Post pueblo program for Taos Community and Cultural Center, Taos, New Mexico

Material Information

Post pueblo program for Taos Community and Cultural Center, Taos, New Mexico thesis prep
Rovelstad, Andy
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
98, [14] leaves of plates : illustrations (some color), maps (some color), plans (some color) ; 29 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Architecture -- New Mexico -- Taos ( lcsh )
Community centers -- New Mexico -- Taos ( lcsh )
Architecture ( fast )
Community centers ( fast )
Travel ( fast )
Description and travel -- Taos (N.M.) ( lcsh )
New Mexico -- Taos ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (leaves 97-98).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Andy Rovelstad.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09560691 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1980 .R7 ( lcc )

Full Text

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A. PROJECT DEVELOPMENT ......................
B. PROJECT DESCRIPTION ......................
C. DEFINITION OF INTENT .....................
B. THE INDIANS...............................
C. SPANISH INFLUENCE ........................
D. AMERICAN INFLUENCE .......................
V. BUILDING DESCRIPTION ..........................
A. INTRODUCTION..............................
B. SPACE DESCRIPTION.........................
C. SPACE REQUIREMENTS........................
VI. SITE ANALYSIS .................................
VII. CASE STUDIES ..................................
VIII. FOOTNOTES BIBLIOGRAPHY......................

The word "culture" is an encompassing one, it denotes the totality of everything that man does and is in his time and place and society. In the examination of culture on the built environment I decided to work with an Indian reservation, and in accordance with their needs design a project along the lines of theme of this thesis. Initially contact was made with two projects: Community Development for the Ute Mountain Ute tribes and the Navajo Community College in Shiprock, New Mexico. The nature of the project was to be an educational experience, me learning from their society.
Cultural differences seemed to create communication disorders. In reality, I was taken as a designer impressing my values upon their culture (the key element that I was trying to separate from myself).
Taking the idea of culture into a further dimension, I chose to work on a cross-cultural project in Taos, New Mexico. The development of the Community and Cultural Center in Taos would try to link four cultural distinctions: The Anglo Artisan community, the Spanish community, the Indians at the Taos Pueblo, and the 20th Century. This third project was chosen for its conceptual integration

Taos is a unique area, in that it has achieved a blend of cultures for over four hundred years. A quick list of the cultures is as follows:
1. Taos Pueblo Indians 700 A.D. Present
2. Spanish Culture 1540 A.D. Present
3. American Culture 1804 Present
4. The 20th Century, due to the lack of resources and general poverty in the area it has survived to the present, the 20th Century, our final variable.
Taos has long been known as an "Art Center". Since 1898, it has been considered a nucleus for southwestern artists. The theory in the integration of the four cultures is developed through the arts both visual and performing. The physical project is the development of post-pueblo, the Taos community and the cultural center. The site evolves around an existing building, the City Auditorium located next to the Kit Carson Park. Realistically, the economic feasibility of the project must lend itself to certain functions (i.e., bar-restaurant, concerts, small conventions, etc.) that will help develop income for the Center and draw additional money into the community.

Taos has had it's problems developing into the 20 century.which
is why it's charm exists in full force. Yet, the infringement of th
the 20 century is clearly evident along any of the automotive arteries leading into the city, endangering it's total character. The intent of this project is to make a statement about the merge of the cultural distinctions into a set of codes to be called Post Pueblo. Idealistically, these new codes will work in total harmony with the existing texture of the built environment and the spiritual land. Many established galleries of Taos tend toward conservatism and do not encourage experimentation in the performing and visual arts.
We must first do extensive studies on the area, the language of the environment and understanding its people before designing.


One major obstacle in design is personal bias, the ability to overcome it is essential in any project. Personal bias in many ways seems to be a substitute for the understanding of the complexity of the problem. In Taos, the complexity of the design problem starts historically. Man has been building large complexes in New Mexico for nearly 1500 years. An axamination of history of the social and built environment is essential to help overcome personal bias.
Anthropologists in 1927 defined the names and dates for the early periods in New Mexico. Later classifications, which attempt to distinguish the stages of change with the American culture, are based on a series of lectures delivered to the Historic Preservation Division at Columbia University, presented by Bainbridge Bunting.
The analysis of Taos today is mine. It will be useful at this point to define these periods and study a minimum of historical background. Then a study of the built environment follows.
The general names of the prehistoric Indians inhabiting the southwest are Hokokam, Mogolion, and the Anasazi. The Four Corners Area Colorado, Arizona, Utah, and New Mexico was inhabited mainly by the Anasazi people.

These Indians were divided into two initial eras:
1. Basket Maker 300 A.D. Migratory hunting and gathering.
2. Pre-Pueblo Settlement and development of pit houses.
Around 700 A.D., a lot of cultural changes occured and the mass
of the indigenous population settled in permanent towns. These towns became known as Pueblos, a name given to it by the first Spanish explorers. Pueblo culture is divided into five categories. These are still generalities in that the single pueblos developed at different rates. These catagories are as follows:
Pueblo I 700 A.D. - 900 A.D.
Pueblo II 900 A.D. - 1050 A.D.
Pueblo III 1050 A.D. - 1300 A.D.
Pueblo IV 1350 A.D. - 1700 A.D.
Pueblo V 1700 A.D. Present ^ '
Post Pueblo ?
Pueblo I and II are defined as the point of community development. Pit houses evolved into rows of continuous flat-roofed houses above ground. Finally towns existed in rectangular fashions of stone and masonry (see Figure 1). The development held onto the past in that the Kiva, a ceremonial chamber, was underground. Traditionally, this may have stayed underground in the ideological belief that man came from within the earth. This period is known for its advances in arts and crafts.
Pueblo III is the Classic Period, when large numbers of people occupied towns of considerable size, and social complexity flourished.

The culture was mainly aggrarian and technology was prominant in pottery, tools, and water control by irrigation.
Pressure from nomadic tribes, depletion of resources, and social unrest all led to the abandonment of these great cities. The Pueblo Indians migrated south around 1300 to the banks of the Rio Grande.
During Pueblo IV, all activities of Anasazi Indians declined from their previous level of accomplishment. This is attributed to the population shift and cultural regression.
Francisco Vasquez De Coronado led the Spanish expeditions into the area of the southwest in 1540. But contact was not close enough to influence cultural change until the 17th century. Following the Pueblo Revolt, 1680-93, against the Spanish settlers, Pueblo culture suffered serious dislocations including a dramatic population decline, disease and migration to other tribes.
Pueblo V was progressively affected by outside influences, first
Spanish and then American.

The Spanish finally established themselves in New Mexico in 1598. The interest in the Crown was for mineral wealth. In 1510 Sante Fe was established as the administrative center. From here missions appropriated agricultural sites near existing pueblos.
The importance of the Spanish culture was the introduction of new items in the area. Christianity, horses, livestock, wheat, fruit trees, metal tools, and the wheel all influenced culture.
Little material wealth was found and the shift to the Christianization of the Indians was the prominant concern. The government supported friars' missionary activities. The form of the church introduced in the area in 1610 was repeated without change in 1816-1890.
Trade with non-Spanish areas was forbidden by the Crown. New Mexico remained isolated. The only outside connection was through Mexico City. Mexico declared independence in 1821 and the support discontinued. Frairs left for Mexico and Spain. New Mexico was
left on its own.

Anglo-American influence in New Mexico began with the establishment of trade over the Sante Fe Trail in 1821. Before this time, outside merchants were imprisoned and their goods confiscated. Trade along the Sante Fe Trail introduced window glass, nails and metal hardware. Despite these innovations, the architecture did not change before the Civil War. Statehood occured in 1912 and three cultures are ruled under one set of laws.
In 1848, the land was officially annexed by the U. S. Territory. A U. S. Governor was sent to Sante Fe. The arrival of the railroad in 1880 brought an economic penetration. The railroad provided jobs, built boom towns, herds of new inhabitants and sale and export of local artifacts. Railroad towns, Albuquerque, East Las Vegas, became Anywhere, USA, while towns like Taos and Sante Fe retained their regional character.
Cultural change occurred during WWI. Artists living in Europe and American expatraites were forced to give up residence in Europe. The artists and writers sought refuge in Taos and Sante Fe.
World War II brought Taos into the Twentieth Century. Highway Route 66 penetrated the area and in its aggravation most cities have
lost their character.



The reason for the maintenance of the regional character of the area is in the use of materials; then again, the reason for the absence of extinct ancient structures is due to the nature of the material of which many were built, adobe. Adobe is an Arabic word meaning a mixture of clay and sand. Molecularly, adobe is an organic substance in that it is continually disintegrating. A structure with twenty years of neglect is virtually worthless. '
The ease of repair and remodeling account for a lot of change over time. Although an adobe wall built in the 1700's is not different than one that is built today, the appearance of today's tourist centers are quite different from that in its original context.
The techniques of shaping the mud into brick was brought by the Spanish. The historical link of construction techniques has ties with the Arabs and finally the ancient Mesopotanians.
Adobe was used long before the Spaniards came. Indians built what is called puddle adobe. Compacted by hand with rammed earth construction, walls only 12" thick could support several stories. Archeologists have found evidence of a wall four feet thick rising over 40 feet in height.

Today bricks are 10" x 14' x 4" and weigh around 35 pounds. A V2" mortar joint of adobe is prominant around Taos. There is more rain, so the Indians and Spanish added straw for primarily drying purposes.
The construction techniques led to rectangular modular construction two load bearing walls supporting horizontal wooden beams overlaid with a earthen roofing.
The material was maintained as a constant. The differences in the three communities was the composition of the modular elements.
The Indians built integrated modular units compiled on top of each other in an irregular fashion. These were usually composed around courtyards. The Spanish culture arranged their modules in a single file to form a series of rooms. At the village scale they enclosed a fortified plaza. Finally, the good old Americans decentralized their community. Dispersed modular living units were spread across the countryside. Isolation of the area permitted little change until the railroads came. With little change and few new innovations it is important to further examine these differences in the three cultures and the composition of their living (See Figure 1).

Figure 1-A_
1-A Plan of Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon. Clustered modular elements typical of Pueblo II,III and IV. Typical Indian form
1-B El Cerro de Chimayo, founded by the Spanish in 1730. this is only surviving plaza type community with the liniar organization typical of the Spanish developments.

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Taos was a Pueblo IV community, and is the only Pueblo IV community still occupied. Its roots are here as the people migrated in search of water to support its agriculture. It settled along the Rio Grande as a smaller and poorly built version of a classic Pueblo (Pueblo III) (See Figure 2 and 3).
The center of living units about an interior plaza protected by massive walls encircling the community. The construction technique is of puddled adobe, forming dense clusters of rooms, composed in the irregular pyramid fashion. Two large complexes are located on either side of the Taos River.
The mother block has a width of eleven rooms and rises to five stories. Originally, it stood alone, but in recent times the construction of one and two story homes in the northwest has diminished its isolation.
The cluster on the south side of the Pueblos follows similar lines as the first one built, but is not so compact. There are seven kivas in this section returning to an underground position in the periphery of the units.
When originally built, no doors or windows interrupted the walls on the ground story. For security from nomadic tribes, the only entry to this apartment house was by ladders to the first terraces. Interior ladders through roof hatches provided access to ground floors, which was usually used for storage. At the terrace level, additional ladders gave access to upper terraces


, Figure 2
Plan of a Pueblo II unit house at Kiatuthlanna. Arizona, incorporating above- the ground kivas within the grid system of the walls. Compare this with Fig. 3, where the Spanish influence on the pueblo is visually seen in it's orientation around a church courtyard.

Figure 3
Ground plan of Zuni Pueblo. Note the influence of Christianity and the relative unimportance of the kivaS.

where there were small doors made of skins and slit windows.
Factory made doors made a complete reversion in living habits.
From the initial development where the higher up you were the more protected you were, having more status.
In front of the living units were ramadas, log framed shelters. Hay was stored on top, creating a shady spot. Animals would be kept there, in addition to a little work space. Today the ramadas serve more as a carport.
The leaders of the pueblo of Taos are conservative, therefore electricity has not been brought to the pueblo. No TV antennaes clutter the skyline. Water is provided today by the Taos River still.
In 1776 Franciscon Fray Francisco abandoned the development at Taos and moved the Spanish settlers behind the protective wall at the pueblo. On the west end a straight row of rooms marks their presence.
Pueblo V is dominated by the absence of the Spanish culture after 1693 with the Spanish reconquest. Indians migrated to high inaccessable areas. Population in the pueblos declined and culture seemed to stagnate.
With the stabilization of the nomadic tribes of the plains, the lower floors of the pueblos were being utilized. This changed the original cultural hierarchy. Most household activity took place at the terrace level. Here where meats and vegetables were layed out to dry, food was prepared and children played. Orientation was to the southeast. Eastern exposure was the most desireable solar

direction. This southeast orientation provided protection from sand storms, winter winds and afternoon sun. Thin capping stones were used to protect from water erosion.
The third level was called the utpa'tea and was used mainly for social purposes such as visiting, compemplation, or sitting in the sun. This area was considered communal property.
The character of the pueblos are losing their ground. The movement to ground was a start of the decline. Wrought iron, concrete blocks, aluminum windows, the widespread introduction of penetration employing large undivided sheets of glass, destroys the scale of the building scale and disrupting its solid geometric character. Exterior of house fronts to a common building line in imitation of American practices, diminishes the visual image. HUD' low interest loans only allow detached houses. This has caused many pueblos to be abandoned.

Throughout the Spanish colonial period, the Spanish population remained small when compared to the Native Americans. In 1650 there were around 1000 Spaniards and 24,000 Indians. By the end of the 18th century there were 25,000 Spanish people and 17,000 Indians.
The Spaniards had come to New Mexico with the expectations of great wealth, but the land had little to yield. Even the wealthy land owners had little material possessions. Mexico City was the only outside connections and that was a six-month trip. So, it isn't surprising that little innovation influenced the area.
Early settlers faced the same problem the pueblo Indians did. The Apaches,the Comanche, the Utes, and the Navajos attacked the Spaniards at free will. As mentioned before, the Spanish colonists even moved and lived with the Indians for protection in Taos.
The significant buildings of Spanish architecture are confined to the mission churches; with little in material wealth the major goal of the crown was the Christianization of the Indians. Having no professional advice or training in building, the friars had to design and build the mission churches. His only experience was with his training in Mexico, so they developed a simplified version of a Mexican mission and repeated it and repeated it. The only significant influence was the education of how to make bricks for the Indians.
The mission consisted of two parts: the church and the living quarters. The space inside the church was about four times as long

as it was wide (and never wider than 33 feet). Theologins believe that this spacial simplification was a conscious effort to demonstrate in visual terms the monotheistic nature of Christianity as opposed to the polytheistic religions of the Indians. Over the main entrance was a loft used for a choir (Figure 4).
By our standards, the height and size of the space seem insignificant but they were as large and high as possible and impressive to the Indians in what they had experienced previously.
Fenestration was limited. A clear story opening gave natural light to the alter. This dramatically illuminated the alter. In order for the clear story to take advantage of the sunrise for morning services, the apse was located to the west and north.
Although the churches lack decoration, their sculptural quality was impressive.
The idea of the typical Spanish house centered around a courtyard didn't exist until later. The rule of the first houses was simplicity (out of necessity). Early ones consisted of a single
i 4
room and an attached shelter. Heat from a corner fireplace and a hornb, a beehive oven of adope, was outside. These ovens were first seen in the Mediterranean.
Houses first were pulled together irregularly. Soon houses would be grouped around a plaza with the exterior walls for protection. In the 17th century, houses consisted of two to three rooms. While the Indians enjoyed many small rooms, the Spanish built large multipurpose ones. Protection was still the major influence.
The larger hacienda did work its way into New Mexico. They were rectangular, about 100' x 175', and centered around two

Figure 4
Conceptual plan and section of a New Mexican Mission Church

courtyards. In the front was the placita and in the rear a coral (Figure 5). The placita contained a well and was surrounded by 12 to 14 rooms. These housed the household activities. Each room had a door or window opening to the placita ; Squared timber was hard to come by so few windows existed.
Occasionally a number of families banded together to create a plaza or fortified community. Each family would build a string of rooms and place them end to end. Compared to early Spanish communities, there was a strong order to these.
Rooms were of uniform width, 15 feet, and varied in length. Although simple, the sala or parlor received the most attention.
The most wood work occurred here with usually finished ceilings. Floors remained dirt until 1848. Fenestration was limited out of this need for defense and environmental conditions. If windows did exist, they occurred on the south or east sides facing the courtyard. Three types existed. The fixed sash or casement worked as a shutter, allowing no light in during inclimate weather. Animal skins were also used for their flexibility. Also, slabs of
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selenite, a crystalized gypsum, was held in place with adobe.
Letting a little light during bad weather, they had problems with natural ventilation.
Doors were not abundant because of the lack of cast iron.
The connections were made of pieced wood traced back to Mesapotamia. What did exist was simple, the elaborate designs were saved for the church. These designs have been traced to the 17th century baroque journey in Spain, inspired by Moorish work.

Figure 5
Conceptual plan of a New Mexican Hacienda.

The exterior design did receive one embellishment. The portal, a covered proch, located at the intersection of the U or L shape in the plan to take advantage of the sun. Construction consisted of a long beam running parallel to the house. It was supported by four or more columns. Ornamentation and geometric designs embellished the chisled column connection to the beams.
Interiors were kept as light and simple as possible, due to the lack of fenestration. White clay was used as a finishing material, sometimes jaspe was added to give additional light to the walls. The irregularities of the wall surface and the undulating corners formed with deeply recessed windows and doors gave the interiors a sculptured quality.
The focal point on the interior was the fogon, the corner fireplace (Figure 6). These sculptured fireplaces were a quarter round in plan with a narrow parabolic opening about 20" in height.
The hearth was about six to eight inches off the ground. The shallow firebox provided good thermal efficiency. The construction was built by two half parabolic precast adobe bricks. Other construction techniques were made of wood lintels and hand packed adobe, but were too flimsy to survive time.
Other than churches and domestic dwellings, no other building type had much importance. Specialization of social or commercial buildings had no influence as of yet. Everything occurred in a small space with about the same amount of inconvenience.

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Figure 6

Culture in New Mexico went through revolutionary changes with the influence of American settlers and ideas. This change is dramatically recorded in architecture.
The major change was influenced by communication and transpor-
tation influence. In 1821, the Sante Fe Trail opened, in 1848, annexation by U.S. Territory, in 1880, the railroad arrived, and finally statehood occurred in 1912. In this period more changes occurred than in two and a half centuries. With the nomadic Indians under control, the new communications with the outside brought in technology, new tools, reform in the Catholic church, and improved economy. Trade was prominant and soon the lumber industry with sawmills, midwestern men brought landscaping and fruit trees from the east. American goods were soon on over-abundance. Americans regarded the native population as unprogressive and their goal became to transplant the midwest to the Rio Grande. This symbol of "progress" was readily accepted by the Spanish culture while the Indians remained independent.
Architecturally, this new style is called the Territorial style and is divided into three periods:
Early Territorial I 1848 1865 Middle Territorial II 1865 1880 Late Territorial III 1880 1912 5.
The terretorial style is a belated extension of Greek Revival that had been popular in the east.

1. Early Territorial
Early Territorial (1848-65) was an era of new items in the vocabulary of design. Merchants brought in sawn lumber and window glass. The trademark of this era is the pedmented lintel used over the doors and windows. Initially the molding was very simple, but with more decorations appear and frame openings are common.
They are painted white in the manner of Greek Revival elsewhere.
The era was essentially these applied details, no major changes in technology or construction occurred.
2. Middle Territorial
Middle Territorial (1865-1880) is the most characteristic of the three. A greater variety of building types developed. New house construction was the most dominant though remodeling was stil popular.
The new houses follow a new plan, symmetrically based on a hall or room. They were two or more rooms deep and opened outward. This was possible due to the subsidance of Indian invasions. Many times they were of two levels with a veranda on both levels. Sash windows now had six to nine panels of glass (Figung 7).
Classical Greek revival was prominant and adobe walls covered with cement plaster were scored to imitate stone masonry. This was considered very progressive and American (Figure 8).
A new building type became visible: the retail store. Characterized by double doors, better lighting, and counters and

Figure 7
Charateristic Territorial house plan, symmetrical about the center hall and two or more rooms deep. Leandro Martinez house, Toas, 1862.

figure 8 The "traditional corner fireplace provided with Territorial wood trim and mantel shelf.

shelves (unknown to the area except at a height of a 6" to 8" hearth). Two story spaces contained office, hotel or residences up top. The typical portal front was attached to the commercial buildings providing a terrace for the second floor rooms.
Churches took an interesting change in culture, too. The portico became the most important factor and elaborate doors garnished the impression. The Protestant church boasted its two story Greek columns capped by a gable, and treated as classical temple front.
The Catholic church came under another influence. When Mexico declared independence, the resources supporting the mission churches were cut. Eventually the French Bishop Jean Baptiste Lamy was made bishop of the new diocese. His influence in architecture came as a folk Gothic form. Big towers with wooden Gothic veneer tried to hide its adobe structure.
5. Late Territorial
Late terrirorial is a biproduct of isolated villages. Craftsmen of these isolated areas, void of the understanding of the Greek revival in the east, would pick up on some of the details brought from the east. Modified classical details were his product. No innovations occurred, but infinite variations of a few themes were abundant. A village would be dominated by a single artist's vocabulary.
These details remained isolated due to winter conditions and transportation problems. Although romantically and socially healthy,
it came to an end in World War II.

Wealthy outsiders in Sante Fe and Taos discovered these items of folk art and purchased the old elements to embellish their new homes.
4. The Railroad Era, 1880 1912
The railroad flooded American architectural fashion and a widespread of building materials to the towns along the rail lines. Architecture items like cast iron columns, store fronts, metal cornices, and window heads, shingles, factory windows, and doors all pushed the loss of the regional imprint. Italianate Bracketed, Mansard, Queen Anne, Richardson, Romanesque, and Colonial Revival all became viable style in the era.
An interesting relationship occurs at this point and a complex mix-up occurs. At this same time of classical eclecticisms, the interest in the restoration and revival of the Spanish pueblo manner steps beyond just tradition. The form had been maintained on Indian pueblos. By 1907 the new University of New Mexico, styled in Richardson Romanesque, was remodeled into pueblo form with flat roofs and projecting beams (Figure 9). This revival became known as the Sante Fe style. It is just very important to note that this ideology was occurring around the turn of the century, something we are still just discovering today.
In Taos we find the revivalist feelings still prominant. They are sometimes a cover up of corporate capitalism. The image exists and the vernacular qualities will always be and should always be prominant.

Figure 9~A
Figure 9-B
Figure 9-A Hodgin (formerly University) Hall, University of
New Mexico, Albuquerque. This structure of brick and sandstone was designed in the Richardson, Romanesque style in I860.
Figure 9-B Hodgin Hall as remodeled in the Santa Fe style in 1909.

This romantic phase at the turn of the century for the simulation
of revival and survival of an architectural style provides a key into
understanding New Mexican architecture:
"An eclectic architecture based on different cultural influences and responsive to technological innovations reliant on the practicalities of trade patterns. If nothing else New Mexican architecture has been and will always be UNIQUE." 6.
The accepted rejection of fashionable styles by the mass of people
has maintained its vernacular character. Both Sante Fe and Taos
developed a design control ordinance for the historic core of the
cities. The ordinance develops from the emergence of the Old
Sante Fe style (the Pueblo, Colonial, or Territorial Style). The
intention is with the use of similar color, materials and scale
harmonize with the existing fabric to give the effect of adobe.
Today, as in 1880, no housewife will put up with an old
kitchen if a comfortable up-to-date solution is available. Thus
picture windows or wretched things of aluminum are being substituted
for old windows with wood mouldings. Angled roofs take the place
of flat ones and cement plaster replaces the sculptured adobe. The
image of the non-technical world is the essence of the character of
the vernacular qualities. Historian and sociogeographer J. B.
Jackson comments on the downfall of this essence.
"When I first came here it was still primitave and pastoral. The villages were alive. People thought it

was a wonderful way of life. People were under the same illusion. But I've seen this country deteriorate physically and socially. First the Depression; then war and urban migrations to California, then a harsh post war return. Villages that were maintained in the 1920's are in disrepair; the land is overgrazed.
It's a wretched place, socially speaking. So I've lost a great deal of enthusiasm for the non-technical world. It's just not working." 7
This vision and faith in the technical world has had its downfalls also. Although the modern style seems to have by-passed the communities of Taos and New Mexico, it is there hiding under cement stucco, paint, and a corporate title.
The fast food and hotel world are lurking in total artificiality. The familiar shape of Kentucky Fried is there in its nationalized form, but the red striped, peaked roof has its cover of earthtone pink paint, an attempt to harmonize with the vernacular??? Venturi is known for its exploitation of the commercial vernacular environment. But does that environment fit within the cultural vernacular. In Taos, the answer is no. The opposite is true, the commercial environment is exploiting the vernacular in a rather crude fashion.
The strip in Taos (North Pueblo Road and Sante Fe Road) has become a product of corporate capitalism. Its artificiality is
a rejection of spacialism for a poor form of facadism. Its survival is dependent upon the charm of the plaza and the surviving buildings of the middle territorial style. The duality persists.

This level of duality, technical versus non-technical, is not just present at the commercial level. The personal level is trapped in these divergent forces. People in general want to keep up with the times, even if they don't want to relinquish their cultural past as the rest of America has done. For the convenience of modern technology, many pueblos have been abandoned. The Taos
pueblo has maintained its connection to the past out of the
conservative nature of its leaders unacceptance of power lines and TV antenae. Out of a conservative idea, a liberal philosophy has maintained the rejection of technology, in the support of communal society.
A good example of the existence of a duality is the acceptance of passive solar energy in domestic buildings in New Mexico. Solar orientation was prominant in Pueblo II and Pueblo III societies, but abandoned with technical innovations. The present day cultural crisis (brought on in part by the oil crisis) has brought man back to the land. Passive solar energy, a derivative of active solar technology, answers the question as a rejection of technology, using nature to do what was artificially done before. The rejection of technology, in essence, is answered by the house as a machine, working for the owner, a prominant idea of the modern movement initiated by Le-Corbusier.
Our lack of confidence in the industrial system, that is so crucial to our own way of life, romantically looks to the past.
To criticize both the technological and non-technological world is to state that positive elements exist in both. The solution to
call post Pueblo. It is difficult to define post Pueblo because

The technical non-tecnnical
A house that heats itself the solar house on pages 176 to 179
This passive solar house, healed by the sun alone, is designed so walls, windows, roof, and flooring, the very house itself, collect and store warmth in winter. It has no solar collector plates on the roof, no heat storage tanks, no operative solar machinery. The sun, through roof-high windows 27 feet long facing due south, warms the deep adobe walls with radiant heat. Brick masonry floor also receives and re-radiates the suns warmth and stores it as a heat sink. So does the adobe base or banco of the two fireplacesthe only auxiliary heat source. At the rear of the house, concrete block retaining walls buried in the ground transmit earths geothermal heat in winter, coolness in summer. Overhead, earth also blankets much of roof to shelter and also warm house.
Sun heat is captured in floor-to-ceiling south windows in living room, bedrooms.
Earth covers two-thirds of house roof sheltering it from cold winter weather.
Dec. 16 65* 83* Clouds AM 5 42 Gear PM
Dec. 31 65* 75 Clouds AM 25 46 Gear PM Snow-night
Jan. 9 66 83 Gear 25 48
Jan. 20 58 61 7 Jan. 22 62 77 Partly clear 18 38*
Feb. 16 59 69 3rd gray day 0* 30* Heavy snow
Feb. 18 59" 70 clear 8 34
Feb. 19 60 70 Gear coldest -3 36 night of year.
Feb. 25 64 75" 5th clear day 20 56*
Feb. 28 66 74 Partly cloudy 36 52
Mar. 2 60 69 Partly cloudy 19 50* 5th gray day
Mar. 9 64 75 32 61 7th clear day
Mar. 14 59 68 18 48 5th gray day
Above: Winter temperatures from 58 to 83 degrees indoors, -3 to 61 degrees outside.
Below: 1. Recessed in hill, earth shields walls and roof from extreme temperatures.
2. Insulation in house structure keeps heat indoors in winter, outside in summer.
3. After sundown, the indoor walls, warmed by the daytime sun, radiate an even heat. 4. Sun heal is stored in brick floors, adobe and concrete walls, banco heat sink. 5. Roof skylights illuminate the dining and kitchen areas with ample daylight. 6. Insulating windows cut heat loss 50%. 7. South windows let in low winter sun, food rooms with sunlight all day. 8. Inside walls absorb 40% of direct sun as heat, refect 60% to warm other walls

the adobe solar house architect: David Wright contractor & LANDSCAPING: Karen Terry construction FORKMAN: Tom Brady. CREW: Karen Terry and Fred Sandoval STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING: Robert D. Krause & Associates.
SIZE OF HOUSE: 1,550 square feet size OF urr: 5 acres extf:rior of house Foundation: Poured concrete footings. Exterior walls: At rear, north and northeastern sides of house, two filled and reinforced concrete block walls; other walls, 10-inch-thick adobe brick walls with two coats of Portland plaster, one stucco coat.
Exterior finish: Linseed oil on woodwork. Roofs: On underground roof area: 1-inch pine deck board, one layer Celotex Corp. fl-berboard, 3/j inches sprayed polyurethane, 2 coats sprayed butyl rubber, 8 inches of earth with native grass. On flat roof area: 3-inch polyurethane rigid board insulation by Johns-Manville topped by asphalt-coated built-up roofing.
Insulation: On exterior walls, 2-inch polyurethane rigid board by Johns-Manville. Windows: Fixed glass panels, with PPG Industries, Inc. insulating glass in wood frames by General Glass Co.; ventilating wood frame Pella sash, with insulating glass, by Rolscreen Co.
Skylights: Double dome plastic, by Plasti-crafts.
Doors: Pine and fir front door and interior doors designed and handcrafted by John McKinney; wood frame, glass doors at south side terrace by Karen Terry and Tom Brady, with etched glass in cornstalk pattern by Bruce Davis.
Interior walls: In major rooms, adobe brick with mud and straw plaster coat; in kitchen and bathrooms, adobe brick with Structolite plaster coat, and Mexican ceramic tile. Interior finish: In kitchen and bathrooms, oil paint.
Ceilings: Pine boards and recycled pine and fir rafters from old New Mexico mine timbers.
Floors: All rooms and outdoor terraces, red brick by Kinney Brick Co., laid in sand. Lighting fixtures: In living room and bedrooms, wall brackets by Lightolier, Inc.; in kitchen, fluorescent tube lighting over counters on dimmer controls.
Fireplaces: Adobe, custom designed and built by Karen Terry and Tom Brady.
Hardware: Black iron, hand-made by Frank Turley.
Kitchen and bathroom cabinets: Of pine and varied woods, custom designed and handmade by John McKinney, framework by Tom Brady.
Countertops: In kitchen, 75-year-old pine boards; in bathrooms, red juniper.
Plumbing fixtures: Kohler Co.
Appliances: Under-counter range, counter cooktop, refrigerator-freezer by Frigidaire Div., General Motors Corp.; ventilating fan and hood by NuTone Div., Scovill Mfg. Co.; laundry washer-dryer by Westinghouse Electric Corp.
Water heater: Electric,, 62-gallon tank by Sears. '*
Heating-cooling system: Passive solar system. In bathrooms, mini electric wall healer units in toe space under lavatories by NuTone Div., Scoville Mfg. Co.

it is in a state of non-existance. The essence of the problem is to find a genuine synthesis of modern architecture and popular culture.
According to Charles Jenks in The Language of Post Modern Architecture, there are two codes:
1. Spoken language is slow changing, full of cliches and rooted in family life.
2. A modern one, full of neologisms responding to quick changes in technology, art, and fashion as well as the avant garde in architecture. 9
These contradictory codes need to be answered if Post Pueblo remains to be a possibility. This short analysis sets up the problem. In the interest of educational experimentation, I don't want to dwell on the concept at this time. The pros and cons of theory in the real world existence is a continuing evolutionary process. A journal of my thoughts and discoveries about the problem is being kept as a viable source for the conclusion of this project. To make a definition now would only provide a limitation of ideals.

Post Pueblo ???
Veneration of old culture produces interesting ironies: an adobe mobile home.

A. Introduction
The development of the project evolves around the expression of the existing Taos Community Auditorium and it's site. Discussion has led to the idea of a center that could merge as a focal point and a cultural center of New Mexico.
Art is the major influence on the econoirics of the area. Artists, musicians, writers and craftsmen are drawn to Taos.
Frequent concerts, lecture symposiums, exhibitions, art films, and dramatic productions are offered to the public by outstanding
Taos Foundations and the Taos School of Music.
Here art is truly eclectic, varing in style from traditional to the contemporary. It started with the establishment of the Taos Society of Artists in 1912. The sole purpose of the members of the society was to exhibit nationally as a group. With the mission accomplished the society was disbanded in 1927. A majority of the existing galleries today have fallen to conservatism and the tourist trade, instead of the development and expression of the arts. The idea follows that this center should be a drawing point and merging of the regional arts, visual and performing.
The danger in the program is the total threat of outside influence and the disintegration of the community and its cultures. It was noted that it would be limiting if the cultural center stepped beyond the community. The development of multipurpose space and offices to facilitate community activities

will provide an area for the merge of cultural ideas. This leads to the development of a strong role of a program planner for the facility to integrate activities at all levels, so that the center is a representative part of the community and cultural activities.
Progromatic concepts on economical feasability have led to the development of certain amount of commercialization on the site. A restaurant and bar have been programmed into the
design to help promote economical stability. The idea of the
merge of cultures has lead to a Native American restaurant and bar. The Indian culture has not been a prominant feature at community auditorium activities in the past. The development
of the restaurant managed by the Indians of the Taos Pueblo
PvP* 'A
will hope to merge ideas and culture. The profit will work both
directionsi insuppcrt of the Taos Pueblo and the Community and Cultural Center.
Space at the center can be rented for small conventions and
similar activities during off peak periods. This not provides income for tfae center, but pulls more income into the community.
In it's present state, an art community in a small town, it is dependant on a relatively high turn over of people. This idea thus helps promote the stability of the area.
Creative cost controls in design promotes the ideas and usage of passive solar energy as a means to have the building working for the community, not against it.
The following is a list of space descriptions and required

sizes for the project. It is a result of ideal development within budgetary constraints.

From discussions and studies of similar buildings, the following spaces are required.
1. Docks
Facility for parking, loading, and unloading trucks.
Hidden from view as much as possible.
2. Shipping and Receiving
Area for storage of materials to be shipped.
Area for storage of newly received materials until it can be processed.
Circulation area movement of loading and unloading.
3. Framing and Packing
Essentially a carpenter shop for building frames for containers for shipping.
Large crates for shipping sculpture.
Material and tool storage.
4. Open Gallery
The general art exhibition space.
Collections of local southwestern art.
Have corresponding storage and study areas, standing, walking, seating.
5. Carson Gallery
Area set aside for rotating exhibits.
Standing, walking.
Location with good respect to Framing, Shipping and Receiving.

6. Exterior Sculpture Garden
Security desired.
To play with the view of the mountains.
7. Storage
An orderly space that corresponds to each gallery area, environmentally controlled.
Storage off the floor.
8. Lobby
Reception waiting.
Security control location.
This space should have direct flow to other locations of public access galleries, restaurant, auditorium, and community rooms.
Strong expression of entrance to the building complex.
Information center.
9. Restrooms (required by code)
10. Offices
Includes the offices of the curator, registrar, secretary, and receptionist.
Administrative functions.
One volunteer office dedicated to offer and coordinate programs for the Native American community.
11. Auditorium Space (existing building)
A large performance space will accomodate dances, concerts, films, lectures, and plays, as well as special exhibitions and small conventions.
12. Exterior Amphitheatre
To work with the Kit Carson Park (overlapping the usage).

13. Meeting Rooms and Storage
Large space that can easily be broken down into smaller areas.
Community workshops.
By-rooms for convention activity.
14. Native American Restaurant
To serve a sample of Native American foods typical to the area.
Run by representatives of the Taos Pueblo. Profits are shared by the Pueblo and the cultural center.
Seating 40 @ tables for four; 20 @ tables for two.
Bar seating for twelve.
15. Kitchen
Set up to serve traditional foods.
Service and deliveries.
Food storage.
Cater convention activities.
16. Snack Area
Kitchenette type area.
Accessible from staff areas.
Should include coffee pot, hot plate, refrigerator, and lounge area.
17. Mechanical and Support Systems
For placement of HVAC equipment.
Work with zoning of different activities.

Elevator if required.
Safety systems, fire escape.

1. Docks
One 12' x 50' berth = 600 square feet.
10' x 20' minimum dock space = 200 square feet.
2. Shipping and Receiving
35' x 35' = 1225 square feet.
3. Framing and Packing
30' x 30' = 900 square feet.
4. Open Gallery
8.000 square feet.
5. Carson Gallery 3,600 square feet.
6. Exterior Sculpture Garden
Open (3,000 square feet adequate).
7. Storage
Open Gallery = 1,500 square feet.
Carson Gallery = 1,000 square feet.
8. Lobby
The average size of most galleries equals that of the average gallery = 6,000 square feet.
9. Restrooms
Dependent upon design schematics generally 30' x 10' = 300 square feet each.
10. Offices
1.000 square feet for three offices administrative;
150 square feet for Native American Coordinator.

11. Auditorium Space
Use as existing with possible modification = 8,800 square feet.
12. Exterior Amphitheatre Open
13. Meeting Rooms
Large space, 45' x 45' = 2,025 square feet.
Broken into two seminar rooms of 20' x 20'.
14. Native American Restaurant 25' x 60' = 1,500 square feet.
15. Kitchen
800 square feet.
16. Snack Area
10' x 8' =80 square feet.
17. Mechanical (total of areas)
33' x 33' = 1,000 square feet.
TOTAL SPACE = 38,380 square feet.

1. SUN


A. Introduction
Taos rests of a 7.000 ft. mesa in the foothills of the Sangre De Gristo Mountains, overlooking the gorge of the Rio Grande. The river slashes through the land to the west, and the mountains north and east rise to a peak of 13,151 ft. at Mt. Eheeler. It is essentially surrounded by the Sante National Forest and the Carson National Forest, containing the sacred
mountains of the pueblo Indians. (Plan-1)
The dominate style of architecture in the town has overtones of Middle Territorial buildings. Although touches of Greek Revival and eastern influence are present, the majority of buildings follow the commercial building type developed in this period, the middle territorial style. (Plan-2) Pueblo Revival is seen in the Sante Fe Style buildings, as written into the building codes. When one moves away from the historical center the strip takes over. Sante Fe road is full of American Commercialism.
Fast food and hotel chains take over a psuedo-Santa Fe Style with primarily paint and stucco, (plan-3)
Plan-4 shows a conceptual sketch of Taos as it is today.

£ pNAT. TOR. t H
Weston*' Jo ^
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La Jara ir Sanfo/d'
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* hjrthtrn Navajh Fair. Octol
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, .............
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I? ^'feuad#lupitV>:
is <|i > Coyote .Crei
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f toujffnc Lom^aroa
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. yr Crownpoint'*f y P " cave rooms dug into cliffs
F.'Ck 8630 Ac's!a Butte '
S \ Tesui BANDEl IER kN.M.
abrrie Lake
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vj Las Vegas
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i Domingo J
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toIest *Tay,<
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f Corrales^ |io Rancho** l Alameda
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/ *x NATIONAL*92^
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^ Indian
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i SuHiner
Lake Sumner **'
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9176Ladron Pei
>Hindian reserva
Ruins of Indian pueblo and 17th-century mission churc
Saq^Antonio q
Old Lincoln County Courthouse Ml seum Lincoln State Monument. The l jst ^ye-of-Bjlly the Kid, Augu t
k) Bear )
Valley of Fire)
+8640 l Ig
Oscura Peak!
10139 *San Mai
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n- White
^ Bnieiiake
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Hondo ns ^
he Ceremonial. July
* tewater BaJdy
01 LA
* PRJ:
Me: ca'ero
Mi'Scaltrc A
^iQdian Reservation ____I
% Truth or Consequences
October Ccwboy Okpfiberfest October
lNcoln / \
u C '"-xco
Onelree Peak
. La Laz Missile Holloman\ Alamogordof I ( white a.jTF;
SANDS \J>' r' ; .NAT.
I ; \ I
*T'n t listening while
TWnW" *|
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( * CenterJ
V 8870- Organ Peak
University *'
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Pan Amerit^ Lady of Guai
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B, Site Development.
The development of the site can take basically three
directions: 1. into the Kit Carson Park
2. the land between the community auditorium and the street
3. into one of the parking lots
All of the choices are possibilities, and contain certain restrictions and easements.
Development into the Kit carson Park will be permitted if the development is "open". The definition of this "open" is mainly the idea that this space can be used for multipurpose activities by the city beyond the level of the center. It can be util'.zed when other activities are going on, and thus be a 'non-closed-environment".
Initial ideas of the center is for the design of a amphitheater or sculpture garden to go at this point.
the land between the community auditorium and the street can be developed with an easement given to the Stable Galleries, The original Adobe wall lines the street and the existing arch would serve a a primary enterance, for both the Stable Galleries and the Cultural Center. The purchaseof the land is dependant upon this pasement. This exists as a practical solution to pedestrian circulation from the town, and can mutually work for the advancement of both owners. An Agreement (similar to this) currently exists over parking.
The third choice in the development of the site is working into an existing parking lot. This can be done if a link to the existing municipal parking lot is established(see plan- Vehicular Circulation Plan). All are possible areas of expansion.

The existing facility can be considered a Santa Fe Style structure in that it attempts to harmonize with the local character in a rather crude manner. The structure is concrete block, covered with stucco and paint. Cracks in the paint and stucco have occured with settling. The overall image of an adobe structure is not there, and one can question the validity of the building ordinances.
The structure currently contain seating for 252 people.
Lobby and refreshment areas are minimal. The total orientation of the building is interior, neglecting views, existing climate, and true local character. Plans and elevations of the building are included, and one can judge the character for themselves.

------- /
1. Noise cas be a problem when one approaches North Pueblo Rd. Although thr traffic is realitively slow, it is fairly constant for the whole day. As a design develops east, the noise
could be a hindrance to the outdoor experience or an exterior performance.
Currently, the building is stepped tack and totally interior oriented, so no noise disturbance exists as a present problem.
2. Views are remarkable to the north of the site. The view opens up to the mountains with Mt. Wheeler, the highest peak in New Mexico, as the focal point. The reliability of the continuance of this view of the mountains is definate. The develop-ment of the Kit Carson Park will never go verticle. Views to the south and east contain glimpses of the mountains, but is disturbed by vegetation and buildings. Second and third level views open up all directions. (see plan 8)

1 hB 1 i H
3 Op I
0 r-nF M
G. plan 9

H. plan 10

The position of the sun in relation to specific geographic locations, seasons, and times of day can be determined by several different methods Model measurements, by means of sun machines or shade dials, have the advantage of direct visual observations. Tabulative and calculative methods have the advantage of exactness. However, graphic projection methods are usually preferred by architects as they are easily understood and can be correla ted to both radiani energy and shading calculations.
The most practical graphic projection is the Sun Path Diagram method. Such diagrams depict the path of the sun within the sky vault as projected onto a horizontal plane. The horizon is represented as a circle with the observation point in the center. The sun's position at any date and hour can be determined from the diagram in terms of its altitude ( Q ) and bearing angle ( B ). (See figure on right). The graphs are constructed in equidistant projection. The altitude angles are represented at 10 intervals by equally spaced concentric circles, they range from 0 at the outer circle (horizon) to 90 at the center point. These intervals are graduated along the south meridian. Bearing angles are represented at 10 intervals by equally spaced radii; they range from 0 at the south meridian to 180 at the north meridian. These intervals are graduated along the periphery. The sun's bearing will be to the east during morning hours, and to the west during afternoon hours. (continued)
II. Rain Fall
7-9 inches per tear
III. Winds
summer; southwest winter: northwest
winter storms; north north-west

Pro lect -~s- Costs
Name Scope Square Feet V .unbar of Scats Sq. Ft. Per Seat Project Coat Cost Per Seat Cost Per Sq. Ft. AnalysIs
Playhouse In the Park 675 Seat Theater 34,100 675 50.5 1,500,000 2,309 45.69 Cincinnati, Ohio 1969 extremely tight budget -not highly finished exposed block Interior and exterior exposed mechanical.
Scottsdale Center 825 Seat Theater 200 Seat Film Theater 85,000 1,025 82.9 4,700,000 4,599 55.45 Scottsdale, Arizona two theaters plus 20,000 square feet of office space, gallery (2,500 square feet) multi-use theater no fly space -moderately finished.
Meany Hall 1,212 Concert Hall Experimental Theater Dance Studios 125,000 1,212 103. 1 7,100,000 5,850 56.80 University of Washington, Seattle educational space for dance technically excellent nicely finished minimal technical support.
Birmingham Jefferson Center 3.000 Seat Concert 1.000 Seat Theater 304,000 4,034 75.4 25,200,000 6,250 82.90 Birmingham, Alabama first class concert hall and theater exhibit hall (7 million) Included -large complex with malls.
Denver 2,200 Seat Concert 138,000 2,200 62.7 11,800,000 5,380 85.80 Denver, Colorado 1977 a circular concert hall complex structure brick exterior moderate flnlshes.
Onandaga 2,200 Seat Multi-Purpose Theater 400 Seat Studio Theater 125,000 2,400 52.4 12,400,000 5,150 98.50 Syracuse, New York 1976 2,000 seat roultl-use hall and a 400 seat studio theater In a single structure concrete frame brick exterior.
Krannert Center 190 Seat Studio 670 Seat Playhouse 900 Seat Festival 2,200 Great Hall 267,500 3,980 67.2 30,600,000 7,700 114.60 O University of Illinois 1969 four separate ^ theaters with a large cosmon lobby brick c+ exterlor moderate finishes extensive plaza ;> development.
Minneapolis Concert Hall * 97.00 I-1 *< w H- U)
Kansas City 210,400 3,514 59.9 Bid Due University of Missouri Performing Arts Center -data available after bid date.
Henry Street Settlement 80 Seat Recital Hall Plus Support Space for Existing 350 Seat Theater 23,900 N.A. N.A. 2,300,000 N.A. 56. 17 New York City building to adjoin existing theater support space, flexible space studios for music, dance, drama, T.V., film, pottery, painting, and sculpture. ^
Orpheum Theater 2,700 Seat Hall 135,000 About 2,700 50.0 1,800,000 Plus 750,000 Purchase 666 13.33 IV Nebraska renovation and restoration of the existing Orpheum Theater first class finishes renovation of auditorium, lobby, and support. -v Vj

site plan

Case Studies
1. Australia---The Victorian Arts Center
2. Canada---Confederation Center
3. England--The Arts Center
4. Germany--Academy of Arts
5. France---Maison De La Culture De Firiny
Le Corbusier
6. Germany--Kaselowski Museum
7. Japan----Tochigi Museum
8. United States---The Arts and Science Center,
New Hampshire
9. United States---Brooks Memorial Gallery
10. United States---Huntington Gallery
West Virginia
11. United States---University Art Museum
Berkley California
12. United States----Center for American Arts
Yale University, Conn.
Herbert S. Newman
13. United States---Museum of our Natural Heirtage
Lexington, Mass
Shepley, Bulfinch, Richardson and Abbott
14. United States---Biloxi Library and Cultural Center
Biloxi, Mississippi
15. Italy----Villa Strozzi
Richard Meier
16. United States--- The Atheneum
New Harmony, Indiana Richard Meier
17. United States---Fargo-Moorhead Cultural Center Bridge
Fargo, N.D. and Moorhead, Minn.
Michael Graves

1. Australia---The Victorian Arts Center
opened; 1968
consists of; exhibition areas, library, restaurant, educational
facilities, reception hall, theatre, sculpture gardens.

2. Canada----Confederation Center
opened; 196^4-consists of; theater
exhibition space study areas
3. England---The Arts Center
opened; 1968 consists of; restaurant auditorium
(auditorium can be used as a theatre) cinema
exhibition area studios
SUCH nooi HU


Germany---Academy of Arts
Opened; 195^ consists of;
exhibition spaces theater-600 seats reception area guest rooms studios offices

5. France----Kaison De La Culture De Firiny
Architects Le Corbusier Opened; 1966
consists of;
2 conference halls library
exhibition space meeting rooms T.V. room snak-bar studios auditorium

7. Japan---Tochigi Museum
consists of;
exhibition spaces numerous ourdoor displays lecture rooms library
conference rooms

8. United States---The Arts and Science Center
New Hampshire
Consists of;
workshop space theater
exhibition space lecture hall classrooms studios

9. United States---Brooks Memorial Gallery
Consists of;
sculpture courts library
exhibition space auditorium.

10. United States----Hunting Gallery
West Virginia
consists of;
sculpture garden auditorium exhibit spaces


12. United. States--Center for American Arts
Yale University, Connecticut
Architect; Herbert S. Newman Ass.
consists of;
auditorium-cinema gallery courtyard exhibition space offices

13. Museum of our National Heirtage
Lexington, Mass.
Architects{ Shepley, Bulfinch, Richardson and Abbott
consists of;
3 galleries auditorium exhibition space court yard offices

14. Biloxi Library and Cultural Center Biloxi, Mississippi Architects; MLTW
opened 1975 consists of; exhibit spaces workshop offices assembly room conference room library

14. (coni.) Biloxi Library and Cultural center

15Italy---Villa Strozzi
Architect; Richard Meier
consists of;
exhibition spaces courtyard
/ r. ' \

16. United States---The Atheneum
New Harmany, Indiana 1975 Architect Richard Meier
consists of; gallery exhibit space auditorium restaurant amphitheater


1?. United States----Fargo-Moorhead Cultural Center Bridge
Fargo, N.D. and Moorhead, Minn.
Architect; Michael Graves
Consists of; theatre exhibition gallery concert hall amphitheater concert hall offices
view towards concert hall, bridge museum
\ \
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. i
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17. Fargo-Moorhead Cultural Center Bridge (cont.)


1. Bainbridge Bunting, Early Architecture in New Mexico. (University of New Mexico Press). 1976, developed from pp. 3~51
2. Ibid. p. 7
3. Ibid. pp. 30-31.
4. Ibid. pp.55-58.
5. Ibid. pp. 86-107
6. Ibid, p.112.
7. J. B. Jackson, "Report from Sante Fe" by Sassy Woodbridge, Progressive Architecture (IPC Reinhold Publication)
May 1975, p. 37.
8. Philip Drew, "Mannerism and Contemporary Architecture-aleination, mannerism and architecture", Architecture and Urbanism ,
June 1979, #105, p. 48.
9. Charles Jenks, The language of post-Modern Architecture,
(Rizzoli International Publications, Inc.), 1977. PP* 39-73.
Artwork is done by Max Schroeder of Ranchos de Taos, N.M.
(one exception is made -the illustration for the case studies is by Henri Rousseau)
the Sketched map of Taos is drawn by Jann Taylor, Aspen Colorado.

Bunting, Bainbridge. Early Architecture in New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, N.M., 1976.
Bunting, Bainbridge. Of Earth and Timber Made. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, N.M., 197^
Guirgola, Romaldo. Louis I, Kahn. VestView Press, Boulder,
Colorado, 1975*
Goldfinger, Myron. Villages in the Sun. Praeger publishers,
New York, N.Y., 1969.
Jenks, Charles. The Language of Post Modern Architecture.
Rizzoli International Publishers, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1977*
Le Corbusier, The Athens Charter. Grossman Publishers,
Newyork,N.Y. 1973.
Powell, Lawrence Clark. "Essay of the Land-the South West"
Photographs of the Southwest. New York Graphic Society, Boston, Massachusetts, 1976.
Old Sante Fe Today. Sante Fe: School of American Research.
Santa Fe, N.M. 1972.

site plan scale i=^o

Upon initial examination of the program during the design phase of the project, it was discovered that the scale of the initial program was'way to large to be in harmony with the scale of Taos and the site. The following changes have been made:
New Space Requirements
1. Loading Dock (same)
10' x 20' minimum dock space
2. Shipping and Receiving 600 square feet
3. Framing and Packing 500 square feet
4. Gallery I (open)
4.500 square feet
5. Gallery II- Travelling shows
2.500 square feet
6. Storage
Gallery I 850 square feet Gallery II -55 Square feet
7. Restrooms (same)
300 square feet each
8. Lobby
31500 square feet
9. Offices (same)
1,150 square feet

10. Auditorium Space (same)
8.800 square feet
11. Meeting Rooms
1.500 square feet
12. Restaurant (same)
1.500 square feet
13. Kitchen
800 square feet
14. Snack Area-Lounge (with kitchen) 400 square feet
15. Mechanical
600 square feet
TOTAL SPACE = 26,850 square feet

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listing city plan
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proposed plan



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