Citation
The Westminster City Hall

Material Information

Title:
The Westminster City Hall Westminster, Colorado
Creator:
Scheuber, Charles R
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
112 unnumbered leaves : illustrations, chart, maps, plans (some color) ; 28 cm

Subjects

Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 99-100).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Architecture and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Charles R. Scheuber.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
16721652 ( OCLC )
ocm16721652
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1987 .S5837 ( lcc )

Full Text
THE WESTMINSTER CITY HALL Westminster, Colorado
An Architectural Thesis presented to the
College of Architecture and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for The Degree of Master of Architecture
Charles R. Scheuber : May 15, 1987


The Thesis of Charles R. Scheuber is approved
Committee Chairperson
University of Colorado at Denver Spring 1987


TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART
PART
PART
PART
PART
PART
PART
PART
ONE
INTRODUCTION
TWO
HISTORY
THREE
SITE INFORMATION FOUR
BUILDING CODE/ZONING ANALYSIS FIVE
CLIMATIC INFORMATION SIX
PROGRAM INFORMATION SEVEN
TECHNICAL INFORMATION EIGHT
BIBLIOGRAPHY


In modern democracies, the citizens are usually represented by elected officials, and the business of government takes place in town halls, parliments, and other civic buildings, which often come to symbolize the whole democratic system. These buildings are not simply an expression of a certain style or an architectural concept. Regardless of their age or their aesthetic qualities, they communicate and embody a philosophy, an enduring aspiration and a faith.
Throughout history, civic building have always been given a symbolic role. In the time of Pericles, the temples on the Acropolis in Athens were reconstructed to give fame and honor to the city and the democracy it stood for. Even today, the ruins of the Acropolis continue to reflect this glory that the Acropolis and Athens once had.
Germany and Italy in the 19 30' s provided a strangely appropriate setting for the display of civic architecture. The Modern Movement was unable to convey the sense of presence and grandeur that these two countries sought. Instead, their architects turned to, as Kenneth Frampton refered to in Modern Architecture, A Critical History, a "historicist modernist form of design' using very literal translations of classical principles of plan and composition. This enabled the architect to communicate the state's aspirations and visions to the general public.
Most recently, The Modern Movement and its architects attempted to create this symbolic statement by conceiving their architecture on a more monumental scale. Instead of "less is more", it was now "bigger is better". In attempting to create this monumental scale, architects selected shallow characteristics of traditional monuments such as stability, massiveness, bigness and heaviness and applied them to the lightweight forms of the Modern Movement. The results were indeed monumental but they very rarely were a symbol of anything more than their size.
It is the contention of my thesis that architecture has the ability and power to convey ideas. In this particular case, the Westminster City Hall should e a symbol about the people's ideals, aspirations and visions. It will be my responsibility to be the interpreter.
In the evolution of this symbol of the people's ideals, aspirations and visions, three very broad issues will be explored. They are typologies, spatial interaction and contextuali sm.
A typology can be defined as that aspect of something that tells us it belongs to the same category as something else with which it shares certain similarities. As an example, we usually know a house when we see one, but it could be a mud hut or a palace.


As a particular design solution is repeated, the solution evolves certain features that are particular to its type. This gives a framework for the architect to operate within. This framework that the type is developed within is not static; it is a dynamic framework that can allow the transformation and change of a given type. Within this dynamic framework, the architect can act as the intrepreter at these various typologies, transforming then into new typologies as the design problem warrants.
Since this concept of typology naturally uses images and features that are full of historically developed meanings that connect it with the past it is very closely related to the communication and expression of the people's ideals, aspirations and visions. This is by no means calling for the rejection of all of the Modern Movements design principles. It does however demand an acceptance of history and the many generations of symbolic meaning that have been developed in various typologies.
The Modern Movement's concept of fluid or open space did have a certain appeal. It provided infinite flexibility from a functional standpoint. The fluid spaces had their drawbacks also. It tended to flow through a regular and of columns, past the modular office partitions and straight out through the scaleless glass certainwall. This space lacked the power and definition of more traditional architecture the whole idea of the interaction between the spatial enclosure and the space itself was lost, along with any sort of relationship to the participant.
This concept of interaction between the spatial enclosure, the space and the participant is very a important one in supporting the thesis that the architecture can be symbolic of the people's ideas. People will identify and remember a place as much by their feelings of that place as by the mental images retai ned.
The importance of interaction between the spatial enclosure, the space and the participant and how this is manifested in a symbol of people's ideals, aspirations and visions should not be over looked. This interaction occurs at three different levels; the individual space, the transition or connection between spaces and the project as a whole.
At the individual level how does this interaction work? By looking at which participants occupy space, how they use the space and how the space is perceived. Take Date Processing of the City Hall for example. This is definitely a non-public space and probably not preceived by the general public as an important division of the city government. Yet Data Processing provides an essential service of record keeping for the city. This requires a pleasant and efficient working place for the Division employees.
On the other hand, the lobby is quite different. It is the


PART ONE INTRODUCTON


first destination that the public reaches after arriving at the City Hall. This is a space that is purely for the public, a gathering place and a place for information. While no official government activity takes place here, this is a place that the public perceives as symbolic and representative of the city government.
These are two dramatically different spaces. One being driven by the function of the space the other by the symbol of the space. They both have one thing in common, their desire for spatial enclosure that is responsive to its needs and to the part i ci pants.
Once the qualities of the individual spaces have been conceived, how is the transition or connection between spaces completed? Both of these ideas suggest movement along a path to get from one place to another. How these paths are perceived has a great deal to do with how the people will react to the places themselves.
If a person experiences confusion or boredom before arriving at a destination place and then again when leaving the same place; chances are the lasting memory of the entire experience will not be a pleasant one. At the same, if this path holds the person's interest when arriving and again when leaving a particular place then the experience should be a memorable one.
Finally, all of these series of places and ways have to be pulled together in a coherent whole. The combination of all of these different places and ways should have a positive effect, that is, the effect of the total project should be greater than each individual space added together.
A third issue to be dealt with is contextualism and its relationship to the creation of symbolic architecture. The word context is defined as, "the interrelated conditions in which something exists or occurs".
In viewing the surrounding context, a structural reading of the area should be one of the highest priorities to identify the existing elements that could have a major impact on the project. These elements would include paths, districts, and landmarks.
A path can be defined as a channel along which the participant usually, occasionally or potentially moves. They can be streets, walkways or public transportation. A great majority of the participants will only engage the City Hall while traveling along these paths so particular attention must be paid to how the project addresses these existing paths and to what new paths might be created to enhance the participant interaction.
Districts are the sections of the city which the participant mentally enters "inside of" and which are recognizable as having some kind of indentifying element. There are existing districts;


the residential area to the east or the commercial areas to the west and south that need to be addressed and accounted for. There is also the future commercial district to the north. How does the development of the City Hall district affect the future development of this land or what impact will this have on future development?
Landmarks are usually an external point of reference although the participant does not have to physically engage them. The mountains serve as a landmark although they are off in the distance. The Belleview College serves as an immediate landmark because of its distinguished architectural character and its location on the highest point in Westminster.
As mentioned earlier, these landmarks provide the participants with a point of reference making the journey in and around Westminster more stimulating. The Westminster City Hall should also become one of these recognizable landmarks.
Whatever existing elements that are identified to be outside of the project boundaries can't change. They should be closely examined and addressed in the best manner possible.
However, the city is an ever-changing, dynamic element and the internal structure is under constant modification. If one accepts the idea that the things we do today have an effect; good, bad, or otherwise; on the things that happen tommorow, by creating a City Hall that addresses the present and potential future contextual issues of the area then perhaps the seed will be planted for a more legible and identifyable City of Westmi nster.


A BRIEF HISTORY OF WESTMINSTER, COLORADO
Set amongst fruit orchards and farmlands, the village of Harris, Colorado seemed content to remain an agricultural neighbor to the then-distant Denver. Spectacular views of the front range and productive soil first attracted the settlers to the area. The Farmer's High Line Canal, whose course was occasionally dictated by gun carrying farmers, brought further agricultural vaibility to the area via Allen's Ditch. The fruit orchards, some of which remained productive into the mid-1950's, provided a reasonably stable economy, but no impetus for growth.
As with many small communities, Westminster's growth, began to accelerate after World War II. In 1956 a study group was formed to explore more efficient forms of city government. Voters approved a proposal for Home Rule in 1957, an elected a convention to write a Charter. The Charter, which was ratified in January of 1958 set up the present Council/City Manager format. It consists of seven council members with council selecting the City Manager.
From its inception, the City Government of Westminster has resided in several venues. The first Board meeting convened in the office of Fred Strawsom on June 12, 1911. the monthly meetings were held in several homes and offices. The meetings were interrupted from October 1918 to April 1919 due to the Spanish influenza. When the meetings resumed, more and more citizens began to attend the meetings. The meetings were moved to the larger Grange Hall in 1946. Originally an army barricks, the Fire Hall housed not only the town board but the Fire Department, the Library, City Administration, and Police Department. In 1960 W.C. Walden sold to the city a sheep pasture adjacent to the land set aside for the City Park. The present Westminster City Hall was built on this parcel, dedicated on June 17, 1961. the complex of three structures houses the City Council Chambres and Administrative Offices, the Police Department, as well as, the City Library. The rapid growth of Westminster has rendered theses facilities inadequate.


PART TWO HISTORY


PART THREE SITE INFORMATION


SITE DESCRIPTION
The City has designated the property bounded by 92nd Avenue to the north, Yates Street on the west, and residential areas to the south and east as the site for the new municipal complex. The site lies in the general vicinity of Belleview College, which is one of the original institutions of Westminster. In addition, the site lies very close to the crest of Crown Point, the highest point in the immediate area.
In conjunction with the recently completed renovation of the retail center to the west, the site is viewed by the City Planners as the beginnings of a coherent city center.
The property directly to the north, which is currently under study, will have a significant influence on the realization of these goals. Presently vacant, this land is being considered for any number of uses. The City Planning Division would be receptive to any well conceived Planned Unit Development.
The entire Westminster Development Plan is intended to provide an intensive mix of urban activities with mass transit linkages, convenient pedestrian circulation and adequate, but not excessive, parking through the use of shared parking.
In conclusion, the Westminster City Hall is intended to play an integral role in the development of the City Center, as well as, project a dynamic and symbolic image for the City of Westmi nster.


LEGAL DESCRIPTION
A parcel of land lying in the southwest quarter of Section 19, Township 2 south, Range 68 west of the 6th principal meridian, City of Westminster, County of Adams, State of Colorado, being more particularly described as follows:
Beginning at the west one-quarter corner of said Section 19; thence north 89 48'57" east along the east-west centerline of said Section 19, a distance of 1773.71 feet to the northwest corner of that parcel described in Book 1663 at Page 212 as recorded in the records of the Clerk and Recorder of said Adams County; thence along the westerly boundary of said parcel south 00 11'03" east a distance of 30.00 feet to the TRUE POINT OF BEGINNING: thence continuing southerly along the westerly
boundary of said parcel south 00 11'03" east a distance of 30.00 feet; thence a distance of 462.73 feet along the arc of a tangent curve to the left having a central angle of 15 30*16", a radius of 1710.00 feet, the chord of which bears south 07 56*11" east a distance of 461.32 feet; thence south 15 41*19" east a distance of 204.79 feet; thence a distance of 355.68 feet along the arc of
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east a distance of 25.00 feet; thence south 00 11*03" east a distance of 175.80 feet to the southwest corner of said parcel, said corner lying on the south line of the NE1/4, SW1/4 of said Section 19; thence north 89 58'00" west along said south line a distance of 648.96 feet to the southeast corner of the "Assembly of God Church Subdivision", as platted and recorded in said Adams County; thence north 00 08'00" west along the east line of said subdivision a distance of 198.72 feet to the southerly line of the City of Westminster Water Storage Facility as described in Book 1767, Page 303 as recorded in the records of the Clerk and Recorder of said Adams County; thence north 89 52*00" east
along the southerly boundary of said facility a distance of 200.00 feet; thence north 00 08*00" west along the easterly boundary of said facility a distance of 200.00 feet; thence south 89 52*00" west along the northerly boundary of said facility a distance of 200.00 feet; thence north 00 08*00" west a distance of 263.22 feet; thence south 89 55*28" west a distance of 567.18 feet to the easterly line of a sixty-foot right-of-way as described in Book 2209 at Pages 869 through 872 as recorded in said Adams County; thence along the easterly line of said right-of-way a distance of 1.32 feet alona the arc of a non-tangent curve having a central angle of 0^ 25*15", a radius of 180.00 feet; the chord of which bears north 12 34*38" east a distance of 1.32 feet; thence continuing north 12 22*00" east along said easterly right-of-way line a distance of 119.37 feet; thence 115.05 feet along said easterly right-of-way line along
56al^r,c aofraadiculirvof ISoPiW )il t\\Ve( lWdc8P^%Wn&VT-sofr.oHh 06 08*53" east a distance of 114.82 feet; thence north 00


04'15" west along said easterly right-of-way line a distance of 399 19 feet to a point 30.00 feet south of the east-west centerline of said Section 19; thence north 89 48'57" east parallel to the east-west centerline of said Section 19 a distance of 986.06 feet to the TRUE POINT OF BEGINNING.
The above-described parcel contains 1,017,866 square feet (23.367 acres) more or less.


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PART FOUR
BUILDING CODE/ZONING ANALYSIS


1*0)1 *N[G
sasBisaaas
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Project Name:
The Westminster City Hall
Location:
Applicable Code Uniform Building Code 1985 Edition_____________
Code Check Ry Charles R. Scheuber_______________ 8 October 1986
Section Page Item
N/ft_____ ______ Fire zone__________________________________________
--------- -------- Occupancy classification
Table No.
5~A______ 59 Principle Group A-3______________________________________
_________ ________ Others (specify)^__________________________________
n/a
n/a
Table No.
5-C 63
Table No.
5-C 63
Construction type i-f.r., possibly u f.r.
Occupancy separations required___NZ.A_
to hours
tn hours
t/i hours
t/i hours
_ to hours
n/a
Changes in occupancy N/"A------------------------------n/a
.. t. . ... 39,900 s.f.
Maximum allovable floor area unlimited,____possibly_____n/a
506_____ 54 jf adjacent to open area on sides increase at a n/a
rate of 5% for each ft. of yd. exceeding 20', 100% max.
If over one story N/A------------------------------n/a
Area spaced in 5-C may be doubled for 2 or more
TfcprinArea spaced in 5-C may be tripled for stor
Increases for fire separations_n/a----------------n/a
1


Table No. 5-D
6A
507.3 55
Table No. 5-A 59
types)
Table No. 5-A 59
50A 52
Chapter A5 661
605 66
605 66
1207 91
Muitutt allowable height
peej Unlimited, possibly 160*
______________________n/a
______________________n/a
Stories Unlimited, possibly 12 stories_________________ a/a
20' max. above the height limit
Tovers. spires, steeples In 5-D if of combustible material n/a Fire resistance of exterior vails (see occupancy & construction
2 hours less than 101, 1 hour elsewhere___________
Refer to Table No. 17-A for additional____________
Information regarding Types of Construe
Fire Resistive Requirements_______________________
Setbacks requiring protection of openings in exterior vails n/a
No permitted less than 5' protected_____________
j\pnt>hy Less than 10'. Re: Sections 1803, 1903___________
_____________________________________________________
>JResk----------------------------------------------------
Location within city/ location on property_must have------n/a
access to public space on not less than one side.
Use af Public Property------------------------------------n/a
Doors prohibited from swinging into city property?-------
Restrictions on marquees, conopies. etc.
N/A
Other projections.
Windows required in rooms
Window area_______________
Enclosed or semi-enclosed courts size rqd. Yentilation requirements-----------------
n/a
Minimum ceiling heights in rooms
2
n/a
n/a


Table No.
17-A 107
Table No.
33-A 582
Minimum floor tret of rooms N/A . n/a
Fire resistive requirements Type I F.R. Type II F.R. . n/a
Exterior hearing walls 4 4 . hrs
Interior hearing walls 3 2 . hrs
Exterior non-hearing walls 4 4 . hrs
Structural frame 3 2 . hrs
Permanent partitions 1 1 . hrs

Exit corridor walls . hrs
Vertical openings 2 2 . hrs

Floors 2 2 . hrs
Poofs 2 1 . hrs
3/4 hour less Exterior doors than 20' ifrom P.L. same . hrs
20 min. label if Exit doors L frames corridor is 1 hr. same . hrs
Inner court walls 4 4 . hrs
1/3 the area Mezzanine floors (areaallowed) *n which it of the room is located . hrs
Poof coverings sha^ be fire retardant . hrs
Roiler room enclosure 1 1 . hrs
Structural requirements . n/a

Framework 3 2 hrs
Stairs 2 2 . hrs
Floors 2 2 . hrs
Poofs 2 1 . hrs
Partitions 1 1 . hrs
Exits
Occupancy________________Basis_____________Actual Load
min. of 2 exits reqd. Occupant Load Factor
Assembly Concentrated 10___________________500_______
3


Assembly Area
Less Concentrated 50 15
Daycare 7 35
Office 30 100
3303(a) 556
3303(b) 557
3303(c) 557
3303(d) 557
3303(e) 558
3304(e) 559
3305 561
Number of exits required at least one exit, not less than fl/a,
two when reauired by Table 33-A. The second story shall have no less than two exits.
Minimum width Of eiits not less than the total occupancy n/a load served divided by 50.
Exit separation arrangement If two exits are required, n/a
they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one half of the length of the max. overall diagonal dimension of the building.___________________
Maximum allowable travel distance to exit 150___________n/a
With sprinklers 200_____________________________________
Exit sequence (through adjoining or accessory areas)_____n/a
Yes, if it provides obvious and unobstructed means
of travel to an exit corridor.________________________
Exit doors_______________________________________________n/a
Minimum width & height 3,-0"x6,-8''_____________________
Maximum leaf width 4'"O'*_______________________________
Width required for number of occupants as required by___
3303(b)_______________________________________________
Swing in the direction of travel if the occupancy exceeds
w/h.c. access 1/2"
Change in floor level at door w/o h.c. access 1"________
Exit Corridors___________________________________________n/a
Required width 44" When serving an occupancy of 10 or more.
Required height 7'~"___________________________________
\
Dead end corridors length 20'_________________________
4


r
3306
563
3303(c) 563
3306(c) 563

3306(g) 536
1. Doors & frames 20 min. label Openings Other 1/4" wire glass in steel frame ~T. Can't exceed 25^~oTToFnidor-wall
Stairs_____________________________________________
n/a
Min. width 44,1
36"
OCC. load Of greater than 50
OCC. load Of less than or equal to 49
occ. load of__________________
occ. load of
Maximum riser allowed Minimum tread allowed
7"
11"
Winding, circular, spiral stairs
N/A
Landings
Minimum width rqd. Maximum width rqd.
36"
44"
Vertical distance between landings 12' Handicap refuge space >es__________________
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
3306(o) 563
3306(b) 564

3306(p) 565
3306(j) 564
Stair to roof rqd.?
N/A
n/a
Barrier required when stair Stair to basement restrictions__________exit w/another stair n/a
Stair enclosure rqd ? Ves
Stair headroom 6'~6"____
Handrails_______________
n/a
n/a
n/a
Rqd. at each side?
Yes
Intermediate rails rqd.? Ves, if stair is greater than 88"
Max. width between interior rails
88"
Rqd height not *ess than 30", not 9reater than 34"
Max openings in rails Height above nosing _
6"
30" 34"
5


3308
3307
3301(e)
Extension Of railing 6" beyond last nosing Projection from wall not less than 1-1/2" Exceptions_____________________________________
566
HorixoAUl exit requirements
n/a
Kemps _______________________________________________n/a
Â¥idlh same as stairways
Maiimum Slope 1:12 handicap 1:8 all others
Landings 1 landin9/5 feet f rise
Handrails slPe greater than 1:15, same as stairs
Exit signs rqd._____________________________________
Toilet room requirements (code utilized?)____________n/a
Fixture requirements (basis?)________________________n/a
Women ______________________________________________
Men_________________________________________________
Drinking fountains___________________________________n/a
Showers______________________________________________n/a
Handicapped Requirements____________________________
555 Accessability as required by Table No. 33-A & at
least one primary entrance to the bldg, which is
required to be accessable shall be usable by the
physically handicapped and be on a level that would
provide accessability to the elevator where provided.
Accessible Routes
6


511(a)
35
511(c) ___36
511(d) ___36
Accessible bathrooms When required by Table 33-A, at least one facility for each sex shall comply with requirements of this section; see section for specific dimension details Water fountains mounting height Telephone mounting height
N/A
Accessible housing ______________________________________n/a
Number of units__________________________________________
Minimum requirements_____________________________________
N/A
Special rqmts not listed
n/a

7


goagsijB SiaaS
Project Name: Westminster City Hall_______________________________________
Location: ______Southeast corner of intersection at Yates Street and______
_____West 92nd Avenue. Westminster. Colorado___________________
City of Westminster
Applicable Zoning Ordinance: Land Development and Use Standards___________
Zoning Check By: Charles R. Scheuber__________________ Date: 16 Nov. 86
Section Page Item
___________ _______ Proposed uses City Hall_______________________________
Present Zoning Classification ____£
Applicable Allowable Uses _____N/A
Yes, P.V.D. through the
_________________Zone Change Required? P.D.P. and O.D.P. process
_________ _______ Minimum Lot Size
area: N/A----------------------------------------
vidth: n/a________________________________________
12-8-87__ _______ Minimum Yard Requirements
front: 30' from property line_____________________
1


None required unless abutting an alley or
rear: residential area.__The 20' from rear lot line
15' from property line bordering the side
side: street for a corner lot. & 30' setback from___
the property line bordering a side street, both sides: N/A_____________________________________
allowances for overhangs: n/a_______________________
Maximum FAS ^25_____________________________________
Available Bonuses N/A____________________________
12-8-7
Maximum Height 65' Does not apply to cupolas. May be twice the maximum building height.
feet: _____________________________________________________
stories: __________________________________________________
Bulk Planes N/A________________________________|___________
12~6~2_____ _______ Offstreet Parking
rqd. spaces by use. 1 Space/300 s.f. q.f.a. 10' x 20'____________________________________
rqd spaces for project: 234 JSpaces----------
parking permitted in setbacks?: _Yes---------
2


Open Space Requirements N/A
Landscaping Rqmts. As determined by the planner in charge during the O.D.P. submittal process.
Fences n/a________________________________________
Sign Restrictions Information Signs 2 s.f.
Free-standing Ground Signs 100 s.f.____________
+ 60 s.f. 25'
Max height + 32 s.f. 8' 32 s.f. 6' Wall Signs 30 s.f. or 1 s.f./1 l.f,.of bldg, frontage.________________________________________
Other Special Requirements
3


PART FIVE
CLIMATIC INFORMATION


CLIMATE DATA
Westminster, Colorado Elevation: 5584'
Latitude: 3945'
Longitude: 10452'
Westminster, Colorado has a mild, sunny, semi-arid climate. Extreme temperatures are in periods of short duration. In the spring, polar air meets moist air to produce "the rainy/snowy season". Spring is the wettest, cloudiest, windiest season; summer produces scattered thunderstorms in the afternoons and evenings; fall is the least cloudy of the seasons with mild weather and a high amount of sunshine; winter is characterized by snowfall, a high frequency of precipitation, medium cloudiness and relative humidity, and short severe periods of cold weather.
SOLAR DATA


HOURS OF SUNSHINE
A clear sky condition exists approximately 70 percent of the year, with an average of 249 days of clear skies or partly cloudy skies, and only 116 days of totally overcast days.
SOLAR HEAT
When the sun is at its highest, horizontal surfaces will absorb about 2,690 BTU/day or about 350 BTUH while the sun is above the horizon. In December, the same surface will absorb about 850 BTU/day or about 180 BTUH while the sun is above the hori zon.
East and West oriented walls will receive about 75 percent of the heat absorbed by the horizontal surfaces per day in winter and 50 percent to 60 percent as much in summer.
South oriented walls will receive 200 percent as much heat as the horizontal surfaces in December and January, 150 percent as much in November and February and about the same amount in March, September and October.
WIND
For all months, the prevailing winds are from the south, with secondary winds from the north and northwest during winter months, from the north and east during spring and summer, and from the north during the fall. The strongest winds for all months are from the northwest.
North and northwesterly winds originate from artic air in Canada and Alaska. The south and southeasterly winds originate from warm moist air in the Gulf of Mexico. The south and southwesterly winds originate from the warm, dry air in Mexico and the westerly winds. The westerly winds originate from the pacific air and are modified by the Rocky Mountains.
Westminster is located within the belt of the prevailing westerlies. The winter westerlies, in their descent through the Rocky Mountains become warmer than the average Westminster temperatures and are experienced as warm Chinook winds.
TEMPERATURES
Thirty-two days/year have afternoon temperatures above 90F.


F
One hundred sixty-four days/year have temperatures below 32
Ten days/year have temperatures below 0 F.
Degree Days: January 1122
April 525
July 5
October 425
Average 6132
PRECIPITATION
Annual average precipitation: 15.51" (ranging from 7.6"/year to 23"/year).
Snowfall expectancy: 59.6" (ranging from 19" to 116")


ZONING
The zoning of the proposed site is RE-1. The property will be rezoned by the P.U.D. process, using the B-l regulations as a guideline. A Concept Plan, Preliminary Development Plan and Official Development Plan will all be submitted to the City of Westminster for review and approval.
J


PART SIX
PROGRAM INFORMATION


STAFF AND SPACE SUMMARY BY DIVISION
Department Division Number Area
CITY MANAGER OFFICE 15 4063
CMO Offices & Support 9 1674
Areas City Clerk CITY ATTORNEY
Attorney Offices & Support 10 2409
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
C.D. Administration 11 2435
Engi neeri ng 14 2457
Planning 7 1280
Inspection 26 2009
Techni ci ans 14.5 2277
Shared Conference Rooms 3 1577
EMPLOYEE SERVICES
Empl. Servi ces Admi n. 9 2244
Personnel 6 772
Risk Management 4 599
Training 2 270
FINANCE
Finance Administration 7 1985
Data Processing 2881
Account i ng 1644
Purchasi ng 672
Sales Tax 1007
Utilities Billing 1285
PARKS AND RECREATION
P & R Administration 12 2625
Recreation Offices/Work Areas 15 2273
PUBLIC WORKS
P.W. Administration 8 1322
Water Resources 7 1366
SUPPORT AREAS
Council Chambers 3000
Lobby 500
Credit Union Office 500
Copy Center 350
Central Mail Room 150
Print Shop 1000


Position
Number
Area
Day Care Facility 1200.
Training/Mulit-Purpose Room 1000.
Employee Break Area 1000.
Shower/Locker Area 700.
Centralized Storage 900.
Centralized Supply 500.
TOTAL NET AREA 51927.
BUILDING CORE/CIRCULATION (35%) 18174.
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
70101




CITY MANAGERS OFFICE DIVISION: CITY CLERK
ACTIVITIES
The City Clerk oversees four basic areas of responsibility:
switchboard operation, microfilming services, printing services and basic clerk functions, including City contracts, elections and licensing.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
1. The Department (except the print room) should be located near the main lobby for public accessabi1i ty.
2. The City Clerk's Office interacts most frequently with the City Manager's Office and to a lesser degree with the City Attorney's Office.
3. It is not important that the print room be located near the rest of the depa ts. The print room should be located where it can receive truck deliveries.
FACILITY REQUIREMENTS
A private office for the City Clerk.
Open work stations (low height partitions) for the Deputy Clerks, Licensing Clerk and Microfilm Technicians.
A counter for the public to fill out forms.
Two (2) switchboards/desks in isolated area.
One (1) shared terminal.
Vault for documents storage.



One (1) station.
shared typewriter
Microfilm area.
Print room including:
- Storage room
- Dark room
- Receiving dock
- Two (2) print machines
- Binding area
- Work station
The City Clerk Division also needs access to the following shared support areas:
Small conference room for 6-8 people.
Archival storage area.
PARTICIPANTS
Department Staff City Manager's Office City Attorney's Office Ci tizens
STAFF POSITIONS/AREAS
Position
City Clerk Assistant Clerk Mi cro-Clerk Press Operator Switchboard Operator
- Vault
- Reception/Counter
- Microfilm Area
- Shared typewriter
- Shared PC Station
- Shared Files
Total Net Area
Department Circulation (40%)
Number
1
3
2
1
1
Area
150.
360.
200.
0.
0.
200.
100.
48.
30,
48,
60,
1196,
478,
Total Required Area
1674


DEPARTMENT: CITY ATTORNEY
ACTIVITIES
The main responsibility of the City Attorney's Office is to provide legal advise to the Administrative Divisions of all Departments and to the City Council on all civil matters (non-criminal) involving the City of Westminster. Attorneys in this Department are contract employees of the City who serve as in-house counsel to anyone within City Hall.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
1. A central location within the new City Hall is the ideal location for the City Attorney's Office, since it is intended that the office be readily available to all Departments.
2. The primary adjacencies are with the City Manager's Office, Community Development and Fi nance.
3. The Office does not want to discourage public interaction. However, the Attorneys want to maintain visual privacy from the public.
FACILITY REQUIREMENTS
A private office for each attorney.
A semi-private office for each legal secretary.
An open area with a receptionist and waiting room for 3-4 people.
A library.
A terminal area (adjacent to the



library).
A conference room (adjacent to the library) for 6-8 people.
A copy/fi1e/work area with a printer (near the secretary).
In addition to the above spaces, the following shared areas are necessary:
Access to a large conference room (10-12 people).
PARTICIPANTS
Department Staff
City Manager's Office
Community Development Department
Number Area
1 200.
5 750.
2 144.
2 144.
375.
48.
60.
1721.
688.
Finance Department All Other Departments Occasional Citizens
STAFF POSITIONS/AREAS
Positions
City Attorney Assitant Attorney Legal Assitants Secretaries
- Library/Conference Room
- Shared PC Station
- Shared Files
Total Net Area
Department Circulation (40%)
Total Required Area
2409.


DEPARTMENT: COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
DIVISION: ADMINISTRATION
ACTIVITIES
The Community Development
Department is comprised of the following divisions:
Administration, Building
Inspection, Code Enforcement, Engineering, Planning and Building Operations and Maintenance. It is the responsibility of the Administration Division to oversee the smooth functioning of each of the Divisions within Community Development.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
1. All professional, administrative staff should be located together, and adjacent to planners and engineers.
2. Building Inspectors, Engineering Inspectors and Code Enforcement Officers should be located together.
3. There should be a shared area for the technicians and other support staff located close to the public counter and close to the print room and file storage area.
4. A waiting/reception area,
staffed by the Code Enforcement and Building Operations and Maintenance, Secretaries,
should be located at the
Department's entry with
adjacent conference rooms.
5. A nearby counter/waiting area
staffed by Building Division
secretaries, will provide services for issuing permits and plans requests.
6. There is most frequent
interaction with the City


DEPARTMENT: COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
DIVISION: BUILDING DEPARTMENT
ACTIVITIES
The main activities of the Building Department include reviewing and checking building plans, issuing building permits, performing field inspections, and responding to building code questions and issues. The Department also serves as a resource to the public on building concerns.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
1. The interdepartmental relation-
ships are more critical than those within the Division. Therefore, all staff functions within the Community
Development Department should be grouped together.
2. There should be a shared
waiting/reception area with a counter staffed by the Code Enforcement Secretary and Building Operations and
Maintenance Secretary.
3. The primary relationships are with the City Attorney's Office, followed by the City Manager's Office,Parks and Recreaton and Public Works.
FACILITY REQUIREMENTS
A private office for the Chief Building Offical.
Semi-private offices for the Plans Analysts and Permit Technicians.
Open work stations (low height partitions) for the Inspectors, Secretaries and Clerks.
A print room (shared with


Attorney followed by the City Manger, and the Parks and Recreati ons.
FACILITY REQUIREMENTS
A private Di rector. office for the
A private office for the
Assistant Di rector to be
initially used as a conference
room.
Open work stations (low height partitions) for the Secretary, Clerks, Code Enforcement Officers and Inspectors.
For overall Department needs, the
following spaces provided: should be
Small conference people). room (4-6
Medium conference peoople). room (6-12
Large conference people). room (12-18
CAD area for shared CRT
stations, printers, and drafting stations.
Two (2) microfilm readers.
File storage.
Print room and map storage area.
Waiting/receptionist area for 8-10 people.
Permit counter areas.
Areas to be shared with other Departments include:
Archival storage area.
PARTICIPANTS


Department Staff Citizens
City Manager's Office
City Attorney's Office
Parks and Recreation Department


Planning and Engineering).
Map/file storage area.
Two (2) shared PC stations.
Reference library (shared).
Microfilm reader (shared).
Counter/reception area (shared).
Other shared building areas to be used include:
Small conference room (4-6 people).
Medium conference room (6-12 people).
Archival storage area.
Copy area.
PARTICIPANTS
Department Staff Citizens
City Attorney's Office City Manager's Office Parks and Recreation Department Public Works Department


DEPARTMENT: COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
DIVISION: ENGINEERING
ACTIVITIES
The Engineering Division is part of the Community Development
Department. It is primarily
responsible for the engineering portion of development review, administering public improvement projects, prividing information and mapping to public and private agencies and traffic engineering.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
1. The interdepartmental
relation-ships are more
critical than those within the division. Therefore, all staff performing similar functions within the Community Development Department should be grouped together.
2. There should b a shared waiting/reception area with a counter staffed by the Code Enforcement Secretary and the Building Operations and Maintenance Secretary.
3. The primary relationships are with the City Attorney's Office followed by the City Manager, Parks and Recreation and Public Works.
4. Engineering, Planning and Building Division employees all interact on a daily basis and should be in close proximity to each other.
FACILITIES REQUIREMENTS
A private office for the City Engineer.
Semi-private offices for the other Engineers.
Open work stations (low height partitions) for the remainder of


the staff.
Two (2) shared PC stations.
A print room (shared with Building and Planning).
Map/file storage area.
Reference library (shared). Microfilm reader.
Surveyors closet. Waiting/Receptionist area
(shared).
Other shared building areas to be used i nclude:
Small conference room.
Medium conference room.
Archival storage.
Copy area.
PARTICIPANTS
Department Staff
City Attorney's Office
City Manager's Office
Parks and Recreation Department
Public Works Department
Occasional Citizens


DEPARTMENT: COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
DIVISION: PLANNING
ACTIVITIES
Preparing long range land use plans is the primary responsibility of the Planning Division. This
Division also administers the growth management program and reviews planning and zoning proposals for all City projects. The Planning Division also conducts policy analysis and prepares reports.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
1. The interdepartmental
relationships are more critical than those within the division. Therefore, all staff performing similar functions within the Community Development
Department should be grouped together.
2. Engineering, Planning and Building Division employees all interact on a daily basis and should be in close proximity to each other.
3. The Division should be in close proximity with Parks Division. They do not need to be next to each other.
4. 10-15 citizens visit the Planning Division each day so it should be located in close proximity to the reception/ waiti ng area.
FACILITY REQUIREMENTS
A private D i rector. office for the
Semi-pri vate PIanners. offi ces for the


A drafting area with light tables, flat files and two (2) drafting tables for the techni ci ans.
One (1) small conference room
One (1) medium conference room with library.
A secured storage closet.
Other shared building areas to be used i nclude:
A large conference room.
A print room.
Copy room.
File area both dead and acti ve.
One (1) shared PC work station. Microfilm reader area.
PARTICIPANTS
Department Staff
Parks and Recreation Department
City Attorney's Office
City Manager's Office
Citizens
Public Works Department


DEPARTMENT: COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
DIVISION: BUILDING OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE
ACTIVITIES
The main activities of the Building Operations and Maintenance Division include providing janitorial services and basic maintenance for all City buildings. Shop functions will remain at the Municipal Water Tower.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
1. Administrative positions are to be provided for within Community Development Department.
2. The Custodial staff does not require work stations.
FACILITY REQUIREMENTS
A private office for the Di rector.
Semi-private offices for the Foreman and Assistant Director.
Open work stations (low height partitions) for the Secretary.
Janitors closets at a frequency of 1 per 10-15,000 square feet of building.
A plan table and equipment maintenance area within the mechanical room.
Shared use of the following is requi red:
Central supply/storage area.
PARTICIPANTS Department Staff
Occasional Other Department Staff


DEPARTMENT: COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
SPACE SUMMARY
Position Number Area
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION Community Development Director 1 200.
Assistant Community Development Di rector 1 150.
Planning Di rector 1 150.
City Engineer 1 150.
Chi ef Building Offi ci al 1 150.
B.O.M. Director 1 150.
Executive Secretary 1 72.
Engineering Secretaries 2 128.
Planning Secretary 1 64.
- Small Conference Room 275.
- General Filing 100.
ENGINEERING
Assistant Engineer 1 120.
Traffic Engineer 1 120.
Civil Engineer 7 840.
Traffic Technician 2 200.
Traffic Aide 2 144.
B.O.M. Foreman 1 100.
- Reference Library 150.
- Shared PC Work Station (2) 96.
- Traffic/Surveying Equipment Storage 50.
PLANNING
Planner III 2 240.
Planner II 3 360.
Plans Analyst 2 200.
- Shared PC Work Station 48.
- Shared Files 100.
INSPECTION
Code Enforcement Officer 5 360.
O.D.P. Inspector 2 144.
Building Inspector 1 72.
Supervisor Building Inspectors 11 528.
Senior Engineering Inspector 2 144.
Engineering Inspectors 5 240.
TECHNICIANS
Permit Technician 2 200.
PIanni ng Techni ci an 3 300.
CAD Operator 1 0.
Drafti ng 2 0.
Building Secretary 1 72.
Building Clerk II 2 144.


Student Clerk .5 48.
Custodians 3 0.
- Microfilm Reader/Files 100.
- Shared PC Work Station 48.
- CAD Area 300.
- Print Room/Storage 375.
- General Filing 100.
SHARED CONFERENCE ROOMS
Code Enforcement 2 96.
Cl erk
B.O.M. Clerk 1 72.
-Waiting/Reception 350.
- Small Conference Room 275.
- Large Conference Room 375.
Total Net Area 8850.
Department Circulation (35%) 3185
Total Required Area 12035.
j


DEPARTMENT: EMPLOYEE SERVICES
ACTIVITIES
There are three (3) areas of responsibility within the Employee Services Department. The Personnel area is responsible for: recruitment, testing, interviewing and hiring new employees, benefits administration insureance, pay plans, and grievances. The Risk Management Area is responsible for: employee claims, workman's
compensation, and citizen's claims. The training area handles all educational functions of the Department.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
1. Employee Services should be in a central location so that it is easily accessable to all City employees as well as convenient to the public.
2. There should be adequate waiting and writing area for job applicants that is in close proximity to the Personnel
Division and to the mai n
entrance. Space should be
provided in this area for
posting of job information.
FACILITY REQUIREMENTS
A private office for the Director.
Semi-private offices for the other professional staff.
Two (2) interview room (which would double as the library).
Secured file room for personnel files.
Training room for 20-50 people.


- One (1) shared PC station.
One (1) small conference room.
This group also needs access to the following shared support areas:
Storage/archives.
Waiting/reception area.
PARTICIPANTS
Department Staff
All Other Department Staff
Ci tizens
STAFF POSITION/AREAS
Position
Number
Area
ADMINISTRATION
Director 1 200
Executive Secretary 1 72
Secretary 2 128
Trainee 2 96
Intern 1 48
Volunteer Coordinator 1 72
Recepti onst/Clerk 1 64
- Reception/Waiting 250
- Workroom/Fi1es/Equipment 150
- Interview Room 100
- Conference Room 225
- Volunteer Work Room 150
- Shared PC Station 43
PERSONNEL
Analyst 5 500
Technician 1 72
RISK MANAGEMENT
Officer 2 200
Coordi nator 2 144
- Storage/Fi1es 100
TRAINING
Coordi nator 1 100
Assistant Training Coordinator 1 100
Total Net Area 2819.
Department Circulation (35%) 1067.



Total Required Area
3886.


































DEPARTMENT: FINANCE
DIVISION: ADMINISTRATION
ACTIVITIES
The Administration Division is responsible for managing the Finance Department and all of its services.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
1. All divisions of the Finance Department should be located close to each other with the exception of Data Processing, whose location is flexible.
2. The cashier should be located adjacent to the lobby. This can be separate from the rest of the departments.
FACILITY REQUIREMENTS
A private office for the Di rector.
A private office for the Assistant Director.
Semi-private offices for Investment Officers.
Open work stations (low height partitions) for the Executive Secretary and Clerks.
In addition to the above spaces, the following shared areas are necessary:
A small conference room.
A large conference room.
Copy/col1ating area.
Microfische reader.
Archival storage area.


PARTICIPANTS
Department Staff City Manager's Office City Attorney's Office Data Processing Parks and Recreation Public Works
Citizens (at Cashier Counter only)
STAFF POSITIONS/AREAS
Position Number Area
Finance Director 1 200.
Assistant Director 1 150.
Investment Officers 2 240.
Executive Secretary 1 72.
Clerk 2 96.
- Small Conference Room 225.
- Large Conference Room 275.
- Volunteer Station 60.
- Waiting Area 100.
Total Net Area 1418.
Department Circulation (35%) 496.
Total Required Area 1914.


DEPARTMENT
DIVISION:
ACTIVITIES
FINANCE
ACCOUNTING AND SALES TAX
The chief accountant manages the Accounting and Sales Tax Divisions of the Finance Department. Primary responsibilities of these Divisions include budget control, capital projects, payment approvals, payroll, accounts payable, cashier functions, sales tax and use tax management.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
1. The Cashiers handle 200-300 people per day. Therefore, the Finance Department should be located as close as possible to the public entry.
2. Interdepartmental circulaion is most frequent with Parks and Recreation and Community Development.
3. Connection with the Public Works Department and the City Manager's Office is of secondary importance.
FACILITIES REQUIREMENTS
A private office for the Chief Accountant with 2-3 seats.
Semi-private offices for the Accountants, the Auditors, and the Payroll Clerk.
Open work stations (low height partitions) for the clerks and techni ci ans.
Counter/work area for the Cashiers.
Two (2) shared PC stations and (2) pri nters.


ACCOUNTING Chief Accountant Accountant Clerk
Techni ci an Cashier
- Storage
- Shared PC Station
- Microfilm reader
- Shared files
SALES TAX
Chief Auditor 1 150.
Auditors 5 500.
Technicians 2 96.
Total Net Area 1904.
Department Circulation (35%)
Total Requi red Area 2570.
1 150
3 360
3 144
1 48
2 200
100
96
60
60


DEPARTMENT: FINANCE
DIVISION: PURCHASING
ACTIVITIES
All purchases over $150.00 are requested, processed, and purchased through the Purchasing Agent. In addition, any requests for items necessary to perform employee's jobs are processed by this Division. As a result, there is a high degree of paper flow to this Division even though it is a computerized process within the Department.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
1. The primary relationships of the Purchasing Division are to the loading dock and storage area for delivery and to the Accounts Payable Division.
2. There should be one delivery/
distribution area with
associated adequate storage and all supplies should be trucked to the various City facilities from there.
3. Purchasing should be easily accessable to the main entrace for access by sales vendors and representati ves.
4. Purchasing should be easily accessable by all employees.
FACILITY REQUIREMENTS
A private office for the Purchasing Agent with conferencing space for 2-4 people.
Open work stations (low height partitions) for the Buyer and Clerks.


Loading dock
PARTICIPANTS
Department Employees Loading Dock / Storage Area Accounts Payable Department Vendors and Sales Representitives All Other Departments
STAFF POSITIONS/AREAS
Position Number Area
Agent 1 150
Clerk 48
Buyer 300
Total Net Area 498
Department Circulation (35%) 174
Total Requi red Area 672
J


DEPARTMENT: DATA PROCESSING
ACTIVITIES
Data Processing is the information processing service bureau for all City Hall Departments. They are responsible for training and documentation, and software programs. Operations and maintenance of the prime computer, the peripheral terminals, and the printers are additional responsibilities. They also develop new systems and supply technical support for the hardware and software on the micro-computers for the decentralized systems.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
1. Primary physical relationships for Data Processing are with the Finance Department because they handle the payroll computer application, and Community Development.
2. Physical location of other Departments is less important because most computer support for the individual departments' microcomputer will be handled over the telephone lines.
FACILITY REQUIREMENTS
A private office for the Manager.
CRT work stations with enough work surfaces for (2) screens at each station.
A semi-private office (with acoustical privacty) for the lead programmer.
A large conference/training room for 10-12 people (with a large viewing monitor and storage for


reference materials).
A computer room (controlled environment with a raised floor).
A room for storing all computer forms plus the Clary UPS power source (which generates a great deal of heat).
A work room for the burster and decollator with spread space for assemblage.
A vault or fire-proof safe.
A small waiting area for City employees (there is no public contact by members of this Department).
In addition to the required spaces above, Data Processing needs access to the following support spaces:
Fire-proof off-site storage for back-up tapes.
PARTICIPANTS Department Staff
Community Development Department
STAFF POSITION/AREAS
Position
Number
Area
Manager
1
4 1
5 2 1
150.
400.
100.
Programmer Micro Spec
Operators (in computer room)
0
Techni ci an Secreta ry
144.
64.
600.
200.
250.
150.
Computer room
- Storage
- Work room
- Equipment room
Total Net Area
2058


Department Circulation (35%) 720.
Total Required Area 2778.


DEPARTMENT: FINANCE
DIVISION: UTILITY BILLING
ACTIVITIES
Utility Billing receives cash payments, prepares and mails utility bills, and solves customer problems via phone contact or on a public walk-in basis. The staff is comprised of two (2) basic groups with three (3) different sets of responsibi1ites. Clerks prepare and mail bills and deal directly with the public when necessary. Meter readers actually record the various meter readings and spend 90% of their time in the field.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
1. The Utility Billing Depart-
ment's main relationship is that of the Cashier to the
Public.
2. All initial public contact
shall be with the Cashier. The Cashier will then escort the customer to a semi-private work station without walking through the entire Department.
3. Secondary relationships include the Accounting Department, the Water Department, and the Mail Room (twice a day).
4. Convenient public access should be maintained.
5. Meter readers should have a back-door entrance and exit.
FACILITY REQUIREMENTS
Facility requiremetns of the Utility Billing Department include:
A semi-private work station for


the supervisor.
Low height partitioned work areas for the Clerks.
A low height partitioned work area for the lead meter readers.
Two (2) open work stations for the meter readers.
Lockers and storage for the meter readers.
A work and map storage area.
A counter with a window and queing space for the Cashier.
Storage and file area.
The Utility Billing Department also needs access to:
A copy area.
A large conference room
PARTICIPANTS
Department Staff Accounting Division Water Resources Division Mail Room
STAFF POSITIONS/AREAS
Position Number Area
Manager 1 150
Head Clerk 1 64
Clerks 6 288
Head Meter Reader 2 200
Meter Readers 8 0
- Meter Reader Area 150
- Work Area and Map Storage 100
Total Net Area 952
Department Circulation (35%) 333
Total Required Area 1285


DEPARTMENT: PARKS AND RECREATION
DIVISION: ADMINISTRATION
PRIMARY FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITY
Parks and Recreation exists to provide and maintain parks and recreational services to the City of Westminster.
The Parks division is responsible for thirty-two (32) different sites including drainage areas, road right-of-ways and medians, and all City parks. Parks and Facilities Development is a sub-division of the Parks division and determines and distributes any capital outlay for the development of park concepts, the design, the bidding process, building, and the administration of contracts for all park projects.
The Recreation division is responsible for providing all drop-in leisure services for the community, and for organizing and programming classes and special events. Only the supervisors and recreational specialists will be housed in the new City Hall, all other recreation employees will be at the various recreational facilities scattered throughout the City.
The intersection between the Parks and Recreaation divisions involves the coordination of scheduling for services and maintenance.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
1. The Director needs access to, or should be in close proximity to the Recreation Superintendent, the Senior Secretary, and the Assistant to the Director.
2. From February to July of each year the Department handles up


to 200 applicants per day for permits. Therefore, the
Department must be easily accessable to the public, near the main entrance, and near a fairly large waiting/reception area.
3. The Parks and Recreation Department should be located near the Community Development Department, specifically the Planning and Engineering Divisions because the park involvement in recreationa facility design and planning.
FACILITY REQUIREMENTS
Private offices for the Director and Recreation Manager
(excluding secretaries).
Semi-private office for the rest of the Administrative Staff.
A reception/waiting area with a counter for permit sales.
A work/prep room with large tables for sorting and assebling mailings.
A non-visible staging area for the gathering and pick-up of special supplies.
One(l) shared PC work station.
An ID camera area for residents to be photographed and issued their ID cards (approximately 5,000 per year.
A drafting and production room to accommodate the Assistant to the Director, 2-3 Assistants, and an expanded resource library.
A conference room for 4-6 people.


In addition to the support spaces
described abaove, the Division
needs access to:
A large conference room for 10-12 people.
PARTICIPANTS
Department Staff Planning Division Engineering Division Citizens on a seasonal basis
STAFF P0SITI0NS/AREA
Position Di rector
Recreation Manager
Park Supervisor
Assistant to the Director
Executive Secretary
Secretary
Cl erk
Intern
- Conference Room
- Reception/Waiting
- Shared Files
- Shared PC Station
Total Net Area
Department Circulation (35%)
Number Area
1 200
1 150
1 150
3 360
1 72
1 64
2 96
2 200
275
200
60
48
1875
656.
Total Required Area
2531


DEPARTMENT: PARKS AND RECREATION
DIVISION: RECREATION
ACTIVITIES
The Recreation Division is a part of the Parks and Recreation Department. Primary responsibilities include program planning and registration, producing brochures, providing IDs, and general administration.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
1. This Division should be located close to a public entrance due to the high volume of walk-in traffic they receive.
2. This Division must be adjacent to the Parks Division since the clerical staff is shared.
3. A majority of the public visits this Division for permits or program registration. Because of the large volume of money received, it is important to be located near the Finance Department.
FACILITY REQUIREMENTS
- A private office for the
Manager.
Semi-private offi ces for the
Supervi sors.
Open work stations (low height partitions) for the Specialists.
A reception/registration
counter.
An area for shooting ID pictures.
A waiting area for 6-10 people.


Two to three (2-3) lockable storage closets.
A work room approximately 500 sq. ft. for working on brochure production, T-shirts
organization, and for 6 shared work stations for the Recreation Leaders and Interns.
In addition to the above spaces, the following shared areas are requ i red:
Copy area.
Storage room.
Personal storage lockers.
PARTICIPANTS
Department Staff
Finance Department
Citizens on a seasonal basis
STAFF POSITIONS/AREAS
Position Number Area
PARKS AND RECREATION ADMINISTRATION Di rector 1 200
Recreation Manager 1 150
Park Supervisor 1 150
Assistant to the Director 3 360
Executive Secretary 1 72
Secretary 1 64
Clerk 2 96
Intern 2 200
- Conference Room 275.
- Reception/Waiting 200
- Shared Files 60
- Shared PC Station 48
RECREATION OFFICES/ WORK AREAS Rec. Supervisors 4 400
Rec. Specialists 7 504
Rec. Leaders 4 0
- Work Area 500


- Conference Area 150
- ID Area 80
- Storage Area 50
Total Net Area 3559
Department Circulation (35%) 1339
Total Required Area
4898


DEPARTMENT: PUBLIC WORKS
DIVISION: ADMINISTRATION
ACTIVITIES
The Department of Public Works provides services related to the operation and maintenance of the City's infrastructure system. Divisions within the Department include Utility Field Operations, Streets, Water Plants, Fleet Maintenance, Administration, and Water Resources.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
1. Public Works Administration and
Water Resources should be
located adjacent to each other
because of the interaction between the two groups.
2. Public Works Administration
secondarily interacts with the City Manager and City
Attorney's office.
3. Water Resources secondarily
interacts with the Community Development Department.
FACILITY REQUIREMENTS
Private offices with a small meeting area for the Director and Water Resources Manager. The ability to hold small meetings in these offices would reduce the Department's demand on a shared conference room.
Semi-private offices for the Director's Assistant, Water Resources Engineer, Assistant Engineers and Analysts.
a

ujqjo? -rtomO.
Open work stations for the Secretaries, Clerks and Interns.
Map/file storage area.


\
A small waiting/reception area for 4-5 people.
Two (2) shared PC stations.
A shared graphics terminal and plotter area.
A shared drafting station.
This Department also needs access to the following shared support areas:
Conference room (8-10 people once per day).
Copy area.
Archival storage.
PARTICIPANTS
Department Staff City Manger's Office City Attorney's Office Community Development Department Citizens
STAFF POSITIONS/AREAS
Posti on
PUBLIC WORKS ADMINISTRATION Director
Projects Administrator Assistant to the Director Civil Engineer Engineer Technician Executive Secretary Secretary
- Waiting Room
WATER RESOURCES
Manager
Engi neer
Assi stant Engi neer Clerk
- Map/File Room
- Shared PC Station
Number Area
1 200
1 120
1 120
1 100
1 72
1 64
1 48
100
1 150
1 120
2 200
2 200
150
2 96


- Shared Drafting Station 48
Total Net Area 1956
Department Circulation (35%) 732
Total Required Area 2688


SUPPORT AREA: CREDIT UNION
ACTIVITIES
The Credit Union is a private agency which provides banking services to City employees and their relatives.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
1. The primary interaction of this Department is with City employees from outside City Hall. Therefore, this Department should be located to a main or secondary entry.
FACILITY REQUIREMENTS
Two (2) private offices for the Manager and Loan Officer.
Counter work stations for the Teller and Clerk.
Waiting and cueing area.
File/storage area with room for a safe and computer.
In addition to the above spaces, the following shared areas are requ i red:
Archival storage.
PARTICIPANTS
Department Staff Outside Department Staff Other City Employees Citi zens
STAFF POSITIONS/AREAS
Position
Number
Area


Staff and Support Area Total Required Area
500.
500.


SUPPORT AREA : COUNCIL CHAMBERS
ACTIVITIES
The Council Chamber is a public hearing room to be used by all of the public agencies and primarily by the City Council.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
1. The primary interaction of this area is with the Lobby and the City Manager's Department.
FACILITY REQUIREMENTS
Public seating for 125 people.
Raised platform with table for City Council seating.
Raised speaker podium.
Press seating.
City staff table.
Council conference room.
PARTICIPANTS
City Council Members Department Staff Citizens
OBJECTIVES
1. From a symbolic standpoint, the Council Chamber commands a very prominent position in the eyes of the public. it is the place where the public comes to see their City government in action and participate in the democratic process if they so choose. Therefore, particular attention should be paid to the quality, clairity and definition of space so that it shall symbolize what the City government stands for.


STAFF POSITION/AREA
Position
Council Chamber Council Conference Room
Total Required


SUPPORT AREAS : LOBBY
ACTIVITIES
The lobby is a public gathering place and primary public entrance
for the City Hall.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
1. The primary interaction of this
area is with the Council Chambers, Public Works
Department, Finance Department, City Clerk Division and the City Manager's Department.
2. The secondary interaction of
this area is with the Parks and Recreation Department, Employee Services Department and the Community Development
Department.
FACILITY REQUIREMENTS
One information center. Public Restrooms.
Public Telephone Area.
PARTICIPANTS
Citizens
All City Hall Employees
OBJECTIVES
1. From a symbolic standpoint, the lobby commands a very prominent position in the eyes of the public. Therefore, particular attention should be paid to the spatial quality, clairity and definition.
2. The lobby acts as an orientation point for the citizens and the City employees


on their way to or from a particular destination. Therefore, the lobby should be an integral part of a series of well defined paths and sequences of spaces which begins at the point of arrival at the City Hall and ends at the selected destination.
STAFF POSITION/AREAS
Support Area Total Required Area
AREA
500.
500.
j


BALANCE OF SUPPORT AREAS
STAFF POSITION/AREA
Position Number Area
Copy Center
- Central Copy Area 1 150.
- Copy Substations 2 200.
Central Mail Area 150.
Print Shop 1000.
Day Care Facility 1200.
Training/Multi-Purpose Room 1000.
Employee Break Area 1000.
Shower/Locker Room 700.
Centralized Storage 900.
Centralized Supply 500.
Total Required Area 6800.


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4 4 3 4 3 3 2 4 ujiae^r

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PART
TECHNICAL
SEVEN
NFORMATION


Luodi oniiidiuiugicai uaia
Annua! Summary With Comparative Data
1979
DENVER, COLORADO
4TES 0*
Narrative Climatological Summary
Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration.
Air masses from at least four different sources influence Denver's weather: Arctic air from
Canada and Alaska; warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico; warm, dry air from Mexico and the southwest; and Pacific air modified by its passage over coastal ranges and other mountains to the west.
The good climate results largely from Denver's location at the foot of the east slope of the Rocky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. During most summer afternoons cumuliform clouds so shade the City that temperatures of 90 or over are reached on an average of only 33 days of the year, and in only one year in five does the mercury very briefly reach the 100 mark.
In the cold season the high altitude and the location of the mountains to the west combine to moderate temperatures. Invasions of cold air from the north, intensified by the high altitude, can be abrupt and severe. On the other hand, many of the cold air masses that spread southward out of Canada over the plains never reach Denver's altitude and move off over the lower plains to the east. Surges of cold air from the west are usually moderated in their descent down the east face of the mountains, and Chinooks resulting from some of these westerly flows often raise the temperature far above that normally to be expected at this latitude in the cold season. These conditions result in a tempering of winter cold to an average temperature above that bf other cities situated at the same latitude.
In spring when outbreaks of polar air are waning, they are often met by moist currents from the Gulf
NATIONAL OCEANIC AND
I Iatmospheric administration
of Mexico. The juxtaposition of these two currents produces the rainy season in Denver, which reaches its peak in May.
j
Situated a long distance from any moisture source, and separated from the Pacific source by several high mountain barriers, Denver enjoys a low relative humidity, low average precipitation, and considerable sunshine.
I
Spring is the wettest, cloudiest, and windiest season. Much of the 37 percent of the anmal total precipitation that occurs in spring falls as snow during the colder, earlier period of that season. Stormy periods are often interspersed by stretches of mild sunny weather that remove previous snow cover.
Summer precipitation (about 32 percent of the annual total), particularly in July and August, usually falls mainly from scattered local thundershowers during the afternoon and evening. Mornings are usually clear and sunny. Clouds often form during early afternoon and cut off the sunshine at what would otherwise be the hottest part of the day. Many afternoons have a cooling shower.
Autumn is the most pleasant season. Local summer thunderstorms are mostly over and invasions of cold air and severe weather are infrequent, so that there is less cloudiness and a greater percent of possible sunshine than at any other time of the year. Periods of unpleasant weather are generally brief. Precipitation amounts to about 20 percent of the annual total.
. j
Winter has the least precipitation accumulation, only about 11 percent of the anmal total, and almost all of it snow. Precipitation frequency, however, is higher than in autumn. There is also more cloudiness and the relative humidity averages higher than in the autumn. Weather can be quite severe, but as a general rule -the severity doesn't last long.
NATIONAL CLIMATIC CENTER ASHEVILLE, N.C.
/ ENVIRONMENTAL DATA AND / INFORMATION SERVICE
II/-G-2
/


Meteorological Data For The Current Year
Station: 0£NVC. C010B00 ST APlC T ON INTCNATI oniL Standard tlma u*ed: MOUNTAIN Latitude jg* *5 * Longitude to** s?' V Elevation (ground) 5283 VMr 1*T*
2 3362
Month Temperature F Degree day* Base 85 *F Precipitation In Inche* Relative humidity, pet. Wind 1 i If £ a t i U 11 8 S § < 1 Number of day* Average itation prewura mb
Average* Extremes Water equivalent Snow: Ice pellet* 05 I X II (Local 1 11 time | X 23 Re*ultant 1 n Fa*te*t mil* Sunrita to *unet 1! 2 £ a £ 9 2 m I II [ s 1 1 £ U M X * Temperature *F
Maximum Minimum
ll E >1 I 1 2- i 1 X 8 O 1 9 O r 1 r I 3 £ h 6 R 3 0 3 £ .5 It 0 JAN 30.6 5 * 18.C 5* 21 -11 1 1 5C C 0.3* 0.09 25-26 9.1 3.* 22 69 57 59 68 05 0.8 6.7 27 N w 2 77 6.2 8 8 15 8 3 0 0 0 18 31 11 8 32.7
P E B *7.3 21.1 3*. 2 71 1* -3 1 85* C 0. 2 0.2* 27 5.8 2.7 8 63 *C *: 6* 17 1 .1 7.* 29 NW 17 77 6.0 8 8 12 3 0 1 0 * 26 2 32.T
M0 52.0 29.0 *0. 5 67 16 1 3 3 751 c 1.25 0.29 2-3 18.2 *.5 !-! 68 *T *M 62 0* 0.* 9.0 30 NC 22 78 6.3 9 7 15 1 1 5 0 2 0 0 23 0 8 3 3 .*
IPC 62.1 36.1 *9. 1 78 23 1* 2 *73 t 1 1 0.89 10-11 8.1 3.8 10-11 63 35 JC 5* 18 1.8 9.3 32 NE 19 82 5.5 10 1 1 9 7 1 1 0 1 7 0 132.0
MAY 66.5 *3.1 5*. 9 81 27 29 10 313 2! 3.53 1.6* 1-2 8.2 3 9l 2-3 72 *6 *6 66 07 0.* 4 * 28 S w 6 6 ) 7.1 6 8 1 7 15 3 8 0 0 0 * 0 83*.7
JUN 79.9 51.7 65.8 95 26 2 10 81 117 2.39 1.** 7-8 0.0 O.C 68 J5< 3 3 58 16 2.2 8.1 3* NC 29 82 *.0 16 8 6 6 0 9 0 0 0 0 8 3 7.8
JUL 19.5 57.a 73. 7 96 16 51 7 0 2 7 S 0.81 0. 2 25 0.0 o.c *5 28 2 50 17 2.* 7.* 35 SC 3 82 5.* 8 16 7 5 0 10 0 18 0 0 0 8 38.8
AUG 92.5 56 .* 69.5 99 6 *8 20 20 163 5.85 1.68 9 1 C 0.0 O.C 66 39 3 57 15 1.7 7.* .37 w 9 76 * 9 13 9 9 12 0 12 0 9 0 0 0 8 38 .1
SEP 40.7 51.8 66. 3 93 8 4 1 15 58 107 0.36 0.27 13-1* 0.0 o.c 57 30 25 51 17 2.5 8.5 3* N 1 3 86 3.1 19 6 5 5 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 8 39.5
OCT 67.7 39.9 53.8 86 7 23 31 3*7 1.28 0.86 20-21 2.7 2.7 79-Sf 71 3 3* 65 09 0.5 8.7 32 NE 8 7 3 5.5 9 12 10 6 1 1 1 0 0 3 0 8 36.1
NOV * .5 22. 1 33. 3 65 IT 28 9*1 C 1.66 1.12 19-2C 22.3 1*.C 1 9 2 C 82 55 6*1 80 14 1.3 7.6 27 N 21 66 *.6 15 3 12 8 * 0 0 0 29 0 8 38 .*
DEC *7.6 21 .* 3*. 5 66 18 1 12 939 c 1.06 0. 5 22-23 16.5 6.0 22-23 6* 8 53l 63 20 3.3 8.1 *0 W 5 82 5.5 11 7 1 3 7 0 0 0 3 28 0 8 37.5
AUG JN AUG NOV OEC
VC* 62.6 36.3 *9.5 99 6 -11 1 6227 661 20. 36 1.64 9-10 90.9 1.0 1 9 2 C 67 *7 *Z 62 17 1.3 8.1 *0 W 5 77 5.3 1 32 103 130 9* ? 7 ** 5 3* 3C 151 1 3 835.8

Normals, Means,
And Extremes
Temperature* *F Normal Precipitation in inche* Relative Wind f Mean number of day* Average
Degree day*

Normal Extreme* Bate 85 #F Water equivalent Snow, lea pellet* Fa*te*t mile * i i Temperature* f pretture mb.
1 X i r X i X ? ? 9 0 l 0 £ Max. Min.
X % 8 a is 11 |i ! l- 10 C (bl Elev.
£ i I? E 3 > E 1 f Z ?! K £ cr £ * > if IT O ft * ? 1 cr c I E 5 z Maximum monthly ft > e > 1 5 J I ft U h 2 s * ft I 1 ft > j| 5 S 2 > 05 ( 11 oca 1 7 tinv 23 1 1 c £ 1 t Prevailing direction I! 5 5 0 2 > £ > 2 i! % O * x> It 3 ! 3 £ IS >. X ^ fei 1 * T, hi ? 0 b i 5 3 32 feet m.il.
(a) *5 *5 *5 85 *5 *5 *5 19 1 9 19 19 31 15 30 30 30 31 *5 5 *5 *5 *5 *5 39 19 19 19 19 7
J *3.5 16.2 29.9 72 1956 -25 1963 1088 0 0.6 1 1 .* 19*8 0.01 1952 1.02 1962 23.7 19* 0 12.* 1962 63 * 5 *8 63 9.0 S S3 N 1976 72 5.6 10 9 1 2 6 2 0 1 0 7 30 5 8 3 3.9
r *6.2 19.* 32.8 76 1 963 -30 1936 902 0 0.6 7 1 .66 1960 0.01 1970 1.01 1953 18.3 1 960 9.5 1953 66 * 3 *2 6* 9. J s *9 NW 1 9 5 J 72 5.9 0 9 1 1 6 7 7 0 * 27 1 a 3* .2
M 50.1 23.8 37.0 8* 1971 -1 1 19*J 868 0 1.21 2.89 19** 0. 1 3 19*5 1 .*8 1959 29.2 1961 16.3 1952 67 *2 *0 63 10.0 5 53 NW 1952 71 6.1 0 10 1 3 9 < 1 0 3 26 1 431.3
A 61.0 33.9 *7.5 85 1960 -2 1975 525 0 1.9 3 *.17 19*2 0.03 1963 3.25 1967 28.3 1935 17.3 1957 68 38 35 5 9 10.* 5 56 NW 1960 67 6. 1 7 1 1 12 t 3 1 1 0 12 4 32 .8
M 70.3 *3.6 57.0 96 19*2 22 195* 253 0 2.6* 7.31 1957 0.06 197* 3.55 1973 13.6 1950 10.7 1950 70 39 37 60 9.5 S 5* SE 1 9 70 65 6.2 6 1 2 1 3 10 1 6 1 0 2 0 8 3* 1
J 80.1 51.9 66.0 1 0* 1936 30 1951 80 110 1.93 * .6* 19*7 0.10 19*0 3.16 1970 0.3 195 1 0.3 1951 70 3 7 15 60 9 1 S * 7 S 1956 71 5.0 10 12 a 9 0 10 6 0 0 0 8 36.5
J 87 .* 58.6 73.0 10* 1939 *3 1972 0 2*8 1.78 6 1 1965 0.17 1939 2.*2 1965 0.0 0.0 69 35 35 57 8.5 5 56 SV 1965 71 * .9 9 16 6 9 6 1 1 16 0 0 0 38.9
A 85.1 57.* 71.6 101 1938 *1 196* 0 208 1.29 5.85 1979 0.06 I960 3.*3 1951 0.0 0.0 69 36 35 58 8 2 S *2 N 1970 73 * 9 1 0 1 * 7 0 0 0 1 9 0 0 0 0 38 .7
s 77.7 *7.8 62.8 97 I960 20 1971 120 5 * 1.13 * .67 1961 T 19** ?.* 1936 21.3 19J6 19 .* 1936 68 38 3* 60 8.2 5 * 7 NW 1 955 75 3 1 * 9 7 6 3 1 2 0 1 0 8 38.8
0 66 .8 37.2 52.0 48 19* 7 3 1969 *08 5 1.13 *.17 1969 0.05 1962 1.71 19*7 31.2 1969 12.* 1969 6* 36 35 59 8.2 S *5 NW 1950 7 3 * * 1 * 9 0 5 1 1 1 0 0 0 8 3 7.0
N 53.3 25. * 39 .* T* 19*1 -8 1950 768 0 0.76 2.97 19*6 0.01 19*9 1.29 1975 39.1 1**6 15.5 19*6 69 * 5 50 66 7 s *8 V 1962 65 5.3 1 1 9 10 5 7 1 0 2 25 8 35.7
0 *6.2 18.9 32.6 7* 1939 -18 1972 100* 0 0.* 3 2.8* 1973 0.03 1977 1.38 1973 30.8 1973 1 I .8 197 3 65 * * 51 63 8.9 5 51 NC 195 J 6* 5.3 1 1 10 10 5 2 0 1 0 29 3 a 3* .*
JUL FEB MAT SEP MAT NOV SEP JUL
VR 6* .0 36.2 50.1 l 0* 1939 -30 1936 6016 625 15.5) T 3 1 1957 T 19** 3.55 1973 39.1 1 9*6 19.* 1936 67 *0 *0 61 9.0 5 56 SV 1965 TO 5.3 1 10 1 30 1 1 7 00 10 *1 10 33 22 160 10 8 35.6
Means and extremes above are from existing and comparable exposures. Annual extremes have been exceeded at other sites in the locality as follows; Highest temperature 105 In August 1878j maximum monthly precipitation 8.57 in May 1876; minimum monthly precipitation 0.00 in December 1881 maximum precipitation in 24 hours 6.53 in May 1876; maximum monthly snowfall 57.4 in December 1913 y maximum snowfall in 24 hours 23.0 in April 1885; fastest mile of wind 65 from West in May 19 3 3 .
() Length of record, years, through the current year unless otherwise noted, based on January data.
(b) 70* and above at Alaskan stations.
* Less than one half.
T Trace.
NORMALS Based on record for the 1941-1970 period.
DATE OF AN EXTREME The most recent In cases of multiple occurrence.
PREVAILING MIND DIRECTION Record through 1963.
MIND DIRECTION Nixnerals Indicate tens of deqrees clockwise from true north. 00 Indicates calm.
FASTEST MILE WIND Speed Is fastest observed 1-mlnute value when the direction Is In tens of degrees.


I
i
l
i
i
Average Temperature
Year Jan Feb | Mar Apr May June] July | Aug [Sept 1 Oct | Nov Dec Annual
IMP ?!.* 33.* *1.2 *7.* 58.* 6*.? 73.* 70.* 6*.7 5*. 4 35.5 33.3 50.3
3?.* 36.2 36.5 *6.3 5*.* 6*.* 72.1 71.2 61.0 *.* 3.* 33.4 50.4
1**2 27.7 21.8 36.1 50.6 55.* 6*.7 l7hk 71.2 61 . 51 .0 ?.* 34.* *9.3
1** 5 33.7 3*.5 35.7 5*. 3 52.9 65.* 75.6 7*.3 63.2 53.0 0.7 3*. 3 51.9
1 Ma 30.7 32.* 33.* *2.3 58.0 67.0 71.5 72.8 63.0 5*. 3 *0.7 30.7 *9.7
31.1 33.5 1 .* 1.0 56.5 61 .* 72.* 71.5 5*.* 53.* *1.3 30.* *9.4
1Mb 31.* 3 S. 7 * .6 55. 1 51 .* 68.2 7*.6 71.2 63.* *8.2 33.6 37.4 51.2
1**7 30.8 28.8 36.3 *5.8 55.6 62.0 72.5 72.8 66.2 55.6 33.0 33.1 69 .*
1 9*8 ? 6 26.6 31 .* 51.6 58.7 66.* 72.6 72.8 66.7 51.3 36.* 29.6 *9.2
1**9 16.3 3 C 6 3*.5 **. 2 57.0 65.0 72.* 71 .* 63.2 *9.5 8.6 32.5 *9.6
1*50 ?*.* 38.6 31.1 *7.7 53.0 66.6 68.9 68.9 60.5 59.9 39.1 34.3 50.6
1*51 26.* 33.* 35.8 *3.8 57.3 60.9 73.5 70.7 61.5 *8.2 38.1 29.0 *8.3
1*5? 3*.* 35.0 33.8 *8.2 56.8 72.0 73.1 72.3 65.6 53.3 32.3 32.6 50.8
1*53 3*.6 32.7 *3.6 *2.8 53.* 69.7 7 0 71.2 66.0 5*.* *3.1 31.* 51.8
1*5* 36.3 3.7 35.3 53.6 57.2 69.3 76.8 72.7 65.7 52.5 **.3 3*.7 53.5
lt55 ?7.2 27.1 36.5 50. 1 59.0 6* 0 75.5 73.1 63.9 5*. 0 36.2 35.* 50.2
1 *5b 3* 0 2 7.7 0.1 *5.5 60.9 73.* 72.2 69.7 65.5 55.9 37.2 35.7 51.5
1*57 ?5. *0.7 3* 1 *1.* 53.* 65.9 73.5 72.6 61 .* 51.* 36.8 39.6 50.2
1*51 3?.* 37.* 32.8 ** 6 61.7 68.1 70. J 7 3.6 6* .* 53.9 *0.6 35.8 51 .*
1*5* 30.0 3P.2 37.6 *5.6 56.2 70.* 72.6 73.0 61.1 *8.1 37.6 34.5 50.0
IfbO 27.6 2*.8 38.1 50. i 57.2 68.3 73.2 73.* 65.0 52.0 3*.5 24.5 *9.7
l*bl 31.7 35.2 38.* *6.0 55.7 66.1 71.5 72.2 56.3 50.0 3*.7 27.7 *8.9
1*6? 1 *. 5 29.9 3*. 6 50. 3 59.8 65.5 72.9 72.5 62.* 53.* *1.3 33.8 *9.7
1*63 1*. 1 37.3 37.3 50.0 60.9 66.7 7*. 8 68.7 65.9 57.9 *1.7 28.5 50.8
1*6* 30.6 27.* 33.0 *6.6 58.8 65.0 75.8 70.* 62.5 52.7 *0.0 33.2 *9.7
1*65 35.0 27.* 2* 0 51.2 57.1 63.9 72.7 70.2 *5.7 55.1 3.3 35.0 *9.4 -
1*66 21.4 28. *2.5 **.6 58.7 6* 6 76.9 70.8 65.0 52.2 *1.5 31.9 50.5
1*67 3 0 35.1 *2.9 *8.7 52.6 60.6 69. 1 68.2 62.1 52.5 *0.5 24.5 *9 .*
1*61 29.7 3*.2 *0.6 3.0 53.9 67.8 71.7 68.1 60.9 51.9 35.7 28.9 *8.9
1*6* 35.0 35.* 32.2 57.2 5*. 3 61.5 7*.7 73.9 6*.5 39.0 3*. 1 12.5 *9.9
1*70 30.6 38.6 33.5 3.7 58.8 65.2 72.0 73.* 5*.5 *5.9 3*. 1 33.3 *9.5
1*71 3? 1 30.6 38.5 *7.8 5*.2 69.0 70.6 72.8 57.5 9.* 3*. 1 3J.* 9.5
1*7? 30.5 36.2 *.e *8.5 57.0 68.3 70.2 71.0 62.1 52.1 32.* 2*.9 *9.9
1*73 27.3 35.5 39.9 3.2 55.6 67.5 71.0 73.5 5*.9 5*.5 39.5 34.6 *9.9
1*7* 23.7 35.2 *3.2 7.9 61.6 68 .* 7*.7 69.5 5*.* 52.* 38.0 31.2 50.5
1*75 31.7 30.6 37.3 . 1 5*.3 4*.3 72.7 70.8 5*.5 53.2 36.8 37.5 9.*
1*76 32.3 3*.3 37.1 9.2 56.7 46.3 75.3 70.2 61.8 8 3*.5 35.5 51.0
1*77 29.2 38.0 3*.* 51.1 60.7 71.9 7*. 3 70.2 66.6 53.3 *0.3 35.1 52.5
1*7# 25.8 31 .* *3.3 50. 3 5*.* 46.9 7*.7 69.6 65.0 53.1 37.8 2*.6 *9.7
1*7* 18.0 3*.2 *0.5 **.l 5*.8 45.8 73.7 69.5 66.3 53.8 33.3 3*.5 *9.5
PfCORO Mr AN 30.0 32.9 38.7 *7.5 56.7 66.7 72.7 71.3 62.7 51.4 39.5 32.3 50.2
MAI *2.7 *5.* 51.3 60.2 69.5 80.6 86.5 85.0 76.9 65.5 52.5 *5.0 63.*
MIN 17.3 20.3 26.1 3*. 8 3.9 52.7 58.8 57.6 8.5 37.7 26.5 19.6 37.0
Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May June) July Aug |Sept j Oct Nov Dec Total
1969 b n 0 0 35 66 31? 246 *6 0 0 o 721
1970 0 0 c n 16 9 l 222 282 *0 0 0 0 453
1971 0 r 0 C 0 169 203 ?66 53 0 0 0 453
197? 0 P b r 6 110 21U ?C7 28 1 0 0 56?
1971 0 0 0 r 2 138 199 no 21 1 0 p 431
1*75 0 P t C 3 4 c 2 6 6 157 !' 39 5 0 0 55*
19 7 4 0 P b c 3 11? 326 17b 52 0 0 0 667
1977 0 n c 2 11 216 2 97 18? 93 0 0 0 799
1 V79 0 P L r 2 1 1 2 2 7b 14 3 102 7 0 0 661
Precipitation
Snowfall
Year Jan 7^] Mar Apr May June July Aug | Sept Oct Nov Dec Annual Season JulylAug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan | Feb Mar Apr) Mayjjune|Total
19*0 1.01 0.67 2.26 1 .*6 1.99 0.10 1.2* 0.25 *.05 0.35 0.76 0.36 1.50 1**0-*1 1 1 2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.P 0.0 1 0.0 T 7.0 2.2 6.0 6.7 9.0 B.b 1.9 11.5 lb.2 7.6 8.3 8.5 0.0 1.7 0.0 0.0 *?.* *8.2
19*1 19*2 19*3 1.11 0.66 0.23 0.26 0.91 0.12 1.23 0.66 0.43 3.28 *.17 1 .06 3.71 1.1? 2.96 2.93 3.08 1 .2? 1.29 1.0? 0.7? 1.8* 0.77 1.28 2.*8 0.81 0.07 2.** 2.9* 0.27 0.62 0.28 0.*1 0.86 0.15 0.37 22.05 16.59 9.12 19*2-*3 19*3-4* ]V**-*5 c.o b.O b.O O.P 0.0 r.p 0.* 0.0 O.b 9.6 l.P 0.0 .l 2.3 5.5 *.5 3.0 5.4 5.0 12.1 12.2 1.* 3.3 6.2 7.3 26.1 3.0 7 23.6 23.0 4.5 7.7 T b.O 0.0 0.0 36.8 1.1 55.8
1966 1965 1.08 0.70 0.25 0 9 2.89 0.13 3.92 2.55 1.73 2.32 0.9? 2.02 3.3* 2.19 0 6 2.55 T 1.17 0.06 0.78 0.5? 0.40 0.37 0.09 15.5* 15.39 19*5-46 19*6-*7 0.0 C.O O.C 0.0 7 0.* 2.3 3.8 3.8 39.1 0.8 C.7 10.2 7.3 *.8 12.3 3.2 12.0 T 4.7 0.8 1.3 0.0 7 25.7 1.6
1966 1967 0.6* 0.37 0.27 0.87 0.52 1.0* 2.09 1.3 P 1.95 4.61 0.8? 2.76 1.60 1.5? 1.38 1.27 1.18 0.91 0.88 3.*1 2.97 0.73 0.0* 0.27 1 3* 19.06 19*7-48 19*8-49 0.0 0.0 n.r 0.0 0.0 O.b 3.1 c.e 6.4 6.7 6.* *.( 23.7 20.5 7.3 0.* 22.0 1*.2 5.5 12.7 T 7 0.0 0.0 7* 60. 1
1968 1.** 0.** 1.71 2.5? 1.8* 1.9* 0.80 0.61 0. 5 0.16 0.65 0.26 12.62
1969 1950 1.17 0. 7 0.03 0.20 2.29 0.31 1 .66 2.98 3.31 2.80 * 2 7 3.3? 1.35 0.56 0.92 0.27 0.28 1.58 1.36 0.1? 0.01 1.00 0.33 0.32 16.76 13.93 1950- 51 1951- 5? O.C C.O O.P n.n b.O 4.2 0.0 7.7 11.9 1 5 5.9 11.? 15.7 C. 3 10.5 10.2 17.6 25.2 12.9 11.2 0.0 7 0.3 0.0 74.6 8*.*
1951 1957 1953 0.83 0.01 0.39 0.78 0.68 1.39 1. *7 2.12 1.15 2.01 2.75 1.29 1.78 3 u6 2.66 2.2 7 0.1? 1 .*6 0.83 1.06 1.98 6.47 l.l 1.25 0.97 0.5* 0.20 2.16 0.18 0.** 1.17 1.31 1.00 0.69 0.19 1.0? 19.43 13.43 1 *. 23 1952- 53 1953- 5* 1954- 55 C.O la 0 0.0 0.0 O.P r.o O.C O.o 0.0 1.2 0.1 0.* 1 *. 5 7.2 3.9 3. 1 1 *. 8.6 7.4 2.7 3.5 16.5 C. 6 12.2 11.8 6.3 19.5 12.0 7.6 4.9 1.7 2.6 JO.C b.O 0.0 0.0 68.2 *1.5 53.C
195* 1955 0.23 0.23 0.0* 0.85 0. 9 1.1* 0.88 0.68 0.60 2.*7 0.66 1.39 1.99 2.99 0.51 2.41 0.77 2.7 2 0.06 0.46 0.57 0.56 0.71 0.15 7.51 16.05 1955-56 1 9 4 6 5 7 0.0 0.0 O.P 0.0 O.C 0.0 * 1 0.* 7.3 21.3 ? 9 6. 5 6.3 5.3 10.5 1 .b 13.0 8.9 3.7 25.5 7 6.8 3.0 0.0 7.8 78.3
1956 1957 1958 0.39 0.32 0.73 0.77 0.73 1.00 0.89 1.09 1.48 0.72 *.13 1.73 2.36 7.31 .*6 0.** 1.09 1 .*7 *.17 1.29 3.50 1.83 2.03 1.17 0.01 0.42 1.51 0.27 2.62 0.37 1.25 0.49 0.74 0.6? 0.06 0.6* 13.7? 21.58 18.80 1957- 58 1958- 59 1959- 6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 r.o 1 7 12.9 3.9 2.6 11. 3. C 9.7 5.3 n. 6 7. 7 ?. 7 8.9 17.* 10.7 12.0 17.5 18.3 1*.* 26.8 9.0 1*.I 17.6 9.3 O.C 7 T O.P c.o 3.0 57.1 99.3 O.C
1959 1960 1.2* 0.77 1.31 1 .46 2.85 0.89 1.35 2.56 3.33 2.27 0.** 0.63 0.83 1.31 0.25 0.0b 1.82 0.38 2.*6 2.*6 0.*P 0.*9 0.26 1.50 16.5* 14.96 1960- 61 1961- 6? 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.1 *.6 6.? 5.1 11.* 17.4 3. 9 1.0 17.2 7.9 11.3 29.2 6.8 8.6 10.0 6.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 72.5
1961 194? 1963 0.07 1.33 0.71 0.66 1.05 0.21 2.51 0. 52 1. *2 1.06 1.10 0.03 12 0.8* 0.68 1.11 1.5? 3.59 1.60 0.5* 0.55 1.21 0.*6 2.5? *.67 0.1* 1.25 0.77 0.05 0.31 0.93 0.68 0.45 0.30 0.17 0.51 19.01 6.*5 12.23 1 9 b ? 6 3 19bJ-b* 1*64-65 0.0 J.O c.o o.r n.o r.o 0.7 0.0 0.0 o.r 1.1 7 5.0 3.5 6 C 1.2 5.9 * 9.1 ?.b 13.2 2.1 12.7 17.1 18.0 18.* 1*.9 0.2 12.1 0.3 0.0 1.0 T 0.0 0.0 0.0 36.7 57.3 55.*
196* 19fc5 0.26 1.00 1 .0* 1.27 1.38 1.20 1.25 1.05 2.53 1.8? 0.8? .l* 0.7? 4 1 0.27 1.06 0.*1 2.58 0.18 0.*5 0.88 0.36 o.*o 0.53 10.1* 21.87 1965- 66 1966- 67 c.o c.o 0.0 0.0 5.5 1 C.n 6.3 5.5 3.0 5.6 1.9 3.6 9.9 14.6 * 2.8 6.6 6.* 3.6 2.9 3.0 0.0 0.0 *6.4 *0.7
1964 1967 1968 0.30 0.8* 0.51 1.28 0.39 0.7* 0.32 0.79 0. IS 1 6 3.95 2.39 0.3* *.77 0.71 l.*l *.69 0.50 1.0* 3.25 1.3* 2.06 0.83 2.53 1.15 0.60 0.59 0.96 1.13 0.75 0.3? 1.01 0.71 0.17 1.06 0.51 10.81 23.31 12.13 1967- 66 1968- 69 1969- 7C 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.7 C.* 31.2 9.* 5.8 5.1 13.1 6.9 3.1 3.0 2.8 0.9 7.3 *.? 0.3 9.2 13.2 20.5 15.1 1 4.7 T 0.0 7 0.0 0.0 0.0 58.6 33.3 65.8
1969 1970 0.17 0.10 0. 3 0.01 1.10 1.3* 1.33 0.97 4.12 0.6* 2.99 3.83 1.81 1.47 0.79 0.5* 1.47 2.47 *.17 0.88 0.6? 1.1* 0.3? 0.C* 21.52 13.73 1970- 71 1971- 7? 0.0 0.0 c.o 0.0 4.6 17.2 5.9 3.1 9.2 1 .* n. 9 6 * 8.6 10.9 11.9 9.1 9.6 7.1 6.0 17.2 7 0.0 0.0 0.0 56.9 7*.*
1971 1977 1973 0.35 0.36 1.31 0.78 0.** O.lt 0.53 0.50 1.76 1.98 3.5? 3.73 1.3* 0 9 5.06 0.23 2.9* 0.20 1.20 0.63 2.*7 0.85 2.71 1.28 2.85 2.07 2.85 0.** 0.8? 0 7 0.16 1.69 0.83 0.25 0.70 2.8* 10.96 16.17 22.96 1972- 73 1973- 7* 197*-75 c.o 0.0 c.o 0.0 0.0 0.0 b.C 0.0 1.8 9.7 2.3 1.0 19.4 9.3 11.9 9.8 30. 8 2.1 12.1 8.2 3.6 3 C 1C. 3 *.P 15.1 12.8 1 *. 3 2*.8 17.8 10.9 J .0 0.0 6.1 0.0 T 0.0 9* .4 91.5 55.9
197* 1975 1.03 0.23 0.8? 0.37 1.32 1.19 2.28 1.1* 0.06 2.80 2.01 2.11 2.3* 2.78 0.16 2.00 0.91 0.2* 1.68 0.30 1 .06 1.88 0.24 0.*7 14.03 15.51 19 7 S-76 1976-77 0.0 c.o r.o r.o 0.0 0.0 2.7 7.2 15.2 4.5 7.3 3.1 3.2 2.* 6.* 3.1 18.7 9.6 1.2 4.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5*.9 3*.*
1974 1977 1978 0.19 0.16 0.27 0.5* 0.27 0.27 1.3* 1.2* 1.07 1.27 2.13 1.8? 1.3* 0.3* 3.*6 0.63 1.02 1.17 2.31 2.98 0.5* 2.50 1.00 0.2b 1.88 0.10 0.07 0.93 0. *s 1. *5 0.3? 0.59 0.50 0.16 0.03 0.82 13.*1 10.3* 11.70 1977- 78 1978- 79 1979- 6P 0.0 0.0 0.0 p.n o.r 0.0 0.0 7 0.0 3.3 2.7 2.7 *.l 6.9 22.3 r. 7 1*.? 16.5 5.5 9.1 6.2 5.8 8.6 18.2 4.6 8.1 13.5 6.2 O.P 0.0 46.5 73.2
1979 0.3* 0.*? 1.25 l.l 3.53 2.3* 0.81 5.85 0.36 1.28 1.66 1.06 20.36
rcoBo MC AN 0.97 0.57 1.10 2.00 2.39 1.50 1.70 l.*2 1.11 1.01 0.67 0.6? 1 .56 PtCOPD Ml AN c.o 0.0 1.7 3.6 B.O i .6 8.0 7.7 i 12.8 9.4 1.9 7 59.9
Indicates a station move or relocation of instruments. See Stat ion .Locat ion table.'
Record mean values above are means through the current year for the period beginning it 1872 for temperature and precipitation, 1935 for snowfall. Temperature and precipitation are from City Office locations through 193-. Heating degree days are from City Office locations through Jine 1939. Snowfall if from City Office locations through Jine 1934. Otherwise the data are from Airport locations.
\
IV-G-4


Governmental and Public
CITY AND TOWN HALLS
Steps to be taken in planning and constructing a city hall are (1) determining need, (2) determining space requirements, (3) selecting an architect, (4) acquiring a site, (5) approving layout, design, and architectural features, and (6) developing a financial plan. These steps are not a one-two-three process; frequently they must be done simultaneously. It is important to have an idea of what is wanted before selecting an architect, but the architect can be helpful in delineating wants. It is important to remember that the city hall must last 60 years or more. The following "dos and don'ts" provide a guide to officials engaged in planning a new city hall.
Oo:
1. Locate the city hall where it will be most convenient and if possible where land values are reasonable.
2. Be prepared to provide the architect with information on departments to be housed, the number of employees, types of furnishings and equipment, and special requirements such as vault and storage space.
3. Provide ample off-street parking space for both employees and the public.
4. Put most or all city department headquarters in the city hall.
5. Provide for structural expansion and flexibility in office layout.
6. Plan the city hall from the inside out with emphasis on work flow, convenience to the public, and convenience for employees.
7. Provide for the comfort and efficiency of employees with controlled ventilation and adequate lighting.
8. Provide for employee lounges and rest rooms
9. Use materials, construction, and furnishings which make the city hall easy to maintain.
10. Provide open, unobstructed counters for transactions with the public.
Don't:
1. Don't locate in an area of declining prop1 erty values except when part of a comprehensive urban renewal program.
2. Don't try to remodel an old post office, school building, convention hall, or other building designed for some other special use.
3. Don't forget that the city hall is an office building, not a monument or an ornament.
4. Don't underestimate space needs; the average commercial office building lasts 67 years.
5. Don't tie up valuable space with indoor pistol ranges, drive-through garuges, private exits, wide corridors, and other gadgets.
6. Don't cut up the city hall into cubbyholes for minor officials.
Planning the A/ew City Hall, Report #212. Management Information Service, International City Managers Association. Washington. D C September 1961
7. Don't build the city hall over two stories in height if at all possible.
8. Don't let the public come in contact with police oi criminal activities.
9. Don't provide in the main lobby any facilities, such as a cigar and soft drink stand, which encourage loitering.
DETERMINING NEED
The need for a new city hall may seem obvious to those who spend their working hours at the city hall. Ceilings are high; heating costs are twice what they should be; space originally meant for storage has been converted to offices; electrical wiring violates code provisions; and the present facility is just old anyway. All of this and more besides may be true, but what is not known is how extensive the need is. This must be determined by careful study. In determining the need for a city hall alternate courses of action should be studied.
Factors Influencing Need Determining the extent of need involves two areas: (1) condition of building, and (2) space needs.
The condition of the building is the easiest to evaluate. Things to be considered are type of construction, structural condition, electrical wiring, heating and ventilating, and facilities such as rest rooms. Nothing may be seriously wrong and a new facility still needed, but it is important to know those points. Careful and professional review may bring factors to light heretofore not considered
At an early stage it is important to have some idea of space needs. This can be determined in general terms by having each department submit their space needs for review and study. If departments are already crowded, additional space needed trow is not hard to estimate. The roal problem in determining space needs is what will be needed in the future. The building may be adequate now, but will it be in 5, 10, 20 years? Few cities decide to build a new city hall and do so almost immediately. Experience seems to indicate that a new city hall is the outgrowth of a number of years of careful planning and, once built, lasts a long time.
In estimating future needs not only must traditional services such as police and building inspection be considered but also what future services the city may be required to provide. One of the "dos'' is to provide for structural expansion. However, provision for such expansion must be in reason, and should be based on projections of future needs. Knowledge of the community and its people is essential to space planning. City officials should know the population projections for the next 20 or 25 years, the economic level of the community, and present and probable social and economic characteristics.
SELECTING THE LOCATION OF THE CITY HALL
Civic Centers In selecting the location for a city hall, the first consideration is whether it should be placed on a site by itself or whether it should
be combined with a group of related buildings in a civic center. The civic center lias had great appeal to the city planner because it offers certain advantages and at the same time provides for latitude in design. The buildings that are included in civic centers range from a grouping of strictly administrative offices and service buildings to a complex of office buildings, auditoriums, libraries, and so on.
The great advantage of a civic center is that the grouping of public buildings may prove to be convenient to the public in transacting business that requires visits to more than one public agency. It also may result in one or more governmental units being able to use the facilities of the other. Finally, it often is convenient to have certain facilities grouped together in order to expedite interagency and governmental relations.
Obviously if a city hall is to be part of a civic center, it must be planned in relation to the other facilities For instance, the San Jose, California, city hall is part of a civic center consisting of a health building, communications building, police garage, county office building, sheriff's department and jail, criminal-legal building, and a juvenile center. Some of the facilities, such as the administrative offices in the health building, did not have to be repeated in the city hall.
Site selection for a civic (center must consider the factors listed below for locating a city hall. In addition, several other points are important The site for a civic center must permit flexibility in building arrangement. Since more land is necessary, street patterns may have to be altered, and additional land will be needed for parking. Once the site has been selected, means must be found to preserve it for gradual development of all the units. Also, the site must be located so as not to interfere with the normal development of the business district.
On the surface the civic center idea has great appeal. There are those who feel that center concept has limitations. An article by Richard A. Miller entitled "Are Civic Centers Obsolete?," Architectural Forum. January, 1959, highlights these objections. Miller points out that cities range in size "from mammoth concentrations" to small cities. "As a rule, the concentration of community buildings can be increased in inverse ratio to the size of the city." One of the strong points made in the article relates to the discussion above on decentralization of city offices:
Government buildings the city hall, fire station, and police stations which were long the nucleus of most civic centers, tend themselves to be dispersed today. The reason is obvious. Fire and police buildings, for example, are best located at a central point in the street network, and with the building of expressways, this point rarely intersects with the best location for the mayor's office or the council chamber. Service agencies (such as the water and park departments) increasingly favor headquarters locations adjacent to their operating facilities. In Philadelphia, where two new government office-type buildings will be erected, the city also plans to remodel and expand the old city hall in Penn Center to
I
603


Governmental and Public
CITY AND TOWN HALLS
house the mayor and the council thus
retaining a symbolic center of government
in the heart of the city.
CrtY-County Building The county-seat city should investigate the possibility of constructing one building to serve the needs of both the city and the county. At least 40 cities and counties occupy the same building.
The city-county building has two major advantages. First, local governmental facilities are together, which is frequently a convenience to the public and to city and county agencies that have contact with each other. The second advantage is cost savings. Depending on conditions, a joint building can be constructed for less money than two separate facilities when all costs are considered: land, engineering and architectural fees, financing charges, and so on. Joint occupancy can result in operating savings.
The majority of cities that occupy office space with the county feel that the arrangement is very satisfactory. The most often stated disadvantage is lack of room for .expansion. A joint city-county building must be carefully planned so that both governmental units have area to expand in. A city and a county have different as well as similar needs. When the differences are too great, a city-county building can cause problems. The other drawback is that expenses and responsibilities for operating the building are not always distributed equitably. It is thus extremely important that an agreement for building operation and maintenance be worked out in advance of construction.
Location The selection of a site for a city hall will be influenced by a number of circumstances. Some of these conditions are limiting in nature, such as the availability of land. There are, however, certain guiding principles that should be considered. When Tacoma and Pierce County decided to build a city-county building the planned commissions of each governmental unit jointly developed a set of location factors. The six applicable principles for a city hall location are as follows:
1. Government must serve and be accessible to the people. ." Efficiency of service is related to how convenient governmental facilities are for the majority of those citizens using the facility.
2. "Since public services must serve every citizen as well as, and as conveniently as possible, those activities must be located near the center of transportation and the center of business activity. In the large city public transportation comes to a head in the central business district. Major arterial streets are planned to bring people in and out of the city center. In most cases the city hall should be located near public transportation, if any, and certainly near major arterial streets.
The city hall should be near the center of business activity because this is where the principal users of the facility are most frequently located. As an example, attorneys frequently must use records that are housed in city hall. A city should determine what groups most often come to city hall and place the facility as close to those groups as possible.
3. Government offices must have integration with, not isolation from, other offices in order to serve the public efficiently and effectively." City government agencies use the services of professional men and other businesses. Locating the city hall near the center of business activity helps expedite the work of the agencies located in city hall.
4. Maximum use of transit systems will result in the least public parking areas and
cause the least congestion on city streets.* Obviously this applies only to the city having some form of public transit. People travel either by walking or by using cars, taxis, or public transit. If the city hall is readily accessible to automobiles only, parking requirements would increase in direct ratio to the increased use of the car. For the city that does not have transit systems, location in the center area of the city may help to reduce parking requirements. People come to the city center to do a variety of things; frequently they park and walk between different places of business.
5. "The central business district is the real civic center of the 20th century." A lot has been said about the deteriorating central business district. The impression has been given that the central city is drying up; that everything is moving out. Thus why not the city hall. In the first place there is good reason to believe that the moving out has largely been the retail store and to a lesser extent the office building. Secondly, in the large city, the concentration of people makes it possible for certain types of business, including retail, to operate more efficiently; in the small city the general business area is staying intact for the same reason. A city cannot afford to allow the central business district to dry up because of the investment it represents. The proper placement of the city hall in the central business district can contribute to the life of this area
6. More than the initial land cost must be included under the economic considerations of the site. ." The site should allow for expansion. Site development cost must be considered. These expenditures include demolition of existing structures, if any, grading utilities, and flood protection.
LAYOUT, DESIGN, AND CONSTRUCTION FEATURES
General Building Layout Building arrangement is the next step in planning a city hall. It is helpful as a starting point to use the following checklist of departments, offices, special-purpose rooms, and service areas in analyzing interior building requirements:
1. Departments requiring constant contact with the general public and the collection or payment of money for example, the finance department and tax collector
2. Departments requiring contact with special classes of the public for example, city-owned utilities, building permits, personnel, city planning, and city clerk
3. Other departments including public works, recreation, police, fire, etc.
4. City council chamber and office space for use by the mayor and councilman
5. Offices for the chief administrator
6. Courtrooms
7. Storage vaults and record rooms
8. Locker rooms, rest rooms, janitor closets, public telephones, and space for heating, ventilating, plumbing, and electrical equipment
9. "Circulating areas" for lobbies, corridors, elevators, and stairways
The relationship of one room or functional area to another is important. No room exists by itself, and many of the problems of living in a building arise from the neglect of this fact. Departments related in function should be located near one another and consecutive operations planned in production-line style. Excessive lobbies and hall space add to the cost of construction without adding usable space.
The height of the building will depend upon the amount of ground available and the amount of office space needed. Land generally is cheaper than additional height. Taller buildings
are more difficult to maintain and require more planning of the interior to get related functions on adjacent floors. Also any city building of more than two floors should have an elevator, especially if the public has any great use of the top floor.
Provision for a full basement housing general offices is not often made in new city office buildings. Most professional organizations advise against locating general offices in the basement. The basement can be used for storage and service activities such as duplicating, receiving and shipping rooms, heating and air-conditioning equipment, and central switchboard.
Departmental Layout Departmental layout will depend on the activities carried on by the department and the tools or special equipment used. For example, a finance department layout may require an open area for accounting clerks and collectors with one or two private offices, a machine room, and a vault. The public works department, on the other hand, may require private offices for the director, the engineer, and individual inspectors, a drafting room, a vault, a plan or map room, and conference rooms.
The first step in departmental layout is to survey the work done by the department. Work flow should be especially studied. A complete list should be made of all employees and equipment to occupy the space. The possibility of future expansion should be anticipated and provision made for additional personnel. Provision also should be made for peak rather than average work loads. Flow of work should, as nearly as practicable, be in a straight line. Normally, work should come to the employees rather than their going to the work. Minor activities can be grouped around areas of major activity.
Private Offices A major factor in the determination of space needs is the question of who should get private offices and under what circumstances. More space is required for private offices; space utilization is restricted through segregation of areas for private offices; and considerable expense is involved in rearranging and reerecting partitions. Ventilation, lighting, and heating problems are complicated by a number of small offices, supervision and coordination of work, flow of work, and communications are made more difficult. An open, well-arranged office has a more orderly and businesslike appearance than a series of small offices.
Certain conditions justify private offices. First, transactions of a confidential nature require private facilities. General conference rooms, however, where confidential meetings may be held as occasion demands, may reduce the need for private offices. Second, privacy is often desirable not so much because of the confidential nature of the work, but because of the number of persons interviewed or because the work is of an independent nature which requires more quiet and privocy than the open office will allow. There is little agreement as to who should have private offices except for the chief administrative officer and department heads.
Chief Administrator's Office The location of the chief administrator's office is important to good public relations. It should be located so as to give the impression of being easily reached and open to any caller, but it should not be too prominent. The second floor ordinarily is a good location since some effort must be expended to visit it, and the casual or merely curious individual is less likely to intrude.
604


Governmental and Public
CITY AND TOWN HALLS
A first-floor location, however, can be just as good if callers are properly screened by a secretary or receptionist. It has the additional advantage of being close to the offices most frequented by the public. Of interest to council-manager cities is the fact that the mayor has an office in the majority of cases located very close to the city manager's office. See the
second-floor plan of the Alhambra, California, city hall (Fig. 1) for a typical executive layout.
The administrator's office should be large enough for meetings of department heads unless a conference room adjoins his office. A conference table that will accommodate up to 12 people is desirable. Space should be provided adjacent to the administrator's office
for a secretary and one or more assistants, depending upon the size of the city. The secretary's office would also serve as a reception room for people who call on the administrator.
Council Members The council meeting room should be carefully planned if full use is to be made of it. Location of the council chamber is
i---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
Fig. 1 Alhambra, California, City Hall.
SECOND FLOOR PLAN
605


Governmental and Public
CITY AND TOWN HALLS
important because of the public nature of the business transacted there. Most of the cities with multistoried buildings have located the council room on the first or second floor.
The offices located near or around the council chamber are usually those of the city clerk, city attorney, and city manager. Small meeting rooms and an office for the mayor and council-men may be located nearby.
In most cities surveyed, councilmen sit at separate desks or at a semicircular table, the open end of which faces the citizens. In only a few cities do the councilmen have their backs to the public. The mayor usually sits in the center flanked by the manager, clerk, and attorney. The council table often is put on a dais 18 in. or 2 ft above the main floor (see Fig. 2).
It is well to plan the council chamber so that it also can be used for other purposes. In many cities it is used as a general courtroom for public hearings held by city agencies, as a meeting room for the city planning or zoning commission, for general conferences, and as a public meeting room.
Finance Activities The collection activities of the finance department have more contact with the public than any other municipal activity with the possible exception of the police and building departments A prominent location near the front entrance is therefore desirable. Avoidance of cubbyholes for separate functions and provision for a large work urea enhance the appearance of the building and give the impression of a well-planned and efficient layout. Collection functions should be located near the public counter with billing, assessing, accounting, budgeting, and purchasing at a greater distance. These activities should be so grouped and arranged that the supervisor can observe the work of all his employees. A drive-in collection window should be provided where possible.
A separate, soundproofed machine room should be provided where machines are used in accounting or billing. Acoustical ceilings and walls, thermopane glass partitions, and carpeted floors will absorb much of the machine noise and make for more efficient working conditions in the general office. A vault for safekeeping of records should be provided unless one is provided near by in the city clerk's office.
i
Police Department The police department is singled out for discussion because of the special facilities it needs other than regular office space. As noted, the police department is frequently not included in the city hall. When it is, however, it should be basically separate from other city hall activities, and public and criminal activities should be separated.
POLICE
CHIEF
IDENTIFICATION
RECORDS AND \ IDENTIFICATION DIRECTOR ,
1 1 PATROL | CAPTAIN i l i PATROL ASSEMBLY ROOM
1 i STENO-CLERK' i LIEUTENANTS AND SERGEANTS r-~ : i PROP MGT. J CAPTAIN J 1 1 | UNIFORMS i GUN ANO i SHOWERS AND AND EQUIPMENT AMMO DRESSING 1 1 i i
iTl lt2 MJ
T
ii i i i i ucu ii i i i ii i i ii
POLICE
RECORDS
RADIO
OHHAIOR
DESK St RW AN I
. ---------------1_------------------
stairwell!--------------
WOMEN
employees
POLICE-
WOMEN
|stairwell|
male
lock-up
l FEMALE
LOCK-UP
________________
MECHANICAL SHAFTS
TAXICAB
INSPECTOR
- 104
*1
MUNICIPAL COURT
TRAFFIC
DIVISION
LOBBY
POLICE
TRAINING
JUDGE '
prosecutor!
MUNICIPAL COURT CLERK
DEPUTY CLERKS
() FIRST LEVEL
Fig. 3 Raleigh, North Carolina, City Hall.
The extent of facilities will depend largely on the size of the community and the size of the department. In planning police station facilities, several basic needs should be considered by all cities. Jail cells should be away from public areas. Prisoner retention for any period requires toilets, kitchen facilities, and separation of men and women prisoners. Because of the expense of cellblocks, the possibility of using county jail facilities should be investigated. Many communities contract with the county for prisoner care. This may be impractical for very large cities, but cities up to 100,000 certainly cun effectively use this method of reducing police station cost. If county facilities are used, it is then necessary only to pro-
DEPUTY CITY CLERK
LA MESA CITY COUNCIL CHAMBERS MAYOR
| STAFE|
CITY MANAGER
COUNCILMAN
CITY ATTORNEY CITY CLERK
CITY ENGINEER
COUNCILMAN
COUNCILMAN
COUNCILMAN
Fig. 2 City Council Mating arrangement, La Meta, California.
I
vide a retention room or rooms with toilet facilities. Such rooms do not need to be regular cells.
The communications center should be isolated from the general public and other work areas. However, in smaller communities where it is necessary for communications personnel to act as receptionists, this is not possible. In such a case the communications section might be located in a glass enclosure with a sliding panel.
Fingerprinting, photographic, identification, and booking areas should be located together, although not necessarily in the same room. Where possible, a separate prisoner entrance leading directly into the area for booking should be provided. The essential element is to provide a continuous process of booking, fingerprinting, photographing, and identifying of prisoners in the same area of the building. Where possible, it is desirable to have the area near the jail or retention area.
Provide plenty of space for storage. Firearms and other equipment should be stored in locked cabinets. Room for confiscated, lost, and abandoned articles is necessary if such items are to be kept properly.
When patrolmen change shifts on beats it is not necessary to have a large assembly room, but it is desirable to provide space for officers to fill out reports. In large departments, the detective force will need a separate room with lineup facilities.
In the very large departments separate rooms for interrogating prisoners are neces-
606


Governmental and Public
CITY AND TOWN HALLS
INTERROGATION 1 ROOM
SQUAD ROOM
INTERROGATION ROOM
RECOROING AND JpBSERVAIION
MACHINE
ACCOUNTING
SUPERVISOR BILLING RECORDS
WATER BILI ING
ACCOUNTING
OFFICE
INTERROGATION __J ROOM I
/
CAPTAIN
DETECTIVE
DIVISION
EMPLOYEES
ROOM
DUPLICATING SUPPIY STORAGE
PURCHASES AND CONTRACT
7r
~I
211
CARD
STORAGE
-------------.4
WOMt N
EMPLOYEES
MECHANICAL
SHAFTS
MEN
F'UBl 1C
, SWITCH BOARD
1
T
205
rf
MAIL
ROOM
INTERNAL
AUDITOR
l?07L
206
J
1 1 VAULT
! CITY CLERK LOBBY
-* AND
; TREASURER
OFFICE |
201 202 -33
REVENUE COl l ECllON
TRAFFIC
VIOLATIONS
DIVISION
IAX i
SUPERVISOR'
REVENUE
COLLECTOR
FINANCE DIRECTOR
(b) SECOND LEVEL
sary. In the medium-sized department, the detective squad room can be used for interrogation. A separate room for the use of prisoners and their attorneys or visitors is important when the station has facilities for housing prisoners. Finally the large city should have a courtroom near the jail or detention facilities of the police department.
The police department facilities of the Raleigh city hall are well planned (Figs. 3s-c). Separation is achieved by having the police department on ground level except for the detective bureau. The detective bureau is reached by a stairwell located so that the general public would not have use for it. Notice that the traffic violations division is on the second level right across from the city clerk and treasurer's office. This places money collecting in one area and very convenient to the public. The municipal court is off the lobby on the ground level and next to the male and female lockups.
Design of the City Hall The city hall is essentially an office building, not a monument or an ornament. The building should be so designed as to be economical in construction and main-' tenance. True long-range economy is achieved by a judicious balance between original cost and maintenance coat. A building with cheap materials and equipment for the sake of low first cost may be quite expensive in maintenance and replacement.
Even though the city hall should be basically functional and not a monument, originality in design is not precluded.
CITY MANAGERS OFFICE
OFFICE
OF
MAYOR AND COUNCIL
1 f I i CHIEF j BUILDING lElECTRICAL
. ADM ASST J CITY DIRECTOR INSPECTOR. INSPECTORi INSPECTOR
1 TO CITY ATTORNEY
[ MANAGER [
INSPECTIONS
PUBLIC DEPT.
T j WORKS
SECRFTARY
AND
RECEPTION
PROJECTION
AND
PRESS ROOM
COUNCIL
CHAMBER
SANITARY | PLUMBING INSPECTOR' INSPECTOR
DRAFTING ROOM
i ~i
i i INSPECTION DEPT. FILES i 1 i
STAIRWFII1
i i MEN j | EMPLOYEESJ S WOMFN J EMPLOYEES!

CLOSET MECHANICAL i i

CONFERENCE ROOM STORAGE
312
__Z___
SUPERVISOR Of
WOMEN AND1,
GIRLS
ACTIVITIES
ATHLETIC
SUPERVISOR
RECREATION
iAMUSEMENT I PARK
SUPERVISOR
[SUPERVISOR'
I OF
I MEN ANC
' BOYS |
'ACTIVITIES' -I__________L.
PARKS
J
302 303
PERS0NNEL
CREW
ROOM
ENGINEERING
DEPT
PLANNING
DEPT
ASST
CHIEF
ENGINEER
CHIEF
ENGINEER
PLANNING
DIRECTOR
DRAFTING ROOM
PUBLIC
UTILITIES
ENGRS
OFFICE
ENGRS BOOKKEEPING MAPS
Fig. 3 (cont.) Raleigh, North Carolina, City Hall.
(c) THIRD LEVEL
607


PART EIGHT BIBLIOGRAPHY


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Lebovich, William L. America1s City Halls. Washington, DC: The Preservation Pressj 1984.
Moore, Charles W. Body, Memory, and Archtecture. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977.
Land Development and Growth Management Procedures. Westminster, Colorado: 1982.
Andrews, Wayne. Architecture, Ambition and Americans. New York: MacMi11ian Publishing Co., 1964.
Lynch, Kevin. The Image Of The City. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1975.
A Competition To Select An Architect For The New City Hall In The Government Center Of The City Of Boston. Boston, MA: 1961.
Conti, Flavio. The Focus On Democracy. Boston: HBJ Press, 1977 .
Uniform Building Code. 1985.
Stephens, Suzanne. Symbolic Statements" Progressi ve Archi tecture March 1981, p. 73-75.
Frampton, Kenneth, etal. "Mississauga City Hall." Progressive Architecture, January 1985, p. 101-103.
Fisher, Thomas. "High Style, Low Styel: Douglas Co. Administration Building, Castle Rock, CO" Progressi ve Archi tecture, October 1983, p. 97-100.
Stephens, Suzanne. "What Becomes A Monument Most?" Progressive Architecture, May 1979, p. 88-90.
Brenner, Doug!as
Portland: The Portland Building.


Architectural Record, November 1982, p. 90-99.
Doubi1et, Susan. "Conversation with Graves" Pro< Arch i tectu re, February 1983, p. 108-115.
Interplan. Facility Study For The New Westminster Cit November 1985.
Callender, John Hancock, etal. "Time-Saver Standa Building Types. Second Edition. New York: McGra Inc., 1980.
Alexander, Christopher, etal. A Pattern Language. N< Oxford University Press. 1977.