TAPPAHANNOCK SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTIST CHURCH
ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARIA LIBRARY
CANDYCE E. ROBERTS MAY 1985
TAPPAHANNOCK SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTIST CHURCH ) Tappahannock, Virginia
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Archi tecture
This thesis project is the design of a new facility for the congregation of the Tappahannock, Virginia Seventh-day Adventist Church. The church members have been studying the possibilities involved with the construction of a new church for several years. Circumstances have now put the congregation into a position where they will shortly be forced to build some sort of facility, although what type of function (sanctuary, gymnasium, community center) the building will have is still under d i scuss ion.
I became involved with the project in the summer of 1983 when my parents moved to Tappahannock and began attending worship services at the church Following several discussions with the pastoral staff and other members of the church's building committee, 1 decided to design the new facility as my thesis.
This thesis is the culmination of not only my graduate work at the University of Colorado at Denver but also several research projects in religious architecture done as an undergraduate at Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan.
I would like to thank Elder Rick Wilkin, pastor of the Tappahannock Church and my father, Sylvester Roberts, for all their help in gathering together the information that I needed.
1 DESIGN INTENTIONS 1-1 TABLE OF
11 BACKGROUND CONTENTS
Development of the Christian Church as a Building Type 2-1
History and Organization of the Seventh-day 2-5
Tappahannock Seventh-day Adventist Church History 2-9
History of Tappahannock, Virginia 3-1
Site Information 3"l4
Climate Information 3-28
Essex County Zoning Requirements 4-1
BOCA 1981 Building Code Requirements 4-3
V SPACE DESCRIPTION
Li turgy 5-1
Sanctuary Furnishings 5-3
Acoust ics 5-11
Analysis of Space Requirements 5-15
Summary of Spaces 5-37
VI DESIGN OF THE TAPPAHANNOCK SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTIST CHURCH
The Drawings 6-1
The Model 6-9
Discussion of the Design 6-13
VI 1 CONCLUSIONS 7-1
We have developed a grand tradition of religious architecture. Even those who don't know anything about Christianity undoubtedly know what a "church" is supposed to look like. But society has changed. With society's emphasis on the future, perhaps Christianity's reliance on traditional forms is failing to speak to those who are searching for assurance for the future. The question we need to ask is: does a neo-gothic church, built in the 1980's, really have anything positive to say about the relevance of Christianity for today and its hope for the future, or is the building making a subtle point that Christianity belongs to the past?
It is important that as the liturgy of Christian worship has grown to meet the changing needs of the congregation, so the architecture of
the church should grow to meet the needs of the new form of liturgy.
Church architecture must fill the needs of today's society and look toward the future. The historical forms that seem to satisfy our emotional sensibilities about religious architecture may not, in fact, have any relevance to the present and future of the Christian liturgy.
The greatest function of the church building is providing a place for the celebration of the worship of God. The social, educational and community aspects of the Christian church are all important and have
their own spatial needs within the church facility, but the first and
foremost reason for the building's existence is to provide a place for individuals to come together before God and to worship Him. The architectural form of the building has a responsibility to respond to and reinforce the liturgical rituals of the congregation who worship there.
A Seventh-day Adventist church needs to have an architectural form that not only supports the liturgy of the worship service but that also gives physical expression to the unique doctrines of the denomination. Of all the beliefs that Adventists hold dear, two are of utmost importance: the Sabbath and the Second Advent of Jesus Christ.
Probably the most important belief of the Adventist denomination is that of the sacredness of the seventh day (Saturday) Sabbath. It is a special day to worship God, set aside as a memorial of God's creative power. The Sabbath is a day, dedicated by God at creation, to rest and restoration of spirit, of body, of friendships, of relationships with God and man.
The church worship service on the Sabbath serves to strengthen the relationship between God and man. The focal point of the service is
the sermon the active study of the Word of God by the entire congregation. From the time the congregation enters the building their experience should grow toward the focal point of entering into God's presence and learning of His character. Each space and the arrangement of the entire building should emphasize the sanctuary and the special services that take place there. The sanctuary should act as a landmark within the building. Attention should always be directed toward it as the members of the congregation participate in other activities within the church.
The Sabbath is also a day to strengthen relationships with others. It is especially a day for families. Space needs to be provided within the church facility for activities involved with the nurturing of the congregation as a family. The fellowship available at the church promotes healthy relationships between each member of the congregation.
The Sabbath as a memorial of creation emphasizes the congregation's relationship with nature. An important aspect of this idea finds expression in the setting in which the building is placed. A building that works closely with the natural environment can create a small piece of "heaven on earth". People drawn into close contact with nature as they use the church will be able to gain a spiritual blessing from the examples of God's creation that surround them.
The restoration of man's relationship with nature is also evident in the concept of providing a worship place that promotes the health of the body. The Sabbath gives emphasis to the physical and mental wellbeing of the congregation. A church that is cheerful and stimulating, has lots of fresh air and sunshine, and creates an atmosphere of relaxation will ease the stress of the week and at the same time heighten the sense of worship.
The second doctrine that is of great importance to the Seventh-day Adventist church is that of the literal, physical return of Jesus Christ to this earth in the near future. This gives a strong sense of hope, expectancy and evangelical urgency to the congregation as they prepare for this event. The Adventist church is evangelical in nature. They are actively involved in preaching the "Good News" of Jesus Christ to the entire world. This outreach involves Bible study series for the community and an abundance of programs aimed at filling the needs of the community. These programs include such things as health seminars, cooking schools and disaster relief. Due to the number of community members coming to the church for various programs, it is extremely
important that the church be as inviting as possible. The building needs to fit comfortably into the local context and make a statement about its commitment to serve the community.
The doctrine of the soon coming Second Advent is also a climactic point of focus for the church. The members are united in their anticipation of the event. This hope is the reason for the existence of the Seventh-day Adventist church and gives special identity to the congregation as a group. It is important that the church building give physical expression to this feeling of identity. The building should help draw the congregation together and give them something to feel proud of.
The modern church has a responsibility to direct the worshipper's thought to God. The church should house the worship and fellowship functions of the congregation and at the same time create an atmosphere where the people will feel drawn toward God and uplifted by their time there. Each element used in the design of the building should seem as though it was placed there with loving care for the express purpose of giving glory to God.
This thesis will be a study of three specific areas of religious architecture. The design theories that will be tested include:
1. The church building can be a physical representation of a congregation's liturgy.
2. Traditional forms of Christian architecture are important in the historical development of the church building. They also have an important impact on the emotional response of people toward a church. But Christianity's philosophy is for the present and the future. New church buildings need to reflect the emphasis on the future, drawing on only those historical elements that will help strengthen the future of Christian worship.
3- The theological doctrines of a congregation should be expressed in the design of their church building. A Seventh-day Adventist church should reinforce those aspects of worship that give its congregation their special sense of identity.
It is the intent of this thesis to study these three issues in the context of the specific goals and liturgy of the Tappahannock Seventh-day Adventist congregation, Tappahannock, Virginia.
HOUSE OF THE VETTII POMPEII, ITALY
|m ufe A*
BASILICA OF CONSTANTINE ROME, ITALY
The Apostolic Christian church had two examples of houses of worship.
Both were drawn from Judaism, out of which most of the early Christians came. The Temple in Jerusalem was the most obvious example of religious architecture, but the Temple services no longer held any meaning for the new Christians and the spaces it provided were not appropriate for the simple worship of the new church.
The synagogue, the second example of Jewish worship places, was a better space for use by the Christians. The synagogue placed more emphasis on the local community and served more as a meeting place than a place of ritual and ceremony as did the Temple.
Using the synagogue services as reference, the Early Christian church began meeting in the private homes of individual members. Lack of funds for construction and opposition from the local population kept the church from building their own places of worship. Instead, the Christians met in the upper level dining rooms of member's houses. Fellowship, study, prayer, and the celebration of the Lord's Supper all took place around the dining room table.
As Christianity spread and finances became better, buildings were erected for the sole purpose of housing Christian worship. These initial church structures were built similar to the ordinary houses that had been used up to that time. The upper level housed the meeting room and the lower level rooms, equivalent to the sleeping and living quarters of a family, were used as classrooms or for the storage of church supplies. (Fig. 2-1)
In 313 A.D., the Edict of Milan, instigated by the Roman Emperor, Constantine, gave official religious status to Christianity. As a result, the church expanded at an amazing rate. The "home church" model was no longer adequate for the needs of the congregations or of the developing clergy. The public basilica, the town meeting hall, became the new model for church worship spaces. (Fig. 2-2)
The basilica was a long, timber-roofed hall with a semi-circular "apse" at one end. The long open space provided the necessary room for the large congregations that attended the services. The apse area formed a natural focal point for the clergy that were performing the service.
The service was conducted with the congregation standing and they moved forward around the communion table, the alter, for the celebration of the Eucharist.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH AS A BUILDING TYPE
Adapted from Exploring Churches by Paul and Tessa Clowney, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, 1982.
S. PAOLO FUORI LE MURA
ROME, ITALY 2 I
ANGOULEME CATHEDRAL AQUITAINE, FRANCE
By the beginning of the 6th century, churches were commonly oriented with the congregation facing east toward Jerusalem. The apse became the special habitation of the clergy who stood between God and the people, and was screened from the public portions of the church. The nave and side aisles began to take on the recognizable lineal forms of the medieval cathedral. (Fig. 2~3)
Romanesque architecture emerged throughout Europe during the late 11th and the 12th centuries. While Roman architecture is the obvious source for these buildings, there are many details which are clearly not Roman. Some of the detailing has been traced to sources as varied as the Byzantine, Islamic and Celtic cultures. (Fig. 2-^)
There had been a wide spread belief among the Christian church that the second coming of Christ would occur during the year 1000 A.D. When it did not happen, it would seem that the Advent enthusiasm was replaced with enthusiasm for the building of new places to worship. Churches began springing up all over Europe.
The Romanesque churches were still basically of the basilica type. The most obvious change was to the roof. The common timbered roof of the Roman basilica was replaced by the stone barrel-vault which eventually developed into the rib-vault of the Gothic era. Characteristic of Romanesque churches are massive walls and columns needed to support the roof and very small windows. Combined together, these two features created large interior spaces that were, for the most part, very dark.
Late Romanesque sculptural work was intricate and extensive, particularly on the west front of the buildings.
The Gothic Cathedrals of Europe, built during the 12th and 13th centuries, are the high period of Gothic church architecture. Designed with a system of geometry which expressed mystical philosophical hierarchies, the cathedrals are a study in symbolic proportions. (Fig. 2-5)
Spurred on by the competition of the developing merchant class, the Gothic cathedrals are incredible in size and detail. The period is characterized by the development of the rib-vault, pointed arches, and an emphasis on the vertical. The development of the flying buttress allowed for not only added height but also the addition of massive amounts of windows in the exterior walls.
The Renaissance, beginning in the 15th century, placed new emphasis on the nobility of man instead of the mysticalness of God. Balanced
FIG. 2-5 S. OUEN
' Y* *
.4 Jk > V. V V V
! <* >
WREN'S ORIGINAL PLAN FOR ST. PAUL S CATHEDRAL LONDON, ENGLAND
PILGRAM CHURCH VIERZEHNHEILIGEN, W. GERMANY
proportions were of ultimate concern in the design of buildings, with each building trying to be more perfectly balanced than the last. (Fig. 2
During the Reformation, churches were adapted or built to shift the focus of the liturgy from the clergy dominated service to services where the congregation could participate in the worship of God. The mass was rejected in favor of a sermon format service. Icons, choir screens and alters were removed, symbolizing God's approachabi1ity for the general public.
The Gothic cathedrals had been built to express the mystery of God and did not adapt well for the spoken sermon and the liturgy of protestantism As a result, new buildings showed a lot of experimentation in plan and materials as the congregations tried to find a physical form that would support their new form of worship.
The Catholic church of this time developed into the Baroque period of architecture. The Church placed importance on the mass as a dramatic re-inactment of the death of Christ and the mysteries of God. The churches built during this time responded to the emotional and symbolic meaning of the liturgy. (Fig* 2-7)
The interior of the Baroque church was theatrical in content. The worshipper was to be caught up in the habitat of the Almighty. The church was a place to transcend earthly life. The exterior of the churches was relatively plain, putting the focus on the interior of the church and what happened there.
The 181h century brought the Age of Enlightenment. Political upheavals, such as the American and French revolutions, and the Industrial Revolution all made their mark on organized religion. Protestant revivals were common and the scores of new churches built rejected the Baroque styles of the Catholic church and instead began to show a more austere Neo-classical style. Roman columns, capitals, and pediments were carefully analyzed and applied along with quoining and heavy cornices. A central plan that favored the protestant service was typically used.
During the 19th century, church architecture faced something of an identity crisis. The philosophical problems of society caused confusion in the Christian Church. The 181h century interest in classical architecture was not meeting the needs of the changing liturgy. Church organizations were restructuring themselves to give more responsibility
UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST W. HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT
to the laity. But there was not a new "style11 that could meet the rapidly changing requirements of the congregations.
Present day congregations are faced with not only the practical problems of organizing and financing a new structure, but they must also identify their goals, their form of liturgy, and the physical expression of their sense of self. The postwar emphasis on functionalism solved some of the problems of housing new liturgical forms but in the process lost much of the emotional enjoyment. Historical forms, on the other hand, appeal to the senses but may not always support the type of worship used today. It is important to study the examples of the past and then to build for the future.
The second coming of Jesus Christ to the earth has been the hope of Christians since Apostolic times. The revival of this hope in the early 19th century was unique because of the emphasis placed on the nearness of the Advent. Based on the prophecies of the Biblical books of Daniel and Revelation, many Christians became convinced of the imminent return of Christ and began to spread the news to all who would listen.
The European movement, following in the footsteps of Sir Isaac Newton, was lead by Presbyterian Edward Irving in England, Johann Bengel in Germany and Russia, Louis Gassen in France and Switzerland, Jesuit priest Manuel Lacunza in South America, and many others in Africa,
India, and the Far East. But it was William Miller in the United States that had the greatest impact.
Miller, who came from a Baptist family, had become a Deist as a teenager. Bur during the War of 1812, surrounded by death, he experienced a new interest in spiritual matters. In 1816, Miller began a verse by verse study of the Bible. Through his study, he became especially interested in the time prophecies of Daniel and Revelation, particularly Daniel 8:1*4, "Unto two thousand and three hundred days: then shall the sanctuary be cleansed." Believing, as did the other religious leaders of the day, that the sanctuary was the earth, Miller became convinced that Christ would return during the Jewish year that occurred from March 21 18*43 to March 21 18*4*4.
Miller preached to thousands during the years between 18*42 and 18*4*4, telling them of the rapidly approaching Advent of Christ. When March 18*4*4 passed without the return of Christ, renewed study by several leaders in the Advent movement resulted in the establishment of a new date, October 22, 18*4*4, the anti-typical date of the Jewish Day of Atonement. Again their expectations were unfulfilled. October 22, 18*4*4 became the Great Disappointment.
Many of the Millerites returned to the "mainline" protestant churches from which they had come, but some of the group recommitted themselves to the study of the Bible and began to search for new understanding of the prophecies. Of those that remained, one group of believers evolved into the beginnings of the Seventh-day Adventist Church.
Joseph Bates, James White, Hiram Edson, and others began publishing small tracts containing the information they were learning through their Bible study. The Seventh-day Sabbath and the Second Coming of Christ were the two primary areas of emphasis.
HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION OF THE SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTIST CHURCH
Ellen White, the wife of James, became a valuable member of the group of early Adventist leaders. She received special visions from God and had the gift of prophecy. Mrs. White eventually confirmed, through vision, the doctrinal decisions the others had committed themselves to through their study of the Bible. In addition she stressed the value of healthful living and importance of the Christian family as an influence for good in society.
Formal organization was opposed for many years by most of those involved with the group. Almost all of them had suffered due to the ostracism and persecution of the protestant churches to which they had formerly belonged. They were uneasy about organizing into anything that resembled the churches that had caused them so much pain in the past. However, the publishing of the tracts grew into such a large operation that eventually the legal ownership of the publishing houses could not be ignored any longer, and the group was forced to organize into a formal church. The membership of the church at its organization in i860 was drawn from many denominations. About half were former Methodists, another quarter came from the Baptist church, and the remainder represented almost every other denomination: Quaker, Presbyterian, Congregational ist, Catholic, and others.
Today the S.D.A. church is involved not only in the publication of Christian literature, but also in Christian education and holistic medicine. The church owns a large international network of hospitals and clinics, and several facilities for the manufacturing of vegetarian meat analogues. The Adventist church also operates the largest non-Catholic parochial school system in the world.
Church membership is rapidly expanding, especially in developing countries Projections based on current growth rate suggest a membership of around 8.5 million by the year 2000 (Adventist Review, 198A). Currently 80% of church membership is located ouside of the United States and that percentage is rising steadily.
In order to deal with such a large international organization, the Seventh day Adventist church has developed a pyramid type command structure.
Local churches are part of a Conference. In the United States a Conference usually consists of the area of a state. Conferences are then grouped into Unions. A union consists of about 8 to 10 Conferences. The Unions in turn are combined into Divisions, and the Divisions into the General Conference.
The General Conference is primarily concerned with issues relating to doctrine and policy and the smooth operation of the Divisions. It also oversees the Board of Directors of such institutions as the publishing houses, educational facilities, and the Adventist Healthcare Systems.
The day-to-day operation of the local church is left basically to the congregation with help from the local Conference. The real power of the organization at the present time lies with the Conferences in the United States and Northern Europe and with the Unions in the rest of the world.
Local church operation is controlled by the pastor (appointed by the Conference with the congregation's approval) and the church appointed Board of Elders. Important issues are voted on by the entire congregation during church business meetings.
In the early 1960's, Tidewater Memorial Hospital was established in Tappahannock, Virginia by a group of Seventh-day Adventist doctors from Washington, D.C. Adventist church members who worked at the hospital began meeting together for Sabbath services. By 1966 the group had grown large enough that it was organized into a church by the local Potomac Conference.
One year later a school building was erected to provide a Christian education for the children of the church members. In 197^ a new school building was finished and the church moved into their present location in the assembly room of the Tappahannock Adventist Junior Academy.
Present church membership stands at 180 members plus children. The population of the church consists mainly of two groups. Approximately one-third of the congregation are retired with no additional family members living at home. The remaining two-thirds are mostly young families with small children.
The church congregation has an average of one child to every 1.9 adults. The children are considered to be the congregation's most valuable resource and as such, their classrooms and programs are extremely important.
TAPPAHANNOCK SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTIST CHURCH
The Tappahannock congregation also places great importance on their outreach programs. They are actively involved with the hospital in health education programs, including stop smoking clinics, cooking schools, exercise classes, prenatal education seminars, etc., some of which are held within the church facility. The Dorcas program is run by the ladies of the church and includes supplying food and clothing to the poor and aiding with local disaster relief.
The church congregation is so deeply involved with the church school and their community outreach programs that the pastor and several members of the congregation have become concerned about the church's identity. The pastor is in the process of implementing a series of new programs aimed at helping the congregation to develop a strong sense of self, apart from all their activities. The site for the new building was chosen with this in mind and the design of the new facility should strongly support the identity of the congregation as a "church."
S>|/vXsllOG> f -jy^-pQk) B./^rOP'S I
STor S>oio>c.iiOh C<^fO>c%
TAPPAHANNOCK JUNIOR ACADEMY Original Building, 1967 Tappahannock, Virginia
TAPPAHANNOCK JUNIOR ACADEMY New Building & Church, 1973 Tappahannock, Virginia______
The city of Tappahannock, Virginia has a history that extends back almost ^00 years. In 1608 Captain John Smith was exploring the Rappahannock River when Indians attempted to lure him and his exploration party into an ambush. The ensuing scurmish was fought on what later became Hobb1s Hole, eventually the city of Tappahannock.
Settlement in Tappahannock was rapid due to its excellent landing spot for the boat traffic on the Rappahannock. The town was designated as a port of entry in 1680 and was given the new name of Little Plymouth.
The town was officially organized in 1682. The name was changed again in 1808 to Tappahannock.
Tappahannock contributed manpower to Virginia's historical fight for freedom beginning with Bacon's Rebellion in 1676 and continuing on through the French and Indian Wars and the American Revolution. Tappahannock families have also held important positions in the Virginia state government and in the government of the Confederacy during the Civil War.
Tappahannock now serves as a business center for the surrounding area.
The town's economic base is supported by the local agriculture and fishing industries. The city also benefits from the business associated with being located at the intersection of the two primary highways serving the northern section of Virginia's eastern shore. Tourism also contributes to the city as it is located very near to Stratford Hall, the birthplace of Robert E. Lee, and Wakefield, the birthplace of George Washington. Jamestown, Williamsburg, Yorktown, and Richmond are also nearby.
HISTORY OF TAPPAHANNOCK
Area of Regional Map
Ma j o r
H i ghways
FTTTxl Area of
RAPPAHANNOCK RIVER Tappahannock, Virginia
BOAT LANDING Rappahannock River Tappahannock
PRINCE STREET (Main Street-CBD) Tappahannock, Virginia
STREET FRONT BUSINESSES Prince Street Tappahannock
ESSEX COUNTY COURTHOUSE CONFEDERATE MONUMENT Built 1843, rebuilt 1365 Prince Street Prince Street, Tappahannock Tappahannock
COUNTY TREASURER'S OFFICE Old Debtors Prison, cir. 1770 Prince Street, Tappahannock
WOMEN'S CLUB CENTER Old Clerk's Office, 1808 Prince Street, Tappahannock
Scots Arms Tavern, cir. 1760
Prince Street, Tappahannock
W. V. JACKSON RESIDENCE Customs House, cir. 1800 Prince Street, Tappahannock
DILLARD RESIDENCE Ritchie House, 1707 Prince Street, Tappahannock
Emerson's Ordinary, 1718 Water Lane, Tappahannock
BEALE MEMORIAL BAPTIST CHURCH
Court House, 1728
Church Street, Tappahannock
ST. JOHN'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH Built 18^8, Recently Renovated Duke Street, Tappahannock
The site is located on the top of a hill on State Highway 360. The highway is the primary traffic route between the northern half of the Virginia eastern shore and the state capital, Richmond. View from the highway onto the site is prohibited by a steep embankment where the highway was cut into the hill. The embankment and the evergreen trees planted on it effectively limit any highway noise from entering the site.
The site is extremely hilly with a water runoff pathway cutting through the center of the site. The water dumps into a creek that runs just to the north of the site. The only flat ground on the site is a portion of ground leveled by the highway department to obtain fill dirt for the highway. The topsoil on that section of ground has been completely removed. The trees in that area have since grown back and are quite large.
Vegetation on the site is very dense. With the exception of the evergreens along the highway, the forest is almost entirely deciduous. The most abundant species of trees are flowering dogwood, American holly, and sourwood. Other hardwoods include oak, gum, hickory, and birch.
Two types of soil are found on the site. Emporia soil is found in limited quantities on the flatter sections of the site. The remainder, and the majority, of the site contains a mixture of Rumford and Emporia soils. The site has approximately a 65 foot drop in elevation with slopes of 5 to 10% common. These slopes combined with the extreme limitations of the Rumford-Emporia soil combination create a situation where severe erosion can be expected if the soil is mismanaged. The depth to bedrock is in excess of 5 feet. There is a perched water table located at an average of k feet below the ground and extending down about 2 to 3 feet. Permeability consists of around 1/3" to 1/2" in 3 hours. The soil has low shrink-swell potential depending on the depth of the soil and the percentage of Emporia soil in the mixture.
Setbacks on the site are 100 feet along the highway and 30 feet on the remainder of the site. There are no existing utilities or improvements.
The site selected for the new Tappahannock Seventh-day Adventist Church is located approximately seven miles southwest of the central business district of the city of Tappahannock, Virginia. The site consists of a parcel of land totalling 11.A63 acres.
Ci ty Limi ts
Building Si te
EXISTING SITE FEATURES
ISO r* 40
IS No i se
IH V i ews
O 4 G
Dec i duous T rees
! Evergreen T rees
0 1 FEET i i 150 i
o 1 METERS 40
(n) 0 FEET ISO III!
1 1 1 O METERS 40
b 0 o o East
in r> r>
% OF SLOPE
0 FEET 150
1 1 I , i
1 o 1 METERS 40
LJ Empor ia
Lil 1 1 Rumford Â£ Emporia
LOOKING ONTO THE HIGHWAY FROM THE TOP OF THE EMBANKMENT
VIEW OF VEGETATION OH THE SITE
The site for the Tappahannock S.D.A. Church is located in the Tidewater Virginia climatic region. The site is located at latitude 37U52'30" and longitude 765^'30", with an altitude of 35 to 120 feet above sea level.
The climate of Virginia is in a zone "of prevailing westerly movement of the earth's atmosphere, in or near the mean path of winter storm tracks, and in the mean path of tropical, moist air from the southeast Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico much of the summer and early fall seasons."
The predominately westerly winds prevent the ocean influences from extending very far inland.
The climatic data recorded at Byrd International Airport in Richmond (about 60 miles west of Tappahannock) shows that the coldest months are December, January and February with a minimum average temperature of 28.1* F and an average maximum of 1*8.8 F. The wgrmest months are June,
July and August with an average minimum of 65-1* F and an average maximum of 86.7F.
January has the greatest number of heating degree days (853) and July has the greatest number of cooling degree days (1*00). There are approximately 3939 heating degree days and 1353 cooling degree days per year.
The greatest amount of rainfall occurs in July and August with July receiving 5i inches and August, 5 inches. The rest of the year the precipitation is fairly constant with each month receiving between 3 and 3i inches. Monthly maximums of over 9 inches of rain have occurred in June, September and October, and over 2b inches in July and August. Maximums of over 5 inches of rain in 2b hours have occurred in July and October and almost 9 inches (1955) in August. Snowfall of significant amounts is not that common, but some snow can be expected during the months between November and March.
The sky is cloudy about half the time during each month of the year.
The remainder of the month is about evenly divided between partially cloudy and sunny skies. A greater portion of cloud cover can be expected during May through August and a greater percentage of sun from October to December.
Winds are predominately from the south with some westerly winds. Northern winds can be expected during February and October. The mean speed throughout the year is 7-5 mph with the greatest speeds in the winter and the lowest in the summer.
Each li ne rep re-
sents one month.
Each ring repre-
sents 10 mph.
Taken from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climates of the States, Detroit,
NORMALS, MEANS, AND EXTREMES Gale Research Company, 1980.
RICHMOND. VIRGINIA R. E. BYRD INTERNATIONAL AP. EASTERN 37 30' N 77 20 W 164 FT. 1977
Â£ 1 r T ampetatu'et F Normal Deyae dayi Bam 65 Precip*tatxsn m Relative humidity pet Wind f I 1 1 1 1 Â£ S! li Mean number o* dart Average ttation prettura mb.
Normal Water equivalent Snow, lea pelkt* 1 01 1 i 07 oeal 1 1) 1 1* 1 1 l! If tilt Sunrim to tunmt li 1 Â£ ii tl Wax Mm
J i f E II a i If I ill > o t > T 1 T j I Is i i 1 li!. E r rl i. E v Is II i i: I >- li 1 i o i J 11 I (b) l\ u m i hi ll Elev. 177 feet mil.
(a) 48 1 40 4 ; 40 40 40 *) 4) 4) 4* 29 15 *7 27 27 >2 )2 >2 >2 *ej 60 40 48 48 * 48 48 *
*7.4 .7,. 87.3 80 89) o 2.86 5*5 ).)1 28.5 1940 21.6 1940 77 81 57 *9 7.9 S *> NN 1971 51 6.4 8 T 16 loj 1 5 ) f 1 1012.8
r 49.9 21.8 19.4 81 14 J 2 -10 196 717 0 >.01 5.61 19*4 0.98 1968 1.91 17.1 1967 9.2 1947 19 92 62 8.6 NNf *5 3* 1951 96 9 1 * 1 1 0 1 1* 1011.4
M 58.2 H.J 46.9 9 ) 19J8 11 569 8 ).)8 8.04 1975 19.7 1960 12.1 1961 7) 78 48 5* 8.9 M 42 IE 1952 591 6.2 8 9 19 u 1 2 S 10 C 1010.4
A 70. J 45.2 57.8 96 1976 1 25 1977 226 10 2.77 5 *2 1932 0.6* 196) 2.07 1952 2.0 1940 2.0 1940 75 45 19 8.8 S *0 MM 1972 6) 6.0 8 9 1) s 2 0 2 0 1010.*
a 78.4 54.5 46.5 100 19*1 | 11 1956 44 111 ).*) 8-87 1972 0.87 1965 2.5) 1*72 0.0 0.0 8) 50 69 7.7 ssw *3 H 1962 6)| 6,3 7 n 1) in 0 2 0 r 0 1008.9
J 89.4 62.9 74.2 104 19J2 | *0 1967 0 .7. .... 9.24 19)8 9.91 11960 4.61 194) 0.0 0.0 82 9) 68 7.2 s 12 NM 1951 7 12 11 10] 0 2 0 0 0 1009.6
J .... 67.5 77.9 105 1977 i 91 1963 0 400 9.49 18-87 1945 0.52 Jl96) 3.7) 1949 0.0 0.0 891 85 56 72 6.7 it* 6 MM 1*55 63 6.1 7 12 11 111 0 2 1) 0 0 0 1010.1
A 86.6 65.9 76.1 102 9S* : *6 19>4 0 ) 50 5.06 1*. 10 1955 0.52 1194) 8.79 1955 0.0 0.0 90 57 y 6.) s 94 M 1964 6.0 7 12 12 10 0 S 11 0 0- O' 1G11.9
s 80.9 59.0 70.0 101 195* l 197* 11 171 ).) lQ.9| 1975 ) .82 0.0 0.0 90 89 96 79 6.6 s 49 SE 1*52 6) 5.7 9 9 12 8! 0 ) 0 0 1011.5
0 71. 4/. 4 59. i 99 14*1 1 21 192 20) *7 2.9* 9.1* 1)71 1961 T 1972 T 197) 9) 77 6.8 NNf 68 SE 195*- 5.* 12 T 12 7| 0 4 0 2 O' 101).1
N 60.6 J7.J 49.0 86 197* | 10 19>) 480 0 ) .20 7-4* 1959 0, )6 11965 4.07 1956 7*J 195) 7.) 195) 80 8* 50 70 7.4 s NM 197T 56 5.6 10 8 12 i 2 11 0 1012.8
0 4*.l 28.8 59,0 80 l*7i -l 19*2 806 0 >.22 7.07 197) 0.72 j1965 >.14 i.n 12.3 1958 7.5 196* 70 7.5 s* .0 SM 1968 1 10 6 13 j 1 ) 21 e 1012.0
JAN JAN JAN OCT
Yt .... *6.7 >7.. 105 1977 |-lt 19*0 19)9 1)9) 42.59 18 7 1945 0.80 1196) 8.79 l* 28.5 1940 21.6 19*0 J 8) 9) 68 7.5 s 68 81 195* 60* 6.0 10. 10. 135; 11)1 29 42 4 86 1 1011.2
Means and extremes above are from existing and comparable exposures. Annual extrestee have been exceeded at other sites in the locality as follows: Highest temperature 107 in August 1918; minimum monthly precipitation 0.11 in November 1890 and earlier.
SUBJECT REQUIREMENTS REFERENCE
DISTRICT DISTRICT A-1: Agriculture
PERMITTED USES CHURCHES 6.2-7
HEIGHT AND BULK LIMITATIONS Two 6 one-half stories (lt5 feet) Except ions: Belfries, church spires, ornamental towers 6.it 17.13-1
LOT SIZE STANDARDS CHURCHES Minimum area: 2 acres Minimum width: 150 feet Minimum depth: 200 feet 6.5-6
SETBACK REQUIREMENTS FRONTS ON STATE OR U.S. HIGHWAY Front: 100 feet Side: 30 feet Back: 30 feet 6.6-3
PARKING REQUIREMENTS CHURCHES: One space per four seats 17.1-5
SIZE: 91 by 181 mini mum 17.4-1
AISLES: 2**1 wide with 90 parking 18' wide with 60 parking 12' wide with parallel parking 17-4-2
AREA: Not less than 180 sq. ft. Must be hard surfaced 17-4-3
ESSEX COUNTY ZONING REQUIREMENTS
PARKING REQUIREMENTS (CON'T) CIRCULATION: One way traffic: 1A1 minimum 17' minimum with 1*5 parking Two way traffic: 2V minimum 17.
LOADING REQUIREMENTS NUMBER OF SPACES: Assembly usage: one: 5,000-10,000 sq. ft. building two: 10,000-100,000 sq. ft. 17.5-1
SIZE REQUIREMENTS: Width: 12 feet Depth: 35 feet Height: 15 feet Area: 5^0 sq. ft. 17-8-1
SIGN REQUIREMENTS Fixed, non-moving, with constant i ntens i ty 17.11-1
Five feet minimum from r i ght-of-way 17.11-3
TYPES PERMITTED: Business, directional, general advertising, identification, temporary 17.12
OPEN SPACE INFRINGEMENT Yard must be open to the sky 17.1^~1
sills, belt courses, cornices, ornamental features
SUBJECT OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENT ASSEMBLY: AA Churches, schools, all uses for religious or educational purposes REFERENCE 302.5 BOCA 1981 THE BASIC BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS
CONSTRUCTION TYPE TYPE 3B Noncombustible/Combustib1e Protected AOA.O A0A.3
FIRE HAZARD GRADING M Hours 1A02.0
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA 19,000 sq. ft. Table 505
FLOOR AREA EXCEPTIONS POSTED FIRE LANE: 2% for each 1% beyond street front 506.2
SPRINKLERED: 200% additional floor area for a one story building 100% additional floor area for two stories or more 506.3
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE HEIGHT Three stories (A0 feet) 65 feet for an auditorium Table 505 508.2
FIRE RESISTANCE EXTERIOR WALL: (Greater than 30' separation) Bearing: 2 Hours Non-bearing: 0 Hours Table A01
EXTERIOR WALL OPENINGS: Less than 15' separation must be protected If protection required: assemblies must be approved doors must be 1i Hours 1A1A.2 1*41 A. 3 Table 1^15
FIRE RESISTANCE (CON'T)
EXTERIOR WALL OPENINGS (CON'T)
If no protection is required:
assemblies need not be protected
Bearing: 1 Hour
Permanent partitions: 0 Hours
Frame: 1 Hour Floors: 1 Hour Roof:
Less than 15' to lowest member: 1 Hour More than 15' to lowest member: 0 Hours
VERTICAL OPENINGS: 2 hours
Corridors: 1 Hour
Doors and Frames: 3 A Hour
BOILER ROOM ENCLOSURE: 1 Hour
A A. 3
Table 1*01 Table 1*01
Table 1*01 Table 1*01 Table 1*01
Table 1*01 810.1*
Table 11* 1 5 1605.1
MINIMUM ROOM DIMENSIONS CEILING HEIGHT: 706.5
Genera 1: 7'"6"
Ki tchens: 710"
Minimum area: 70 sq. ft. 706.6
Minimum dimension: 7,-0" 706.7
Minimum dimension: 10'-0" 713-3
Windows or skylights required in habitable rooms
WINDOW REQUIREMENTS (CON'T) Assembly rooms are required to have 709-0
equal distribution of windows on two sides as far as practical
When used for natural light and 706.2
8% of floor area is required to be windows
i of windows must be operable
Assembly with fixed seats: number of seats
Assembly (concentrated) without fixed seats: 7 sq. ft./person Assembly (unconcentrated) with tables and chairs: 15 sq. ft./ person
Classrooms: 20 sq. ft./person
NUMBER OF EXITS REQUIRED: Table 809-2
500 or fewer occupants: 2/floor Rooms with less than 50 occupants 812.2
or less than 2,000 sq. ft.: 1 door
806.1.5 Table 806
MINIMUM WIDTH OF CORRIDORS: 810.3
Use Group A*4 with more than 100 occupants: 72 inches
EXIT ARRANGEMENT: 807-3
Locate required exits as remote from each other as practible
LENGTH OF TRAVEL: Table 807
With sprinkler system: 200 feet Without sprinkler system: 150 feet
EXIT DOOR REQUIREMENTS
28" at stair
EXIT DOOR REQUIREMENTS (CON'T)
EXIT CORRIDOR REQUIREMENTS
MINIMUM WIDTH (CON'T)
32" general 812.3
32" minimum leaf size 812.3
MINIMUM WIDTH PER OCCUPANT LOAD: With sprinkler system: 22"/100 occupants Without sprinkler system: 22"/150 occupants Table 808
MINIMUM WIDTH: 72 inches 810.3
MAXIMUM DEAD END LENGTH: 20 feet FIRE RESISTANCE REQUIRED: 810.2
Walls: 1 Hour 810.4
Door and Frame: 3/** Hour WIDTH REQUIREMENTS: Table l4l|
Minimum width: 44 inches 816.2.1
Minimum width per occupant load: With sprinkler system: 22"/113 occupants Without sprinkler system: 22"/75 occupants LIMITATIONS: Table 808
No winders allowed 816.4.2
DIMENSION REQUIREMENTS: Maximum riser: 7 inches Minimum tread: 11 inches LANDING REQUIREMENTS: Table 816
Minimum dimension: equal to width of stair 816.3.1
Maximum vertical distance between landings: 12 feet 816.3.2
STAIR REQUIREMENTS (CON'T) HANDRAIL REQUIREMENTS:
Height requirements (above nosing): On stai rs: 30" to 31*"
On Landings: 1*2"
Rail spacing: 6" o.c. maximum Baluster spacing: 6" o.c. maximum Locat ion:
Stair W or more: both sides Stair 88" or more: every 88"
EMERGENCY SYSTEMS FIRE ALARM:
Type: Manual pull stations Location: Required in every room in an Al* occupancy except the sanctuary or nave
Not required in an AA occupancy unless the building exceeds the allowable area or height
EMERGENCY LIGHTS AND POWER:
Independant power source for the emergency lights is required Exit lights are to be illuminated at al 1 t imes
TOILET ROOM REQUIREMENTS ASSEMBLY OCCUPANCIES
Lavator i es:
one: 1-200 occpants two: 201-1*00 occupants Water Closets:
one: 1-100 occupants two: 101-200 occupants three: 201-1*00 occupants Uri nals:
one: 1-100 occupants
UPC Table: Appendix C
TOILET ROOM REQUIREMENTS (CON'T) MEN (CON'T)
two: 101-200 occupants three: 200-1*00 occupants
one: 1-200 occupants two: 201-1*00 occupants three: ^+01 750 occupants Water Closets:
three: 1-100 occupants six: 101-200 occupants eight: 201-1*00 occupants
DRINKING FOUNT IANS:
5% (not less than one) must be
FINISHES IN TOILET ROOMS:
must be smooth, waterproof, non-absorbant, readily cleanable
HANDICAPPED REQUIREMENTS TOILET ROOMS
TOILET ROOM FACILITIES:
Minimum of one facility per sex per floor
60" diameter clear space beyond door opening
Lavatory located 32" aff with foot and knee clearance
WATER CLOSET STALL DIMENSIONS: Minimum 1*2" wide by 72" deep Minimum 1*8" clear from face of water closet to wall or partition Minimum 32" outswing door W.C. seat 16" to 18" aff
HANDICAPPED REQUIREMENTS (CON'T) WATER CLOSET STALL DIMENSIONS (CON'T)
required on both sides 2" in length
33" above finished floor
PARKING LOTS AND BUILDING APPROACHES
Parking spaces required:
one: up to 25 spaces in lot two: 26-50 spaces three: 51_75 spaces four: 76-100 spaces Parking space dimensions:
See zoning requirements Parking space locations:
As close to the building as poss i b1e
Must have an inclined approach and curb cut: minimum 3 ft. wide Bui 1ding Entrance:
At least one entrance per floor level must be accessible to the handicapped no stairs or abrupt changes in grade Doorways:
Must be hard surfaced and level on both sides of a doorway Threshold must be less than i inch
ASSEMBLY SEATING ACCOMMODATIONS
ACCESSIBLE VIEWING POSITIONS:
two: up to 50 seats in auditorium three: 51~75 seats
515-1*.1* Table 515-9
HANDICAPPED REQUIREMENTS (CON'T) ACCESSIBLE VIEWING POSITIONS (CON'T)
Number required: four: 76-100 seats five: 101-150 seats six: 151-200 seats seven: 201-300 seats eight: 301-^00 seats
Locat i on: 515-9.1
Provided in a reasonable and convienient place Must not block means of egress
The sanctuary should be the focal point of the entire church facility. LITURGY
It should be the point of reference around which all the other spaces are organized. As the congregation enters the church and participates in the various activities taking place there, their attention should constantly be drawn back to the sanctuary and the services of worship that occur there.
The most important of the sanctuary services is the Sabbath morning worship service. The liturgy of the Seventh-day Adventist church is based on the idea of active participation by each member of the congregation. The minister and the choir are not there as performers. They are facilitators, enabling the congregation to be involved in the worship of God. Each part of the service is complete only when each person part i cipates.
The order of the worship service is flexible. The pieces are rearranged occasionally to give new emphasis to a particular element or just for variety. However, the elements used are fairly consistent no matter what format is used.
Music is an essential piece of the worship service. It includes organ and piano pieces, instrumental music, choral and solo vocals, and congregational hymns. Interspersed with the music are the other elements of the service: reading of the scripture lesson (sometimes responsively with the congregation), collection of the offering, announcements and business items, morning prayer, and the sermon. The sermon is the high point of the service. It is an active study into the character of God conducted by the entire congregation rather than a lecture presented by the minister. The other elements of the service are arranged to build to a climax, culminating with the sermon.
The sanctuary is also used by the adult members of the congregation during Sabbath School the lesson study hour on Sabbath morning. Sabbath School precedes the morning worship service. During this time the children are meeting for their own programs and lesson study in various spaces throughout the building. The adults meet in the sanctuary for a short program and then separate into groups of about 15 to study their own lesson. A group or two of the adults will usually stay in the sanctuary for their discussion while the remainder will go to other spaces in the building. At the end of Sabbath School, adults and children will gather in the sanctuary for the worship service.
The sanctuary is also used for a variety of other services including weddings, funerals, baptisms, Wednesday night prayer meetings, Friday night vespers, and the communion service. Weddings and funerals have aisle width requirements which must be considered in the design of the sanctuary.
Both rituals lend importance to a center aisle type of seating arrangement. Flexibility in the arrangement of the chancel will also be important.
Baptisms are usually held during the Sabbath morning worship service. Baptism in the Adventist church is by total immersion and typically involves only people over 12 years old. Baptisms are sometimes held on Friday night or Sabbath afternoon when there are a number of people participating and a special service is planned.
Communion is normally held four times a year. It is usually celebrated during the Sabbath morning worship service, but it is becoming increasingly popular to hold it on Friday night. The Adventist communion service consists of two elements: the ordinance of humility and the ordinance of the emblems. The ordinance of humility, or the foot washing service takes place first. Foot washing is a physical representation of the congregation's commitment to the service of others. It also represents the cleansing from sin that comes from the acceptance of Jesus Christ. Women will gather in one of the classrooms, men in another, and families who wish to participate together will go to a third. Following the foot washing service, the congregation will gather together in the sanctuary for the Lord's Supper.
For the celebration of the communion service two formats are typical in the Tappahannock church. When communion is part of the Sabbath worship service, the distribution of the elements is done by the deacons. They will accept the emblems from the minister and pass them among the members of the congregation. When the service is held on Friday evening, the emblems are usually set out on the communion table in the chancel and the congregation comes forward to receive them.
The sanctuary is also used for concerts, evangelism seminars, Sabbath School workshops, church school graduation programs, film series, Vacation Bible School and other community outreach programs.
The most important furnishing in the sanctuary of an Adventist church is the pulpit. It is the symbolic representation of the Word of God -the Bible in the church. The Adventist church is a Bible-centered church and as such, the location and treatment of the pulpit are very important. The design of the pulpit should not be lavish, but it should be an indication of the importance of the issues addressed by the minister as he stands there.
The second important feature of the sanctuary is the baptistry. The baptistry and the acceptance of Jesus Christ that it represents are central to Adventist doctrine. In addition, the visability of the baptistry keeps the congregation's thoughts focused on the immediate return of Christ and the importance of evangelism. The baptistry will consist of a water-filled tank large enough to hold three or four people at a time. The entrance into the tank should be screened from the view of the congregation. Dressing areas need to be provided, but they could be offices or spaces that are located adjoining the sanctuary.
The communion table is the third important furnishing of the sanctuary.
The table is only used about four times a year, but its continual presence in the sanctuary constantly reminds the congregation of Christ's sacrifice in their behalf. The communion table should be a focal point but should not dominate the baptistry or the pulpit.
The importance of music in the liturgy is represented in the presence of a grand piano and an electric organ in the chancel of the sanctuary.
The speaker system for the organ can be located adjacent to the sanctuary as long as the speakers are directed toward the congregation space for a choir of about twenty will be needed in the chancel.
Chairs for the minister and elders will be required in the chancel. Padded pews or movable chairs are acceptable in the nave for use by the congregation.
The Seventh-day Adventist church has historically avoided the use of symbols in their churches. This practice developed in order to place importance on the worship service itself instead of creating icons. Through the years this position has been modified somewhat. Symbols can add to the enjoyment of the service when used properly, and most new Adventist churches have recognized this and used them to advantage.
Certain pieces of sanctuary furniture such as the pulpit, communion table and the baptistry are symbolic in nature regardless of any special attention drawn to them. Careful use of these pieces of furniture and other symbolic items can enhance the sanctuary and the services without placing undue importance on the items themselves.
Based on Statement on Theology and Archi tecture, by the Plans Committee New Market Seventh-day Adventist Church, Unpublished,
The cross is central to the Christian's understanding of the gospel. There is, however, usually strong objection to its bold use in an Adventist church. Working the cross motif into the building without making it extremely obvious would be appropriate. Placing a cross on the top of a steeple would not.
Symbolic representation of the three angels of Revelation 1A is very appropriate both in the interior and on the exterior of an Adventist church. The angels are prophetic messengers sent from heaven with a special message from God to those who live on the earth at the end of time. These three messages are closely related to the prophesies of Daniel and Revelation and are important to the historical background of the Seventh-day Adventist church. Representation of Biblical scenes, the Sabbath, creation, the second coming of Christ, and the heavenly sanctuary are also appropriate. The use of stained glass in the sanctuary is to be encouraged.
"Light gives form to the interior and life to the Order of Worship. LIGHT
Lighting and architecture go hand in hand. Lighting in the place of worship should be comfortable, functional, coordinated with the service, and suited to the architectural design." (General Conference of S.D.A.,
1979, P- 22)
"This light can of course be man-made, and thus have the advantage of constancy. This same dependability of illumination, however, also results in a certain monotony. On the other hand, an intelligent use of natural light can contribute a wonderful variety and liveliness to a place of worship. The variety contributed by natural light has its source both in the weather and the movement of the sun. The former influences the quality of light from direct sunlight to what is left after filtering through a heavy rain while the latter results in ever-changing patterns in illumination. And it is precisely because the angle of the sun's rays varies from hour to hour, and at the same hour from day to day, while yet following a fixed and inexorable yearly pattern, that it is necessary for the architect to give careful consideration to the sun's total course in relationship to the possibilities of the site and the nature of the building. Thus, what is done in any given situation to use the natural fall of light to accentuate the means of grace is completely dependent upon the opportunities and limitations of that specific situation. At this point one must rely upon the competence of the architect, being limited in criteria to the followi ng:
NATURAL LIGHT SHOULD BE USED AS AN ALLY OF THE GOSPEL TO EMPHASIZE THE SYMBOLS OF CHRIST'S COMING TO HIS PEOPLE." (Bruggink and Droppers,
1965, P- ^75)
Light gives form to the interior and life to the Order of Worship. Lighting and architecture go hand in hand. Without lighting, architecture would have little meaning. Lighting in the place of worship should be comfortable, functional, coordinated with the service, and suited to the architectural design. There is a particular task and function in each area of the church and for this reason the lighting of the nave, chancel and choir areas should have individual attention. The demands that the Order of Worship make upon each area should be discussed in detail...so that they can be intelligently planned.
There is no standard or absolute way of lighting a church.
Taken from Suggestions to Building Planners, by the Building Plans Commi ttee, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 1979.
A. The Nave
The nave vertical fixtures should complement the architectural design.
In an interior of perpendicular proportions (that is, with height greater than width) fixtures of similar proportions are more compatible. In interiors of horizontal proportions (width greater than height, or in areas where height and width are about equal) fixtures of similar proportions are appropriate. Down lighting is most important and if the fixture has luminous side panels, care must be taken in selecting lamp wattages to avoid unfavorable brightness. An upward component of light from a pendant mounted unit gives an indirect lighting effect which helps to overcome undesirable shadows.
B. Congregational Seating
The area should have an equal distribution of light and a minimum of 10 foot candles has been found to be satisfactory in interiors of dark finishes. In lighter finished areas (white plaster walls, white woodwork) a 15 to 20 foot candle level is more comfortable. This difference is due to contrast of articles such as printed matter, clothing, furniture and wall finishes.
Cove lighting can be interesting in many nave areas. This is usually done with fluorescent equipment. Special consideration should be given to the overlapping of fixtures so that unattractive shadows from ends of lamps are not noticeable. Fluorescent ballasts should be located elsewhere to avoid the usual humming noise. Cove lighting should be used on side and rear walls only. Dimming control is available for adjusting the light level.
C. Pulpit Area
The level of illumination in the chancel should be twice as much as in the pew area. This helps to command the attention of the congregation The pulpit lighting is best done by concealed floodlights. The pulpit must have supplementary lighting and this is best done from two
sources A5 degrees in horizontal plan and A5 to 55 degrees in the vertical plan. An interesting effect is obtained by having unegual intensities of light coming from each source. This can be achieved by placing one light source further away of by varying the wattage.
A pulpit lectern light is acceptable when used in conjunction with other directional lighting.
D. Choi r
The light on the music should be sufficient fot the easy reading of notes and instructions even when the sheets are held nearly vertical.
Light, therefore, should come from behind the singers. If the singers face the congregation, the light sources must be shielded to prevent glare in the eyes of the congregation.
Light on the faces of choir members should arrive at proper angles to avoid shadows under eyebrows and nose. The general illumination in the chancel will usually be ample light for this purpose. In general, choir areas should have more light than is provided for pews, less than pulpit or lectern. A level of 30 foot candles is recommended (two-thirds of this value for dark interior finishes). Theis level should be reduced or dimmed during sermon, prelude, or meditation.
Manual control for dimming should be located in the narthex and the pulpit. The nave lights could be dimmed one-half during the sermon.
The dimming device should be protected against tampering by an unauthorized person. Separate controls should be provided for nave lighting, pulpit and lectern, floodlights, choir and for other chancel lights.
Simple switching arrangements are better than complicated selector switches because the sanctuary lighting may be operated by inexperienced and changing personnel.
F. Exterior Lighting
Floodlighting of the exterior should be of the type and intensity that will accentuate the particular attractive architectural features of the structure. The color and texture of the wall surface determines the type of floodlighting fixture and lighting source selected. Light from too great a distance loses the effect of wall texture and joints.
A better effect can usually be achieved by floodlighting the building from two sources at a corner rather than lighting one surface only.
Floodlights that illuminate the interior of an important stained glass window should be located so that they are not apparent when the interior
is in use. Windows of the sanctuary can be lighted best from floodlights on the inside. Mo outside lighting should be played on the wall adjacent to the windows. Dark areas of the structure should "frame" the illuminated window.
Locate outdoor floodlighting fixtures so that they are not annoying or distracting when entering or leaving the building at night. Floodlighting fixtures should be located so they are not conspicuous in the daylight. Shrubbery, if the fixtures are located on the ground, provides an adequate hiding place.
All floodlights should be controlled by automatic time switches or light cells so that the hours of illumination will not require the services of church personnel. High quality sealed units are better than open fixtures. Wire guards and protective devices may be necessary as a precaution against vandalism.
Taken from Bruggink and Dropper's Christ i n Arch i tectu re, William B. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, 1965-
Basic to the design of the worship room is its acoustical environment. Provisions must be made for the spoken word, responses, choral prayer and praise, congregational singing, and the organ. The acoustics of the sanctuary is of great importance in the design of the sanctuary for use for the worship service.
A worship service depends primarily upon the ability of the congregation to hear and understand the spoken word and choral music. The size, the shape, and the architectural treatment of the worship room should reflect this basic theme. Worshippers should be able to recognize and understand speech from the pulpit. If congregational singing is to be encouraged, the nave should be designed to enhance the sound of the singing. The choir should be arranged so that choir members hear each other adequately.
The requirements for good hearing conditions can be simply stated, and in principle are the same in a church or auditorium. The church is perhaps the most complicated kind of auditorium, because of the variety of sound sources--both speech and music--and the conflicting visual requirements. The realization of the basic requirements for good hearing conditions in any space, and a common-sense knowledge of how sound behaves in an enclosed volume, are really all that are needed to achieve success. The somewhat interrelated requirements for good hearing conditions in any space, then, are as follows:
A. Background noise must be low enough so as not to interfere with the desired sounds of speech and music.
B. Speech and music sounds within the church must be sufficiently loud, both at their source and to the listeners, to permit "easy" listening.
C. Sounds must be distributed properly throughout the room to give uniform intensity of sound for the greatest number of listeners. Good sight lines usually mean good hearing lines. This means that it is highly desirable to elevate sound sources. Since worshippers seated in the nave make a highly absorptive surface, it is desirable to elevate the sources of sound for both good hearing and seeing.
The use of the ceiling as a reflective surface is basic in the design of a room for good hearing conditions. It can be shaped and refined in many ways, but basically it should be hard and sound reflective. It must never be sound absorptive (acoustical tile or acoustical plaster) without explicit reasons. The ceiling is the most important surface in the room
Taken from Suggestions to Building PIanners, by the Bui 1di ng Plans Commi ttee, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 1979-
for assuring adequate loudness and good distribution. Concave shapes, even if their surfaces are broken up, should be avoided. Close-in, sound reflective surfaces or canopies suspended directly over the speaking positions can be extremely effective in reinforcing a speaker's voice.
D. Undesirable reflections (echoes, points of sound focus, etc.) must
be eliminated by care in the design of surfaces that create these problems. Generally, it is better to substitute surface shapes that break up rather than absorb sound. Severely symmetrical forms, including cubical and spherical shapes, should be avoided. Canted ceilings, splayed or irregular, serpentine walls and random shapes, and spacings can be helpful in achieving a good pattern of sound distribution.
Very wide rooms should be avoided. Because of the directional effect of the human voice, it is difficult to achieve uniform sound distribution.
For best effect, the congregation should be arranged inside a cone of 90 with its apex at the pulpit.
E. The reverberation time in a room is arbitrarily defined as the time required for the sound to decrease to one-millionth of its original intensity after the source has stopped. The reverberation time must be short enough to avoid excess overlapping of successive sounds and yet long enough to provide the essential blending for music and support for the spoken word. In general, we need a relatively long reverberation time for sufficient blending of musical sounds, but a shorter one for the proper understanding of speech. Although the ideal acoustical conditions for music are not exactly the same as those for speech, for rooms up to 100,000 cubic feet in volume there is very little practical di fference.
Fortunately, there is a range of reverberation time which will allow satisfactory conditions for both, and the designer must concentrate on achieving an appropriate compromise in his design. In the final analysis, the reverberation time desired will be a judicious compromise involving speech definition, congregational singing, choral music, varying types of organ compositions, room volume, the amount of sound absorptive material in the room, and the emphasis which the congregation desires to place on these various factors.
The most important sound absorbing material in a large listening space is the audience itself. The number of people present in the space and the volume of the space automatically fix the upper limit of the reverberation time. The absence of people will change drastically the reverb-
eration characteristic. The only satisfactory solution to this problem is the use of some form of sound absorption which will be exposed during services with small occupancy and covered up with full congregations. Upholstered pew cushions are a practical way to accomplish this result.
PROPORTION CONSIDERATIONS .
consider a plan of one to one and three quarters (for 300-600 seat ehlirches): y.lt
if greater, too many reverberations if less, too many rear "Wall reflections vTyV.
i '. n.Vv'V:
- O . MMiHMlA V;' VSV.-
rrm"A iai 5 i
keep travel distance of reflected sound within 50' of direct Soundadjlist ceiling height for high ceilings reflection is slow low ceilings reduce Sound toward rear
' DISPERSION CONSIDERATION'S . .... " * C
consider non parallel surfaces, recesses and projections to break up sound waves:
rear balconies break sound waves non parallel walls, sloped ceilings
sound waves are reflected at angle equal and opposite to angle of Incidence: mounding boards, nearby walls reflect concave reflections create echoes
CORRECTION CONSIDERATIONS -
add necessary absorbing material to areas that produce delayed reflections: consider rear wall areas consider high celling areas
i r\ ,
Taken from Bruggink and Dropper's Christ and Archi tecture, William B. Eerdmans Grand Rapids, 1965-
250 sq. ft.
Enter i ng building Removing coats, hats and boots
Putting on outterware Storing outterware while in bu i1d i ng
Entrance to building
LIGHT Natural light with some artificial
finish/materials Natural materials Eas ily cleaned
REMARKS Should be bright and inviting
ROOM Lobby AREA 700 sq. ft. USERS Everyone FURNITURE ACOUSTICS Good sound control to keep down noise
SPECIAL EQUIPMENT LIGHT Natural and artificial
ACTIVITIES Gatheri ng Talking SPATIAL REJ^nONSHIES COLOR Bright and cheerful
eel? finish/materials Natural type materials acoustical control eas i1y cleaned
DESCRIPTION Primary mingling area for congregation Dispersion point to the rest of the building CODE REQUIREMENTS 700 / 7 = 100 occupants Two exits required REMARKS
Worshipful space, inspires awe & sense of holiness Supports "community spirit" Reinforces liturgy & doctrines, Supports the worship of the congregation
Pews or chairs for congregation, chairs for ministers & choir, communion table, pulpit, table for flowers
Bapt i stry Grand piano Electric organ Audio/visual control area
5250 / 7 = 750 occupants Four exits required
Handicap viewing positions requi red
SPACE ANALYSIS: SANCTUARY
LIGHT Natural and artificial Special effects Lighting to give emphasis to special areas or act i v i t i es
COLOR Cheerful and bright Rainbow type colors
finish/materials Natural type materials Acoustical treatment very i mportant
REMARKS This is the most important space in the facility and should be treated as such. The sanctuary is the physical embodiment of the worship service the liturgy.
Support both spoken & musical activities (see section on acous tics)
250 sq. ft.
Families with small children (under 2)
Playing (some) Worsh i pp i ng
Space where families with small children can sit during the worship service
Cha i rs Cribs
Diaper changing area
250 / 7 = 35 occupants One exi t requ i red
Basically sound proof
Art i f i c i a 1
Same as sanctuary
Same as sanctuary
Visual access into sanctuary Sound from sanctuary piped i n
Sound from training room conta i ned
Will be used for an adult Sabbath School class
Cradle Roll Classroom
875 sq. ft.
25 children (birth to A yrs.) 25 adults
Story telling Action songs Playing
Good light bright happy space
Lots of open space to play Lots of room for toys & props
Little chairs for kids Big chairs for adults Storage for toys & supplies
Diaper changing area P i ano
Felt boards Sink & counter
SPACE ANALYSIS: CRADLE ROLL
Good natural Supplemental 1i ght i ng 1 i ght artificial
Bright cheerful colors and accents
Controlled use of red & orange
Sound controlling finishes Must stand up to abuse Tack boards for pictures
Children will be moving around a lot.
Program will come first with a play period following. During play time the adults will have a lesson study group.
Sound dampening Noise from room to hall shouId be minimal
700 sq. ft.
30 children (A to 7 yrs.) 12 adults
Story telling Singing action songs Bible stories with sandbox props (small groups)
Cheerful and happy place Open areas to move around Seating area separate from study (sand boxes)
Little chairs for kids Big chairs for adults Storage for props and supplies
Felt boards P i ano
Sand box tables Sink and counter
700 / 20 = 35 occupants One ex i t requ i red
SPACE ANALYSIS: KINDERGARTEN
Good natural 1ight Supplemental artificial 1i ght i ng
Bright and cheerful colors and accents
Controlled use of red and orange
Stand up to abuse
Tack boards for pictures
Children will be moving around a lot.
Typical order of activities:
- story time and activity songs
- Bible story lesson
keep noise under control Noise to hall should be minimal
600 sq. ft.
25 children (2 **th grade) 10 adults
Read i ng
Small group Bible study
SIides and movies
Games and contests
Pleasant environment Open area to move around Seating area
separate from study area Bright and cheerful
Medium chairs for kids Large chairs for adults Tables kid sized Storage for supplies
Chalkboard P i ano
600 / 20 = 30 occupants One ex i t requ i red
SPACE ANALYSIS: PRIMARY
Good natural 1ight Supplemental artificial 1ighting
Bright colors and accents Controlled use of red and orange
Sound control 1i ng
Tack boards for pictures
Typical order of activities:
- Story or other opening act i v i ty
- Song service
- Lesson study in groups
Sound control Noise to hall should be minimal
bOO sq. ft.
25 children (5th & 6th grade) 10 adults
Singing Story telling SIi des and movies Games and contests Small group Bible study
Pleasant environment Bright and cheerful Seating area
flexible and separate from study area
Medium chairs for kids Big chairs for adults Tables
Storage for supplies
Cha1kboa rd P i ano
bOO / 20 = 20 occupants One ex i t requ i red
Sound control -
Should have min imal noise
impact on hall and other
Good natural light with supplemental artificial 1i ght i ng
Tract lights for variety might be nice
"Natural" colors with some bright accents
Tack boards for pictures
Same order of service as Primary
500 sq. ft.
25 chi1dren 7 adults (Jr. High)
SI i des and movi es D i scuss ions Semi nars
Small group Bible study
Pleasant environment cheerful
Flexible space to allow for changing chair arrangement
Cha i rs
A couple of tables Storage for supplies Lectern
Chalkboard Pi ano
500 / 20 25 occupants One ex i t requ i red
SPACE ANALYSIS: EARLITEEN
Good natural 1 ght with
Flexible lighting would be
n 1 ce
"Natural" colors with some bright accents
Sound controlling Tack boards on walls for pi ctures
Order of service: song service program
lesson study (small groups Earliteens will need a space that they can personalize.
Noise should be contained i n room
600 sq. ft.
30 35 youth (academy and col lege) 6 adults
Singing Seminars D i scuss ion
Audio-visual programs Fellowship meetings Bible study groups Music programs
Flexible space that can
function for religious
or social services
Pleasant environment that the
youth can personal ize for
thei r own needs
Cha i rs
Storage for supplies
Tab 1 e
Cha1kboa rd P i ano
600 / 20 = 30 occupants One exi t requ i red
Should support lectures and music programs
Natural light important Some special effect glazing and 1i ghts
Warm but subdued color scheme
Some accent color "Natural" colors
"Natural" materials Some (limited) tack board space
Same order of service as Ear 1i teens
More emphasis on seminar and discussion type activities
Adequate arrangement for audio-visual type programs
Would be nice if this space opened onto an outdoor patio or similar space
SPACE ANALYSIS: YOUTH CHAPEL
Fel1owsh i p Hall
2500 sq. ft.
Possibly rented for school, hospital or community act.
Games Seminars Banquets Recept ions Potluck dinners Films
Committee work Children's programs Health classes Community programs
Large open space, very flexible
All-purpose sort of space Should be able to use this room without opening the rest of the building
Folding chai rs
Storage for chairs, tables,
and other supplies
2500 / 15 = 167
Two exits required
Will by nature be a noisy area, some control of excess noise will be needed
Good natural 1ight Good supplemental artificial 1 i ght
Bright and cheerful Active
Sturdy finishes Easily cleaned "Natural"
This space should be combined with an outdoor patio space.
Will probably also be used for an adult lesson study class during the Sabbath School hour.
SPACE ANALYSIS: FELLOWSHIP HALL
100 sq. ft.
Entire congregation Commun i ty
Possibly rental w/ fellowship
Separate from fellowship hall but must have immediate access
Large, well planned, will be used by small groups &
Lots of people will be using at once
Lots of cabinets and counter space
Sink, stove with oven (large Mi crowave Refr i gerator D i shwasher
LIGHT Artificial with some natura1
finish/materials Easi1y cleaned
REMARKS Should have some sort of closable "pass through" to fe1lowship hall
225 sq. ft.
Office work Telephon i ng Bible study Counseli ng Meet i ngs
Quiet space Administration area Accessible to members subject to secretary's control
Desk wi th cha i r Cha i rs and sofa Tables and lamps She 1ves
File cab i nets
Natural and artificial
Will possibly be used for an adult lesson study group
SPACE ANALYSIS: PASTORS OFFICE
ROOM Secretary's office FURNITURE Desk and cha i r V i s i tor cha i rs ACOUSTICS
AREA 150 sq. ft.
SPECIAL EQUIPMENT Files Typing area LIGHT Natural and artificial
USERS Secretary (minister)
ACTIVITIES Filing Typing Telephon i ng Recept ion SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS yf iomi COLOR
DESCRIPTION CODE REQUIREMENTS REMARKS
Office space for the church Should have visual control
secretary of everyone entering
Admi n i st rat i ve the building
SPACE ANALYSIS: SECRETARYS OFFICE
Board Room (Commi ttee)
300 sq. ft.
Board of Elders Commi ttees
Board meetings Committee meetings Bible study groups
Space for commi ttee work to be done
Board table and chairs Shelves and counter
Audio-visual hookups Cha1kboa rd Tack board
Artificial with some natural
Will also be used for an adult Sabbath School class
Could be combined with the 1i brary
SPACE ANALYSIS: BOARD ROOM
250 sq. ft.
Cong regat i on
Book storage Book ci rculat ion Cassette tape storage Cassette tape circulation
Library for the congregation to check out religious and family oriented materials
Desk and chai r Counter
Shelves for books and cassette tapes
Cabinets for secure storage of audio-visual equipment
LIGHT Art i f i c i a 1
REMARKS Should be easily accessible to congregation at the end of the worship ser-v i ce Will probably be used for an adult Sabbath School class Could be combined with the Board Room
Personal Ministries Office
100 sq. ft.
Film strip and projector storage
Dorcas donations collection (clothing and some canned goods)
Provides storage space for materials used in outreach programs
Counter top Cabinet storage
Same as lobby
Same as lobby
Should be easily accessible for the congregation at the end of the worship serv i ce
Counter top between area and lobby. Office personnel will give the congregation what they need.
SPACE ANALYSIS: PERSONAL MINISTRIES OFFICE
ROOM Choir Room
AREA 225 sq. ft.
ACTIVITIES Choir rehearsal and warm up
Cha i rs
Cabinets for music storage
Choir robe storage
225 / 7 = 32 occupants One ex i t requ i red
SPACE ANALYSIS: CHOIR ROOM
Natural and artificial
Acoust i ca1
Will also be used for an adult Sabbath School class
If necessary to sacrifice this space, practice will in one of the classrooms and robing in the vestry.
Basically sound proof Good interior acoustics for music
Deacon 1s Room
75 sq. ft.
Storage of hymnals and offering plates Sound system control Lighting control Any i terns needed for the worship service are stored here.
Control center for the worship service
Storage cabinets Cha i rs
Sound and lighting control panels
Audio-visual control for sanctuary from this space, so i t needs spec i a 1 secu r i ty
SPACE ANALYSIS: DEACONS ROOM
one men s
one women 1s
300 sq. ft. Women 250 sq. ft. Men
Church congregation Fellowship hall users
Diaper changing area in
Handicap accessible fac i1i t i es
Art if i c i a I
Eas i1y cleaned
Central location Accessible when any part of the building is open
SPACE ANALYSIS: TOILET ROOMS
ROOM Janitor Supply AREA 25 sq. ft. USERS Jani tor FURNITURE ACOUSTICS
SPECIAL EQUIPMENT Water and sink LIGHT Art i f ic i al
ACTIVITIES Storage of cleaning supplies SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS COLOR finish/materials Eas i1y cleaned
DESCRIPTION CODE REQUIREMENTS REMARKS
Tabular Summary of Spaces
Training Room (Mother's Room) 250
Cradle Roll Classroom 875
Kindergarten Classroom 700
Primary Classroom 600
Juniors Classroom I4OO
Earliteen Classroom 500
Youth Chapel 600
Fe11owship Hall 2500
Ki tchen 150
Pastor's Office 225
Secretary's Office 150
Board Room 300
Li brary 250
Personal Ministries Office 100
Choir Room 225
Deacon's Room 30
Women's Restroom 250
Men's Restroom 200
Janitor's Supply Room 25
Subtotal 114,680 sq. ft.
35% for mechanical and circulation 5,133______________
Total 13,318 sq. ft.