site in Alamosa early in 1977. It is a part of an extensive network in the Southwest established for the purpose of supplying solar radiation data to public utilities who use the information for heating load calculations and for design and evaluation of solar energy projects. A Spectrolab SR-75 pyranometer is used to measure hemispheric radiation.
A regular maintenance schedule is employed and thorough calibrations have been scheduled at 6-mor.ch intervals (Yinger, 1978). The overall data quality appears to be good at this site. However, there seemed to be some sort of upward calibration shift which occurred during 1978.
Data since then seemed to be as much as 5% too high.


ALAMOSA
ELEVATION 7560 FEET MSL
LATITUDE 3 7 DEG 29 MIN LONGITUDE 105 DEC 52 MIN
SOURCE OF SOLAR RADIATION DATA PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY OF COLORADO
INSTRUMENTATION SPECTROLAB MODEL SR-75 PYRANOMF.TER
OBSERVED SOLAR RADIATION DATA AVERAGE DAILY TOTAL HEMISPHERIC RADIATION ON A HORIZONTAL SURFACE,
MAY 1 9 7 7-DECEMBER 1900.
TILTED SURFACE RADIATION DATA CALCULATED FROM THE OBSERVED HORIZONTAL DATA USINC THE METHOD DEVISED BY LIU AND JORDAN (1960). VALID FOR SOUTH-FACINC SURFACES. REFLECTIVITY 0.2
CLIMATIC DATA -- ALL DATA COLLECTED AT THE ALAMOSA MUNICIPAL AIRPORT. TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION AVERACES ARE FOR THE 1951-1980 PERIOD. DEGREE DAY AVERAGES BASED ON 19A1-1970 DATA. MEAN WIND SPEEDS OBTAINED FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS, 1940-1 9 72 MEAN CLOUD COVER BASED (IN 1940-1980 DATA. AVERAGE STATION PRESSURE AT ELEVATION OF 7541 FEET BASED ON 1973-1977 DA1A. RELATIVE HUMIDITY AVERACES BASED ON 1946-1980 DATA.
iOl.AR RAM AT ION JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUC SEP OCT NOV DEC ANN RECORD (YEARS)
HEMISPHERIC (MJ/SQM DAY) 11.09 15.31 20.99 23.38 2 5.25 28.69 27.00 23.57 21.23 16.93 12.28 10.23 19.66 4
HEMISPHERIC (BTU/SQFT DAY) 977 1 349 1849 2059 2 2 2 5 2 527 2 37 8 2076 1870 1491 1001 901 1731 4
(HEMISPHERIC / ETR) RATIO .65 .69 .72 .65 .63 .68 .66 . .68 .69 .67 .66 .67
COMPUTED TILTED SURFACES (MJ/SQM DAY) LATITUDF. 15 DEC. 17.12 20.99 25.30 24.62 24.56 26.87 25.64 23.77 23.83 21.82 18.17 16.46
LATITUDE 19.95 23.32 26.42 23.86 22.70 24.22 23.33 22.46 23.96 23.50 20.84 19.46
LATITUDF 15 DEC. 2 1.60 24.29 26.03 2 1.89 19.83 2 0.57 20.03 20.09 22.78 23.98 22.27 21.29
VKRTI CAL 20.02 20.55 18.86 12.71 9.9 1 9.25 9.39 10.78 14.64 19.08 20.06 20.16
CL IMATE ****** ******** *
EXTREME MAXIMUM TEMP. (DEC F) 62.0 64.0 73.0 75.0 85.0 91.0 93.0 90.0 87.0 81.0 71.0 6 1.0 30
AVERAGE MAXIMUM TEMP. (DEC F) 34.5 40.2 48.1 57.9 67.7 78.2 82.0 79.4 73.8 62.9 47.2 36.4 30
MEAN TEMP. / * 16.3 22.8 31.6 40.8 50.5 59.8 65.0 62.5 55.0 43.8 29.3 18.2 41.3 30
AVERACE MINIMUM TF.HP. (DEG F) -2.0 5.4 15.0 23.6 33.2 41.4 48.0 45.6 36.1 24.6 11.5 -.2 30
EXTREME MINIMUM TEMP. (DEC F) -41.0 -30.0 -20.0 -6.0 1 1.0 25.0 34.0 29.0 17.0 -2.0 -30.0 -42.0 30
DECREE DAYS
H EATlNO(6 5 DEC. BASE) 1402 1182 1054 714 440 17 1 55 96 294 648 1053 1420 0609 30
II1.AT I NC( 00 DEC. BASE) l 327 1042 899 564 289 67 7 21 152 493 903 1265 7029 30
II EAT I NG( 5 5 DEG. BASE) 1172 902 744 414 153 12 0 0 52 342 753 1110 5654 30
C00L1NG(6 5 DEC. BASE) 0 0 0 0 0 9 55 24 0 0 0 0 88 30
PRFCIPI TAT I ON ( INCHES) .27 .26 .35 .51 .72 .55 1.24 1.16 .72 .68 .35 .36 7.17 30
SNOWFALL (INCHES) 4.6 4.6 6.5 4.7 2.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 .4 3.9 4.4 6.2 37.5 30
MEAN Cl.Ollll COVER (PERCENT) 47 49 51 51 53 39 51 40 38 37 42 44 45 33
AVERACE WIND SPEED (IIPII) 5.9 h.7 9.2 10.3 9.8 9.0 6.8 6.3 6.7 6.4 5.7 5.4 7.4 25
AVERAGE STATION PRESSURE (MB) 7 7 0.2 ; 7o.4 765. 7 7 60 .5 7 7 0.5 7 7 3.9 7 7 7.0 77 7.0 77 5.4 77 4.2 77 1.6 77 1.0 7 7 2.1 5
AVC. KKL. HUMID. (PERCENT) 5AM 78 78 74 71 73 75 84 85 81 76 78 77 35
AVC. REL. HUMID. (PERCENT) 5PM 59 50 37 30 28 25 36 38 33 34 48 58 35


18
ALAMOSA, COLORADO WIND SUMMARY
Summary period: January 1948 December 1972. Summary based on 128,505 hourly observations, generally 16 observations per day from 6 A.M. to 10 P.M.
Locations: Alamosa Municipal Airport located on the SSE side of the city. Ground elevation 7536 feet.
Anemometer height: 33 feet 1/48 10/54
25 feet 10/54 10/59
33 feet 10/59 12/72
Seasonal variations: Spring is the windiest time of year with average wind speeds of about 10 mph. There are frequent periods of calm winds in late fall and winter. The prevailing wind direction is from the SW in all seasons except for a slight tendency toward E winds in midsummer. The strongest winds blow from the SW.
Annual Wind Rose


tCfSTCklB
SUMMARY OF MONTHLY CLIMATIC DATA FOR *** NAME UNKNOWN COLORADO FOR YEARS 1982- 1985 SUBSTATION NO . 51964 DIVISION 0
LATITUDE - 0 0 LONGITUDE 0 0 ELEVATION - 0 FEET
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC ANN
MONTHLY MEAN MAXIMUM TEMP (F) AVE. 32.6 37.8 45.6 55.6 67.2 76.8 82.4 80.2 72.1 68.4 44.8 36.4 67.6
v MAX. 37.5 41.3 47.1 60.4 72.6 80.8 83.6 82.5 75.9 63.3 46.5 39.1 58.5
YEAR 1983 1983 1985 1985 1984 1985 1984 1985 1983 1983 1984 1984 1985
MIN. 25.7 34.7 43.9 50.3 62.2 72.1 80.9 78.0 69.1 52.6 43.8 32.6 66.9
YEAR 1984 1984 1984 1983 1983 1983 1985 1982 1985 1984 1986 1983 1984
YEARS OF RECORD 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 3.
MONTHLY MEAN MINIMUM TEMP (F) AVE. 8.2 11.8 22.6 27.3 36.9 44.2 61.7 50.7 43.6 31.9 22.0 13.4 30.4
MAX. 13.2 17.1 26.3 31.0 38.8 45.7 61.9 51.7 44.8 33.7 23.4 16.0 31.3
YEAft 1983 1983 1985 1985 1985 1986 1984 1982 1982 1985 1985 1984 1985
MIN. 0.9 7.3 19.1 26.0 34.6 42.4 51.2 49.7 41.3 30.2 20.1 11.3 29.1
YEAft 1984 1984 1984 1983 1983 1983 1982 1985 1985 1984 1983 1983 1984
YEARS OF RECORD 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 3.
MONTHLY MEAN AVERAGE TEMP (F) AVE. 20.4 24.8 34.1 41.5 52.1 60.5 67.1 66.5 67.8 45.2 33.4 25.0 44.0
MAX. 25.4 29.2 36.2 45.7 55.6 63.3 67.7 66.1 60.3 48.0 33.7 27.6 44.9
YEAI* 1983 1983 1985 1985 1984 1985 1984 1985 1983 1983 1984 + 1984 1986
MIN. 13.3 21.0 31.5 37.7 48.4 57.3 66.4 64.8 55.2 41.4 32.6 22.0 43.0
YEAR 1984 1984 1984 1983 1983 1983 1986 1984 1985 1984 1983 1983 1984
YEARS OF RECORD 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 3.
DEGREE DAYS (BASE 65F} AVE. 1373.7 1134.0 952.0 698.3 393.0 148.3 13.8 24.8 214.0 609.0 941.0 1234.8 7706.7
MAX. 1594 1271 1032 813 606 235 27 37 289 725 966 1328 8070
YEAR 1984 1984 1984 1983 1983 1983 1985 1982 1985 1984 1983 1983 1984
MIN. 1220 994 885 572 284 81 1 17 147 619 930 1154 7356
YEAfc 1983 1983 1985 1986 1984 1985 1984 1983 1983 1983 1982 1984 1985
YEARS OF RECORD 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 3.
NO DAYS MAX TEMP GTR OR EQ 90F AVE. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3
MAX. 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
YEAft 1983 1983 1983 1982 1982 1982 1985+ 1982 1982 1982 1982 1982 1985
MIN. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
YEAR 1985+ 1985+ 1985+ 1985 + 1985+ 1985+ 1984 + 1986+ 1985 + 1985+ 1986 + 1985+ 1984+
YEARS OF RECORD 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 3.
NO DAYS MAX TEMP LESS OR EQ 32F AVE. 12.0 6.3 1.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.8 9.8 34.3
MAX. 22 8 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 17 37
YEAft 1984 1985 1984 1983 1982 1982 1982 1982 1982 1982 1983 1983 1984
MIN. 3 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 32
YEAft 1983 1983 1983 1985 + 1985+ 1985 + 1985 + 1985+ 1985 + 1985+ 1982 1984 1985
YEARS OF RECORD 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 3.
NO DAYS MIN TEMP LESS OR EQ 32F AVE. 31.0 28.3 27.7 23.0 6.5 0.5 0.0 0.0 2.3 16.3 26.8 30.5 192.0
MAX. 31 29 31 27 12 2 0 0 6 17 28 31 202
YEAft 1983 1984 1984 1984 1983 1983 1982 1982 1985 1984+ 1984 + 1985 + 1984
MIN. 31 28 23 18 2 0 0 0 0 12 24 29 174
YEAI* 1985+ 1985 + 1985 1985 1985 1986+ 1986 + 1986+ 1982 1986 1985 1984 1985
YEARS OF RECORD 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 3.
NO DAYS MIN TEMP LESS OR EQ 0 F AVE. 6.0 4.7 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.5 14.0
^ MAX. 13 8 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 20
YEAR 1984 1985 1984 1982 1982 1982 1982 1982 1982 1982 1982 1982 1984
" MIN. 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8
YEAR 1983 1983 1985+ 1985+ 1985+ 1985+ 1986+ 1986+ 1986+ 1985+ 1985 + 1984 1983
YEARS OF RECORD 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 3.
HIGHEST TEMPERATURE fF} TEMP 47 60 61 71 83 89 91 89 86 71 65 51
YEAR AND DAY198518 198324 198525 198516+198430+198429+198507 : 198531+198501 : 198606+198307+198411
YEARS OF RECORD 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4.
LOWEST TEMPERATURE fFI TEMP -16 -20 -1 6 22 30 45 43 27 12 1 -13
YEAR AND DAY198419 198502 198405 198305 198206 198314 198503+198514 198530 : 198229 198324 198227
YEARS OF RECORD 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4.
PREPARED BY
COLORADO CLIMATE CENTER DEPARMENT OF ATMOSPERIC SCIENCE COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY FORT COLLINS. CO 80S23 (303) 491 8546


SUMMARY OF MONTHLY CLIMATIC DATA FOR *** NAME UNKNOWN COLORADO FOR YEARS 1982- 1985 SUBSTATION NO . 51964 DIVISION 0
LATITUDE - 0 0 LONGITUDE - 0 0 ELEVATION - 0 FEET
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC ANN
MONTHLY PRECIPITATION (IN) AVE. 0.44 0.43 1.37 0.97 0.94 0.83 2.33 2.66 1.76 1.10 0.57 0.90 13.49
MAX. 0.99 0.47 2.71 1.75 2.00 2.38 3.34 4.35 3.11 3.10 1.00 1.24 16.13
yeaP 1985 1984 1983 1985 1983 1983 1982 1982 1982 1984 1983 1982 1983
MIN. 0.12 0.40 0.66 0.52 0.39 0.20 1.60 0.93 0.65 0.20 0.17 0.46 12.01
yeaP 1983 1985 1985 1983 1984 1986 1984 1985 1984 1983 1984 1986 1984
YEARS OF RECORD 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4 . 4 . 4. 3.
GREATEST DAILY PRECIP
(IN). AMOUNT 0.47 0.20 0.72 0.86 0.45 0.63 1.26 1.10. 1.04___115050 0.55
y£aR_AND_DAY198527 198319 198322 19852? 198330+198326 198229 198226 198212 198405 198318 198224
4 A 4 * 4 A 4
YEARS OF RECORD
MONTHLY SNOWFALL
(IN)
YEARS OF RECC
GRTST DEPTH SNOW ON
GRND 1 YEA$
N MON AR AND OF RECf
3.
7.0
15.0
1985
1.3
1983
3.
19
0
3.
3.
8.7
10.0
1984
7.1
1983
3.
20
0
3.
4.
19.6
40.4
1983
7.5
1985
3.
6.4
12.2
1983
1.6
1982
4.
4.
3.3
8.0 1983 0.0 1986 + 4.
19 2 2
0 198619 198212 4. 2. 3.
NO DAYS PRECIP GTR OR EQ 0.1 IN
YEARS OF RE
NO DAYS PRECIP GTR OR EQ 0.5 IN
YEARS OF RE
NO DAYS PRECIP GTR OR EQ 1.0 IN
YEAp
CORD
YEaP CORD
1.3 2.3 4.0 3.0 2.8
3 3 6 4 6
1986 1984 1983 1985 1983
0 2 2 2 1
1983 1986 + 1982 1983 1986
3. 3. 4. 4. 4.
P
YEARS OF RECORD
NUMBER OF DAYS WITH HAIL
AVE.
YEAR
0.0
0
1983
0
1985+
3.
0.0
0
1983
0
1985 + 3.
99.9
999
0
999 0
0.0
0
1983
0
1985+
3.
0.0
0
1983
0
1985 + 3.
99.9
999
0
999 0 0.
0.8
3
1983
0
1985 + 4.
0.0
0
1982
0
1985 + 4.
99.9
999
0
999 0 0.
0.6
2
1986
0
1984+
4.
0.0
0
1982
0
1985 + 4.
99.9
999
0
999 0 0
0.0
0
1982
0
1985+
4.
0.0
0
1982
0
1986+
4.
99.9
999
0
999 0 0,
4.
0.3
19830
0.0
1985 + 4.
0
0
4.
2.8
6
1983
1
1986 4.
0.3
1
1983
0
1985+
4.
0.0 0.0 1982 0,0 1986 + 4.
0.0
0.0
1982
0.0
1985+
4.
0.0
0.0
1982
0.0
1985+
4.
4.4
17.5
1984
0.0
1985 + 4.
6.3
11.6
1985
0.2
1982
4.
13.0
21.6
1983
8.6
1986
4.
1.0
2
1982
0
1984
4.
74.0
100.6
1983
55.6
1986
3.
0 0 0 5 10 19
0 0 0 0 0 0
4. 4. 4. 4. 3. 4.
7.0 7.6 5.0 2.8 2.3 2.7 43.0
9 10 9 7 4 4 46
1982 1982 1986 1984 1983 1984 1983
6 2 1 1 1 1 38
1983 1986 1983 1983 + 1984 1986 1985
4. 4. 4. 4. 3. 3. 3.
1.5 0.8 0.8 0.3 0.0 6.3
3 2 2 1 0 7
1982 1982 1984 1983 1983 1983
0 0 0 0 0 4
1983 1985+ 1983 + 1985+ 1985+ 1984
4. 4. 4. 3. 3. 3.
0.0 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.3
0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1
1982 1982 1982 1982 1984 1983 1983 1984
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1985+ 1986+ 1986 + 1985+ 1986 + 1985 + 1985 + 1985 +
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 3. 3. 3.
99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9
999 999 999 999 999 999 999 999
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
999 999 999 999 999 999 999 999
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
YEARS OF RECORD 0, 0, 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0* 0. 0.
** NOTE : MANY WEATHER STATIONS d6 NOT RECORD ALL HAIL OCCURRENCES. THEREFORE THEEe DATA MAY NOt BE REPRESENTATIVE.
NO. OF DAYS WITH SNOW ON GROUND AVE. 26.7 (GTR OR EQ 1 INCH ON 'GROUND) MAX^ 31
MIN? 18
YEAR 1985 YEARS OF RECORD 3.
27.0
29
1984 24
1985 3.
13.0
31
1984
1
1985 + 4.
0.3
1
1985
0
1984 + 4.
0.3
1
1982
0
1986+
4.
0.0
0
1982
0
1986 + 4.
0.0
0
1982
0
1985 + 4.
0.0 0.0 1.8 6.6 18.3 103.3
0 0 7 13 31 122
1982 1982 1984 1983 1983 1983
0 0 0 0 9 78
1985 + 1985+ 1985 + 1982 1982 1985
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 3.
PREPARED BY : COLORADO CLIMATE CENTER
DEPARMENT OF ATMOSPERIC SCIENCE COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY FORT COLLINS. CO 80523 (303) 491 8545


NAME UNKNOWN
51964
0
Lat i tude, Long i tude, EI evat i on =00 Max. Temp, in 1/10 deg. F.
Year Jan Feb Mar £?5 May 669 Jun Ju i Sep Oct Nov Dec Annua 1
1982 99999 99999 99999 767 826 694 571 449 365
1983 375 413 456 603 622 721 826 806 769 633 450 326 57.4
1984 257 347 439 646 725 776 835 795 738 626 465 391 56.9
1985 346 374 471 604 683 808 809 825 691 606 438 375 58.6


** NAME UNKNOWN
51964
0
0
Latitude,Longitude,EIevation = 0
Min. Temp, in 1/10 deg. F.
Year Jan Feb Mar May 357 Jun Ju 1 Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annua 1
1982 99999 99999 99999 440 512 517 448 308 225 126 30.6
1983 132 171 233 250 346 424 518 514 446 327 201 113
1984 9 73 191 258 386 446 519 501 433 302 218 160 29.1
1985 105 110 253 310 388 457 618 497 413 337 234 138 31.3


*** NAME UNKNOWN 51964 Latitude, Longitude, Elevation = 0 0 0 4' 1
Mean Temp, in 1/10 deg. F.
Yea r Jan Feb Mar its Mav 508 Jun Ju 1 8S§ Sep Oct Nov Dec Annua 1
1982 99999 99999 99999 604 669 571 440 337 245
1983 254 292 345 377 484 673 672 660 603 480 326 220 44.0
1984 133 210 315 402 656 611 677 648 686 414 337 276 43.0
1985 225 242 362 467 536 633 664 661 652 472 336 257 45.0


** NAME UNKNOWN
0
51964 Lat1tude,Longitude,EIavation =00
Total Precipitation in 1/100 inches
Yea r Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Ju 1 Aua Sep Oct Nov Dec Annua 1
1982 99999 99999 99999 74 79 29 334 435 311 24 40 124
1983 12 42 271 52 200 238 201 274 86 20 100 117 16.13
1984 20 47 74 87 39 46 160 264 66 310 17 73 12.01
1986 99 40 66 176 56 20 235 93 244 86 73 46 12.32


CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY
SAGUACHE. CO 1091-1973 38* 03* N 106* 00* W 7607 FT.
TEMPERATURE(*F) PRECIPITATION TOTALS (INCHES)
MEANS EXTREMES MEAN OF I UMRER AYS SNOW. SLEET MEAN NUMBER OF DAYS
MONTH MAX. MIN. fc> tx < t M Z at Q of t ~ *
DAILY MAXIMUM DAILY MINIMUM j O t o£ 11 | £ C sS i at 23 2 > > £ ?! ?! II SI *> l X \ i? < oo 2 > £ 1 it at £ > h ss of 5 > > < O 1 3 o i 8 s 5 6 8
JAN 94.4 9.6 21.1 62 71 91 -34 71 7 0 10 31 4 .24 .2 36 .94 36 17 9.6 12.9 92 10.0 72 09 1 0 0
PCI *l. 11.9 26.4 49* 70 17 -14 91 2 0 9 26 4 .29 .94 49 .99 69 10 9.4 9.7 99 12.0 44 14 1 0 0
MAR 44.0 17.3 39.9 73 71 26 -6 69 9 0 2 >1 1- .94 .69 41 .64 31 90 4.9 11.1 41 9.0 93 90 1 0 0
APR Si.* 29.0 41.6 77* 69 22 9 79 0 0 27 0 .37 1.37 92 1.07 92 21 9.9 10.2 37 7.0 31 09 2 0 0
MAY it.4 93.9 31.2 4* 67 24 16 39 2 0 0 12 0 79 2.71 37 .44 37 oa .9 4.9 9) 2.0 64 07 2 0 0
JUN 77. S 41.9 36.4 *3 94 29 >6 34 7 0 0 i 0 .61 2.96 64 1.09 91 14 .0 1.0 91 2 0 0
JULY US 47.6 64.6 2* 31 7 17* 73 29 1 0 0 0 1.76 9.44 73 1.90 64 17 .0 9 1 0
AUC 74.2 44.0 42.6 If 34 3 92 72 23 0 0 0 0 1.47 3.76 39 1.01 33 14 .0 4 1 0
srrr 71.3 97.6 99.4 II 34 1 11 70 24 0 0 9 0 .9 2.19 70 1.00 61 09 .2 2.1 71 1.0 71 17 9 0 0
OCT 6).4 26.7 44.1 7 49 1 * 63 19 0 0 29 0 2.90 64 .61 69 It 4.2 29.0 72 14.0 72 91 2 1 0
NOV 47.7 16.4 92.1 46 91 9 -12 32 26 0 2 30 2 .49 1.42 72 .44 72 12 4.9 22.0 72 12.0 72 01 2 0 0
DtC >7.* 7.3 22.6 40 60 2 -21 67 21 0 4 91 .36 1.49 47 .49 49 23 9.9 29.9 47 14.0 47 14 1 0 0
YEAR S3.* LiiH LLIL L!!_ III UN " LlL JAN T,r Lii Lil l*l 6.74 LIH! 6U0 Hi JUl 1.90,64 17 j 31.0 OIC 29.2,47, 14.0 DEC HI >l 0
SILVERTON, CO
1051 1073
37 48* N
107* 40* W
TEMPERATURE 1 *F ) PRECIPITA 1 ION TOTALS (INCHES)
MEANS EXTREMES MEAN OFt UMBER >AYS SNOW. SLEET MEAN NUMBER OF DAYS
MONTH MAX. MIN. MAXIMUM MONTHLY f- - at
>1 zL * j DAILY MINIMUM -i X r. i 3 X c r £ c sc r at < ui > > < a at */ II a < > > < C C _ is oo 3.1 Ml 25 o o at < > > < O 7. g X at < £t is at < > > < C ! 2 1 * X 8 8
JAN 94.4 -.6 17.0 64 31 10 -17* 71 6 0 12 91 19 1.40 3.77 92 1.00 92 19 22.4 11.3 57 49.0 92 19 1 o
FEN 16.6 19.7 94. 61 -14 31 1 0 8 28 19 1.39 9.24 61 1.29 61 22 20.0 61.0 99 64.0 32 2 9 0 0
MAR 14. 7.1 21.9 60 71 70 -23 62 14 0 6 91 4 1.41 3.71 61 .91 65 24 20.1 47.3 92 64.0 73 29 4 0 0
APR 47.4 19.4 32.4 64 34 21 -10 99 22 0 1 24 1 1.42 2.43 63 1.04 31 13.1 46.0 57 49.0 99 4 4 1 0
MAY 94.4 27.1 42.4 73. 70 29 4 99 2 0 0 27 0 1.39 2.47 37 1.20 79 26 2.4 14.0 97 12.0 99 1 f 0 0
JUN 69.9 92.9 50.9 §9* 73 30 16 94 7 0 0 16 0 1.29 4.41 64 .73 73 9 .0 4 0 0
JULY 73.7 99.9 36.0 49* 64 3 26 49 1 0 0 9 0 2.72 4.17 37 .44 32 4 .0 4 1 0
AUC 71.9 37.7 94.9 99. 72 1 25* 64 29 0 0 4 0 1.04 9.91 37 1.30 39 9 .0 10 J 6
SEPT 69.9 30.7 44.3 0. 60 6 13 71 14 0 0 16 0 2.44 7.., 70 2.03 70 6 .7 16.0 94 16.0 94 30 4 1 0
on 54.7 29.1 40.0 79 60 6 -6 71 91 0 0 24 0 2.21 *.29 72 2.00 61 4 9.1 90.0 97 14.0 54 1 6 1 0
NOV 43.7 10.4 27.3 49 62 3 -21 92 27 0 3 30 4 1.30 3.21 37 1.01 66 9 20.4 99.0 57 27.0 57 6 9 0 0
DEC 13.3 1.6 16.9 4# 96 21 -10 61 12 0 11 31 16 2.00 9.26 91 1.60 31 10 24.4 67.0 51 59.0 31 91 4 1 0
YEAR 32.6 ill JAN Til.* 0 LIL Lilli! SEP SEP 7.43,70, 2.05,70 Li _L'LL l_ilh IAN HL MAR I Hi iiL-i 0
STERLING. CO 1091 1073 40# 37* N 103* 12* W 3030 FT.
TEMPERATURE(*F) PRECIPITATION TOTALS (INCHES)
MEANS EXTREMES MEAN OFT UMBFR >AYS SNOW. SLEET MEAN NUMBER OF DAYS
MONTH MAX MIN. < si fc 2 4
DAILY MAXIMUS A n 1 18 at X at < C a P is at > < Q O !i 1 12* AND 1 BELOW 1 II 11 b I l 2? OO at 2 > < o 1 if ii h SB at 2 > > £ S 8 o i 8 s $ > 8
JAN 9B.B 10.B 24. 70* 70 23 -22 66 21 0 4 91 6 .21 .91 60 .1* 71 27 4.4 12.0 6) 4.0 4* 21 1 0 0
FEB 44.3 14.9 90.9 77 3* 4 -24 31 1 0 6 2B 2 .20 .94 60 .40 51 21 9.9 10.0 92 7.0 69 11 1 0 0
MAR 44.4 22.0 33.7 6 61 24 -11 60 1 0 A 27 1 .61 2.49 71 1.27 73 16 - ll.i 9B 10.0 *1 0 1 0 0
APR *1.9 32.7 47.0 B4 62 26 7 37 0 1 14 0 1.14 9.04 91 1.94 51 07 9.9 10.0 37 12.0 37 09 9 1 0
May 71.7 43.4 97.B 43* 70 14 29 34 2 1 0 2 0 2.44 9.9B 67 1.49 53 17 .7 B.O 41 7.0 61 14 * 2 1
JUN 62.9 59.1 67.7 106* 6 21 10 34 9 0 0 0 2.40 B .22 67 1.40 66 0B .0 6 2 0
JULY 6.0 9B.2 79.6 109* 6* 21 17* 52 16 0 0 0 2.49 7.40 *2 2.96 69 27 .0 * 2 0
AUC 7.6 96.0 71. B 109 60 3 13 64 26 14 0 0 0 1.46 5.40 6B 4.IB 6i 15 .0 4 1 0
SEPT 77.0 45.1 61.1 46 34 7 21 64 27 A 0 1 0 1.1* 9.BB 73 1.11 73 04 .0 9 1 0
OCT 44.0 94.0 90.0 61* 31 2 64 14 0 0 19 0 .46 4.21 64 1.60 63 14 2.7 >0.0 *4 20.0 44 19 2 1 0
NOV 90.2 22.1 16.2 77 3> 11 -10 32 27 0 9 26 1 .47 2.19 72 .41 96 03 4.4 29.0 72 19.0 72 17 1 0 0
DEC 40.7 13.7 27.2 70* 70 1 -20 72 6 0 B 31 1 1.14 71 94 32 19 4.9 10.0 *9 4.0 72 09 1 o 0
YEAR 43.2 94.0 LILH 106* Hi UN Lv HL FIB ..I o Lil 19.10 L.iLL JUN Hi 4.IB AUfl *' >0.4 30.0 OCT 20.0 OCT Hi Hi LHI l.l 1
ALSO on EARLIER DATES
108


NORMALS, MEANS, AND EXTREMES
ALAMOSA, CO
ALAMOSA AIRPORT
MOUNTAIN 34 27' N
103 32/ W
7338 FT 1973
1 Tamparsturm *f Normal Dayrm days Ram Wf hruo Norma* Enema Watar tquh-sbnt Smew, lea psllrts 1 0) (1 1 11 J3Ct i 17 nns 1 2) 1 i if f! £ 1 fasmm *i* iuoetm to turmt ij £ 0 *! i! t E 1 I i 11 1 > I a h Tamper* Max fixe* M f
A S l J f 1 f i 11 l > II 1 > r 1 l ) If } it > I* i: 1 > if 11 t > Si it > If 1^ i 5 a 1 > l f! I lb) ll u 5S is b2 Hr. 73*1 feet rn.il.
1.1 10 30 30 * 30 30 10 .0 30 30 9 1 10 30 10 10 30 30 19 19 30 30 30 10 >
>9.0 -.7 17.2 62 1971 -30 19*1 1*12 0 0.29 0. To 197* 1*91 0.*7 1996 12.* 197* 7.6 1760 77 61 97 12 6.) *.6 13 to * 2 0 0 12 31 1* 769.3
f A 0 1 3.3 22.1 6 * 101 -33 19*6 11*2 0 0.26 1 .*2 1963 T ; 7 J* Ml 196) 16.0 1961 11.3 1*61 77 3* 31 0 6.6 11 10 * 2 0 2 770.1
n *7.1 1 .6 11.0 73 1971 -20 196* 109* 0 0.39 1. f 1973 T 1*53 1.03 1*62 29.2 1*71 1 *. 0 1762 7) *2 11 6 10.2 9.1 10 12 2 0 31 2 76J.7
A 37.* 2*.3 *1.2 77 19*9 -6 1973 71* o' 0.61 I.60 19*7 T 1772 1.33 1*92 *16.* 1**7 10.0 1*37 70 11 10 31 11.9 3.1 10 13 7 3 2 1 0 2 s 767.J
M 61.0 93.3 90.1 3 1970 11 1967 **0 0 0.62 l.*J 1*73 0.01 1*73 0 6 1*67 12.2 1*7) .* 1771 72 2* It 39 10.7 9.2 1) l*
J 77.6 *1.3 99.6 l 1*3* 29 197a 171 9 0.32 2.3| 1969 0.02 1**6 1.0* 1*69 T 1*79 T 1*79 75 30 26 39 10.2 11 13
J 2.0 *7.e 69.0 9 ) 1971 3* 1*6* 33 93 l |9 J.3o !** 1736 1.37 19*1 0.0 0.0 I* 16 67 .6 3.1 e 16 6 10 0 12 1 0 0 0 776.8
A 7*. 6 *3.1 62.7 1670 27 196* 76 1* 1.19 1.2* 1*67 1762 0.70 1*66 0.0 0.0 * *2 > 70 .1 11 1* 6 n 0
s 7*.2 16.2 39.2 7 I960 17 1*37 276 0 0.71 1.7* 1*9* T 1736 1.12 1*99 *.2 1*61 *.2 1*61 1 ) 3* 6 7 .2 3. 16 3 6 a 0 0 773.)
0 6|.l 23.0 **.l 77 1*6* -10 19*) 6*1 0 0.67 2.37 1*69 T 1<6* 1.27 1*69 20.3 1*67 13.3 1*67 76 ) 1* 67 17 6 3 1 1 0 2* 774.1
N *1.0 11.7 M.9 *7 177 J -30 1732 1093 0 0.2* 1.21 1*37 T 1730 0.37 196* 19. 1772 ?. 176* 77 * *1 77 7.1 *.2 l* 2 0 30 771.2
0 37.1 1.0 19.2 *1 19 J -*l 1961 1*20 0 0.39 l.3| 196* T 1*36 0.93 196* 27.7 1*67 13.1 1*67 77 37 97 2 *.* 1* 10 7 * 2 0 0 11 11 16
JUL iM Sir MAh oc
Y 39.2 21.9 *1*6 93 1971 -Jo 19*1 60* 1 6.9* I.So 1*61 T 1*71 l.ll 29.2 1*) 1S.I 1*67 77 *1 *0 6* 1.3 *.6 1*7 117 61 1) 13 1 12* t?1.9
Means and (xtretMi above are from existing and comparable exposures. Annual extremes have been exceeded at other sites In the locality as follows: Maxisnae monthly preclolcatlon 3.66 In August 1936.
t
Through 1966. The station did not operate 26 hours dally. Fog and thundarstorm data may be incomplete.
Data for Fabruary December 1960 considered In extracting temperature ax t reams above. Data for April Deceadiar 1944 considered in extracting other extremes. Means and extremes above are from existing and comparable exposures. Annuel extremes have been exceeded at other sites In the locality as follows:
Highest temperature 100 In June and .July 1966; lowest temperature *32 in January 1883; maximum monthly precipitation 8.10 In May 1935.
(a) length of record, yean, threegh the cvrreat year valesi s therein no tad. based on Jsseiry data.
(b) 70* and above st Alastaa statlent.
lest than mm half.
T Tract.
. based an record Aer the 1941*1970 per 1 ad.
8*Tt OF m UTMK The east recant la cases af auKtple
occurrence.
F9C9AIU8B \nm DlttCTlCS ftecord through 1H3.
WIA8 OIXCTION Siemrslt Indicate tans af Searses elect* lie free tree north. 00 Indicates cele.
FAJTtTT dill MHO) Speed Is fastest ebsewed 1-1nvte value hen the direct Ian It 1s tens ef .
9 based on aeeeuraments at 6-Sour Intervals through April 1976.


i.
i
ALAMOSA
ELEVATION 7360 FEET HSL LATITUDE 37 DEG 29 MIN LONGITUDE 105 DEG 52 MIN
SOURCE OF SOLAR RADIATION DATA -- PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY OF COLORADO INSTRUMENTATION SPECTROLAB MODEL SR-75 PYRANOMETER
OBSERVED SOLAR RADIATION DATA -- AVERAGE DAILY TOTAL HEMISPHERIC RADIATION ON A HORIZONTAL SURFACE,
MAY 19 7 7-DECEM BE R 1900.
TILTED SURFACE RADIATION DATA -- CALCULATED FROM THE OBSERVED HORIZONTAL DATA USINC THE METHOD DEVISED BY LIU AND JORDAN (1960). VALID FOR SOUTH-FACINC SURFACES. REFLECTIVITY 0.2
CLIMATIC DATA -- ALL DATA COLLECTED AT THE ALAMOSA MUNICIPAL AIRPORT. TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION AVERACES ARE FOR THE 1951-1980 PERIOD. DECREE DAY AVERACES BASED ON 1941-1970 DATA. MEAN HIND SPEEDS OBTAINED FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS, 1948-1972. MEAN CLOUD COVER BASED ON 1948-1980 DATA. AVERAGE STATION PRESSURE AT ELEVATION OF 7541 FEET BASED ON 1973-1977 DATA. RELATIVE HUMIDITY AVERAGES BASED ON 1946-1980 DATA.
SOLAR RADIATION JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC ANN RECORD (YEARS)
HEMISPHERIC (MJ/SQM DAY) 11.09 15.31 20.99 23.38 25.25 28.69 27.00 23.57 21.23 16.93 12.28 10.23 19.66 A
HEMISPHERIC (BTU/SQFT DAY) 977 1 349 1849 2059 2225 2527 2378 2076 1870 1491 1081 901 1731 A
(HEMISPHERIC / ETR) RATIO .65 .69 .72 .65 .63 .68 .66 ..63 .68 .69 .67 .66 .67
COMPUTED TILTED SURFACES (MJ/SQM DAY) LATITUDE 15 DEG. 17.12 20.99 25.30 24.62 24.56 26.87 25.64 23.77 23.83 21.82 18.17 16.46
LATITUDE 19.95 23.32 26.42 23.86 22.70 24.22 23.33 22.46 23.96 23.58 20.84 19.46
LATITUDE + 15 DEG. 21.60 24.29 26.03 21.89 19.83 20.57 20.03 20.09 22.78 23.98 22.27 21.29
VERTICAL 20.02 20.55 18.86 12.71 9.91 9.25 9.39 10.78 14.84 19.08 20.06 20.16
CLIMATE ************* - ft *
EXTREME MAXIMUM TEMP. (DEG F) 62.0 64.0 73.0 75.0 85.0 91.0 93.0 90.0 87.0 81.0 71.0 6 1.0 30
AVERAGE MAXIMUM TEMP. (DEC F) 34.5 40.2 48.1 57.9 67.7 78.2 82.0 79.4 73.8 62.9 47.2 36.4 30
MEAN TEMP. 1'6.3 22.8 31.6 40.8 50.5 59.8 65.0 62.5 55.0 43.8 29.3 18.2 41.3 30
AVERAGE MINIMUH TEMP. (DEG F) -2.0 5.4 15.0 23.6 33.2 41.4 48.0 45.6 36.1 24.6 11.5 -.2 30
EXTREME MINIMUM TEMP. (DEG F) -41.0 -30.0 -20.0 -6.0 11.0 25.0 34.0 29.0 17.0 -2.0 -30.0 -42.0 30
DECREE DAYS *
HEATINC(6 5 DEG. BASE) 1482 1182 1054 714 440 171 55 96 294 648 1053 1420 0609 30
HEATINC(60 DEG. BASE) 1327 1042 899 564 289 67 7 21 152 493 903 1265 7029 30
1IEATINC( 5 5 DEC. BASE) 1172 902 744 414 153 12 0 0 52 342 753 1110 5654 30
COOL INC(6 5 DEC. BASE) 0 0 0 0 0 9 55 24 0 0 0 0 88 30
PRECIPITATION (INCHES) .27 .26 .35 .51 .72 .55 1.24 1.16 .72 .68 .35 .36 7.17 30
SNOWFALL (INCHES) 4.6 4.6 6.5 4.7 2.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 .4 3.9 4.4 6.2 37.5 30
MEAN CLOUD COVER (PERCENT) 47 49 51 51 53 39 51 48 38 37 42 44 45 33
AVEKACE WIND SPEED ( IIP 11) 5.9 6.7 9.2 10.3 9.8 9.0 6.8 6.3 6.7 6.4 5.7 5.4 7.4 25
AVERAGE STATION PRESSURE (MB) 770.2 770.4 765.7 768.5 770.5 7 7 3.9 777.0 777.0 77 5.4 774.2 771.6 77 1.0 7 7 2.1 5
AVG. REL. HUMID. (PERCENT) 5AM 78 78 74 71 73 75 84 85 81 76 78 77 35
AVG. REL. HUMID. (PERCENT) 5PM 59 50 37 30 28 25 36 38 33 34 48 58 35


18
ALAMOSA, COLORADO WIND SUMMARY
Summary period: January 1948 December 1972. Summary based on 128,505 hourly observations, generally 16 observations per day from 6 A.M. to 10 P.M.
Locations: Alamosa Municipal Airport located on the SSE side of the city. Ground elevation 7536 feet.
Anemometer height: 33 feet 1/48 10/54
25 feet 10/54 10/59
33 feet 10/59 12/72
Seasonal variations: Spring is the windiest time of year with average wind speeds &f about 10 mph. There are frequent periods of calm winds in late fall and winter. The prevailing wind direction is from the SW in all seasons except for a slight tendency toward E winds in midsummer. The strongest winds blow from the SW.
Annual Wind Rose


Zoning Analysis:
Lindefame is located in a rural area where there are no zoning ordinances as such. There are covenants for buildings constructed on the Baca Grande land grant property. They were drawn up to govern the construction of chalets that were to be built when the land was subdivided in the 1970's as single family housing lots. That real estate venture failed, which led to the present situation. The covenants still apply and will continue to at least until January 1, 2000. The main points of the covenants are:
The establishment of an architectural control committee and a property owner's association.
Establishment of setbacks on the three types of lots that were subdivided: the chalets, the grants units and the mobile home sites.
Laundry drying areas, garbage cans and trsh areas to be concealed from view.
A limitaion on the size of signs: 11/2 sg. ft.
No wrecked autos or trucks to be left on properties or the street.
No outside toilets, all waste disposal to be hooked up to the central sewage system (there is a tap for this and an electrical hookup on the housing building site)
No livestock, no oil or natural gas drilling.


z-8-
thebaea
grande
PROTECTIVE COVENANTS AND RESTRICTIONS
for
THE BACA GRANDE CHALETS UNIT TWO
THE BACA GRANDE CORPORATION, being the owner of BACA GRANDE CHALETS UNIT TWO, a subdivision of the County of Saguache, State of Colorado, hereby declares that the Protective Covenants and Restrictions filed with the County of Saguache, State of Colorado on May 12, 1971 in Book 345, Page 509-522, are hereby extended to include and equally apply to The Baca Grande Chalets Unit Two, and by this reference made a part hereof as if set forth in full, excepting that these covenants and restrictions shall not apply to Tracts A, B and C and all those certain tracts designated "commercial" on said Plat of The Baca Grande Chalets Unit Two.
THE BACA GRANDE CORPORATION
STATE OF ARIZONA )
) ss.
County of Maricopa)
On this 11th day of February, 1972, before me, the undersigned Notary Public in the County of Maricopa, State of Arizona, personally appeared Lawrence W. Mobley, known to me to be the President, and Darrell H. Madsen, known to me to be the Assistant Secretary, of The Baca Grande Corporation, the corporation herein named and said President and Assistant Secretary did execute the within instrument on behalf of said corporation.
My commission expires; April 25, 1972________


Filed for record this 8th day of 8opt o'clock
/^Gloria Bslluni, lscordsr
PROTECTIVE COVENANTS AND RESTRICTIONS
FOR
THE BACA GRANDE CHALETS UNIT THREE
THE BACA GRANDE CORPORATION, being the owner of BACA GRANDE CHALETS UNIT THREE, a subdivision of the County of Saguache, State of Colorado, hereby declares that the Protective Covenants and Restrictions filed with the County of Saguache, State of Colorado on May 12, 1971, in Book 345, Page 509-522, are hereby extended to include and equally apply to The Baca Grande Chalets Unit Three, and by this reference made a part hereof as if set forth in full, excepting that these covenants and restirctions shall not apply to Tracts "A", "B", "C", "D", "E", "F", and "G" on said Plat of The Baca Grande Chalets Unit Three.
THE BACA GRANDE CORPORATION
By
Pres
...
President
uL
By
Assistant Secretary
STATE OF ARIZONA )
) SS.
County of Maricopa )
On this 6th day of September, 1972, before me, the undersigned Notary Public in the County of Maricopa, State of Arizona, personally appeared Lawrence W. Mobley, known to me to be the President, and Darrell H. Madsen, known to me to be the Assistant Secretary, of The Baca Grande Corporation, the corporation herein named and said President and Assistant Secretary did execute the within instrument on behalf of said corporation.

My Commission Expires: August 11, 1975______


DECLARATION OF PROTECTIVE COVENANTS AND RESTRICTIONS
For
THE BACA GRANDE
This declaration is made this 11th day of May, 1971, by The Baca Grande Corporation, a Colorado corporation, which said Corporation is hereinafter referred to as "Baca Grande", to wit:
I. RECITALS
a. Baca Grande is the owner and developer of real property in Saguache County, Colorado subdivided into The Baca Grande, a recorded subdivision.
b. The subdivision. The Baca Grande, shall hereinafter be referred to as "Development" or "The Development".
c. These Covenants and Restrictions are established to insure the enhancement of property values and the preservation of the ecological environment.
d. The Development is composed of three units, all shown on the recorded plat; the units are Mobile Home Estates Unit One, Chalets Unit One, and Grants Unit One, hereinafter referred to as "Mobile Home Estates", "Chalets" and "Grants", respectively.
e. The Mobile Home Estates and Chalets will be served with community water and sewers. The individual owner in the Grants will be responsible for his own well and individual sewage disposal, which are to be installed in accordance with the laws and regulations of the local and State of Colorado Departments of Health.
II. DECLARATIONS
Baca Grande desires to establish the nature of the use and enjoyment of said real property and to that end wishes to subject it to and impose upon it certain covenants, conditions, restrictions and reservations herein referred to as "Restrictions";
Baca Grande hereby declares that the said real property and each parcel, except those specifically excluded below, therein is and shall be held, conveyed, hypothecated or encumbered, leased, rented, used, occupied and improved subject to the following restrictions, ail of which are declared and
- 1 -


agreed to be in furtherance of a general plan, and are established for the purpose of enhancing and protecting the value, desirability and attractiveness of the real property. All of the restrictions shall run with the land and shall be binding upon and inure to the benefit of all parties having or acquiring any right, title or interest in and to the real property or any part or parts thereof.
Property excluded from these restrictions is as follows:
1. Tract I (Mobile Home Estates)
2. Tract A;
3. Country Club sites as shown on Mobile Home Estates Unit One maps.
III. TERM
a. These Restrictions shall affect and run with the land and shall exist and be binding upon all parties and all persons claiming under them until January 1, 2000, after which time the same shall be extended for successive periods of ten (10) years each, unless an instrument signed by a majority of the then owners of the lots subject thereto has been recorded, agreeing to change the covenants in whole or in part; provided, however, that at any time before January 1, 1985, these Restrictions may be amended by the vote of the then record owners of two-thirds (2/3) of such lots and thereafter by a majority of such owners.
c.
b. Baca Grande reserves to itself, its successors and assigns, the right to revoke at any time prior to the sale of any parcels all or any of these Restrictions.
IV. ENVIRONMENTAL AND ARCHITECTURAL CONTROL COMMITTEE
a. All plans and specifications for any structure or improvement whatsoever to be erected on or moved upon or to any portion of the real property, and the proposed location thereof, the construction material, the roofs and exterior color schemes, any later changes or additions thereto shall be subject to and shall require the approval in writing before any such work is commenced of the Environmental and Architectural Control Committee (herein called "Committee"), as the same is from time to time composed.
b. The Committee shall be composed of three (3) members to be appointed by Baca Grande. The initial appointments are: F. Michael Geddes, Lawrence Mobley and Boyd T. Prior. Committee members shall be subject to removal
by Baca Grande and any vacancies from time to time existing shall be filled by appointment by Baca Grande; provided, however, that at any time hereafter the Baca Grande may, at its sole option, relinquish to the Baca Grande Property Owners Association the power of appointment and removal reserved herein to the Baca Grande. Such transfer of power must be evidenced'in writing.
c. There shall be submitted to the Committee, a building application on forms approved by Baca Grande together with two (2) complete sets of plans and specifications for any and all proposed improvements, the erection or alteration
- 2 -


of which is desired and no structures or improvements of any kind shall be erected, altered, placed or maintained upon any parcel unless and until the final plans, elevations, and specifications therefor have received such written approval as herein provided. Such plans shall include plot plans showing the location on the lot of the building, wall, fence, or other structure proposed to be constructed, altered, placed or maintained, together with the schemes for roofs and exteriors thereof and proposed landscape planting. A reasonable filing fee may be required to defray Committee expenses.
d. The Committee shall approve or disapprove plans, specifications and details within thirty (30) days from the receipt thereof. One (1) set of said plans and specifications and details with the approval or disapproval endorsed thereon shall be returned to the person submitting them and the other copy thereof shall be retained by the Committee for its permanent files. The Committee shall advise the applicant the reason for the disapproval and suggest changes.
e. The Committee shall have the right to disapprove any plans, specifications or details submitted to it in the event the same are not in accordance with all of the provisions of these Restrictions; if the design or color scheme of the proposed buildings or other structure is not in harmony with the general surroundings of the real property or with the adjacent buildings or structures; if the plans and specifications submitted are incomplete; or in the event the Committee deems the plans, specifications or details, or any part thereof,
to be contrary to the interests, welfare or rights of all or any part of the real property subject hereto, or the owners thereof. The decisions of the ;Committee shall be final.
f. Neither the Committee nor any architect or agent thereof or of Baca Grande shall be responsible in any way for any defects in any plans or specifications submitted, revised or approved in accordance with the foregoing provisions, nor for any structural or other defects in any work done according to such plans and specifications.
g. The Committee shall have the authority to set up regulations as to the height and size requirements for all types of buildings and structures, including fences and walls.
V. THE BACA GRANDE PROPERTY OWNERS ASSOCIATION
a. Every person acquiring legal or equitable title to any lot in the Development covered by these Restrictions will automatically become a member of the Baca Grande Property Owners Association, which will be a Colorado nonprofit corporation, to be formed by Baca Grande, herein referred to as "Association" and with such ownership then every such person becomes subject to the requirements and limitations imposed in these Restrictions and to the regulations and assessments of the Association, with the exception, however, of such person or persons who hold an interest in any such lot merely as security for the performance of an obligation to pay money, e.g. mortgages, deeds of trust, or real estate contract purchases. However, if such a person should realize upon his security and become the real owner of a lot within the Development, he will then be subject to all the requirements and limitations imposed in these Restrictions on owners of lots within the Development and on members
- 3 -


of the Association, including those provisions with respect to alienation and the payment of an annual charge.
b. The general purpose of the Association is to further and promote the community welfare of the property owners in the Development.
c. The Association shall be responsible for the maintenance, upkeep and repair, and the establishment and enforcement of rules and regulations concerning the operation and use, of all Greenbelt areas (Tract B), Park areas, and areas in Mobile Home Estates not denoted as a lot or Tract, collectively referred to herein as "common areas".
In the event that the Association at any time fails to properly maintain such common areas, the Baca Grande, in it6 sole discretion, may enter upon and make any and all repairs, or maintain any of the properties under the responsibility of the Association and may charge the Association for all such repairs.
d. The Association shall have all the powers that are to be set out in its Articles of Incorporation and By-Laws and all other powers that belong to it by operation of law, including (but not limited to) the power to assess and collect from every member of the Association a uniform monthly charge per single-family residential lot within the Development. The amount of such charge is to be determined by the Board of Directors of the Association for the purposes for which the Association is formed, payable annually, and provided further that no such charge shall ever be made against, or be payable by, the Baca Grande, the Association itself, or any entity that may be created to acquire-title to, and operate, the water or sewer utilities serving the Development.
There will be no assessment by the Association until such time as the Association has obtained ownership of all or part of the common areas.
All monthly charges are payable annually by the member to the Association on or before the first day of May of each year, for the ensuing year.
The Board of Directors of the Association shall fix the amount of the annual charge per lot.
Every person who shall become the legal or equitable owner of any lot in the Development by any means, is, by the act of acquiring such title, or by the act of contracting to acquire such title, held to have agreed to pay the Association all charges that the Association shall make in accordance with these Restrictions. If such payment is not made when due, it shall bear interest from the due date at the rate of eight (8) per cent per annum. Until paid, such charges together-with costs and reasonable attorney's fees required to secure payment thereof, shall constitute a perpetual lien on and against the property charged. The Association may publish the name of a delinquent member and may file notice that it is the owner of a lien to secure payment of the unpaid charge plus costs and reasonable attorney's fees and may foreclose the lien in accordance with the laws of the State of Colorado.
The Association shall, upon demand at any time, furnish a list of members who have paid such assessment or of such members who are then delinquent in the payment of such assessments.
- 4 -


e. The fund accumulated as a result of the charges levied by the Association shall be used exclusively for the purposes of promoting the recreation, health, safety and welfare of the members of the Association and in particular the maintenance of the common areas.
VI. OWNERSHIP, USE AND ENJOYMENT OF PARKS AND RECREATIONAL AMENITIES
a. All common areas within the Development are private, and neither Baca Grande's recording of the plat nor any other act of Baca Grande with respect to the plat, shall be construed as a dedication to the public, but rather all such common areas shall be for the use and enjoyment of members or associate members of the Baca Grande Property Owners Association, to residents of rental properties, other classifications of persons as may be designated by the Baca Grande, and to the guests of such members of the Association or other residents of the Development who qualify for the use and enjoyment of the facilities.
b. The ownership of all recreational facilities within the Development shall be in Baca Grande or its designee, however, Baca Grande may convey or otherwise transfer any or all of the facilities to the Baca Grande Property Owners Association and such conveyance shall be accepted by it, provided it is free
and clear of all financial encumbrances.
VII. EASEMENTS
The lots are subject to easements as shown on the recorded plat.
VIII. LAND USE
a. The common areas shall forever remain open and clear for the enjoyment of all owners of the Development provided however, that equestrian travel in the Chalets shall not be permitted within 75 feet of a Chalets lot.
b. No equestrian travel will be permitted within the Mobile Home Estates.
c. There shall be no resubdivision of any lot.
d. Set back lines.
(1) The minimum front set back line in the Chalets shall be 25 feet.
The minimum side line setback shall be 10 feet. The minimum rear set back shall be 15 feet. All set backs are from the lot line. Provided, however, that the Committee may grant a waiver to these requirements in the event that rigid adherence to these set backs would work undue hardship on the owner.
(2) The minimum front set back line in the Grants Unit shall be 35 feet. The minimum side line setbacks shall be 25 feet. The minimum rear line set back line shall be 20 feet in addition to any easement shown. All set backs are from the lot line. Provided, however, that the Committee may grant a waiver
- 5 -


to these requirements in the event that rigid adherence to these set backs would work undue hardship on the owner.
(3) The minimum front setback on the Mobile Home Estates shall be 20 feet. The minimum side line setbacks shall be 10 feet. The minimum rear setback shall be 15 feet. All setbacks shall be from the lot line. Provided, however, that the Committee may grant a waiver in special cases where strict adherence to these set back requirements would work an undue hardship on an owner.
(4) The minimum sizes of homes constructed in Chalets and Grants shall be 900 square feet under roof.
(5) Minimum requirements for Mobile Home Estates must meet specifications as approved by Environmental and Architectural Control Committee.
e. Parking. Each lot in the Chalet and Grant Units shall provide for onsite parking of a minimum of two automobiles, with provisions for at least one onsite automobile parking space in the Mobile Home Estates.
f. General restrictions. The following general prohibitions and requirements shall prevail as to the construction or activities conducted on any lot
in the Development.
(1) Laundry drying yards shall be screened from view from the streets, neighbors or common areas.
(2) Outdoor lighting shall be controlled so that they are not offensive. No direct view of the source of light by adjoining owners except for very low candle power night lights shall be permitted. Unusual lighting that may create a nuisance to another is prohibited.
(3) Garbage cans and trash areas on lots shall be concealed from view from the streets, neighbors and common areas.
(4) Signs. Except as otherwise provided, no sign in excess of one and one-half square feet in area shall be permitted on a purchased lot. Only one real estate sign for resale or otherwise may be displayed on a purchased lot. Nothing in this provision restricts The Baca Grande Corporation from placing signs for sale, construction, safety or otherwise prior to the full sale of all lots in a unit. Signs required by law are acknowledged. The Committee may waive this requirement where in its opinion the public health or safqty is concerned, such as a sign for a Doctor's home or other emergency facilities.
(5) No owner of a lot shall be permitted to store wrecked vehicles (automobiles or trucks) on a lot or any street.
(6) No outside toilet shall be constructed on any lot. Any well or septic facilities in the Grants shall comply with all requirements of the Health Department of the State of Colorado and other governmental agencies having jurisdiction thereof. All plumbing fixtures, dishwashers or toilets shall be connected to the central sewage system, or individual septic systems as permitted above.
- 6 -


(7) No temporary house, trailer, tent, garage, or other outbuilding shall be placed or erected on any lot, provided, however, that the Committee may grant permission for any such temporary structure for storage of materials during construction. No such temporary structures as may be approved shall be used at any time as a dwelling place. This provision may be waived by the Committee, at its sole discretion, as to Mobile Home Estates.
(8) Once construction of improvements is started on any lot, the improvements must be substantially completed in accordance with plans and specifications, as approved, within six (6) months from commencement.
(9) No residence shall be occupied until the same has been substantially completed in accordance with its plans and specifications.
(10) All structures constructed or placed on any lot shall be constructed with a substantial quantity of new material. No mobile homes or trailers shall be located in the Grants or the Chalets.
(11) No animals or livestock of any description, except a reasonable number of usual household pets, shall be kept on any lot other than lots in the Grants, where horses for personal use are allowed.
(12) Every tank for the storage of fuel installed outside any building in the Development shall be either buried below the surface of the ground or screened to the satisfaction of the Committee by fencing or shrubbery. Every outdoor receptacle for ashes, trash, rubbish or garbage shall be installed underground, screened or so placed and kept as not to be visible from any street or common areas within the Development at any time except during refuse collections.
(13) All lots, whether occupied or unoccupied, and any improvements placed thereon, shall at all times be maintained in such manner as to prevent their becoming unsightly by unattractive growth on such lot or the accumulation of rubbish or debris thereon.
(14) No noxious, offensive or illegal activities shall be carried on any lot nor shall anything be done on any lot that shall be or become an unreasonable annoyance or nuisance to the neighborhood.
(15) Any owner that creates a nuisance or violates the accepted principles of ecological preservation while using any common areas provided for the mutual enjoyment of all owners may be enjoined from using these common areas.
(16) No oil or natural gas drilling, refining, .quarrying or mining operations of any kind shall be permitted upon or in any lot and no derrick or other structure designed for use in boring for oil or natural gas shall be erected, maintained or permitted on any lot.
(17) Any dwelling or outbuilding on any lot in the Development which may be destroyed in whole or in part by fire, windstorm or for any other cause, or Act of God must be rebuilt or all debris removed and the lot restored to a sightly condition with reasonable promptness, provided, however, that in no event shall such debris remain longer than sixty (60) days.
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(18) No trash, ashes, garbage or other refuse shall be dumped or stored or accumulated on any lot or be thrown into or left on any of the common areas in the Development.
IX. VARIANCES
The Committee may allow reasonable variances and adjustments of these Restrictions in order to overcome practical difficulties and prevent unnecessary hardships in the application of the provisions contained herein; provided, however, that such is done in conformity with the intent and purposes hereof and provided also that in every instance such variance or adjustment will not be materially detrimental or injurious to other property or improvements in the Development.
X. INCLUSION OF ADDITIONAL SUBDIVISIONS
Declarant may, from time to time, and'in its sole discretion, make subject to restrictions substantially the same as those set forth herein, additional subdivisions. Such additional subdivisions shall be subjected to such restrictions upon the recordation thereof in the appropriate records of Saguache County, Colorado. Such restrictions shall be substantially the same as those contained herein, provided, however, that:
(1) Such restrictions may impose additional limitations upon the property subject thereto.
(2) Such restrictions shall not discriminate against lot owners whose property is included in an existing subdivision already subject to restrictions.
(3) Lot owners in such additional subdivisions shall become members of the Association in the same manner herein provided and shall have the same privileges, obligations and responsibilities as set forth herein.
XI. REMEDIES
a. The Association, the Committee or any party to whose benefit these Restrictions inure, including the Baca Grande, its successors and assigns, may proceed at law or in equity to prevent the occurrence, continuation or violation of any of these Restrictions; provided, however, that it is expressly understood that neither Baca Grande, the Committee, nor the Association shall be liable for damages of any kind to any part for failing to either abide by, enforce, or carry out any of these Restrictions.
b. No delay or failure on the part of an aggrieved party to invoke an available remedy set forth above with respect to a violation of any of these Restrictions shall be held to be a waiver by that party of (or an estoppel of that party to assert) any right available to him upon the recurrence or continuation of said violation or the occurrence of a different violation.
I
- 8 -


c. Provided, however, that any breach of these Restrictions shall not defeat or affect the lien of any mortgage or deed of trust made in good faith and for value, but all of these Restrictions shall be binding upon any owner whose title is acquired by foreclosure or otherwise.
XII. GRANTEES ACCEPTANCE
a. The Grantee of any lot subject to the coverage of these Restrictions by acceptance of a deed conveying title thereto, or the execution of a contract for the purchase thereof, whether from Baca Grande or a subsequent owner of such lot, shall accept such deed or contract upon and subject to each and all of these Restrictions and the agreements herein contained, and also the jurisdiction, rights and powers of Baca Grande, the Committee and of the Association and by such acceptance shall for himself, his heirs, personal representatives, successors and assigns covenant, consent and agree to and with Baca Grande, the Committee, the Association and to and with the grantees and subsequent owners of each of the lots within the Development to keep, observe, comply with and perform said Restrictions and agreements.
b. Each such grantee also agrees, by such acceptance, to assume, as against Baca Grande, its successors or assigns, all the risks and hazards of ownership or occupancy attendant to such lot, including but not limited to its proximity to common areas.
XIII. SEVERABILITY
Every one of the Restrictions is hereby declared to be independent of, and severable from the rest of the Restrictions and of and from every other one of the Restrictions and of and from every combination of the Restrictions. Therefore, if any of the Restrictions shall be held to be invalid or to be unenforceable, that holding shall be without effect upon the validity or enforceability, of any other one of the Restrictions.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Baca Grande has executed this Declaration on the day and year first above written.
STATE OF ARIZONA )
) ss.
County of Maricopa )
This instrument was acknowledged before me this 11th day of May, 1971 by Lawrence W. Mobley as Vice President of The Baca Grande Corporation.
THE BACA GRANDE CORPORATION
My commission expires:


Project Home: ( y|UpgSP/£Ug. VlU/Mfc HettSIMQ-Location: _CJ^C^KOyi& j G&%___________
Applicable Zoning Ordinance: k)QKJB ^
Zoning Check By: ____i^12AU fc-*
Dote: II/gQ
Section Page Item __'_______ ______ Proposed uses
Present Zoning Classification Applicable Aliev able Uses ___
Zone Change Required? Minimum Lot Size
area: ___________________
vidth: __________________
Minimum Yard Requirements
front: _____________________
1


rear:
side: __________________
both sides: ____________
allowances for overhangs:
Maximum FAS ____________
Available Bonuses ______
Maximum Height
feet: ___________
stories: ________
Bulk Planes _____
Offstreet Parking
rqd. spaces by use: .
rqd spaces for project: _________
parking permitted in setbacks?:
2


Open Space Requirements
Landscaping Rqmts.
Fences __________
Sign Restrictions
Other Special Requirements
3


Annotated Bibliography
1. Norberg-Schulz, Christian; Existence, Space and Architecture; Praeger Publishers, New York, 1971.
Describes basic origins of western thought regarding the concept and meaning of space, beginning with the Greek philosophers. Goes on to look into current understanding of concrete, existential, and architectural space.
2. Norberg-Schulz, Christian; Genius Loci:Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture; Academy Editions, London, 1980.
Investigates symbolic and psychic needs of man relative to landscape, location and character of immediate natural environment, hew architecture traditionally is made to correspond with the feelings evoked by a place, thereby providing for man an "existential foothold". This work is a strong argument against the notion of Architecture being arbitrary, a luxury or something "to impress the populus" (Rapoport).
3. Heidegger, Martin; Basic Writings; Harper and Row, New York; 1977.
Article of interest is a lecture presented to the Darmstadt symposium on Man and Space on August 5, 1951, Bauen, Wohnen, Denken (Building, Dwelling, Thinking). The lecture talks about the essence of building, philosophically speaking. Important points are the meaning of dwelling, and the greek concept of techne (to make something appear). "Spaces recieve their being from location and not from 'space'(Heidegger).
4. Critchlow, Keith; Time Stands Still; St. Martin's Press for the Lindesfame Association, 1982.
Central topic is the stone temples and megaliths of British Isles, tying in the proportions and geometries of sacred architecture. Specifcally relative to my thesis is the connection made between the stone monoliths and a practice of Shamanism that crosses cultural boundaries from Siberia, North and South America, Indonesia, and the Pacific Islands.
5. Doczi, Gyorgi; The Power of Limits: Proportional Harmonies in Nature, Art and Achitecture; Shambala Publications, Inc., Boulder, Colorado; 1981.
Lays a groundwork for describing visually the connection between proportions of form and growth of plants, she1fish, amphibians and mammals, the human body, craft and artwork, and Architecture world^wide. The comman link between these forms and their proportions is the golden


section, a fundamental part of the proportioning system of sacred architecture.
6. Bognar, Botand; Contemporary Japanese Architecture: Its Development and Challenge; Van Nostrand Reinhold Company; 1985.
Explains the japanese spatial concept, how the japanese deal with space in Architecture Landscape Architecture and and Interior Design. The use of this information is to contrast with western concepts of space, thereby defining this further, and to offer as a hypothesis something of a blending of east and west in the thesis project. The book goes on to cover the modem, post modem and new-wave movements of Architecture in Japan and to explain the theoretical bases of each of these movements as they relate to the culture of present-day Japan. There is an evidence of blending in the materials and spatial concepts of present-day japanese architecture, perhaps giving evidence to a reason for blending spatial concepts in my thesis.
7. E.F. Schumacher; A Guide for the Perplexed; Harper & Row; New York; 1977.
Gives a basis for the idea that the scientific world view is missing the point of what life is about; that it explains life by means that are inappropriate and misleading. Provides an explaination of the reasoning behind the idea that the spiritual dimension of life is real and more important than what may be measured by the sense's direct observation.
8. Meeting with Mrs. Hanne Strong at Boulder College public gathering, 11/12/1986 and a meeting in a private home in Boulder the following evening as a follow up .
Provided background information on the Baca Grande Land Grant as a whole, the intentional communities being formed there and the theoretical and spiritual basis the Baca community as a whole.
9. Thompson, William Irwin; The Time Falling Bodies Take to Light; St. Martin's Press; New York; 1981.
Written by the cultural-historian founder of the Lindesfarne Association, this work gives insight to the underlying principles of what Lindesfarne is committed to working towards as the new "world order".
10. Pagels, Elaine; The Gnostic Gospels; Random House; New York; 1979
An explaination of the history of the texts of th6 gnostic gospels, explaining their background in the history of Christianity; why they were denounced by the church as heresy, and speculation as to the reasons for their being written. Talks much about the persons involved in the early Christian church and the gnostic religeon.


11. Lobe11, John; Between Silence and Light; Spirit in the Architecture of Louis Kahn; Shambala Press; Boulder, Colorado; 1979.
An illustrated text that is forthright in discussing the spiritual nature of the work of Louis Kahn.
12. Toohey, Jim; An Opportunity for a New Architecture of the Spirit; Acacia Publications; Washington D.C.; 1984.
This booklet has provided a concretization of many of the ideas central to this thesis. It was written by my thesis advisor as a proposal of an approach to design management center environments for a nationally based management consultant firm.
13. Several authors named and unnamed; Holy Bible, Revised Standard version; Thomas Nelson and Sons, New York for the Massachusetts Bible Society, Boston 8, Massachusetts.
As directly related to this thesis,the Bible has provided guidance and reference to aid in discerning the fundamental and widespread differences between the scripture and the false doctrine of the gnostic gospels.
14. Wright, Frank Lloyd; The Future of Architecture; Horizon Press; New York; 1953
This book, is a great inspiration for working towards an architecture of life and spirit, an organic architecture as Mr. Wright referred to it. My quote from this book's chapter "The Cardboard House" discusses the importance of simplicity in architecture that is alive, drawing on the Bible as its text of reference.


3MSL31MS @3133 SiESS
Project None:___f \/lUAOE froiSI^&
Locotioo:_______b^a &smce, a?.
Applicable Code Name-_ U'lhC____________n?sz %&.___________________
Code Check By-_ -fzAut -Zi/amsruu. Date:. )£/t/e^
Section Pete
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Item
Fire zone
Occupancy classification
n/a
Principle fcr3 1^10^1^/
Others (specify) A* 3_______A&G&1&LM___________________________n/a

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Occupancy separations required.
to A 3* - I h'C hours
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to - hours
to - hours
to - hours
Changes in occupancy
Ufk.
Maximum allowable floor area iJWuffl Ito
If adjacent to open area on tvo or more sides
If over one story_ __uumr&o_______

If sprinklered_____1______________
' n/ft
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Feet________________________
3 stoti&s
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n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
Towers, spires, steeples ^
Fire resistance of exterior vails (see occupancy & construction
North 1)3 I^Q-F^W HUE fJjft
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South East West .

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Setbacks requiring protection of openings in exterior walls North fJOUTL
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East____
West____
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Location within city/ location on property (JkZAT£*2._n/a
A eZITA- nil* took, footf AWPeoP UtM.
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Use of Public Property
n/a
Doors prohibited from swinging into city property?. Restrictions on marquees, conopies, etc. ____________
Other projections.
Windows required in 'j'* ^n/a
Window area
VHP ITT. ^
A \ Enclosed or semi-enclosed courts size rqd
iq^uUT.
^ A-2>
Ventilation requirements____l /^
_____________________ntft s 4__________________
Minimum ceiling heights in rooms
*12- autcrffi&Z) f7
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Minimum floor are* of rooms (kti.£)5o4 loj
Fire resistive requirement* l^JOUfL_______________
C&wr lanutt
n/a
n/a
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
n/a
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
hrs
Exits log A=sEnetjQ_____________
^ 2.SO .,TTAt
Occupancy ______ Basis_________ Actual Load
<2, fcAlT<
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SEA- 5^03 S£<^o^_
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Number of exits required
i
_____________________Z. Yf# &>WooP-* jgQ^
_____________________QE tesip^T\ftu autrS 1^
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Minimum width of exits 56"'^2,_______________
n/a
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Exit separation arrangement ^ L^\^tC\ oh C0l2^ot\*i n/a
Maximum allowable travel distance to exit With sprinklers__________________________
\^o'
n/a
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n/a
> ^4% Exit doors
-OAC- fbolv\ V\g? <^tAjy^Agsr n/a
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Minimum width & height 3? X Ca p Maximum leaf width ___4**^
.5^
Width required for number of occupants ^_______
_______________________________________^'3
Swing----------------------------------^------------------
Change in floor level at door A/of floPZ- ^ ffl££SljoL{)
'-po JB-iro&jG-
Exit Corridors____________________________________________ n/a
Required width HlV^W OCc -lo?~t ^Z-\Q___________
Required height 7 O
Dead end corridors length
4
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330 6 5-57
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330

33^6 ssv
33o6 S^
33?* (A.)
3306 55^
3306 tT:T2>
Openings VtSflO ^ Pll&3. AfWx>\JttO MfZ&O&t^SS /V%TttC
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Stairs________________________________________________ n/a
Min. width

*6

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occ. load of occ. load of occ. load of occ. load of
SO
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to (prit/a-te)
il
,/j
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Maximum riser allowed ~Tl4&UC'--fl-Z____-^- Tt______n/a
Minimum tread allowed A'S- lO_______^_______________n/a
Winding, circular, spiral stairs *£~3 0**-*^ ;_72. T££&P n/a
_______________________rfeAsaeg*? Pftoh cjuL or sr4/£
Landings IDZJPTW &3Uau T& U4/3TH <* n/a
Minimum width rqd. UfUTU &? St^/2,_______________
Maximum width rqd. _______________________________
Vertical distance between landings Handicap refuge space ______________
/Z' n4<
Lijk
n/a
Stair to basement restrictions TS&TUG2K) L4pfiPvu*j fl/a
Stair enclosure rqd.?
/
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n/a
n/a
Rqd. at each side? ** Sfft/g jf fjhjggS Intermediate rails rqd.? NO
Max. width between interior rails
3? 3? A Owe u?$tu<$r
1 :
Rqd. height
Max. openings in rails .
a
Height above nosing _________'AiYVZ. As IZ&aO frfT-
5


^ Extension of railing & oHT> Top jr fjoTtbp
| 35£?d .^^Projection from wall__U£SS Tttft/J_______12, 'f&OtMMhUs
Exceptions___________________________________________
(
I
___ ssy Horizontal exit requirements________________________________n/a
j *) b) <-) ___________________________________________________
| _________ ________ Ramps __________________________________________________n/a
Width_________________________________
t
) Maximum slope _________________________
Landings______________________________
Handrails_____________________________
ExiL signs rqd._______________________
_________ ________ Toilet room requirements (code utilized?)
_________ ________ Fixture requirements (basis?) __________
Women_________________________________
Men___________________________________
_________ ________ Drinking fountains______________________________________n/a
_________ ________ Showers_________________________________________________n/a
_________ ________ Handicapped Requirements ______________________________
_________ ________ Site___________________________________________________
n/a
n/a
Accessible Routes
6


Accessible bathrooms
t
I ________________________________________________________________
1 ................................................
I
J
j ----------------------------------:-----------------------------
___________ __________ Accessible housing _______________________________________________n/a
! Number of units_________________________________________________
Minimum requirements___________________________________________

Special rqmts. not listed
n/a
7