Citation
Meadow Lake solar townhomes, Arvada, Colorado

Material Information

Title:
Meadow Lake solar townhomes, Arvada, Colorado
Creator:
Risley, Steven
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
108 leaves : illustrations (some color), charts (some color), maps (some color), color photographs, plans (some folded) ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Row houses -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Arvada ( lcsh )
Solar houses -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Arvada ( lcsh )
Row houses ( fast )
Solar houses ( fast )
Colorado -- Arvada ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master's degree in Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Steven Risley.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09208638 ( OCLC )
ocm09208638
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1982 .R57 ( lcc )

Full Text
MEADOW LAKE SOLAR TOWNHOMES
ARVADA, COLORADO
1982
AN ARCHITECTURAL THESIS
PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE
MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE
BY STEVEN RISLEY FALL 1982


CONTENTS
1 THE PROJECT
2 THE CONTEXT
3 PLANNING A ZONING
5 BUILDING CODE
6 THE SITE
7 THE PROGRAM
8 FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS
9 THE DESIGN


MEADOW LAKE SOLAR TOWNHOMES


1 THE PROJECT


Chapter I Thesis Proposal
2
The proposed project is a planned unit development covering eighty acres south of 64th Avenue (Ralston Road) between Ward Road and Eldridge Street in Arvada (cf. figures 1-1 and 1-2). The project will be a joint thesis with Bob Fleck, a third year landscape architecture student. The principle focus will be to develop a passive solar community composed of attached townhomes, luxury cluster homes and single family dwellings. Since the design of a solar community includes both site development and unit design, we think the collaboration of a landscape architect and an architect is imperative.
We will collaborate on the production of a Master Plan for the site, the goals of which will be to achieve a density of development necessary to provide a reasonable economic return as well as the proper orientation for passive solar heating.
I will develop some of the prototypical housing units to occupy the site. While the development will obviously contain more than one hundred units, I v/ill develop only a section of the site in detail, limiting my design to less than that number of units.
The attached townhomes will contain two story units of two and three bedrooms ranging in size from 1100 to 1500 square feet. They are to have attached two car garages. The exact programing will be worked out with Steve Delva of the Writer Corporation,
who will serve as the client.


The product of the thesis will be a schematic design for the attached townhomes. It will be presented in the standard architectural drawings of floor plans, elevations and perspectives. A model of the housing units will be constructed.
The advisory board for the thesis will be:
Bob Kindig Gary Long G. K. Vetter Don Woolard


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Chapter II The Context
The City of Arvada, with a population of some 90,000 people, is located in the northwest portion of the Denver Metropolitan Area, While it does have some sense of autonomy, Arvada is principally a suburb of Denver (cf. figure II-l). Arvada's development stems from the Gold Rush days of the 1850's, a stimulus which precipitated growth throughout the State of Colorado.
In 1859t there were some fifty men panning for gold in Ralston Creek. In I863, Benjamin Wadsworth took a claim on the land now occupied by Downtown Arvada. The City was incorporated in 1904.
The City has increased greatly since its incorporation (cf. figure II-2). Perhaps the two most significant forces shaping Arvada's growth and development have been agriculture and urbanism. Up until the late 1940's, much of Arvada was rural and agricultural in nature. The past three decades have witnessed the transformation to a highly urbanized segment of the Denver Metropolitan Area. The urbanization was accompanied by a significant population increase (cf. figure II-3). This population gain can be attributed principally to the construction of Interstate 70 along with the changing attitudes that lead to the nationwide trend of migration to the suburbs.
In many respects, Arvada is a typical bedroom community.
As indicated in figure II-4, only fourteen percent of Arvada's citizens who are employed work within the City. An examination of the existing land use reinforces this image of a bedroom community.


METROPOLITAN DENVER AREA
FIGURE 11-1


ED) 1954-1964 SS 1965-1979
CITY OF ARVADA INCORPORATED LAND
FIGURE 11-2


OL
8
01
ARVADA POPULATION
FIGURE 11-3


40
30-
20-
TO-
ARVADA RESIDENTS PLACE OF EMPLOYMENT CBY PERCENTAGE]
FIGURE 11-4


The number of residential units has increased dramatically in the past twenty years (cf. figure II-5) until today over seventy-seven percent of the developed land in the City is devoted to residential use (cf. figure II-6). The significance of this figure becomes more apparent when compared to the average percentage of residential use for selected satellite cities with a population over 25*000. Beverly Hills, California, Bloomfield, New Jersey, East Chicago, Illinois, East Orange,
New Jersey, East St. Louis, Illinois, Evanston, Illinois, Irvington, New Jersey, Maywood, Illinois, New Westminster, British Columbia, and Oak Park, Illinois have,on the average, but forty-six percent of their developed land devoted to residential use.
As would be expected from the fact that ninety percent of Arvada's housing is single family dwellings, the vast majority (an estimated 85$ to 92%>) of the City's population is part of a traditional family. Further, the residents are predominately white (approximately 95%>) and middle class. The average income falls in the middle to upper-middle ranges $25*7^0j and over one-half of the families have an annual income falling between $20,000 and $25*000. In terms of occupation, about forty percent of the City's residents fall into the professional and administrative categories with another third being employed in sales and clerical work.
As for the future, the City of Arvada is expected to gain its share of regional growth. The Denver Regional Council of


25
ARVADA RESIDENTIAL UNITS
FIGURE 11-5


14
Percentage of Developed Land in Arvada Percentage of Zoned Land in Arvada Average Percentage of Developed Land in 10 Satellite Cities Over 25,000 in Population in Nation**
SINGLE FAMIL Y (Includes Estate and R-E, R-L, PUD-R Zones) 69.8 73.5 46.1
MULTI-FAMILY (Includes Duplexes or R-l, R-MD, R-M Zones) 7.4 6.4 13.7
COMMERCIAL (Includes Office Park and P-1, B-l, B-2, B-3, B-4, PUD-BP, PUD-BPR, Zones) 6.4 9.8 4.6
INDUSTRIAL (Includes 1-1, 1-2, PUD-1 Zones) 3.0 4.5 20.2
PARKS AND OPEN SPACE (Includes Agriculture and C-l, A-l Zones) 8.4 5.8 5.2
PUBLIC AND QUASI PUBLIC (No Such Zoning District) 5.0 10.2
TOTAL ACRES 9,624 12,289.5
Denver Regional Council of Governments estimates reveal that 28% of the households to be added to the Citys population between 1977-80 will have incomes that will not be sufficient to allow them to buy a home in Arvada. This estimate is conservative and if the existing inflation rate in housing continued, that percentage will probably be higher.
The Ten Cities All cities are satellite Cities with population of over 25,000 people. Beverly Hills, California Bloomfield, New Jersey East Chicago, Indiana East Orange, New Jersey East St. Louis, Illinois Evanston, Illinois Irvington, New Jersey Maywood, Illinois New Westminster, British Columbia Oak Park, Illinois
COMPARATIVE LAND USE
FIGURE II -B


15
Governments forecasts a fifty percent increase in regional population between 1980 and 2000. Figures for Arvada reflect this proportion quite closely: by the year 2000, a population of 120,000 is projected for the City.


3 PLANNING


17
Chapter III Planning
Any architectural project should be consistent with the planning policies of the jurisdiction in which it is located. Traditionally, the comprehensive plan is the most general formulation of a community's policies regulating growth and development. Zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations are usually imposed to implement these policies.
The purpose of zoning is to establish standards for light, air, and open space around buildings and to regulate the specific use of land and buildings. Both zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations serve to control housing density and reserve street right-of-way.
With a planned unit development, however, subdivision regulations and traditional zoning ordinances (excluding any part dealing specifically with PUDs) may simply serve as guidelines with, at most, selected sections being legally binding. While a planned unit development may indeed be the subject of an ordinance, it is usually in terms of the procedure necessary to gain approval with less emphasis upon design standards. Approval of a planned unit development is, accordingly, contingent upon more than simple compliance with the zoning and subdivison regulations, but is granted or withheld on an individual basis. Because of this, the policies discussed in the Comprehensive Plan to take on an added importance.
Arvada-s first comprehensive plan was created in 1964.


TB
In 1970, an ongoing effort was initiated with the expressed purpose of updating or replacing the existing Comprehensive Plan. That process, which involved substantial citizen participation, resulted in the adoption of the Comprehensive Plan of 1973. The current Comprehensive Plan, adopted in 1978, is a revised version of the 1973 edition. The process of review and update now occurs annually, and is a significant part of the City's planning process.
The primary policy structure of Arvadas Comprehensive Plan is the "target". A target differs from a goal in that the latter is simply a desired end, while the former is more realistic, more constrained by the existing situation and actual possibilities. Specifically, the Comprehensive Plan defines a Target as "conditions achievable and modified by the strategies and means available to achieve them" (Arvada Comprehensive Plan, pg. 12).
The recent Comprehensive Plan identifies fifteen areas which contain both long and short term targets. Of these, three are particularly relevant to the project under consideration: quality of life, transportation, and housing.
QUALITY OF LIFE
TWENTY YEAR TARGET
We resolve to continue our committment to the improvement of the quality of life and our citizenry by the acquisition, development, and improvement of parks, open space and public lands.


ONGOING TARGETS
The City will strive to complete and improve all park, recreational, walkway and trails facilities. There will continue to be an emphasis on "off-street" trails.
TRANSPORTATION
TWENTY YEAR TARGET
We resolve to provide a balanced transportation system through the encouragement and improvement of all transportation modes. We further resolve that this system shall be developed in harmony with Air Quality requirements, Land Use, Social Development, and other related goals of the City of Arvada.
ONGOING TARGETS
The City will require construction of sidewalks and trails as appropriate in all new developments.
The City will require the design and construction of major streets as an early and integral part of the development process.
All land and transportation planning and street construction will be coordinated.
HOUSENG
TWENTY YEAR TARGET
We resolve that a diversity of housing types is necessary and desirable. There shall be maximum use of planned unit developments to insure diversity of housing types and maximum land utilization efficiency. Planned unit development principles shall be used to provide adequate open space for an individual development. Public improvements will be timed to coincide with development. In addition to housing diversity, greater diversity in population characteristics shall be encouraged for a balance among age, income, and ethnic groups.


so
ONGOING TARGETS
The City will make a conscious effort to diversify its housing stock, in terms of both type and price to include high income housing and low income housing and investigate methods of achieving diversity. There shall be a continual emphasis on quality.
Two important elements in Arvadas Comprehensive Plan are the Land Use Plan and the Transportation Plan. A land use plan is a graphic and written analysis of a desirable and feasible pattern of development. It gives the general location, character and relationship of future land uses at specific times as far into the future as possible.
A land use plan differs importantly from a zoning map, in that the latter is a specific regulatory device aimed at controlling the use of private property. Zoning is very detailed in nature and is concerned with a much smaller time frame than a land use plan. The land use plan is essentially a policy document concerned primarily with the accommodation of spatial development.
A central section of the Arvada Land Use Plan is reproduced on the following two pages (figure III-l). It is important to emphasize that the land use plan provides a general pattern of locations and sizes of the various land uses and indicates the desirable relationships between them.
From the Land Use Map, it will be apparent that the site under consideration falls in the land use category low density residential. This category includes single family detached


CSTV OF ARVADA LAND USE PLAN LEGEND
21
AGRICULTUFLAL/COMSEHVATIOM AREAS
May include some publically owned areas or areas that may be publically acquired in the future
ESTATE DENSITY RESIDENTIAL
Includes primarily single family detached houses with large lets with an overall density not to exceed 2 dwelling units per acre per neighborhood
LOW DENSITY RESIDENTIAL
Includes single family detached houses, mixed density planned unit development and individual and small areas of duplexes with an overall density not to exceed 4.5 dwelling units per acre per neighborhood
MEDIUM/HIGH DENSITY RESIDENTIAL
Includes large duplex developments, townhouse and apartment developments; areas designated as high density residential shall not be included when calculating density for a neighborhood
COMMERCIAL/OFFIGE
Individual uses to be determined by appropriate zoning classification.
park, greenbelt s open spade
May include some conservation and some agricultural areas
CFFICE/INCUSTRIAL PARK


WAR!
IPLIMG ST
CITY OF ARVADA UASMD USE PLA!\3
FIGURE III -1


23
homes, mixed density planned unit development and individual and small areas of duplexes. The over-all density is not to exceed 4.5 dwelling units per acre per neighborhood. The density of a planned unit development may exceed this figure if the increase can be substantiated on the basis that the superior design makes greater densities possible with no reduction of amenities.
The basic organization concept of land use, as elucidated in the Arvada Comprehensive Plan, is the neighborhood Unit. A neighborhood unit can be defined as "a geographical area whose boundaries are determined by either natural or man-made impediments which serve to divide that area from another and within which the follov'ing functions may be found* housing, schools, parks and open space, churches and commercial (neighborhood) uses" (Arvada Comprehensive Plan, pg. 23)* A neighborhood is characterized by school and parks within a half-mile from housing and a population large enough to suoport. an elementary school. Ideally, major streets should be located at the perimeter of the neighborhood, particularly serving as boundaries defining the edges of the neighborhood. A schematic representation of the neighborhood concept is presented in figure III-2.
Closely related to the Land Use Plan is the Transportation Plan. A major determinant of how much traffic a street will carry is the intensity, arrangement, and type of development proximate to it. Conversely, land use arrangements are greatly influenced by transportation corridors.


24
IDEALIZED NEIGHBORHOOD ELEMENTS
FIGURE III-2


25
The Arvada Transportation Plan consists of three parts: the Street Plan, the Trails Plan, and the Plan for Public Transit. The Arvada street system is set forth on the Street Plan Map (cf. figure III-3). The plan contains four types of streets: freeway, parkway, collector, and local.
FREEWAY Freeways provide for the expeditious movement of large volumes of through traffic between and across areas of a city or metropolitan area. Freeways are not intended to provide land-access service. Characteristics of freeways are limited access, no at-grade crossings and no traffic stops.
PARKWAY Parkways provide unity within a city. They allow travel from one part of a city to another, but not necessarily between cities. Parkways usually form boundaries for neighborhoods. The primary function of a parkway is the movement of traffic with direct access discouraged in the design of new facilities. Parking is generally prohibited.
COLLECTOR Collector streets are the main interior streets within a neighborhood. Their function is to collect traffic from local streets and distribute it to higher classifications of streets and also to provide access to adjacent properties. In undeveloped areas collector street locations are approximate .
LOCAL The local street system comprises all streets not on one of the higher systems. Local streets serve primarily to provide direct access to higher order streets. All traffic carried by these streets should have a destination or origin within the neighborhood. (Arvada Comprehensive Plan, pg. 26)
An increased use of bicycles in the past ten years, for transportation as well as recreation, has led many communities to place greater emphasis upon providing bicycle paths. The City of Arvada has recognized this trend and is involved in planning and developing an extensive trails system. The Trails Plan


26
CITV OF ARVADA STREET PLAIN!
FIGURE III-3

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MILES
n
1
2
JN
LEGEND
FREEWAY
Otonoys pr outdo tor mo atpoortious moramord ot largo rohmtor of ttirougti traffic bofwoon an) ocroo* oroot of a cay or mofropofdm aroo Frooway* vo not ntondod to pr outdo land octts oornco Ctioracformto of tiootuayt oro hmtfod accost, no of -grodo crotwtgo.and no dame nop*
PARKWAY
Partway* (jrondo auty ntlfuri a at, Tftoy allow Pot* from ono perl of a city to anothor, Out aof not notify bofwoon citio* Partwayi utuody from Damdorm fa lonOOurnoodi Tfto prmtar r function of a paring a Ot* irnnomont of traffic, mill dowel ocean dneourogod m mo dongn of non focilif* Porting n gonorvty p/afutofod
COLLECTOR
Co hoc ra rtiooft aorta man odor or oof* ntfur a no^tOortiood Tftoo tunction n tv cudoet traffK front m.-oJ proof* and drprmutr d to tughor cfoiphcation* at ttrootl and ono to prondo jcou to ac^ocor* proportm Troff* carrmd by CoOoctor strton should hauo an origin or o doPrtotion mtftot mo conunnty


27
(cf. figure III-4) contains two types of trails: "on street bicycle paths" and "off street trails". The former are used primarily in deveoped areas where right of way is restricted or on low volume streets where lower bicycle usage is expected. Off street trails can be planned in conjunction with new developments and are ideally located along major streams and green-belts. If no such location is available, they may be offset along major roadways. The off street trails are built to a standard which accommodates pedestrians as well as bicyclists.
Public transit in Arvada, as well as the entirety of the Denver Metropolitan Region, is provided by the Regional Transportation District. There are several projects in RTD's plans for public transit which directly involve Arvada. A Park-N-Ride facility is located near Downtown Arvada, as is going to be a Transit Center. The Transit Center will be a point at which local routes converge where riders can transfer from one bus to another. Three types of bus service are provided to the citizens of Arvada: (1) express buses running non-stop to and from Arvada to Downtown Denver; (2) local buses running on major arteries and providing service to Downtown Denver and Stapleton International Airport, and (3) circulators which provide access to other buses and connect points within Arvada. The specific routes currently offered by RTD are shown in figure III-5*


SB
CITY OF ARVADA TRAILS PLAIN!
FIGURE III-4
O
r
MILES
n
1
s
J
INI
LEGEND
. -*l ON STREET BICYCLE PATH
I Thu typo uf Uif.il i used yianonht at Jatedyed O'Hit a/hara ngftt o! muy / ratUKtad on lota aotuma sheets and mOe. § Kimer toka i/v* etpe. led These .on he mgittd. thtped or oth s.gned and taped
I OFF STREET TRAILS
I Thata troM cun he planned m i onyunchon tH ham developments and ata daotly odd,non to tecycta tnfaol Along ingotaon cono/s 1 nd rno/ot itraoms. tahara adequate rightot-moy permits, taporota riddle poms con he pmaafed


4 ZONING


31
Chapter IV Zoning
As mentioned in the previous chapter, the purpose of zoning is to establish standards for air, light and open space and to regulate the specific use of land and buildings. Both subdivision regulations and zoning ordinances serve to control housing density and street design. Further, they establish the process necessary to gain approval of a project.
The following parts of Arvada's Zoning Ordinance are relevant to the project under consideration : Article 3, Planned Unit Developments and Article 5, Site Planning.
Portions of the Subdivision Regulations also govern the proposed project. Even though the project is a planned unit development, the plans must be submitted in a form which will satisfy the requirements of the Subdivision Regulations for preliminary and final plats.
In addition, portions of the Land Development Ordinance and Street Ordinace pertain to the project under consideration.
Article 3 of the Zoning Ordinance states that the intent of a planned unit development is to "provide a maximum of design freedom in order to create a better living environment, by making the best use of topography and land features and by permitting the developer an opportunity more fully to utilize the physical characteristics of the site through the reduction of lot sizes and the absence of yard and bulk restrictions."
Under this article, the project falls into the classification of PUD-R: Planned Unit Development, Residential District.


32
Non-residential uses in this district are permitted only when the city council finds them designed "to serve primarily the residents of the development and are harmoniously incorporated into the total design of the PUD." The maximum available density in a PUD-R is twenty-four units per acre with a height limitation of thirty-five feet. The dwelling unit density is defined as net density, i.e., total number of dwelling units divided by the" net land uses area in acres. The net acreage is calculated by subtracting from the gross acreage any commercial, professional or industrial land use, the land dedication requirement, any land not under the direct control of the property owner, or any land purchased by or given to any governmental entity.
The zoning ordinance states that site planning in any PUD shall provide for the protection of the development from potentially adverse surrounding influences. Further, site planning in any PUD shall encourage energy conservation by means of "site design and orientation to protect solar access for solar energy systems consistent with regional building climate and the City's energy conservation program." Site planning within the PUD must also provide for the safe, efficient, and harmonious grouping of structures, uses and facilities.
Concerning street design, the ordinance states the PUD should have a clearly defined heirarchy of roads. Local streets within the PUD should not connect to streets outside the development in a manner that encourages their use by through traffic. Moreover, every principle structure within the PUD should be served by a public or private street, court or walkway.
As stated in Article 3.3 of the zoning ordinance, the


requirements of Article 5, Site Planning, are not legally binding. They are to serve as guidelines, however, and deviation from them must have adequate justification.
Article 5 states that there must be two parking spaces per dwelling unit for multi-family units. The minimum size for a parking space is nine by twenty feet. Handicapped spaces are to be a minimum of twelve and one half by twenty feet.
The height limitation on fences is six feet and no fence over thirty inches shall be permitted in a front yard.
Although the proposed project is a planned unit development, the design standards of the Subdivision Regulations serve as important guidelines. While there is some leeway regarding these standards, as each PUD is individually evaluated, Section 3.4.2.C cf the Zoning Ordinance specifically states that the requirements of the Subdivision Regulations do apply to PUDs. Where an individual PUD design conflicts with the Subdivision Regulations, the matter will be decided by the City Council. Deviation from the regulations, accordingly, should have sound justification.
Article four of the Subdivision Regulations, design standards, has the most significance for the proposed project. The article states that steep land (i.e. with a slope of ten percent or' greater), unstable land or land with inadequtae drainage should not be platted. Also, land falling within the limits of the one hundred year flood should not be subdivided.
Streets must be designed to relate to the existing topograpgy. All streets must provide as many building sites as possible at or above their grade. Local streets should be laid


3a
out in a manner as to discouraqe through traffic and to provide efficient drainage and utility systems. Street intersections should approximate ninety degree angles as cloesly as possibly, and in no case should they be less that sixty degrees. Cul-de-sacs should not exceed 500 feet in length and should have a minimum turn around radius of forty-five feet. Streets with off-set intersections shall have a minimum separation of one hundred and twenty-five feet.
Blocks are normally between four hundred and twelve hundred feet in length, except blocks along parkways or arterials which must be at least six hundred and sixty feet in length. Lots in general should not derive their access exclusively from a major arterial or collector. In addition, double frontage lots should be avoided.
Figures IV-1 through IV-4 contain subdivision design guidelines.
Concerning utility easements, the subdivision regulations state that natural gas easements are usually six feet wide inside front property lines running parallel and adjacent to all platted streets. Easements for electric, telephone, sewer, water and drainage are usually ten feet wide along the rear property lines. Easements for pedestrian and bicycle trails
are six and one half feet wide.


35
Cul-de-sac streets shall not exceed 500 feet in length.
Local streets should be laid out to discourage use by through traffic, to permit efficient drainage and utility systems, and to require the minimum number of streets necessary to provide convenient and safe access to property
I
SUBDIVISION DESIGN EXAMPLE
FIGURE IV-1


36
Access to arterial or collector shall occur only at intersections approved by the Traffic Engineer who shall determine the intersection or intersections for access based upon standards for efficient traffic movement and safety for drivers and pedestrians. -----------------------------------------------
Arterial and collector streets shall be aligned to join with planned or existing streets
Dead end streets, with the exception of cul-de-sacs, shall be prohibited unless they are designed to connect with future streets in adjacent land that has not been platted, in which case a temporary turn-around easement of forty-five (45) feet in diameter shall be required.-------------------
Lots shall not, in general, derive access exclusively from a major arterial or collector street. Where driveway access from a major arterial or collector street may be necessary for several adjoining lots, the Planning Commission may require that such lots be served by a combined access drive in order to limit possible traffic hazard on such street.
Where possible, driveways should be designed and arranged so as to avoid requiring vehicles to back into traffic on major arterials or collector streets -------------
SUBDIVISION DESIGN EXAMPLE


37
POOR STREET AND LOT ARRANGEMENT
The lot arrangement shall be such that there will be no problems in siting structures
SUBDIVISION DESIGN EXAMPLE
FIGURE IV-3


38
POOR STREET DESIGN INCLUDING DOUBLE FRONTAGE LOTS
SUBDIVISION DESIGN EXAMPLE
FIGURE IV-a


The following sections of the Street Ordinance are to the proposed project.
relevant
Section 7 STANDARDS FOR MINOR STREETS
A. Function.
1. Minor streets provide direct access to adjacent property.
2. All traffic by minor streets should have an origin or a destination within the immediate neighborhood.
3. Right-of-Way: the minimum right-of-way is 45 feet.
C. Number of Moving Lanes: two
D. Access Conditions.
1# Intersections are at grade with direct access to abutting property.
2. Access to abutting property shall be provided by
curb cuts at all access points, except single family and duplex residential uses.
E. Traffic Characteristics.
1. Direct access to adjacent residential properties.
2. Farking may be restricted on one or both sides of the street to provide adequate emergency access.
"3. Ramps to facilitate usage by bicyclists and handicapped persons shall be provided at all intersections .
F. Planning Characteristics.
1. Minor streets shall be designed to prevent through traffic from moving within the neighborhood.
2. Minor streets shall not intersect parkway streets.
3. Minor streets in residential areas shall not serve more than 14 dwellings, unless approved by the Planning Director at the time of preliminary platting.
4. 'Where the minor street terminates as a cul-de-sac, the minimum turn-around radius shall be 45 feet, measured at the right-of-way line. In no case shall the length of the cul-de-sac exceed 500 feet as measured from the center line of the intersecting street to the center of the cul-de-sac.


40
G. Development responsibility: the Developer shall construct street, curb, gutter, and sidewalks to the cross section shown.
Typical Minor Street Section
43" a.avi
4-tf>-3rl£-
d-r
23' RCACTWJT


*- Section 8 STANDARDS FOR LOCAL STREETS
A. Function.
1. Local streets provide direct access to adjacent property.
.2. All traffic carried by local streets should have an origin or a destination within the neighborhood .
B. Right-of-Way: the minimum right-of-way is 50 feet.
C. Number of Moving Lanes: two
D. Access Conditions.
1. Intersections are at grade with direct access to abutting property.
2. Access to abutting property shall be provided
by curb cuts at all access points, except single family and duplex residential uses.
E. Traffic Characteristics.
1. Direct access to adjacent residential properties.
2. Farking will normally be allowed on both sides of the street.
3. Ramps to facilitate usage by bicyclists and handicapped persons shall be provided at all intersections .


P. Flanning Characteristics.
1. Local streets shall be designed to prevent^ through traffic from moving through the neighborhood.
2. Local streets shall not intersect parkway streets.
3. Local streets in residential areas shall not serve more than 50 dwellings, unless approved by the Flanning Director at the time of preliminary platting.
G. Development Responsibility: the Developer shall construct street, curb, gutter and sidewalks to the cross section shown.
Typical Local Street Section
For minor and local streets, where it can be shown that there will not be a significant demand for on-street parking, the width requirements for paving and corresponding right-of-way may be reduced by the following amounts:
Local
0 feet 6 feet
No parking on one side of the street No parking on both sides of the street
6 feet
12 feet


BUILDING CODE


43
Chapter V Building Code
Construction within the City of Arvada is governed by the 1979 edition of the Uniform Building Code. The following excerpts from the U.B.C. are relevant to the proposed project.
Building Classification : Group R, Division 3, Dwellings and
Lodging Houses
Exit Facilities : Every sleeping room below the fourth story shall
have at least one operable window or exterior door approved for emergency egress or rescue. All egress or rescue windows from sleeping rooms shall have a minimum net clear opening of 5.7 square feet. The minimum net clear opening height dimension shall be 24 inches. The minimum net clear opening width shall be 20 inches. Where windows are provided as a means of egress or rescue, they shall have a finished sill height of not more than 40 inches above the floor.
Light and Ventilation : All habitable rooms within a dwelling unit
shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area not less than one-tenth of the floor area of such room with a minimum of ten square feet.
All bathrooms, water closet compartments, laundry rooms and similar rooms shall be provided with natural ventilation by means of openable exterior openings with an area not less than one-twentieth of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of one and a half square feet.


aa
In lieu of required exterior openings for natural ventilation, a mechanical ventilation system may be used. Such a system must be capable of providing two air changes per hour for habitable rooms and five air changes per hour for bathrooms, water closets, laundry rooms, and similar rooms.
Sanitation : Every dwelling unit shall have a kitchen sink and a bathroom equipped with facilities consisting of a water closet, lavatory and either a bath tub or shower. Each sink, lavatory and bath tub or shower shall be equipped with hot and cold running water.
Room Dimensions : Habitable space shall have a ceiling height of
not less than seven feet six inches. Kitchens, halls, bathrooms and toilet compartments may have a ceiling height of not less than seven feet.
If any room in a building has a sloped ceiling, the prescribed ceiling height shall be required for only half of the floor area below the ceiling. Every dwelling unit shall have one room with at least one hundred and fifty square feet. No habitable room, except a kitchen, shall have any dimension less than seven feet.
Allowable Loads (Floor)
Forty pounds per square foot uniform load. Individual stair treads must carry a three hundred pound concentrated load at the point of maximum stress.
Allowable Loads (Roof)
Roofs must carry all dead loads plus the live loads contained in the following table:
METHOD 1 METHOD 2
TRIBUTARY LOADED AREA IN SQUARE FEET FOR ANY STRUCTURAL MEMBER UNIFORM LOAD' RATE OF REDUC MAXIMUM REDUCTION R (Percent)
ROOF SLOPE 0 to 200 201 to 600 Over 600 (Percent)
1. rial or rise less than 4 inches per fool. Arch or dome with rise less than one-eighth of span 20 16 )2 20 .08 40
2. Rise 4 inches per foot to less than 12 inches per foot. Arch or dome with rise one-eighth 16 14 12 I6 .06 25


Allowable Unit Stresses (Wood)
The following table provides allowable units stresses for Fir-Larch, the most commonly framing material.
the
Douglas used wood
ALLOWABLE UNIT STRESSES IN POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH
EXTREME FIBER IN
BENDING E*,"
Compres- Compres-
Tension sion per- sion MODULUS U.B.C. STDS.
SIZE neared Repetitive- Parallel Horizontal pendiculer Parallel OF UNDER
SPECIES AND CLASSIFY Uses member to Grain Shear to Grain to Grain ELASTICITY WHICH
COMMERCIAL GRADE CATION (Single) Uses f," ~FV" 7CX - "fc" GRADEO
DOUGLAS FIR LARCH (Surfaced dry or surfaced green. Used at I97o max. m.c.)
DOUGLAS FIR LARCH (North)
Dense Select Structural 2450 2800 1400 95 455 1850 1,900,000
Select Structural 2100 2400 1200 95 385 1600 1,800,000
Dense No. 1 2050 2400 1200 95 455 1450 1.900.000
No. 1 2" to 4" 1750 2050 1050 95 385 1250 1,800,000
Dense No. 2 thick 1700 1950 1000 95 455 1150 1,700,000
No. 2 2' to 4" 1450 1650 850 95 385 1000 1,700,000
No. 3 wide 800 925 475 95 385 600 1,500,000
Appearance 1750 2050 1050 95 385 1500 1,800,000 25-2
Stud 800 925 475 95 385 600 1,500.000 25-3
and
Construction 2" to 4' 1050 1200 625 95 385 1150 1.500,000 25-4
Standard thick 600 675 350 95 385 925 1,500,000 (Sec footnotes
Utility 4" wide 275 325 175 95 385 600 1,500,000 2 through 9,
Dense Select Structural 2100 2400 1400 95 455 1650 1,900.000 11, 13, 15 and 16)
Select Structural 1800 2050 1200 95 385 1400 1,800,000
Dense No. 1 2* to 4" 1800 2050 1200 95 455 1450 1,900.000
No. 1 thick 1500 1750 1000 95 385 1250 1,800,000
Dense No. 2 5" and 1450 1700 775 95 455 1250 1,700,000
No. 2 wider 1250 1450 650 95 385 1050 1,700,000
No. 3 and Stud 725 850 375 95 385 675 1,500,000
Appearance 1500 1750 1000 95 385 1500 1,800,000
Dense Select Structural 1900 1100 85 455 1300 1,700,000
Select Structural Beams and 1600 950 85 385 1100 1,600,000
Dense No. 1 Stringers11 1550 775 65 455 1100 1.700.000
No. 1 1300 675 85 385 925 1,600,000 25-3
Dense Select Structural 1750 1150 85 455 1350 1,700,000 (Sec footnotes 2 through 9)
Select Structural Posts and 1500 _ 1000 85 385 1150 1,600,000
Dense No. 1 Timbers11 1400 950 85 455 1200 1,700,000
No. 1 1200 825 85 385 1000 1,600,000
Select Dex Decking 1750 2000 385 _ 1.800,000
Commercial Dcx 1450 1650 385 1,700,000
Dense Select Structural 1900 _ 1250 85 455 1300 1,700,000
Select Structural Beams and 1600 1050 85 385 1100 1,600,000
Dense No. I Stringers'1 1550 1050 85 455 1100 1,700.000
No. 1 1350 900 85 365 925 1.600,000 25-4 (See footnotes
Dense Select Structural 1750 1150 85 455 1350 1.700.000
Select Structural Posts and 1500 1000 85 385 1150 1.600.000 2 through 10)
Dense No. 1 Timbers'1 1400 _ 950 85 455 1200 1,700,000
No. 1 1200 825 85 385 1000 1,600,000
Selected Decking Decking 2000 1,800,000
Commercial Decking 1650 - - - - 1.700.000
Selected Decking Decking _ 2150 (Surfaced at 1 5% max. m.c. and 1,900,000
Commercial Decking 1600 used ac 15% max. m.c.) 1.700.000
Dense Select Sti uctural 1900 MOO 85 455 1300 1,700,000 25-2
Select Structural Beams and 1600 950 85 385 1100 1.600,000 (Sec footnotes
| Dense No. 1 Stringers 1550 775 85 455 1100 1.700,000 2 through 9
I No. 1 1300 675 65 385 925 1.600.000 and II)


46
General Construction Requirements : Wood joists or the bottom of
wood floors closer than eighteen inches to the ground must be of treated wood or heartwood of approved naturally durable species.
Under Floor Clearance : Accessible under floor areas shall be
provided with an eighteen by twenty-four inch acess crawl hole. Pipes, ducts and other non-structural construction shall not interfere with the accessibility of the under floor access.
Siding : Siding shall not be less the three-eigths of an inch thick.
Joist spans : Allowable joist spans shall be in accordance with the following tables :
FLOOR JOISTS
DESIGN CRITERIA: Deflection For 40 lbs. per sq. ft. live load. Limited to span in inches divided by 360. Strength Live load of 40 lbs. per sq. ft. plus dead load of 10 lbs. per sq. ft. determines the required fiber stress value.
J5Ts? SIZE SPACING (IN) (IN) Modulus of Elasticity, in 1.000.000 psi
0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2
8-6 8-10 9-2 9-6 9-9 10-0 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-11 11-2 11-4 11-7 ii-ii
12.0 720 780 830 890 910 990 1040 1090 1140 1190 1230 1280 1320 1410
7-9 8-0 8-4 8-7 8-10 9-1 9-4 9-6 9-9 9-11 10-2 10-4 10-6 10-10
2x6 16.0 790 860 920 980 1040 1090 1150 1200 12.50 1310 1360 1410 1460 1550
6-9 7-0 7.3 7-6 7 9 7-11 8-2 8-4 8-6 8-8 8-10 9-0 9-2 9-6
24.0 900 980 1050 1120 1190 1250 1310 1380 1440 1500 1550 1610 1670 1780
11-3 11-8 12-1 12-6 12-10 13-2 13-6 13-10 14-2 14-5 14-8 15-0 15-3 15-9
12.0 720 780 830 890 910 990 1010 1090 1140 1190 1230 1280 1320 1410
10-2 10-7 11-0 11-4 11-8 12-0 12-3 12-7 12-10 13-1 13-4 13-7 13-10 14-3
2x6 16.0 790 8.50 920 980 1040 1090 1150 1200 1250 1310 1360 1410 1460 1550
6-11 9-3 9-7 9-11 10-2 10-6 10-9 11-0 11-3 11-5 11-8 11-11 12-1 12-6
21.0 900 980 1050 1120 1 190 1250 1310 1380 1440 1500 1550 1610 1670 1780
14-4 14-11 15-5 15-11 10-5 10.10 17-3 17-8 18-0 18-5 18-9 19-1 19-5 20-1
12.0 720 780 830 890 940 990 1040 1090 1140 1190 1230 1280 1320 1410
13-0 13-6 14-0 14-6 14-11 15-3 15-8 16-0 16-5 16-9 17-0 H 17-4 17-8 18-3
2x10 16.0 700 850 920 980 1040 1090 1150 1200 1250 1310 1360 1410 1460 15.50
111 11-10 j 2-3 12-8 13-0 13-1 13-8 14-0 14-4 14-7 14-11 15-2 15-5 15-11
24.0 900 980 i 030 1120 1190 1250 1310 1380 1440 1500 15.50 1610 1670 1780
17-5 18-1 18-9 19-4 19-1 1 20-0 21-0 21-6 21-11 22-5 22-10 23-3 23-7 . 24-5
12.0 720 780 830 890 940 990 1040 1090 1140 1190 1230 1280 1320 1410
15-10 16-5 17.0 17-7 18-1 18-7 19-1 19-6 19-11 20-4 20-9 21-1 21-6 22-2
2x12 16.0 790 860 920 980 1010 l MX) 1150 1200 1250 j 1310 1360 1410 1460 1550
13-10 III ll-ll 15-4 15-10 10-3 16-8 17-0 17-5 | 17-9 18-1 18-5 18-9 19-4
24.0 900 980 10.50 1120 .11 1250 i. no 1380 1440 | 1500 1550 1610 1670 1780
NOTES- ^ 1 he required extreme lil*er stress hi bending. //. in pounds per square inch is shown below each span.
(2) Use single or repetitive member bending stress values (/->,) and modulus ol elasticity values (f). from Tables Nos. 25-A-l, and 25-A-2.
(3) For more comprehensive tables covering a broader range of bending stress values (/-'/>) and Modulus of Flasticity values (Zf), other spacing of
members and other conditions of loading, see lMl. Standard No. 25-2!.
(4) The spans in these tables are intended lor use hi covered structures or where moisture content in use docs not exceed 19 percent.


CEILING JOISTS
DESIGN CRITERIA: Deflection For 10 lbs. per sq. ft. live load. Limited to span in inches divided by 240. Strength Live load of 10 lbs. per sq. ft. plus dead load of 5 lbs. per sq. ft. determines required fiber stress value.
JOIST SIZE SPACING (IN) (IN) Modulus of Elasticity. "E". In 1.000.000 ptl
0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.S 16 1.7 1.6 1.6 2.0 2.2
9-10 10-3 10-7 10-11 11-3 11-7 11-10 12-2 12-5 12.8 12-11 13-2 13-4 13-9
12.0 710 770 830 880 930 980 1030 1080 1130 1180 1220 1270 1310 1400
8-11 9-4 9-8 9-11 10 3 10-6 10-9 11-0 11-3 11-6 11-4 11-11 i5-i
2x4 16.0 780 850 910 970 1030 1080 1140 1190 1240 1290 1340 1390 1440 M540
7-10 8-1 8-5 8-8 8-11 9-2 9-5 9-8 9-10 10-0 10-3 10-5 10-7 10-11
24.0 900 970 1040 1110 1170 1240 1300 1360 1420 1480 1540 1600 1650 1760
15-6 16-1 16-8 17-2 17-8 18-2 18-8 19-1 19-6 19-11 20-3 20-8 21-0 21-8
12.0 710 770 830 880 930 980 1030 1080 1130 1180 1220 1270 1310 1400
14-1 14-7 15-2 15-7 16-1 16 6 16-11 17-4 17-8 18-1 18-5 18-9 19-1 19-8
2x6 16.0 780 850 910 970 1030 1080 1 140 1190 1240 1290 1340 1390 1440 1540
12-3 12-9 13-3 13-8 14-1 14-5 14-9 15-2 15-6 15-9 16-1 16-4 16-8 17-2
24.0 900 970" 1040 1110 1170 1240 1300 1360 1420 1480 1540 1600 1650 1760
20-5 21-2 21-11 22-8 23 4 24 0 24-7 25-2 25-8 26-2 26-9 27-2 27-8 28-7
12.0 710 770 830 880 930 >80 1030 1080 1130 1180 1220 1270 1310 1400
18-6 19-3 19-11 20-7 21-2 21-9 22-4 22-10 i.3-4 23-10 24-3 24-8 25-2 25-11
2x8 16.0 780 850 910 970 1030 1080 1140 1190 1240 1290 1340 1390 1440 1540
16-2 16-10 17-5 18-0 18-6 19-0 19-6 19-11 20-5 20-10 21-2 21-7 21-11 22-8
24.0 900 970 1040 1110 1170 1240 1300 1360 1420 1480 1540 1600 1650 1760
26-0 27-1 28-0 28-11 29-9 30-7 31-4 32-1 32-9 33-5 34-1 34-8 35-4 36-5
12.0 710 770 830 880 930 980 1030 1080 1130 1180 1220 1270 1310 1400
23-8 24-7 25-5 26-3 27-1 27-9 28-6 29-2 29-9 30-5 31-0 31-6 32-1 33-1
2x10 16.0 780 850 910 970 1030 1080 1140 1190 1240 1290 1340 1390 1440 1540
2Q-8 21-6 22-3 22-11 23-8 24-3 24-10 25-5 26 0 26-6 27-1 27-6 28-0 28-1.1
24.0 900 970 1040 1110 1170 1240 1300 1360 1420 1480 1540 1600 1650 1760
(1) The required extreme Tiber stress in bending Ft>. in pounds per square inch is shown below each span.
(2) Use single or repetitive member bending stress values (fb) and modulus of elasticity values (£). from Tables Nos. 25-A-l. and 25-A-2.
(3) For more comprehensive tables covering a broader range of bending stress values (Fb) and Modulus of Elasticity values (E), other
spacing of members and other conditions of loading, see L'.B.C. Standard No. 25-21.
(4) The spans in these tables are intended for use in covered structures or where moisture content in use does not exceed 19 percent.
Roof Coverings
Roof coverings shall conform to the requirements set forth in the following table:
SHINGLESSHAKES-TILE |See Section 3203 (d) 3 A for ice Conditions!
ROOF MATERIAL MINIMUM SLOPE UNDERLAYMENT' NUMBER OF FASTENERS STAPLES NAILS
Minimum Gauge Minimum Head
7. Asphalt Shingles 4:12 One Type 15 felt applied per Section 3203 (d) 3 A 4 per 36 inch strip 2 per 18 inch shingle * 12 y,
8. Asbestos-Cement Shingles 5:12' One Type 15 asbestos felt applied per Section 3203 (d) 3 A 4 per shingle* NP 11 z
9. Metal Shingles 3:12 One Type 30 felt applied per Section 3203 (d) 3 A * <
10. Slate Shingles 4:12 Two Type 15 or One Type 30 felt applied per Section 3203 (d) 3 A 2 per shingle or wire tie NP 11
11. Noninterlocking TileFlat or Curved 3:12 2 per tile or wire tie or Section 3203 (d) 3 F
12. Interlocking TileFlat or Curved 1 per tie or wire tie or Section 3203 (d) 3 F!
13. Wood Shingles 4:12' NR 2 per shingle Section 3203 (d) 3 G * 14'/; z,
14. Wood Shakes 4:12 One Type 30 felt interlay-ment Section 3203 (d) 3 (H) 2 per shake 13


Metal roofs : Flat sheets shall be applied only to solidly
sheathed roofs. Metal roofing shall be applied in an approved manner.
Number of Required Exits : One if occupant load is less than ten.
No ramp or elevator necessary for handicapped egress.
Corridor width: Minimum of thirty-six inches.
Corridor Height : Minimum of seven feet.
Stairs : Private stairways with an occupant load of less than ten may have a stair width of thirty inches or more. The rise of stairs should be greater than four inches and not exceed seven and one half inches. The run shall not be less than ten inches.
Sound Transmission Control : In Group R occupancies, wall and
floor assemblies separating dwelling units shall provide airborn sound insulation of STC of fifty or better.


I


CHAPTER VI The Site
THE IMMEDIATE CONTEXT
Of particular importance in any design is the fit of the project into the existing fabric of development. In times of rapid growth, however, producing an appropriate contextual fit may be difficult because of the instability of the context.
An examination of the land use plan is helpful in this regard as it sets down the parameters of change.
Turning to the site under consideration, there are basically five contiguous uses (cf. figure VI-l). Of these, three appear to be subject to change. The relatively fixed elements include two parcels of housing: one to the north and one to the southeast. The latter has a greater influence upon the site.
The residential planned unit development to the north is separated from the site by 64th Avenue, a major arterial (or in the terminology of the Arvada Planning Department, a parkway). The City uses parkways to define neighborhoods; an examination of figure III-l shows 64th Avenue performs such a function. The status of 64th Avenue as a boundary is reinforced by the existing street pattern: the only entrance to the residential PUD to the north adjacent to the site occurs at its northeast corner. In effect, the one hundred feet of right-of-way divides the site from the housing to the north.
The housing development to the southeast, Meadow Lake Es-


IMMEDIATE SITE COINITEXT
avoti


tates, directly abuts the site and is the strongest developmental contextual influence. Particularly significant are two local streets, 6lst Avenue and 6lst Place, and one collector, 60th Avenue, which terminate at the east boundary of the site (cf. figure VT-l). The development is composed of above median priced single family dwellings constructed about ten to fifteen years ago.
A mixed use PUD is proposed for the tract of land to the northeast of the site. The PUD will contain office, business, commercial, financial and residential uses. Of great importance is the siting of a collector at the northeast comer of the proposed site (cf. figure VI-l).
The most tenuous land use abutting the site is to be found to the west and south. This land is currently under the jurisdiction of Jefferson County and is zoned agricultural. As development pressures increase, it seems likely that this land will be converted to residences.
TOPOGRAPHY
The site is relatively flat: there is an approximately sixty feet elevation change from the highest point on the site to the lowest (cf. figure VI-2). The site is interesting in that it contains a variety of slope orientations. This is apparent from the site sections illustrated in figure VI-3* Considering the east-west axis, the northern part of the site slopes to the east (cf. sections A-A and B-B, figure VI-3)s while the southern part of the site is relatively flat


f 1 SITE TOPOGRAPHY
FIGURE VI-2
(J1
u
B4TH


x-x
CVERTICAL EXAGGERATION = 5) FIGURE VI 3
t?S


(cf. section D-d, figure VI-3). Along the north-south axis, the site basically slopes to the south (cf. sections X-x and Y-Y, figure VI-3).
Although there is a definite contour to the land, the site is without any severe slopes. The majority of the site contains slopes of five percent or less (cf. figure V-4); the southeast comer does contain some steeper slopes.
DRAINAGE
Given the description of the topography, it is not surprising to find drainage swales on the northern and southern portions ofthe site (cf. figure VI-5). Those to the north drain principally to the east, while those to the south drain to the southeast. The runoff in the central portion of the site is not strong enough to form swales, but follows the patterns shown in figure VI-5.
HYDROLOGY
The most significant hydrological feature on the site is Meadow Lake. Besides being an object of visual interest, the lake serves as a collection point for some of the runoff. Examining the drainage swale pattern in figure VI-5 indicates that the lake could, with some alteration in totography, serve a retention function for the northern part of the site.
Usually associated with surface water is a high water table. This is the case with the proposed site. There is standing water in a fifty to one hundred yard band to the west


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SITE DRAINAGE
FIGURE VI 5
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of the lake. A preliminary study found a shallow water table (two to three feet) to extend the entire width of the site to the west of the lake (of. figure VI-6). Because of this condition, should buildings be placed in this area, spread footings are not recommended. Instead, straight shaft plies into bed-rock should be used.
In addition, standing water was found in the northern fork of the irrigation ditch on all site visits.
SOILS
In the absence of specific test borings, the most detailed soils information for the site is to be obtained from the Colorado Soil Conservation Service. Five soil units are found on the site: Nunn Clay Loam, Gravel Pits, Lavak Sandy Loam, Nunn-Viban Land Complex, and Denver Kutch Urban Land Complex (cf. figure VI-7).
The Nunn Clay Loam is deep and well drained. Typically, the surface layer is neutral, clay loam about 6 inches thick. The upper 17 inches of the subsoil is mildly alkaline, heavy clay loam. The substratum to a depth of 60 inches is moderately alkaline, light clay loam.
Permeability of this Nunn soil is slow. Available water capacity is high. Effective rooting depth is 60 inches or more. Runoff is medium, and the hazard of water erosion is moderate. The hazard of soil blowing is moderate. Shrink-swell potential is high. Rock fragments range from 0 to 15 percent. Soil reaction is neutral to moderately alkaline.


53


FIGURE V1-7
m


61
(The establishment and maintenance of grasses, shrubs, trees and garden plants is limited by clayey textures.. Maintaining plant residue on or near the surface reduces runoff and helps to maintain soil tilth and organic matter content. Applications of manure and commercial fertilizers containing nitrogen and phosphorus are needed in maintaing soil fertility. Supplemental irrigation is needed when planting and during dry period.)
(If theNunn soil is used for homesite development, the main limitations are shrin-swell, low strength, and slow permeability. The effects of shrinking and swelling can be minimized by using proper engineering designs and by backfilling with material that has low shrink-swell potential. Controlling surface and subsurface drainage near foundations is necessary to minimize the effects of shrinking and swelling. Properly installed tile drains below the foundation and minimal watering on the surface near the foundation help control seepage into basements and the effects of shrinking and swelling. Buildings and road should be designed to offset the limited ability of the soil in this unit to support a load. The possibility of settlement can be minimized by compacting the building site before construction is begun. Erosion and sedimentation canbe controlled and the beauty of the area enhanced by maintaining adequate plant cover.)
Gravel pits consist mostly of cut areas created from the mining of alluvial gravels and crushed rock, borrow areas, or


extensive cut and fill. Permeability of gravel pits is moderate to very rapid. Available water capacity is usually low. Runoff is slow to rapid, and the hazard of water erosion is moderate to high. The hazard of soil blowing is slight. Shrink-swell potential commonly is low. Soil reaction is mildly alkaline to slight acid.
The establishment and maintenance of grasses, shrubs, trees and garden plants is limited by slope, depth to rock, and small and large stones. Planting are difficult to establish and maintain on this soil. Mulches are essential in establishing good stands of planting on steep cut and fill slopes Applications of manure and commercial fertilizers containing nitrogen and phosphorus are needed. Planting on the contour helps to conserve moisture and reduce erosion. Removal of pebbles and cobbles in disturbed areas is required for best results when landscaping, particularly in areas used for lawn. Supplemental irrigation is needed when planting and during dry period.
If this unit is used for homesite development, the main limitations are depth to rock, slope, large and small stones, and slippage. The deep cuts needed to provide essentially level building sites can expose bedrock. Removal of pebbles and cobbles in disturbed areas is required for best results when landscaping. Some areas now havea high water table due to seepage from perennial streams. Drainage is needed in some areas if roads and building foundations are constructed.


The Lavate Sandy Loam is deep and well drained. The surface layer is neutral, sandy loam about 5 inches thick.
The subsoil is neutral, sandy clay loam about 28 inches thick. The subtratum to a depth of 60 inches is mildly alkaline, sandy loam.
Permeability of this Lavate is moderately slow. Available water capacity is high. Effective rooting depth is 60 inches or more. Runoff is medium, and the hazard of water erosion is moderate. The hazard of soil blowing is moderate. Shrink-swell potential is low to moderate. Rock fragments range from 0 to 15 percent. Soil reaction is neutral to mildly alkaline.
The establishment and maintenance of grasses, shrubs, trees and garden plants is limited by slope. Mulches are essential in establishing good stands of plantings on steep cut and fill slopes. Applications of manure and commercial fertilizers containing nitrogen and phosphorus are needed in maintaining soil fertility. Supplemental irrigation is needed when planting and during dry periods.
If the Lavate soil is used for homesite development, the main limitations are shrink-swell, slope, low strength, and slow permeability. The effects of shrinking and swelling can be minimized by using proper engineering designs and by backfilling with material that has low shrink-swell potential. Structures to divert runoff are needed if buildings and roads


are constructed. Buildings and roads should be designed to offset the limited ability of the soil in this unit to support a load. The possibility of settlement can be minimized by compacting the building site before construction is begun. Existing vegetation should be protected as much as possible during the construction process.
The Nunn-Urban Land Complex is a composite of Nunn Clayey Loam and Urban land. On this site, the complex is entirely the Nunn Clayey Loam, described earlier.
The Denver-Kutch-Urban Land Complex is composed of 40 percent Denver, 25 percent Kutch, and 20 percent Urban land.
On the site, the complex is represented by Kutch soils.
The Kutch soil is moderately deep and well drained. Typically, the surface layer is neutral, clay loam about 3 inches thick. The upper 8 inches of the subsoil is neutral
to mildly alkaline, clay. The lower 15 inches is moderately
*
alkaline, clay and heavy clay loam overlying soft interbedded shale at a depth of 26 inches.
Permeability of the Kutch soil is slow. Available water capacity is high. Effective rooting depth is 20 to 40 inches. Runoff is medium, and the hazard of water erosion is moderate. Shrink-swell potential is high. Depth to soft bedrock ranges from 20 to 40 inches. Rock fragments range from 0 to 15 percent. Soil reation is neutral to moderately alkaline.
The establishment and maintenance of grasses, shrubs, trees and garden plants is limited by clayey textures. Mulching with plant residues will reduce runoff, improve soil


65
tilth and conserve moisture. (Supplemental irrigation is needed when planting and during dry period.)
If this Unit is used for homesite development, the main limitations are shrink-swell, depth to rock, low strength, and slow permeability. The effects of shrinking and swelling can be minimized by using proper engineering designs and by backfilling with material that has low shrink-swell potential. Controlling surface and subsurface drainage near foundations is necessary to minimize the effects of shrinking and swelling. Properly installed tile drains below the foundation and minimal watering on the surface near the foundation help control seepage into basements and the effects of shrinking and swelling.
Buildings and roads should be designed to offset the limited ability of the soils in this unit to support a load. The possibility of settlement can be minimized by compacting the building site before construction is begun. Flooding can occur in areas normally not subject to any flooding with increased urbanization upslope.
VEGETATION
For the most part the site is sparsely vegetated. The land was apparently once used for grazing and has been severely overgrazed. Native grasses predominate; species found on the site include western wheatgrass, green needlegrass, blue gamma and Griffith wheatgrass. Scattered yuccas are found on the hill to the south of Meadow Lake. Other shrubs include mullein and bull thistle.


Stands of plains cottonwoods, typically, are found near Meadow Lake and along the north fork of the irrigation ditch (cf. figures VI-8, VI-23 and VI-25) The cottonwoods range from forty to sixty feet in height; the largest have a diagonal breast diameter of three feet. Mixed with the cotton woods are box elders and russian olives. The russian olives are about ten to fifteen feet t.all with a diagonal breast height of approximately eight inches. The box elders are twenty-five to thirty feet in height with a diagonal breast diameter of ten to twelve inches.
The only other significant vegetation found on the site is a stand of black locusts occupying the southeast corner (cf. figure VI-8). A few box elders are mixed with the black locusts. Both the box elders and black locusts range in height from twenty-five to thirty-five feet.
CLIMATE
Every site has its own micro-climate, and the proposed site is no exception. The overwhelming climatic influence, however, is regional. The climate of the Denver Region is typical of a semi-arid, high altitude zone: mild and sunny with brief period of extreme hot and cold temperatures. The agreeable climate the region enjoys results from the low relative humidity and the shelter of the Rocky Mountains.
Denvers weather is influenced by air masses from four distinct sources: frigid artic air from Canada; warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico; warm dry air from Mexico; and


I


68
mild Pacific air altered by its passage over the Rocky Mountains .
Winter is, predictably, the coldest of the four seasons with an average minimum temperature of approximately 18F.and a mean temperature of 32F. The mountains tend to moderate the severity of the winters. Cold air from the northwest is often held against the mountains and fails to reach the Denver Region. Warmer air, from the west, in the form of chinook winds frequently produces unseasonably warm weather. Additionally, the cold artic air from Canada that spreads over the central plains often fails to reach to the higher altitude of the region.
Winter is the driest season of the year with only about
ten percent of the annual precipitation. The majority of the
precipitation occurs as snowfall. Although there is significant cloudiness associated with the snowfall, skies are frequently clear and the average percentage of sunshine is quite close to the annual average of seventy percent.
Spring is the most cloudy, wet and windy of the seasons.
As can be seen from the climatic summary (cf. figure VI-9),
almost forty-percent of the annual snowfall occurs during the spring. The increased snowfall is the product of cold artic air from Canada meeting warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico. While spring brings a large amount of snow, it does not accumulate for long periods as it is melted by periods of warm weather. This is reflected in an average spring temperature of ^7F.


JAIM FEB MAR APR MAY JUIM JUL AUG SEP OCT IMOV DEC YR
91 33 37 a7 58 66 73 72 ].' * 62 52 39 32 1 MEAN TEMPERATURE rF) '
17 20 2a 33 44 52 59 ;tu } * J 57 -;f | 08 37 25 18 AVERAGE MINIMUM TEMPERATURE CF)
-25 -25 -8 7 22 30 03 ai 29 3 -7 -16 S EXTREME MINIMUM TEMPERATURE CF)
00 47 50 61 71 80 88 B6 78 67 -*: 't 50 . £ f 06 AVERAGE MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE CF)
72 76 83 85 91 102 102 ioa 97 87 i ~ 76 j ,, 73 EXTREME maximum TEMPERATURE CFJ
.5 .8 1.3 1.6 2.6 1.7 1.9 i.a 1.3 1.1 .8 .5 15.5 AVERAGE PRECIPITATION Cl
7 ID 15 9 1 .1 O .i 2 5 8 6 62 AVERAGE SNOWFALL (]
55 58 60 60 61 50 50 09 OO OO 53 53 53 MEAN CLOUD COVER Clol
72 71 70 66 65 71 71 72 70 73 66 68 71 AVERAGE SUNSHINE do]
54 sa 53 ai 50 50 50 05 06 09 56 66 AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY Clo)
CLIMATIC SUMMARY: DENVER
FIGURE VI-S
69


The weather patterns of summer are as dynamic as those of spring. Mornings frequently break clear and relatively cool. The intense summer sun warms the air during the morning and early afternoon. Clouds often form in the mid-afternoon bringing shade to what would be the warmest part of the day. Afternoons may bring cooling showers, which produce about a third of the annual precipitation. Although summer temperatures do exceed 100F, these hot stretches are relatively infrequent. Even when the daytime temperatures are high, the air cools significantly during the evening. This large diurnal temperature swing is characteristic of arid and semi-arid climates. The cool evenings contribute to a mild summer mean temperature of 70F.
In many respects, autumn is the most pleasant of the seasons. The warm temperatures of summer have subsided and the cool temperatures of winter have yet to begin. The temperatures are quite mild, having an average of 66F. In addition, autumn brings the largest percentage of sunshine of all the seasons.
Two aspects of climate are particularly important to the proposed project: wind patterns and solar radiation. Both can have a considerable impact upon the micro-climate of a site. The general wind patterns of the region are illustrated in the form of an annual wind rose (cf. figure VI-10). This figure shows that over thirty percent of the annual wind comes from the south. This is generally warmer air from


~r\


ANNUAL WIND ROSE
FIGURE VI-no
PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY
a-ns i3-a^ >54
IVIPH


Mexico. In addition, a significant amount comes from the north and northwest. This is generally cold artic air from Canada. The impact of the general wind pattern upon the site is illustrated in figure VI-11.
The most important climatic factor for the proposed project is solar radiation. Specifically, the path of the sun across the sky must be determined in order to allow desirable solar radiation to enter the structures in the winter and to block unwanted solar gain in the summer. The position of the sun in the sky is measured by two angles: azimuth and altitude. Their relationship is shown in figure VI-12. The position of the sun varies according to latitude, time of day and the time of year. The sun chart found in figure VI-13 illustrates these relationships for a latitude of 40. Actually the site has a latitude somewhat less than this, 39*8, but this variation is of little significance.
The sun chart shows that the winter sun rises at an azimuth of -59 and sets at 59 Its highest altitude is 27.
The summer sun rises at an azimuth of -121 and sets at 121; it attains a maximum altitude of 73 These relationships are illustrated in figure VI-14.
Not only must the position of the sun be known, but also the amount of radiation it delivers. The most recent figures on solar radiation are found in the second volume of Passive Solar Design Handbook: Passive Solar Design Analysis This data is contained in figure VI-15.
The orientation of the surface receiving solar radiation is


CLIMATIC IMPACT ON SITE
FIGURE VI -11
si
U


N
AZIMUTH & ALTITUDE
FIGURE VI-IS
SUM RATH: SOLSTICES
FIGURE vi-na
SUMMER Si WIMTER C4Q ML)


SLUM CHART: 40 NORTH LATITUDE
FIGURE VI-13
Si
U1
altitude anqles


JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YR
BOO 1127 1530 1B79 2136 2351 2273 2000 1727 1300 BB3 732 HS
1440 1551 1572 1300 1107 mo 1130 1277 1530 1616 1020 1327 VS
30 33 37 OB 57 66 73 J 72 63 52 39 32 TA
623 082 006 130 IB i -J. O 1 O 3 63 320 500 2592 D5Q
77B 622 560 200 63 6 -t o O io 03 069 696 3589 D55
933 762 713 379 103 23 f o O 51 261 618 809 0733 D60
loss 902 S6B 526 253 BO O l O 120 OOB 768 lOOO 6017 065
1203 1002 1023 676 006 15S 50 69 232 560 91B 1160 7638 D70

HS - NORMAL 1
VS - NORMAL
TA - [TMAX + T
xx- MONTHLY
ninj/sj; where tmax s. TMirj are monthly normals for daily
MAXIMUM Sl MINIMUM AMBIENT TEMPERATURES IF]
NORMAL OF HEATING DEGREE-DAYS BELOW BASE TEMPERATURE XX CF-DAYSJ
SOLAR RADIATION S. DEGREE DAYS: \ DENVER
FIGURE VI-15
76


critical. Figure VI-16 shows that within thirty degrees of due south, over ninety percent of the total solar radiation is captured. The effect of this upon building siting is illustrated in figure VI-l?. The specific values for 40 North Latitude are presented in figure VI-18. These figures are shown for comparative purposes only, as they are not the most up to date data.
Another significant variable related to solar heating is the effect of shadows. Clearly, areas within shadows will receive no direct solar radiation. Knowledge of shadow location is important in order to block undesirable heat gain in the summer and allow desirable radiation to enter in the winter. Shadow length varies according to time of day, day of year and latitude. The shadow lengths for a one foot pole at h-O0 North Latitude on December 21 for various slopes are shown in figure VI-19. The a.m. and p.m. values correspond to 45 azimuths which are taken to define the day's period of usable solar radiation. A date of December 21 is chosen as this is when maximum shadow length occurs.
VIEWS
The site is favored with several visual amenities. At this point, there is no development directly to the west and southwest; the site affords an attractive view of the mountains from a number of different locations (cf. figure VI-20).
A particularly pleasing vista is obtained from several of the


FRACTION OF DUE SOUTH EFFICIENCY
78
EAST SOUTH WEST
ORIENTATION IN DEGREES
EFFECT OF COLLECTOR ORIENTATION
FIGURE VI -16
N
S
45 VARIATION FROM IDEAL EAST/WEST ORIENTATION IS ACCEPTABLE, AND A MAXIMUM 22 5 VARIATION IS BETTER, TO ASSURE PROPER WINTER HEAT GAIN AND SUMMER SHADE
CONTROL.
OPTIMAL BUILDING ORIENTATION
FIGURE VI-T7
PERCENT OF DUE SOUTH EFFICIENCY


J
40 North Latitude
N NE, NW E, W SE, sw s HORIZ
January 120 128 474 1079 1506 948
February 1 64 215 666 1180 1502 1374
March 220 376 858 1183 1244 1852
# April 294 593 1002 1075 838 2274
May 384 747 1063 952 598 2552
|une 446 816 1083 894 528 2648
July 398 749 1048 931 586 2534
August 312 595 975 1034 806 2244
September 230 370 816 1126 1190 1796
October 170 218 642 1129 1436 1348
November 122 130 466 1056 1472 942
December 102 105 393 1007 1434 782
HEAT GAIIM FOR VARIOUS ORIENTATIONS IBTU/FTaJ
FIGURE VI-1B
40 NORTH LATITUDE
N NE E SE S SW W NW
SLOPE AM NOON PM AM NOON PM AM NOON PM AM NOON PM AM NOON PM AM NOON PM AM NOON PM AM NOON PM
0% 4.8 2.0 4.8 4.8 2.0 4.8 4.8 2.0 4.8 4.8 2.0 4.8 4.8 2.0 4.8 4.8 2.0 4.8 4.8 2.0 4.8 4.8 2.0 4.8
5% 5.7 2.2 5.7 4.8 2.2 6.2 4.1 2.0 5.7 3.8 1.9 4.8 4.1 1.8 4.1 4.8 1.9 3.8 5.7 2.0 4.1 6.2 2!2 4.8
10% 7.2 2.5 7.2 4.8 2.3 9.1 3.6 2.0 7.2 3.2 1.8 4.8 3.6 1.7 3.6 4.8 1.8 3.2 7.2 2.0 3.6 9.1 2.3 4.8
15% 9.6 2.9 9.6 4.8 2.6 16.6 3.2 2.0 9 1 2.8 1.7 4.8 3.2 1.6 3.2 4.8 1.7 2.8 9.6 2.0 3.2 16.6 2.6 4.8
20% 14.5 3.4 14.5 4.8 2.8 97.5 2.8 2.0 14.5 2.4 1.6 4.8 2.8 1.5 2.8 4.8 1.6 2.4 14.5 2.0 2.8 97.5 2.8 4.8
SHADOW LENGTHS
FIGURE VI -19



INTERNAL &
FIGURE VI -20
EXTERNAL SITE VIEWS
OD


higher points (cf., e.g., figure VI-21). But even the lower points offer unobstructed mountain views (cf. figure VI-22).
The most notable internal view is toward Meadow Lake.
Again, the view is pleasing from a number of different locations within the site (cf. figures VI-23 and VI-24). The view of the, lake is enhanced by the stands of cottonwoods and willows which encircle its south edge. In addition, the cottonwoods and willows along the north fork of the irrigation are quite appealing (cf. figure IV-25).
Perhaps the only unattractive view associated with the site is an external one, toward 64th Avenue (cf. figure VI-26).
CIRCULATION
The site is served principally by 64th Avenue (cf. figure VI-1), which has the status of an arterial or "parkway". The role of 64th Avenue within the Arvada Street system can be seen in figure III-3. Additionally, 64th Avenue is an important transit route (cf. figure III-5). The closest north-south arterial is Ward Road, about a quarter of a mile to the east.
Several roads from Meadow Lake Estates to the southeast terminate at the edge of the site (cf. figure VI-l). The roads serve principally as local streets within the subdivision, and any extension of them on to the site would undoubtedly serve a similar role.


B2
NOISE
A section of 6*4-th Avenue, including the part continuous with the site, is a state highway: Colorado 72. The road receives moderate traffic with some heavy truck traffic, as well as buses. For 1980, the Colorado Department of Highways estimated the annual average daily traffic on the section of 6kth Avenue north of the site to be 13,^00.
This volume of traffic generates considerable noise. The estimated noise level adjacent to the highway ranges between 60 dB and 90 dB, depending upon volume and type of traffic. Moving to the interior of the site appreciably lowers the noise level. From approximately the middle of the site, little effect of the highway is noticed. The lower topography may account for some of this effect, as well as the distance from the noise source. The estimate noise level for the southern section of the site is 35-^0 dB.


VIEW TO SOUTHWEST FROM "D
FIGURE VI-2'1
VIEW TO WEST FROM "C
FIGURE VI -22


VIEW TO LAKE FROM "D
FIGURE VI-S3
VIEW TO LAKE FROM "l
FIGURE VI-34
l
f


FIGURE VI-25
VIEW OF RALSTON ROAD FROM "H
FIGURE VI-36


\
i
7 THE PROGRAM
\


Chapter VII The Program
SMALL TWO BEDROOM
FIRST FLOOR Living Room 225
Dining Room 100
Kitchen 75
Laundry Room 15
Half Bath 25
Entry w/ closet 50
Mechanical kO
SECOND FLOOR Master Bedroom 175
Second Bedroom 100
Bathroom 70
Circulation (15%) 125
TOTAL 980
LARGE TWO BEDROOM
FIRST FLOOR Living Room 275
Dining Room 125
Kitchen 85
Laundry Room 15
Bathroom W?
Entry w/ closet 30
Mechanical kO
SECOND FLOOR Master Bedroom 225
Second Bedroom 125
Bathroom 85
Circulation (15%) 150
TOTAL 1220


THREE BEDROOM
FIRST FLOOR
SECOND FLOOR
Living Room 300
Dining Room 125
Kitchen 85
Laundry Room 35
Bathroom 45
Entry w/ closet 30
Mechanical 40
Bedroom/Study 150
Master Bedroom 225
Second Bedroom 125
Bathroom 85
Circulation 170
TOTAL 1405


FUNCTIONAL


Chapter VIII
Functional Relationships
THE LIVING ROOM
Several factors should be considered when designing a living room. Initially, it is essential to recognize the types of activities that usually take place in the living area: reading, listening to music, watching television, and conversing. In the absence of a family room, the living room may also serve as a play area for children. The living room, thus, is the primary leisure space in the dwelling.
To facilitate conversation, an area of about ten feet in diameter is recommended (cf. figure VIII-1). A critical factor is furniture placement, and the circulation pattern it creates. Convenient access should be provided to doors, windows, electric outlets, thermostats and heating ducts. It is recommended that access patterns be separated from activity centers. Figure VIII-2 illustrates several acceptable arrangements.
Generally, to assure adequate space for convenient use
and circulation, the following clearances are recommended:
60" between facing seating
24" for circulation between furniture
30" for use of a desk
36" for main traffic circulation
60" between seating and the television set.
Typical sizes for common living room furniture is shown in figure VIII-3. Figure VIII-4 illustrates the different possibilities for arranging this furniture.


SB
To s I eep i ng area and main entrance
To dining and kItchen area
CONVERSATION AREA
FIGURE VIII-1
LIVING ROOM CIRCULATION
FIGURE VIII-2


89
SOFAS
"SHERATON'' TYPE LENGTH 6'-0" OEPTH 2-6" HEIGHT 3'-0"
CHIPPENDALE
L. 6-6"
O' 2-6"
H 3'-0*
TYPE
PLAIN UPHOLSTERED
l r-o"
3-0"
3'-0"
LOVE SEATS
CHAIRS
CLUB
LENGTH 2'-6" DEPTH 3'-0" HEIGHT 3'-0"

s
OCCASIONAL
L 2-3"
0 2'-6"
H 3'-0"

^Sfl j .
WING
L 2*6" D 2'*6m H 3'-0"
SIOE OR OESK
L r-6"
0 l'-6"
H 2-6"
UPHOLSTEREO
ARMLESS
L 2'0"
D 2-6"
H 2- 6"
UPHOLSTERED CORNER CHAIR
L 3'-0" D 3'-0"
BRIOGE
ARM
L 2-0" D 2*-0"
H 2'-6"
BRIDGE
ARMLESS
L r-6"
D l'-6"
H 2* 6"
DESKS
FLAT TOP... SMALL
LENGTH 4*-0" DEPTH 2*-0" HEIGHT 2'-6"
FLAT TOP... LARGE
L 5'*0" D 2*-6" H 2'-6"
* .... ..........
FLAT TOP.....VERY LARGE
L 6'-0"
D 3'-0"
H 2-6"
- .
Mi
GOVERNOR SECRETARY
WINTHROP L 3-0"
L 3'-0" D 2'*0"
D 2'*0" H 7'-0"
H 3-6"
8REAKFRONT BOOK CASES
8MALL
LENGTH 4'-0" OEPTH r-6" HEIGHT 6-6"
L S-O" 0 l'-6" H 7-0"
TABLES
END
L 2'-0" D l'- 3" H 2'-0"
END
L l'-8" D l'-8" H 2*0"
LOWBOYS
AVERAGE
LENGTH 2-6" DEPTH l'-6" HEIGHT 2'*6"
L 2'-8m 0 l'-8" H 3'-2"
HIGHBOYS
SWAN TOP
L 3**0"
0 l'-6"
H 7*0"
FLAT TOP
L 3'-0"
D l'-6"
H $-0"
PI ANOS
37
38
39
CONCERT GRANO 40. BABY GRAND
L. 9'-0" L 5-6"
0 5'-0" D 5-0"
H 3'*4" H 3'*4"
MUSIC ROOM GRAND 41 CONSOLE
L 7**0" L 5-0"
D s'-o" D 2'-O'
H 3'-4" H 4*3"
PARLOR GRAND 42. Ml NATURE
L 6*-0" L 4'*8"
0 5'-0" D r-7"
H 3*4" H 3'-0"
Hggl
CONSOLE
L 3'-0" D l'-6" H 2'-6
CIRCULAR PIECES
LIVING ROOM FURNITURE
FIGURE VIII-3


30
/ \
____________________________25'- 3"*_____________________
In all living rooms shown, main conversation group centered about fireplace is dark gray. Bay or picture windows may be used as focal points, instead of fireplaces.
Here, presumably, doors at ends of room indicate use of one side of room as a traffic route. Primary furniture is grouped closely about fireplace; wall pieces are all that can be used on opposite side.
In a room with only one door the minimum traffic lane of 3'-4" needs to be increased to at least 4'-10", which will accommodate two persons side by side, without crowding.
Fireplace chairs set 3'-6" back from center line of fireplace permit occupants to gaze at the fire comfortably. General traffic cannot be accommodated in a 2-ft lane.
By using love seats instead of pairs of chairs at sides of fireplace, considerable space can be saved even though seats are not placed the minimum distance apart.
LIVING ROOM ARRANGEMENTS
FIGURE VIII-4


Primary group shown is one of most popular arrangements. Unit placing suggests entrance at left end. Secondary conversation unit often becomes music or game group.
If living room has a "dead end" (no doors), primary unit may be spread to include entire end of room. Inclusion of music or game group would demand more area.
J \
__________________23 8 "--______________*
Off-center rooms often divide naturally into two parts: primary group, and other groups combined. Clearance no greater than 2' will not accommodate a major traffic lane.
/ \
In rooms with fireplaces in end walls, as in the schemes immediately preceding, furniture arrangements often fall naturally into two distinct groups.
Placing the sofa against one side of the room tends to open up the primary group-in effect, to merge with it the secon -dary conversation -group furniture.
LIVING ROOM ARRANGEMENTS
FIQURE X/lll-4


THE DINING ROOM
The principle activities taking place in the dining room are the serving and eating of food. Additionally, various eating utensils may be stored in the dining room. The most important consideration in designing the dining room is to provide adequate space for convenient use and circulation.
To this end, the following clearances are recommended:
32" for chairs plus access
38" for chairs plus passage
42" for serving from behind chair
24" for passage only
48" from table to base cabinet (if kitchen is combined with the dining area).
These clearances are shown in figure VIII-5. Typical sizes for common dining room furniture is illustrated in figure VIII-6 and their arrangement is shown in figure VIII-7.
THE KITCHEN
The principle activities occurring in the kitchen are the storage of food and utensils, the preparation of food, and the cleaning of utensils. The relationship between these activities is frequently expressed as the "kitchen triangle"
(cf. figure VIII-8). A typical pattern for food storage (non-refrigerated) and utensil storage is shown in figure VIII-9. Common kitchen arrangements are illustrated in figure VIII-10. Recommended clearances are 48" for corridor plans and 60" for U-shaped plans.
Proximate to the kitchen may be a laundry room.
Several arrangements are shown in figure VIII-11. Figure VIII-12 shows the arrangement of several laundries not directly connected


93
DINING ROOM CIRCULATION
FIGURE VIII-5
__ 1 1 H H
_ 1 1
r i
[ i

BUFFET
h T rto3, r
L 4'-10't06'-6''
d r-yro2-r
SIDEBOARD
h 2,q,ro3'-7 l 4;-crto 5-0-D 1'8'orr-q"
CORNER
CUPBOARD
f~ i-o'ro 3-0*J
TABLE
H 2-6to 3'-0 L 2 -bfo 3'- 6" D 1-2TOV-9"
CHINA
CABINET
H 4-2TO b'-2" W 2-8" to 3-8" d r-2"ro i- h-.L'i
MINIMUM
KNEE
CLEARANCE
DINING
TABLES
DINING
ROOM
CHAIRS
H 210" ro 3- 3' W V-faro 2-0-D 1-6" ro r-10-
Table for two
21-6" x 2-6"
Table for four 21-6" x 3-2"
Table for six
3 -a:* x 61 -o"
DIIMIIMCB ROOM FURNITURE
FIGURE VIII 6


sa
Minimum requires 2-ft buffet space on one side only; 3' more length is needed for extension table.
Typical dining-room suite, as used in East and on West Coast, requires furniture space on two sides of room.
Long narrow area with some waste space results when wall pieces are at ends, and end entrance is needed.
> 7 Vr f S v*j / \fr.~4 v / : o U -.o j: o \ *\ c
/ S M ' o
K mm A
H*- t" i
Solid lines indicate minimum room with corner cupboards, no wall furniture. Dotted lines indicate added space for 3' breakfast table.
II- T~:
Table-and-passage unit in one corner permits use of minimum space for multiple activities; piano may be replaced by desk, love seat, etc.
The same set of clearances applies to the seldom used round table as to the more popular oblong table.
DINING ROOM ARRANGEMENTS
FIGURE VIII-7


95
KITCHEN KITCHEN STORAGE
TRIANGLE FIGURE Vlll-S
FIGURE VIII-B
KITCHEN ARRANGEMENTS
FIGURE Vlll-na