Citation
The urban experience

Material Information

Title:
The urban experience
Creator:
Starck, Pamela Lynn
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
vii, 133, [6] leaves : illustrations, maps ; 30 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sociology, Urban -- Study and teaching -- Handbooks, manuals, etc ( lcsh )
Sociology, Urban -- Study and teaching ( fast )
Study skills ( fast )
History -- Study and teaching -- Denver (Colo.) ( lcsh )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Genre:
Handbooks and manuals. ( fast )
History. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
handbook ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Handbooks and manuals ( fast )
History ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 136-139).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requiremens for a Master's degree in Planning and Community Development, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Pamela Lynn Starck.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
08751130 ( OCLC )
ocm08751130
Classification:
LD1190.A78 1982 .S72 ( lcc )

Full Text
The Uaban Expe.sUe.nce. \
A thesis Submitted in partial batis faction ofi the nequinamenta f^on the degree o{,
Hastens o {> Planning and Community Development.
by
Pamela Lynn Stanch
Hay 1982
University oft Colorado, Venven


INTRODUCTION
Only man can solve the urban crises he is responsible for creating. In the past, man literally threw together urban areas with little or no advanced planning. He was unaware of or he overlooked the many social injustices which are now reaching a climactic point in the cities. Today man is paying for the mistakes of his ancestors, and many urbanologists feel that the mistakes of the past might destroy the hopes of the future.
The face of the United States has changed since 1790 when ninety-five percent of the population was rural dwellers. Present trends indicate that by the year 2000, our nation will be ninety-five percent urbanized which represents an overwhelming societal change. Associated with the phenomenon of urbanization are some of the most severe domestic crises this country has ever faced: poverty with accompanying slums, racial polarization, crime, inadequate housing, inadequate recreational programs and facilities, congestion, air and water pollution, alienation of the individual from his government and the decreasing influence of the family as a social unit -- all are dilemmas that have become synonymous with the process of rapid urbanization.
The urban citizen of tomorrow, today's adolescent, will hold the key to success or failure in meeting urban problems. Tomorrow's urbanite need not be a city planner nor a sociologist, but he must be responsive to the urgent necessity of solving these problems. He must not be a passive victim of his environment; rather he must be an urbanite dedicated to helping eliminate the physical and
1


social ills which now characterize segments of his urban society.
More than any other institution in society, it is the responsibility of education to provide students with the tools and knowledge necessary to deal with the complex challenges of urban living.
In September, 1977, I remember Alvin Toffler, author of Future Shock a best seller in the 60's, telling an audience at Regis Field House that Americans seem to believe that the kind of society we have will continue indefinitely, and that schools are improperly preparing students to live in an industrial society which is quickly disappearing. But no longer can we assume that what one learns in the first twenty years of life will hold true for the next fifty.
Toffler argued that it isn't enough to teach fixed ways of dealing with experience; a person must be taught to be more creative and inventive. Toffler stressed that there should be more opportunities for students to "reality-tesf outside the classroom what they have learned and that there should be more student value clarification so that young Americans can learn to make decisions in a society where change is rapid and "transcience is a fact of life."
In order to function productively and effectively in an environment, one must understand his surroundings. The purpose of the Urban Experience student handbook is to aid the student in
understanding the process of urbanization through exposure to land use patterns, foundings, and growth. Denver will be used as the base model.
n


RATIONALE
As an educator, I am concerned with the development of my students. I believe that through a good education in a good urban setting, an adolescent can learn and develop to the best of his abilities; he can learn from a diversity of Cultures and activities; he can build confidence in himself and learn the dynamics of his community and his city; he can become involved in local government and develop the capacity to manage his own affairs.
But more often than not, the link between education and large cities and the community does not exist. In the past twelve years of teaching, I have seen few students who have learned to use the city to its fullest potential as an educational tool. For many adolescents the definition of community was lost after they disengaged themselves from the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts, and for most involvement with local government usually means applying for a driver's license.
I have also found that my students are unhappy about where they live. When asked to write on their feelings about their city, these students write about frustration, dirt, crime, and about a desire to escape. A poem by a Tommy Foynes, age 9, simply states what many of my students feel about their city: "nothing."
A city is a pity
A city is a dumb place to live because it stinks
A city has a truck smelling the place up
A city is nothing to me.
iii


Most don't care about the old and sometimes historic homes they live in; few have any idea about cultural or employment opportunities; almost none of them have ever thought about getting involved in making their city a desirable place to live in. And why should they when they feel no sense of definition of community?
"Why Small Town Boys Make Good," published in Time, May 1976, the author points out that with the exception of President John F. Kennedy, every president since President Taft was born or reared in a small community. The article goes on to quote Irving Kristol, Daniel Burstein, and Bill Moyers, who all state that a person is able to better grasp his identity and his relationship to his community when he is reared in a small town.
I hope that this course, the Urban Experience, will help define students' communities, expose them to their urban environment and cultural opportunities and give them pride in the past. Young people must be aware of both positive and negative aspects of their cities so that they will preserve and renew elements that will enhance their environment.
Most students not only lack a full awareness of their environment, but they also lack problem-solving techniques with which to encounter problems (both personal and societal). Future urbanites must learn to use a logical, systematical, and many times creative approaches to problem-solving to help them deal with urban problems.
IV


THE URBAN EXPERIENCE AND ITS ACTIVITIES
In order to make students aware of their link with their communities, students must be involved in a variety of activities and areas. These learning experiences cannot be taught solely in the classroom. For too long, educators have relied on the secondary collection method of knowledge-lecture and the written word. Students can't be committed to and involved in their communities without direct observation of their environment, personal experience in their communities, and discussions with people who have knowledge and services valuable to the community.
Most educators face the problem of diverse student reading levels in the average class. Yet with or without a good reading background, these students must be prepared for adulthood. The Urban Experience and its activities are designed so that adolescents at both ends of the reading spectrum can obtain knowledge.
The student can choose his own learning methods including (as stated earlier) observation, interviews, personal experience and/or he can choose to read about urban problems.
Many activities such as observation of the neighborhood, value clarification and making land use maps can be accomplished within the the class hour; other activities such as historical rubbing and history through the cemetery may be done during individual or class field trips.
This course is designed to make youths perceptive and cognizant about issues that will affect them in the future: environment, man, shelter, society, and networks. Each of these topics is a
v


chapter in this handbook and each topic is influenced by every
other topic. For example, the environment influences man, the
way he lives, and the shelter he creates for himself, while
man has a great deal of influence over the urban environment, his
shelter, society, and the networks which provide service to him.
The following chart shows the relationship between topics:
Environment
Activities that are chosen under each topic are to promote awareness and a clear perception of the subject, not a complete mastery of the topic; a course could be devoted to each topic separately. Many activities like value clarification, are for the individual. Other activities are societal, pertaining to both historical and contemporary issues.
OBJECTIVES
The following objectives will be accomplished in this course
1) Students will become aware of the ramifications of a man-made environment.
2) Students will clarify their values so they can make decisions more successfully.
3) Students will interact with adults.
4) Each student will learn about his responsibility in determining local issues.
5) Students will learn to see themselves as free agents, not as pawns of their environments.
6) Students will learn to solve problems in a logical and orderly procedure.
vi


OTHER OPPORTUNITIES
As students work on establishing criteria for their own lives, they will realize their needs and desires. They will learn to improve and protect essential elements of their enviornment, such as equal housing, historical preservation of buildings and institutions, and the natural environment.
They will no longer feel as if they must remain passive victims of their environment.
vii


The Urban Experience


THIS HANDBOOK IS ABOUT THE URBAN EXPERIENCE THE PURPOSE OF THIS HANDBOOK IS TO PROVIDE YOU WITH AN EXPERIENCE IN EVALUATING AND IN ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE ABOUT YOUR ENVIRONMENT, AND IN ADDING AND CHANGING THAT ENVIRONMENT
This is the Personal Property and Viewpoint
of _________________________________________
Date


Dedication
To my husband,Tim and our daughter, Linsey


ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The Urban Experience would not have been possible without the assistance of many people. This book could not have been done without the wholeheart support and endless hours of babysitting by my husband, Tim. A special thank you to my sister, Becky, for endless hours of correcting this manuscript and to Iola Horton for typing so many rough drafts. Mary Ellen Owens for so patiently reading between the lines and preparing the final draft. Jim Westkctt and Herb Smith, my professors, who gave helpful information, encouragement and friendship. Last, but not least, a thank you to my students who have been an inspiration for writing this book.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction . 1
Environment .................................... 2
Man.............................................17
Shelters........................................32
Society.........................................70
Systems........................................Ill
Conclusion
132


TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Denver Map..................................5,
Four Mile House.............................. 36
Victorian Pattern House ..................... 37
Victorian.................................... 38
Italianate Style ............................ 39
Second Empire.................................40
Queen Anne Style..............................41
Shingle Style ............................... 42
Chateaueque Style ........................... 43
Richardsonian Romanesque .................... 44
Neo-classical ............................... 45
Spanish Colonial Revival Style .............. 46
Bungalow Style .............................. 47
Mo. d erne Style..............................48
Brick 1950 's.................................49
Tri-Level.................................... 50
Traditional.................................. 50
Solar Energy Design.......................... 51
Grant-Humphrey Mansion ...................... 56
Three Styles of Columns...................... 60
Map of Denver, Auraria and Highlands..........77
Civic Center Map..............................84
Neighborhood Map............................ 100
Denver Water Board Service Area ............ 129
Water Supply System..........................130


Welcome to the Urban Experience.
The purpose of this course is to make you more aware of your urban environment. In this handbook, we will examine five interrelated topics: the environment, man, shelter, society, and systems. While studying these topics, you will explore how the environment influences man and we will examine the different types of shelter that man has created for himself, as well as the systems that man has designed to make his life easier. The following chart summarizes the interrelatedness of these five topics:
Systems
Environment
Man
Through the reporting process, the Urban Experience incorporates your personal experiences with your observations of the city, your community, and your neighborhood. Reporting can be done in a variety of ways: writing, poems, sketches, rubbings, and/or photography.
This book is not only a handbook, and a field guide, but it will also eventually become a journal of your feelings, observations, and reactions. Ten years from now, you will be able to look at this handbook as a chronicle of Denver's past as seen from your perspective.
1


ENVIRONMENT


THE ENVIRONMENT
"Environment. Whatever encompasses; specifically the aggregrate of all external and internal conditions affecting the existence, growth and welfare of organisms; one's surroundings or external circumstances collectively." 1-
The natural environment around you is made up of four basic parts: the air, referred to as the atmosphere; the hydrosphere,
commonly known as water; the lithosphere, otherwise known as the
earth; and the biosphere, or living things.
To answer the following questions you may desire to call someone on the suggested resource list, look at a map of the area, seek information at the library and/or use your personal experiences and observations.
At the conclusion of the following exercise, you should be able
to :
1) recognize some physical features of Denver, and
2) explain some of the relationships between the plains and adjacent mountain areas.
EXERCISE ONE ATMOSPHERE
1. What is the climate like in Denver?
A. Average temperature range
B. Average humidity
C. Wind
D. Precipitation
What is the air pollution like in Denve^ff
2.
3.
4.
In regards to air pollution, how many extremely poor days and poor days does Denver have in a year?
Explain simply how air currents in the Denver area affect air pollution.
1. Morris, William, ed, The American Heritage
Dictionary of the English Language, Houston Mufflin Co., Boston, 1973.


HYDROLOGY
1. Show where the surface water is in the Denver Metro Area on Map 1.
2. Are there any dams in the area? If so, identify on Map 1.
3. Is there any problem in the Denver area with water pollution through sewage treatment, industrial pollution, urban run-off and/or agricultural run-off?
GEOLOGY
1. Identify geological structures in the Denver area on Map 2.
2. Identify geological hazards (active faults, mudslides) on Map 2.
3. Identify gas and coal areas in the Denver area on Map 2.
4. What is the soil like in the Denver area?
5. What are the manmade hazards in this area?
BIOLOGY
1. What is the natural flora and fauna of the area?
2. What animals were here a hundred years ago?
3. Which animals are still here?
4. Name one non-native exotic species.
5. Are there any open space or agricultural areas that should be left as they are?
-4-


MAP 1
Map from Denver Living,,
Nov./Dec.,
1981
-5-


MAP 2
r..ap from Denver living, Nov ./Dec 1981
6


AN AWARENESS
"Food, Shelter and Clothing. These are no longer the basic needs for we have taken clean air and drinkable water for granted too long. Chemically and thermally we have seen how we pollute rivers, lakes, oceans and the air. Through pesticides and herbicides we have managed to eliminate entire species, and then to eat and digest the chemical residue ourselves...As of now Low Angeles is merely the first city with more of its space devoted to roads and parking areas than to the housing of human beings."
A balance between nature and man is essential. You must report certain elements, such as agricultural land, mineral deposits, ecological, and scenic areas. Man must not conquer and build everywhere; a balance between nature and man and his needs must be found. The damage man has already done to his environment is almost irreversible.
Among these constraints are prime agricultural land, oil and gas fields, and areas of air quality concern. In recognizing these areas of conern, we hope to learn how to put land to its highest and best use.
Surrounding the Denver Metropolitan area you can observe agricultural land being used for development of new residential areas because it is flat and oftentimes has good drainage. Yet agricultural land is also needed because it provides man with the staples of life.
1. Papanek, Victor, Art in Society, no title, Volume 7, #3, pg.124.
-7-


As our nation searches for ways to meet the energy crisis, the areas in our state that contain energy resources, such as oil and gas should be recognized as valuable areas. We must be aware of where these areas are, and what minerals exist in them when considering the future development of this land.
These areas should be studied to determine the potential value of the minerals involved and the quantity of minerals thereby enabling officials to determine the best possible land use for the areas.
Air pollution is a major concern in Denver. Some areas in the region seem more prone to air pollution problems than others.
Two (2) meterological factors, the inversion and prevailing winds, are the base cause of these problems. The areas where air pollution problems are the greatest are the Platte Valley and the western side of the region.
You should also be conscious of hazards whether they be natural or manmade. Such hazard areas are floodplains, drainage swales, landslides or mudslides, chemical plants and dumps, and Nuclear Energy Plants.
The Rocky Flats Nuclear Processing Plant in northwest Jefferson County has been the scene of accidental releases of radioactive plutonium in the past. As a result of these releases, areas downwind from the plant continue to show plutonium soil contamination. The Colorado Department of Health has delineated a "radiation area of concern" based on results of radiological soil tests. The area is bounded by Highway 72 and West 88th Avenue on the south, the
foothills on the west, Highway 128 on the north and Highway 121
-8-


(Wadsworth) on the east. Because of possibility exists that increased cancer rates could result if additional people were allowed to live or work in the "radiation area of concern," no new development is planned within this zone.
Still another consideration in the balance between man and nature must be an aesthetically pleasing environment. You must protect historic sites, scenic views, and ecological sites.
Development should not occur in wildlife habitat areas unless adequate mitigation techniques have been performed and impact site analysis studies have been made and approved by the Colorado Division of Wildlife. Without these "amenities," you will never understand the uniqueness of your environment of the past.
EXERCISE TWO
In the following exercise try to find examples of hazard areas manmade and natural, historical sites or scenic views. Record the address of the example and if possible, find photographs of the example.
"Environmental values cannot be introduced from the outside as a sensuous experience from the interplay between man's nature and the spirit of the place."
Rene Dubos
-9-


Hazard areas -- manmade and natural, historical sites and scenic views.
-10-


I pledge myself as a responsible human to assume my share of the stewardship of our natural resources.
I will use mv share with gratitude, without greed or waste.
I will respect the rights of others and abide by the law.
I will support the sound management of the sources we use...the restoration of the resources we have dispoiled...and the safekeeping of significant resources for posterity.
I will never forget that life and beauty, wealth and progress depend on how we use these gifts... the soil, the water, the air, the minerals, the plant life and the wildlife...this is my pledge.
The National Wildlife Conservation Creed
-11-


LAND USE
Land Use is the study of how the land is being used. It is an inventory of existing patterns of activities, such as transportation, and a study of characteristics of the natural enviomment and man's uses of land. Denver is about 155 square miles. The lands use according the to Denver Planning Office, Planning Toward the Future: A Comprehensive Plan for Denver, contains 30% residential use, 20% street and alley vise, 17% vacant, 16% industrial use, 8% public and semi-public use, 5% parks and recreational use and 4% conmercial.
Land use maps can help a community plan for housing commerce and quality of life desired. Land use maps show the effects man and his creations have on the natural enviomment. They may also show where such things as highways, recreational facilities, and hospitals are needed.
At the conclusion of these exercises relating to land use, you should be able to:
1. Make and interpret land use maps.
2. Describe factors which influence the location of specific land use.
3. Explain the nature or purpose of the Central Business District.
4. Understand the relationship of the transportation network to the Central Business District and Industry.
-12-


EXERCISE THREE
LAND USE PATTERNS IN DENVER
Begin this experience at 15th Street and Broadway.
List your feelings or observations at this point.
Now go NW on 17th Street to Glenarm to 16th. Stop. Go to the Top of the Rockies or any other tall building of your choice.
Answer questions 1-5:
1. In downtown Denver the main use of land is:
a. Manufacturing
b. Corrmercial
c. Government
d. Office
2. From high up you can see not only how spread out the Denver metropolitan area is but also how we are building up. Name one other structure besides an office building that is more than one story in downtown Denver.
3. What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of so many people living together?
4. Why did early settlers first live and work down by Auraria College?
5. What are some of the interesting places to go that can only be found in the city?
a.
b.
c.
d.
-13-


EXERCISE THREE (Con't.)
Now proceed NW on 15th Street to Larimer. Left on Larimer Street to West Colfax. Left off Colfax to Irving to Avondale Shopping Center. Stop here go to the back of the shopping center and answer questions 6-9.
6. What are two means of transportation that you see?
a.
b.
7. What method of transportation don't you see.
8. How is the land being used differently here as compared to downtown Denver?
9. Why is this a good place for the Bronco Stadiun and McNichols Stadiun?
10. You were at a shopping center. Name it.
11. Name all of the shopping centers you can that are in the Denver area.
12. Shopping centers are called interceptors. Why?
-14-


Now that you have identified different land uses, you realize the various ways land can be utilized. The basic types of land use are conmercial, residential, industrial, transportation, parks and recreation, agricultural, vacant land, public and quasi-public (which includes medical use, religious use, educational use, cultural use and cemeteries).
EXERCISE FOUR
Fran your last exercise, you should be able to describe factors that might influence the location of specific uses.
1. Where would you put industry?
2. Where are recreational areas needed?
3. Conmercial areas are close to what other loses?
Now make a land use map of a three block area around your school.
Color Code: Conmercial Red
Residential Yellow
Industrial Cray
Public, Ouasi-Public Blue
Agricultural Light Green
Transportation Black
Park and Recreation Dark Green
Vacant Land White
-15-


LAND USE MAP:
-16-


MAN


MAN
"Man (Men) PI. 1. A member of the genus homo, the most highly developed of the primates, differing from other animals in having erect posture, extraordinary development of the brain and the power of articulate language. Only existing species Hcmo Sapiens." 1-
Man's basic biological needs are those required to remain alive and healthy. Hunger, thirst, sleep and a sex drive are triggered by the brain. After these needs are satisfied, man begins to fulfill his physical needs for safety and security.
This level could be the pursuit of knowledge or beauty or whatever else is required for the realization of one's unique potential. Maslow believed that very few of us ever reached this level.
1. Morris, William ed, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Boston, 1973.
-18-


Abraham Mas low contends that after the previously mentioned fundamental needs are satisfied, there is a second level consisting of psychological needs. Psychological needs are the need to belong, the need to give and receive love, and the need to acquire esteem. The third level is competence and achievement. Maslow proposes that these needs can only be filled by an outside source. The top level of Maslow's Hierarchy is self-actualization.
In the next five exercises you will be doing some value clarification to see which needs are important to you.
Value clarification is a process by which you learn to make decisions about what is important to you. It is not a value system, nor does it teach values. Value clarification can:
1) help you make intelligent and appropriate decisions,
2) help make decisions that you can accept and live with.
The first exercise is from Sidney Simon, Leland Howe and Howard Kirschenbaun's book, Value Clarification. The following exercise is about fifteen miracle workers who can provide service to you. Read the following descriptions of each and rank your top five. Then write a sentence on what five miracle workers could do for you.
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THE MIRACLE WORKERS"
from Value Clarification
EXERCISE ONE PURPOSE
This strategy poses a problem that confronts the student with many attractive alternatives to choose from. It helps him get in touch with his feelings about what is important to him.
WORKSHEET
A group of 15 experts, considered miracle workers by those who used
their services, have agreed to provide these services for the members of
this class. Their extraordinary skills are guaranteed to be 100% effective.
It is up to you to decide which of these people can best provide you with
what you want.
THE EXPERTS ARE:
1. Dr. Dorian Grey A noted plastic surgeon; he can make you look exactly as you want to look by means of a new painless technique. (He also uses hormones to alter body structures and size!) Your ideal physical appearance can be a reality.
2. Baron VonBarrons A college-placement, and job placement expert. The college or job or your choice, in the location of your choice, will be yours!
3. Jedediah Methuselah Guarantees you long life (to the age of 200) with your aging process slowed down proportionately. For example, by the age of 60 you wd.ll look and feel like 20.
4. Drs. Masters Johnson and Fanny Hill Experts in the area of sexual relations; they guarantee that you will be the perfect male or female, will enjoy sex and will bring pleasure to others.
5. Dr. Yin Yang An organismic expert; she will provide you with perfect health, and protection from physical injury throughout your life.
6. Dr. Knot Not Ginott An expert in dealing wdth parents; he guarantees that you wall never have any problems wdth your parents again. They wall
-20-


accept your values and your behavior. You will be free fran control and badgering.
7. Stu Denpower An expert on authority; he will make sure that you are never again bothered by authorities. His services will make you irrmune from all control which you consider unfair by the school, the police, and the government (the armed forces included!)
8. "Pop" Larity He guarantees that you will have the friends you want now and in the future. You will find it easy to approach those you like and they will find you easily approachable.
9. Dr. Samantha Smart She will develop your conrmon sense and your intelligence to a level in excess of 150 I.Q. It will remain at this level through your entire lifetime.
10. Pocky Fellah Wealth will be yours, with guaranteed schemes for earning millions within weeks .
11. EWight D. DeGawl This world-famed leadership expert will train you quickly. You will be listened to, looked up to, and respected by those around you.
12. Dr. Otto Carengy You will be well-liked by all and will never be lonely. A life filled with love will be yours.
13. Dr. Dlaire Voyant All of your questions about the future will be answered, continually, through the training of this soothsayer.
14. Dr. Hinnah Self Guarantees that you will have self-knowledge, self-liking, self-respect, and self-confidence. True self-assurance will be yours.
15. Prof. Val U Clear With her help, you will always know what you want, and you will be completely clear on the muddy issues of these confused days.
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EXERCISE TOO
WAY'S TO LIVE
The following exercise, circle the most important value in each, exercise should help you formulate your own philosophy of life.
Self
1. Which is the most important trait for a friend?
A. Loyality
B. Cenerosity
C. Honesty
Errviomment
2. Which season do you like most?
A. Summer
B. Winter
C. Spring
D. Fall
Environment
3. Where would you prefer to live?
A. Mountains
B. Citv
C. Farm
D. Suburbs
Family
4. If your mother could no longer care for herself, would you
This
A. put her in a nursing home?
B. hire a nurse to come and live with her?
C. move her into your home?


Family
5. If your parents were in constant conflict, would you want them
A. to get a divorce and you live with your mother?
B. to stay together and hide their feelings?
C. to get a divorce and you live with your father?
Self
6 . If you were to inherit a lot of money,
A. would you share your wealth with charities?
B. would you share your wealth with your parents, and/or sisters and brothers?
C. continue to live the way you are now?
D. live it up?
Self
7 . My philosophy about my future is
A. to plan for the future.
B. to live for today because there may be no tomorrow.
C. to think that someone else will take care of the future.
D. not to think about it.
Work
8. Do you prefer to work
A. hard on a job?
B. do just enough to get by?
C. goof off?
Enviomment
9. Which would you do to conserve energy?
A. drive less and walk more and use public transportation.
B. wear sweaters and tum down the heat.
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C. move to a warmer climate.
D. install solar heating devices.
Self
10. Which of these is most important to you?
A. my education
B. my music
C. my social life
D. my family
E. my car
F. my friends
11. Which of these is visually more pleasing?
A. the mountains
B. a sunset
C. the ocean
D. a beautiful car
E. a beautiful woman
F. a beautiful man
fork
12. At work would you rather
A. work alone?
B. work with few people?
C. work with a lot of people?
Self
13. Do you like to have
A. a lot of time to yourself?
B. a couple of hours a day?
C. the less time the better?
-24-


Enviomment
14. Where would you like to live?
A. in a plush downtown apartment
B. a mansion
C. a tri level
D. a much older home
E. a farm house
F. a cabin
Leisure
15. How do you like to spend a Saturday night?
A. alone
B. with someone else
C. a few friends
D. a big party
Family
16. What kind of family would you like to have?
A. none
B. a spouse
C. 1 child
D. 2 children
E. 3 children
Family
17. 'What kind of spouse would bother you?
A. one who tells you what to do
B. one who spends too much money
C. one w7ho spends a great deal of time with his or her friends
D. one who spends a great deal of time with his or her mom
E. one who keeps a messy house
-25-


Family
18. If you had a family, who would come first?
A. yourself
B. the kids
C. the whole family
19. The money you earn you spend mostly on
A. food and drink
B. clothes
C. friends
D. getting high
E. your car
Work
20. What kind of boss would you like least?
A. one that tells you what to do all the time
B. one that watches your every move
C. one that yells if you make a mistake
Work
21. If you could choose your work hours, what would they be?
A. 6 morning to 4 o'clock afternoon
B. 8 morning to 5 o'clock afternoon
C. 10 morning to 7 o'clock evening
D. 5 afternoon to midnight
22. What leisure activity do you like to do after school?
A. sports
B. watch TV
C. read
D. be with friends
E. listen or play music
F. sleep -26-


Work
2 3. Which job would you like to do most?
A. teach people
B. help sick people
C. sell people things
D. work in a non-people field
Self
24. Which would you like to be the most?
A. rich
B. famous
C. smart
D. good at sports
E. popular
F. good at something
Leisure
25. How many days off a week would you like to have to play or do your own
thing?
A. one day
B. two days
C. three days
D. four or more
-27-


Now that you have answered these questions, put your answers in this grid. Above each question is the name of one of the following columns. Put each answer in a space in the appropriate column.
Now write a sunnary about yourself using all five categories.
THE UNEXANINEV LITE IS NOT WORTH LIVING: KNOW THYSELF SocAatU 470-399 8.C.


EXERCISE THREE
MY PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE
I AkalZ po64 tkit, way but once.; any good thing* tkene^one that I can do, on any klndne** that I can *hou), let me do tt non). Let me not de^en -it on neglect it, &on I *halt not pa** this imy again.
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EXERCISE FOUR
DENVER COUNCimEN
You have now been elected to Denver City Council. As a council person you must decide on many issues. Circle the answers you would give.
1. What is Denver's most serious problem?
a. housing
b. pollution
c. crime
d. school bussing
e. transportation
2. There are to be cutbacks to balance the budget. What area would you cut?
a. food stamps
b. school lunches
c. low income housing
d. education
e. police and fire protection
3. In what area should improvements be made in Denver?
a. streets
b. transportation
c. education
d. recreational facilities
4. Crime is on an upswing. Would you vote for a
a. new jail?
b. more rehabilitation programs?
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5. To improve the pollution situation would you encourage
a. less parking lots in downtown?
b. control growth through zoning?
c. better busses?
d. monorail?
EXERCISE FIVE SAFETY
At the beginning of this section you read that safety was one of man's basic needs after his physical needs were satisfied. Name five places in your community that aren't safe.
UNSAFE PLACES IN MY COMMUNITY SAFETY IMPROVEMENT WHO TO CONTACT
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
In the second column list how these places could be improved. And in the third column list whom you would contact to get safety improvements started.
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SHELTER


SHELTER
"Shelter: la. Something that provides c^ver or protection as
from the weather. b. A refuge; haven."
Our shelters are very important to us; we eat, we sleep and we live in them, and our families share our shelters with us.
We live in and use many types of shelters depending on our life styles, needs, and on the physical environment of our area. After graduation from high school most people move frequently from structure to structure, from home to home. According to national averages few of us stay in the same home for more than five years.
Some of us live in single family units, while others live in apartments. Some of us live in the centers of activities, while others live in less congested suburbs. Two important concerns for all of us include how much our homes cost and how well our homes meet our needs.
Designing a home for a specific person is an idea that began during the Renaissance (from 1400 1600). During this period attention was given by builder to the homes of kings and dukes.
The palaces built during the early Italian Renaissance were solid, heavy structures of stone, serving as both homes and fortresses.
If the king or duke wanted his palace in the city, these homes were usually designed with only one doorway and with few windows. Often they were built with inner courtyards for security reasons.
1. Morris, William, ed., The American Heritage Dictionary of the Language, Houston Mifflin Co., Boston, 1973.
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In Venice, palaces were designed differently because the government was better organized, making the city reasonably safe from attacking enemies. The palaces were Gothic in style: they were open and light. The classical influence of the Greeks and Romans was evident in these palaces as seen in their symmetrical organization and balance.
The French palaces in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were built for the organized purposes of royal formality: for entertaining heads of state, for coronations and for formal dances. All aspects were built to enhance the glory of the reigning king. This was called the French Baroque and Roccoco period everything was very lavish to imply wealth. Even gardens and walkways were designed carefully, such as those at the Palace of Versailles in France.
As time went on, people became more involved in making their own decisions about their futures and their living needs since they were no longer serfs. Some people decided the New World would be the place to settle. When they came to America, they brought with them the styles of their mother country. For example, the Dutch brought the Dutch Design to New York, while New England architecture was its base from England. English architecture also influenced the building styles of the Virginias and Carolinas, while styles from Wales, Germany and Sweden influenced Pennsylvania and Delaware. Italian and Spanish styles were brought to Florida. As Carole Rifkind in A Field Guide to American Architecture explains about American architecture, "Though as different from each other as they were from their European antecedents, the homes of these wildreness orphans were nevertheless American."
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The Dutch and Swedish built many brick homes in New York. They used both wood and rough stone in construction of their homes in this country. They were usually one or two stories and rectangular in shape.
In the 1850's, at the junction of the Cherry Creek and the Platte River sparkling water flowed and towering cottonwood trees grew in abundance. Among these cottonwoods, camped the Ute Indians in the teepees. Their deerhide structures were the first home in Denver, and as late as 1874, these homes could be seen on the outskirts of town.
On April 23, 185.9 a writer in Rocky Mountain News reported: "As the Denver area prepares to face its first
winter, it is estimated that there are some seventy five cabins."
Log cabins were originally introduced by the Swedes to the Delaware area. Log cabins were most popular after the American Revolution when people started moving west of the Appalachian Mountains.
The Four Mile House at 715 South Forest Street in Denver is considered to be the oldest standing home in
Denver. It is located on the historic routes of the
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Smokey Hill Trail and the Old Cherokee Trail/Denver-Santa Fe Stage Road. It was a stopping place for Indians, traders, stage coaches and wagons. Here people would change out of their dirty, dusty clothes. Often five white prancing horses would replace the more durable horses and mules.
This house was built in 1859 of square logs and covered with clapboard. It also had a bar downstairs and a ballroom upstairs.
Out of six Mile Houses (named for their distance from Colfax Avenue and Colorado Boulevard) only three are in tact.
By the late 1860's, there were many fine homes built in Denver.
Each residential neighborhood in Denver developed its own charm and character: Highlands, Auraria, Capital Hill, Montclair, Curtis Park. East coast visitors traveling by train kept Denver abreast of Eastern styles and trends. Such architects as Frank Edbrooke,
Lang and Pugh, and Frederick Sterner were pace-setters in the
Denver area in designing homes. Such books as Paliser's Model Homes for
-36-


People gave carpenters and builders the latest styles in home building, complete with plans, construction details, and cost estimates.
This Victorian house at 3205 West 21st Avenue is an excellent example
of a Victorian "pattern-book" design.
-37-


And another beauty that demonstrates the Victorian preoccupation with complicated volumes and elaborate ornamentation is the home at 2143 Grove Street.
Victorian, 2143 Grove Street
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Styles in Denver changed quickly from 1860 to 1900. The
following Denver homes are examnles of different stvles and each is a Denver Landmark. The Ttalianate style emnhasized mass and heaviness. The proportion tends towards the vertical and ornamentation
of the porch and windows; doors were built out of heavy material. The Charles Davis House at 1068 Ninth Street was built in this style.
Italianate Style, 1068 Ninth Street


From the Ttalianatc style c'ime the Second which had mansard roof (sloping side) that rose to a flat or shallow pitched deck. Cast iron pinnacles were often seen on the roof. The house at 1027 Ninth Street is a fine example of the Second Fmpirc, as is the Stephen Knight home at 1025 Ninth Street.


The inventive Queen Anne style, also known as East Lake, Jacobean and free style, combined clapboard, shingle, masonry and terra cotta to form a vivid pictorial effect which is emplified in this drawing of the home at 1390 Stuart Street in 1892. The architects were Zang and Pugh.
Queen Ann Style, 1390 Stuart Street
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The Shingle style reduces the number of motifs, enlarges their scale, and complicates their massing. The home at 1389 Stuart Street is a good example of this style. Unfortunately, the first floor has been stuccoed, changing the true impact of the original design.
Shingle Style* 1389 SLuart Street


The Croke^atterson-Campbell House at 430 East 11th Avenue is a beautifully proportioned Chateauesque style home built in 189.0. The architect was Issac Hodgson.
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The Richardsonian Romanesque style is less adventurous in spirit and quieter in tone. It is more regular and self-contained in plan and elevation. It is essentially a masonry style using shingles or clapboard on the upper stories of the house. The home built by Russell at 1375 Josephine is a classic example of the Henry Hobson Richardson (considered to be one of the greatest American born architects) style.
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The end of the Victorian period brought to home design. At its end, Americans turned to more simple styles: American Colonial and Classical Revival. The Grant-Humphrey Mansion at 770 Pennsylvania Street represents the Georgian and Neoclassical Revival, while the home at 1101 Oneida Street represents the Spanish Colonial Revival style.
Gna h t Humph* (> ij Mans ion 110 Pc n n sij f van-ia St.


/
/
Srvinish Colonial Revival Style, 1101 Oneida
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Families in the twentieth century developed a new style of living. A rapidly expanding industrial economy meant job opportunities for many citizens of Denver. During the first forty years of the twentieth century, Ford cars, chain stores such as Montgomery Wards, installment buying, the Depression, a World War, monthly magazines such as Life, movie houses, telephones, and country clubs changed the style of living in Denver.
These times also made some people long for the pre-machine age of the nineteenth century. Architects searched for forms to express both the modern spirit and hand-crafted beauty. Frank Lloyd Wright (one of the three greatest American born architects) said, "Organic architecture can live and let live because it can never express mere style.
The Bungalow, in which many of us in Denver live in, were a West Coast style started in the 1920's. A bungalow is a singlestory home with a porch in the front that forms a significant part of the architectural statement. The home at 200 South Marion is a good example of this style.


In the 1920's, Denver was rich in Revival Architecture including Spanish Colonial homes, Dutch Colonial Georgian homes and English Tudor styled homes. Architects during this time sought to design not only stylish homes but also practical and functional homes.
After the depression eased, homes of the International or Moderne Style appeared, A drive along Bonnie Brae Boulevard, in South Denver, will provide you with many good examples, such as the home at 940 E. Bonnie Brae Boulevard. These homes have flat roofs and are very streamline. In his book, Denver Going Modern, Don Etter says these streamlined looks were modeled after trains and motorcars. Some have rounded tower corners and rounded windows. They are geometrical volumes often set off with linear accents.
Moderne Style, 940 East Bonnie Brae
-48-


The fifties brought to Denver more suburbs, and with the

suburbs came the two bedroom brick attached-garage house, such as the home at 115Q South Jackson.
-49-


During the sixties and seventies most people were not energy conscious and builders created many homes, which had over 2,000 square feet or more, with more windows and sliding doors. Hutchinson's Tri-level was popular in the late sixties and their basic floor plan continues to be one of the basic floor plans offered to Denver residents. Three floor plans remain popular in Denver: the tri-level, ranch style, and the traditional two story. Two of these styles can be seen in the tri-level at 6750. Eastman and tranditional two story at 673Q Eastman.
Tri Level, 6750 Eastman
Traditional Style, 6730 Eastman
-50-


By the late 1970's, more Denver residents would live in apartments, condominiums and town homes than single family homes. Yet single family homes in the 1930 U.S. Census still make up about
Solar House, Fourth and Madison
During the 80's, architects and contractors have become more innovative in Denver home design such as the home at Fourth and Madison. Energy, water, smaller lots, and financing are factors designers now must consider. Because of these factors, each buyermust carefully select a home that fits his own particular life style.
- j


The purpose of this section is to:
(1) increase your awareness of past and present architecture.
(2) make you aware of the decision process you should go through before renting or buying.
(3) help you learn some has.ic home financing.
(4) and to help you understand the need for all types of housing.
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EXERCISE ONE
This is a tour of some of Denver's finer mansions and is an excellent tour to take on foot or by bike. If you wish to see the interior of a masion, take a tour through the Governor's Mansion and the Grant Humphrey Mansion.
Call to find out when these tours are scheduled. If you have a hard time answering the questions on different styles of homes, call the Denver Historical Society, visit the Denver Public Library, or read Denver's Historic Mansions or Denver Landmarks. (Also Exercise Two can be done in conjunction with this exercise.)
* Hallette House, 90Q Logan Street
1) The Hallette house was built in 1892. At that time the house had forty-two rooms and ten fireplaces. More space was added in the 1900's. The house was built by Judge Moses Hallette who was the last territorial judge and the first federal judge in Colorado. He was also dean of the University of Colorado Law School. Hallette made his fortune in the cattle business and the silver industry.
The style of this house is ____________________ ,
^Denver Landmark.
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2) Hal Sayre Alhambra, 801 Logan Street
The Sayre home was architecturally radical. Sayre and his wife had travelled abroad and were inspired by the Morrish castles in Spain. This home was orginally bright yellow with white trim.
Hal Sayre was an interesting character in Colorado history. He was one of the 59er's (early arrivers) but he was not a miner; he was a surveyor who did the surveying of Denver City and who planned the towns of Central City and Black Hawk. He made some of his fortune by surveying claims for a percentage of interest in the claims. If any of the miners were successful, a percentage of their claim became Sayres.
At one time he owned the town of Dillon.
Sayre gave zest to Denver with his passion for fast horses. Sayre promoted many a horse race. He was not a financier by profession, but he was a generous friend to many.
He lost thousands of dollars in the San Luis Valley Water Project. He also had controlling interest in the Central City Bank and loaned a great deal of money to his pioneer friends. When this bank merged with the First National of Central City, his personal fortune insured their loans. This was a fatal mistake for Sayre financially.
In 1926, Sayre died in his mansion at the age of 93. He died relatively poor "but folks said he died a rich man, rich in achievements, in family and in loyal friends for whom he had sacrificed his wealth." 1.
1. Edith Endura Kohl, Denver's Historic Mansions, Sage Books, Denver, 1957.
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The mansion was sold after Mrs. Sayre's death in 1939. The home is now occupied by the "Heart of Denver," a nonprofit organization.
The style of this mansion is _______________________________
*3) Cheesman-Boettcher Governor's Mansion, 400 East 8th Avenue
The land for this mansion was purchased by Walter Cheesman in 1940. Alice Cheesman and her daughter, Gladys, lived there until 1926.
Upon his arrival in 1861, Cheesman opened a drugstore; later he organized the first water company. Cheesman was also instrumental in bringing the railroad to Denver.
Claude K. Boettcher bought the home in 1926. Claude's father began the sugar beet industry in the Rocky Mountain region and was the founder of the Great Western Sugar Company. The Boettchers were also the cement kings. Claude and his father built the Boettcher Dynasty. After Claude's death in 1959, the mansion was present to the state in 1960 and became the Governor's Mansion.
Among the fabulous furnishings is a waterford crystal chandelier that hung in the White House. Nelson Rockefeller once called the mansion the most beautiful governor's home in the country.
The style of this mansion is _________________________________,
* Denver Landmark
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*4) The Malo House, 500 East 8th Avenue
This home, built in 1921, has all the elements of Spanish Colonial style tile roof, the arches and iron work. The house has 15,000 square feet.
This home was constructed by Oscar L. Malo, past president of Colorado Milling and Elevator Company. The house was unused for almost two decades until it was purchased by the Colorado Housing Authority in June of 1980. Many questioned the need for such a grand place. The Housing Authority purchased the home for $650,00.0 and spent $661,769 for renovation and $246,140 for furnishings.
The style of this home is ______________________________________,
*5) Grant Humphrey Mansion, 770 Pennsylvania Street
Colorado's second governor, James Benton Grant, built this imposing mansion in 1901 on the south skirts of the Queen City as an unofficial executive mansion.
In 1877, Grant came to Colorado. He worked in the first Grant Smelter Company in Leadville owned by his uncle. James Grant was elected governor in 1883 at the age of 37. Recognized for putting Colorado government on a solid basis, Grant, later as a private citizen, devoted most of his time to the Denver Public Schools serving as president of the school board for eight years. He was also vice-president of Denver National
* Denver Landmark
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Bank (now United Bank of Denver) and co-founder of Colorado Women's College.
After Grant's death in 1911, the home was purchased by Albert Humphrey because he liked the old Southern plantation style of the home. Humphrey, who came to Colorado in the late 1890's, develped mining properties at Greede, Cripple Creek, and other areas.
The house was shared by the Humphery's and one of his sons families until the 1940's. Ira continued to live there until his death in the 1970''s. The home never became the Governor's Mansion because the Claude Boettcher home across the street had acquired this honor. It was given to the State Historical Society and the land to the city of Denver. The home is now used for the Historical Offices, Colorado Art and Hun/anlties
n

fcj fcy
r

mum /0\ J
- m %
1 ..... i 11/
Offices,, parties, and weddings.
On the ground floor, this home has a billiard room, a bowling alley, and a ballroom auditorium with a beautiful large stage.
The style of this house is


*6) Adolph Zing Mansion, 709 Clarkson
This mansion is a remarkable structure because no expenses were spared in its building. The home was begun in 1902 and took two and a half years to complete at a cost of $108,000.
The interior wood work is beautiful and each room is done in a different wood. The rooms are decorated with furniture matching the wood. The house has both electric and gas lights and has a burglar system that is activated when a window or exterior door is opened. A bell system rings in the master bedroom.
Adolph Zang came to Colorado in 1882 and established himself in various businesses. Adolph was co-founder of the American National Bank, and his son, Philip, started Lang Brewery.
Adolph's daughter sold the house to the charch of The Later Day Saints. They muted the pain but kept most of the rooms original furnishings. Today, the home consists of business offices.
The style of this mansion is________________________________.
7) Mitchell Home "Trails End", 680 Clarkson
This four-story, white (now yellow) brick home with a red roof and a tall fence is still quite a show place. This maverick of architecture was considered to be from Romanesque to Moorish but presumably is Colonial with Spanish influence. The house is as interesting as the families who have lived in it.
John Mitchell started as a bank clerk in Fremont, Illinois.
* Denver Landmark
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He was a bookkeeper in Alamosa, then an assistant cashier in Durango. Mitchell's break came at a Leadville bank. From there he came to Denver as vice-president of Denver National Bank. Because of his genius in banking, he was promoted to president, a job he kept for thirty years.
Their daughter, Clara, married a man who was working his way through the University of Michigan. Unlike many of her contemporaries, she married a poor struggling man, instead of a Wall Street Millionaire. The man's name was Henry VanSchaack.
In 1925, John Mitchell died and in 1943 Clara died. The home was sold to Roy J. Weaver, head of Bluehill Food. Mrs. Weaver lived in this home until spring of 1981 when she died. The home is still occupies by one of her daughters, Katherine, and her husband, Ralph Schomp.
This house was remodeled in the late 1970's and contains three apartments plus the major residence. The apartments have fireplaces that were originally from the David Moffat Mansion.
The style of this home is ___________________________________________,
8) House of the Thousand Candles 1410 High Street
The last house is a little further away, and is different from the other homes you've already seen in that many people believe this home is haunted. There are few homes left with mysterious histories, but one such house is this House of a Thousand Candles, 1400 High Street. This house has many distinctive features, such as the fluted porch columns with Ionic Caps.
Other mansion owners don't know why this house is called "The House of a Thousand Candles" or who owned it in the past.
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But the story goes that there was an old woman who lived alone in the house and she kept candles burning all night. Through the hundreds of windows, passerbys seemed to see the gleam of a thousand candles.
The House of The Thousand Gandies was the title of Meredith Nicholson's first mystery. He lived there until 1905.
Nicholson bought the house in 1896 after he married Eugenie Kountze, daughter of Herman Kountze, a pioneer in Denver. Nicholson moved out of the house and went back to Indiana. It was always his dream to return to this home.
This home, in the 1970's, underwent a great deal of restoration and now is used as an office building. Lights still shine on dark nights through the hundreds of windows. Perhaps these lights are just the reflections from passing cars, but some believe that these lights are the lights turned on by the struggling author while writing his mysteries.
The style of this house is ^___________________________________,
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EXERCISE TWO
COLUMNS

DORIC IONIC
Find the following columns, and write the address or home you find them on.
CORINTHIAN
of the building
-60-


EXERCISE THREE
DECISIONS ON BUYING A HOME
When you want to buy a home, you must decide what you want in a home. To help you determine what type of home you would like, look at the following list and put checks by the appropriate places which describe the home you'd like.
Price Range
$ 30 $ 60,000 $ 61 $100,000 $101 $150,000 $151 $200,000
Age
new home 1-10 years old Old home
Area in Denver
South
S q u t he a s t
Southwest
Central
Northeast
N o r t hwes t
East
West
(Remember an old rule of thumb house payments should be equal to no more than 1/3 or your income.)
Square Footage
1.200 or less
1.200 to 2,400 2,400 or more
Room Preference
Style
1 Bedroom
2 Bedrooms
3 Bedrooms
4 Bedrooms
More than 4 bedrooms
1 Bath
2 Baths
More than 4 baths Large Kitchen Small Kitchen Dining Room Family Room
Tri-level
Ranch
Two Story
Bungalow
Victorian
Spanish
Condominium
Colonial
Solar
Doesn't Matter
Amenities
-T-.-7*--
Garage 1 car
2 car
3 car
Basemen t Fireplace Scenic View
Sprinkler System
Close to Public Transportation
Close to a Park
Large Yard
Small Yard
Trees
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EXERCISE FOUR
Within the information from the previous exercise, find two homes you would like to own in the want ads of the newspaper. From either the Denver Post or the Rocky Mountain News find the want ads section titled, Houses for Sale. Find homes in the areas of town you would like to live in. When you have found at least two ads for two different houses you like, use these ads to answer the following questions. (Answer this set of questions twice, once for each ad.)
1. Does the ad give you the price of the home?
If so, how much?
2. Does the ad tell you the square footage of the home?
If so, how much?
3. Does the ad tell you how many bedrooms?
The number of baths?
4. Does the ad give you the address of the home?
5. Is the home for sale by owner or by realtor?
6. Does the ad mention types of financing?
7. What other information would you ask the selling agent about the house you've chosen?
Cut out and attach ads to this exercise.
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EXERCISE FIVE
Many architects today investigate the needs and styles of the particular individual for whom they are designing a home. Questions architects answer include: Where is the house to be located? Where and what are the needs of the individual? What does the person enjoy in a home? Where should there be privacy in the home?
In this exercise, design a floor plan for yourself. Use the information you discovered about yourself in Exercise Three. Do a thumbnail sketch below. Then convert your design to graph paper, making one foot equal to one square on the graph paper.
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After you decide you would like to buy a house, you must decide on a way to pay for it. Very few people have enough cash to pay for a home; therefore, the most popular way to purchase a home is to finance it through a loan. Three basic types of loans are conventional loans, VA (Veterans Administration) loans and FHA (Federal Housing Administration) loans.
A conventional loan is one made to the borrower without a government insurance guarantee. The amount of money the lender will loan is up to the lender. Few lenders, if any will loan 100% of the price of a home with this type of a loan.
In the case of a conventional loan, the borrower must meet the policy requirements of the lender, These requirements are not standard in the industry and vary with different individuals and institutional lenders. The requirements for borrowers in most cases are related to the ability of the borrower to repay the loan. This is generally determined by the use of ratios, obtained by looking at the borrower's gross monthly income and comparing this to the amount of the total monthly mortgage house payments.
The general principle which governs loans is the longer the time period and the more the money with less collateral (things that may be taken and sold for cash), the higher the interest rate; the shorter the time period to repay the loan and the lower the ratio of the loan to market value (price of the home), the lower the interest rate will be. These factors are also affected by the supply of mortgage funds and the supply and demand conditions of the real estate market.
A VA (Veteran Administration) loan is a loan from the United States Armed Services for veterans. The first step a veteran must take to apply for this loan is to prove his eligibility. After
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Criminal Justice Center, a new fire station, a new Art Museum, a 6 million dollar Performing Arts Center, and a 10 million dollar McNichols Sports Arena. But this trend, changed during that same year when, soon, Denverites turned down hosting the Winter Olympics.
Downtown grew in this period, but Denver neighborhoods changed as white families fled to the suburbs because of court-ordered busing leaving a concentration of the young, poor, and the old. Minorities became majorities in some neighborhoods because of the exit of white families.
Another profound event in the 60's and 70's changed the complexion of Denver: the Pound Stone Amendment. This act meant that Denver was not allowed any further annexation of suburban communities; Denver could no longer grow from its boundaries. But Denver still provides many services for people who live in the thirteen outlying suburbs.
Denver's mayor since 1968 has been William McNichols. He has kept Denver alive and growing while other cities have gone bankrupt. He has fostered a strong climate for growth by handling the nuts-and-bolts urban services. "The mayor," according to one lobbyist in Denver by Tom Noel, "is not flamboyant or highly visible, but he is a deft politician in the best sense of the word. He knows how to shake the trees and get the apples to fall."
Today, Denver's downtown is still growing. Five new skyscrapers join the eleven finished in the past few years, and many are in the planning. Topping them all is the forty story Anaconda Copper's World Headquarters Building. In a decade, Denver has doubled its downtown space and has become the Energy Capitol of the U.S.A. with more than 600 energy related companies with offices in Denver.
-92-


this is done, a veteran is considered for credit approval. The advantages of a VA loan are that they offer lower interest rates, long term loans, and they require no down payment and no prepayment penalty.
On the other hand, FHA (Federal Housing Administration) also makes loans. It insures loans made by savings and loan institutions, banks, and mortgage companies. A buyer does not apply to the FHA but to one of the other institutions. People applying for FHA loans need a good credit record, money for a downpayment and closing costs, and a steady income. FHA does not have rules about a buyer's age or income, nor does FHA require a person to be a U.S. citizen. Other advantages to a FHA loan includes lower interest rates, long terms, high ratio to low down payment and no prepayment penalty. A disadvantage is that FHA loans are not available for all types of housing.
Besides the cost of the house, there are closing costs. For the buyer, all the following can be included in the closing costs. These items are negotiable between the buyer and the seller, but
rarely does the seller end up paying all of the closing costs.
Non-Recurring Cost Recurring Cost
1. Origination Fee 1. Tax Impound
2. Credit Report 2. New Fire Insurance Policy
3. Apprasial Fee 3. Fire Insurance Impounds
4 . Recording Fee 4. Flood Insurance
*5. Escrow Fee 5. Flood Insurance Impounds
*6. Termite Fee 6. Mortgage Insurance Impounds
7 . Pro Rated Interest
* These may not be charged to a veteran applying for a VA Loan
Finan cing Booklet, Weyert lau £ se.r Mortga ge Company, Colorado 3/78.
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This ia an example of a:
PRILIMINARY BUYER INFORMATION FORM
NAME: Buyer__________________________________________
Co -Buy er_______________________________
ADDRESS: ~~ PHOtifr
INCOME BUYER 'CO^BUYER
Monthly Salary (Base) $ $'
Overtime Monthly Average . $ '
Bonus and/or Commission Monthly Average . . $ $'
OTHER INCOME (Explain) $ ' $
$ ' $
TOTALS $
PRESENT EMPLOYMENT BUYER CO-BUYER
EMPLOYER __________________________________________
ADDRESS
PHONE
TYPE OF WORK __________________________________________
NUMBER OF YEARS
ESTIMATED LIQUID ASSETS
CASH ON HAND OR BANK (including deposit)..............$
APPROXIMATE CASH VALUE STOCKS AND BONDS .............. $
EQUITY FROM SALE OF PROPERTY (Approximate) . $
OBLIGATIONS
Amount Monthly No. of
Outstanding Payment Mos. Unpaid
CAR PAYMENT $
OTHER MONTHLY PAYMENTS $
____________________________$_____________________________
____________________________$__________________________$ $
NEW HOUSE PAYMENT PER MONTH TO DATE $_____________________
$________________________$
,$________________________$
$________________________$
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EXERCISE SIX
On Saturday, June 27, 1982, Louise Cook wrote in the Rocky Mountain News, "The American dream of owning a house has turned into a nightmare of high prices, higher interest rates and complicated mortgages." Less than half of all Americans owned their own homes in 1920, while by 1980 almost two thirds of all Americans owned their homes. Yet in the last two years this trend is changing.
In this exercise you are one of those Americans who cannot buy a home or one who chooses not to buy a home, leaving you the option of renting.
In this exercise, you need to find an apartment or house for $225 a month for yourself and your small child. Choose two of the following Denver Areas to look in:
South Central
Southeast West
Southwest Northeast
East Northwest
Do your research from the newspapers in order to answer the following questions:
What do you get for your money in Area 1? and Area 2?
What is the neighborhood like? Area 1? Area 2?
Type building?
Condition of building?
Number of bedrooms?
Private bath?
Kitchen?
Are there jobs in area?
Type?
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Write a paragraph summarizing the two areas. Compare and contrast these areas.
As you have discovered from the previous exercise, low-priced rental housing cannot be found in all parts of Denver. High prices and a lack of rental housing create housing problems in many areas of metropolitan Denver.
High prices are usually a result of high demand. Towns on the Western Slope exemplify this problem. In many towns, where the energy companies are located, there are more people who need homes than there are available.
Still another problem for many people is transportation. Many elderly and poor people live in smaller homes or apartments so that they can be in a central location a location close to school or close to shopping and work because transportation costs are so high. Not everyone can afford to drive a car from the suburbs into the city on a daily basis.
Yet providing good low income housing in all parts of Denver could cause property values to decrease. Many people prefer not to live near a housing project or have a business in or around their homes.
America was and is the land or opportunity, and in this technological age, one of the challenges is to provide adequate (no substandard) housing in areas where there are jobs and/or access to transportation, to provide adequate housing for the elderly, for
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large families, for single parent families, and to end discrimination against minorities in the housing market.
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SOCIETY


SOCIETY
"Society. la. The totality of social relationships among
human beings.
b. A group of human beings broadly distinguished from other groups of human beings by mutual interests, participation in characteristic relationships, shared institutions, and common culture." 1.
Since early times, man has found advantages in living with his fellow man. Cave men found protection living together. Today, people who live together and form towns and cities can provide themselves with a greater selection of jobs, a wider variety of goods, better schools, hospitals and a wider range of recreational and cultural experience.
Both economic and physical characteristics brought about the formation of cities. Before this could occur two economic factors had to be met: a surplus of food had to be produced and a means of transportation had to be created to get the products to certain locations; this meant the domestication of plants and animals. This time period in history is known as the Agricultural Revolution.
After food was brought to certain locations, it was exchanged for other food and services. This was the beginning of trade. No longer did man have to provide himself with everything; he could barter and trade for what he needed and wanted. During the Commercial Revolution trade centers grew into cities.
Medieval towns were a product of the Commercial Revolution.
Such towns were usually jam-packed with wooden houses and extremely narrow roads, six to ten feet in width. Sanitation was non-existent and the danger of fire was extremely high. A royal palace,castle, or monastery was often built close to the town to offer protection
1. Morris, William, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Houston Mufflin, Co. Boston, 1973.
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to the town's people from enemies or bandits.
These towns grew out of the need for merchants to trade their wares. Various craftsmen such as carpenters, metalsmiths, shoemakers, butchers helped create such cities as Paris, London, Frankfurt,
Genoa, and Florence.
But it was not until the dawning of the Industrial Revolution, in the late eighteenth century, that the Western Worlds urban population ratios changed. During the Machine Age, cities were built for reasons other than for trade.
Lewis Mumford in The City in History wrote:
"The city is a special receptacle for storing and transmitting messages... the development of symbolic methods of storage immensely increased the capactiy of the city as a container: it is not merely held together by a large body of people and institutions than any other kind of community, but it maintains and transmits a larger portion of their lives than individual human memories could transmit by word of mouth. This condensation and storage for the purpose of enlarging the boundaries of the community in time and space is one of the singular functions performed by the city. The city, as Emerson well observed, 'lives by remembering'."
The city what is a city place, a name, buildings, and people -- also an idea. City derived from the word "civitas" and is also the root word for "civilization." The city was traditionally the place of opportunity, the enclave of freedom, where culture and the arts thrived, made possible by the wealth of commerce. The city was a religious center, an expression of mass spiritual yearning.
The city was a center of political power.
But there has always been a paradox. Cities have simultaneously produced poverty, crime and deviance.
In a speech to Colorado College, Mayor John Lindsay stated
that few of us understand the meaning of cities and their role in
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American life. Lindsay says the cities are not the problem, they are the solution, and always have been. "The city transforms displaced rural populations and immigrant populations. When immigrants need education and jobs and housing, they have always come to the the city. Tt is the city that gives human beings the education and skills and expectations that are the goals of the great urban working class and middle class."
So there are many faces to a city. We will see only some of them. Our goal, is to sharpen our observation skills, raise our curiousity and our consciousness about the city, its problems, its strengths, its weaknesses, and then develop a process by which to look deeper and with more sensitivity into the faces of our city.
In this section you will study the city that arose at the Cherokee Trail Crossing of the South Platte and the mouth of the Cherry Creek which later became known as Denver. At the conclusion to this section you should be able to:
1. understand the reason for creation of Denver.
2. understand Denver's past.
3. increase your awareness of the past and present neighborhoods.
4. make you aware of Denver's culture development.


EXERCISE ONE
Urban settlements have grown because of three cultural-economic factors the Agricultural, Commercial and Industrial Revolutions. Answer the following questions concerning urban growth:
1. Early urban settlements were established because of:
a. Agricultural Revolution
b. Industrial Revolution
c. Commercial Revolution
2. What factors must be met in order to have a formation of an urban settlement?
a. the use of the machines
b. man had learned to domesticate animals and plants
c. a surplus of food
d. man learned of means of transportation
3. Which of the Revolutions are still influencing your life?
a. Agricultural Revolution
b. Commercial Revolution
c. None
d. All of the above
4. A non-industrial country could be one described as;
a. large urban area and small rural development
b. small urban areas and large rural areas
c. no cities at all
5. Write your own definition of what a city.is.
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Like most other cities Denver began as a place to trade.
Plain Indians settled at the mouth of Cherry Creek and the South Platte Rivers as early as 1100-1400 A.D.
But not until the 1850's, because of gold fever, did the white men come to settle at this point in what was then known as the Kansas Territory. Lewis Ralston in June of 1850 found a small amount of gold in what is now known as Ralston Creek in the Arvada area. William Russell, hearing of Ralston's find, along with a Cherokee preacher namedjohn Beck, brought a group of men West to the confluence of the Cherry Creek and the South Platte in June of 1858.
Little gold was found, so Russell and his small party moved to what is today Englewood and set up camp on the Little Dry Creek.
Another group from Kansas arrived in the fall and established Montana City, but they too found little gold and thus moved to the east of the Platte and to the northeast of the Cherry Creek. On September 24, 1858 these people from Kansas established a new city called St. Charles.
The Russell party returned to find St. Charles being established and decided to go across the creek. On November 1, 1858, the Russell brothers established the Auraria Town Company.
Two weeks later another Kansas party headed by General William Larimer arrived. Finding Auraria already established, and finding that the men of St. Charles had gone home for the winter, Larimer decided to take it over and Denver City Town Company was established on November 22, 1858.
In 1859 the area was boasting several thousand gold miners and there were signs of permanence, such as the publishing of the Rocky
Mountain News and established shops and stores. It was obvious that
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sooner or later the Highlands, Auraria and Denver would had to become one city, especially because of the competition from the city of Golden. On April 3, 1S60, with the completion of the Larimer Street Bridge, Denver became one. See map on previous page.
Colorado became a territory in 1861 and President Lincoln appointed William Gilpin first Territorial Governor. Denver was given a charter that same year.
Denver people wore silk hats and white cravats and boasted about the area's first hotel; yet, it was a frontier town with colorful madames, murderers, and ballroom brawls. Madame Mattie Silks and Madame Jennie Rogers were the most famous madames; both ran brothels on Market Street. The Rev. William Dixon wrote about the Mile High City in 1862, "As you wander about these hot and dirty streets, you seem to be walking into a city of demons. Every fifth house appears to be a bar, a whiskey shop, or a lager-beer saloon; every tenth house appears to be either a brothel or a gambling house; very often both in one. In these horrible dens, a man's life is of no more worth than a dog's."
On April 19, 1863 the cities business district was destroyed by fire. Only thirteen months later the Cherry Creek overflowed its banks, killing twenty people and causing millions of dollars in damage. This happened again in July of 1885 and much later on June 17, 1965.
Denverites not only feared flood and fires, but also Indians. The Arapahoe and Cheyenne camped close by, but they were more interested in their natural enemies the Utes. The Cheyennes, however, did raid ranches in the area, and one night they raided the Issac VanWorner Place, leaving the mutilated bodies of the family behind.
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These bodies were brought to Denver for display. Denverites' thoughts turned to the extermination of Indians.
On November 28, Colonel Chivington and the Third Colorado Regiment led a surprise attack on 700 Indian, men, women and children who were living peacefully on the Indian Reservation. Chivington's order was to kill every living creature. His troops slaughtered two hundred Indians; this is knownas the Sand Creek Massacre.
Chivington's slaughter did not end Denver's problems with the Indians, it just added more bloodshed.
But the strongest blow to the new community came on December 1, 1863, when the Union Pacific Railroad decided to avoid Colordao and instead to go through Omaha and Wyoming, while the Santa Fe Railroad voted to go through New Mexico. In the United States there are sixty-seven peaks over 14,000 feet high, and fifty-two of them are in the western half of Colorado. The location of Denver was not ideal as a stop for trains going to the West Coast.
Denverites, however, did not accept their fate; they raised $300,000 to build a spur to Cheyenne. Others like David Moffat risked his fortune to build a railroad that would run directly West. Denver prospered from this railroad, and soon Kansas-Pacific also built a line through the prairies to the Queen City (Denver).
On August, 1876, Colorado entered into the Union and became known as the Centennial State. In honor of the 100th Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, Denver became the capital of Colorado in 1881. Such black Americans as H. 0. Wagoner, W. J.
Hardin and Barney Ford played active parts in making Colorado a state with a provision for Negro Sufferage.
In the late 1870's, the silver boom hit Denver. Such men as
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Horace Tabor turned grubstake into million dollar companies. Tabor began to live a life of splendor, but Augusta, his wife, refused to live in such grand style, so he divorced her and married Elizabeth Bonduel McCourt, better known as "Baby Doe."
In quick succession Tabor erected the Tabor Block which included the Windsor Hotel, the Tabor Grand Opera House with 1,500 seats of red velvet and cherrywood, and he sold land to the government, at a loss, for a post office site. Tabor lavished Denver with monuments .
Denver had a population of 36,000 by 1880, and by the 1890's it had become the Queen City with imposing buildings and ostentatious homes. By the 1890's Denver's population totaled 107,000 6,000 were blacks -- some came as free men, others came as slaves.
President Cleveland was in the White House at this time and he was a hard money man, believing that things would get better if the public thought the nations currency was established. With the adoption of the gold standard and the repeal of The Sherman Purchase Act in 1893 (by this act, the government purchased 4,500,000 ounces of silver a month. The silver bullion was paid for in treasury notes which were redeemable in gold), Denver began an economic depression. Banks closed, smeltering plants closed, construction halted, and many silver barons like Tabor lost everything.
Tabor was forced to take a $3 a day slag job in Leadville. He had lost everything but the Matchless Mine and his wife, Baby Doe. Before his death in 1899, he advised his wife to hold on to the Matchless. Baby Doe did just that and lived in the shaft home of the Matchless until she was found starved and frozen to death in 1935.
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EXERCISE TWO
Now answer the following questions:
1. Why was the railroad so important to Denver?
2. How did the growth of industry contribute to the growth of Denver?
3. What caused the depression of 1893?
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Denver was revived by a gold strike that began in 1891 when a young cowboy named Bob Womak found a boulder with a fine yellow color in Cripple Creek less than 100 miles to the south. Also other manufacturing and agricultural industries such as sugarbeets, beef, and cement were changing Denver's mineral-oriented economy.
As Denver entered the twentieth century it was a Victorian city with middle class values; it was no longer a rough settlement at the bottom of the mighty Rocky Mountains. Denverites were interested in parks and good working standards, instead of pleasure palaces and gold strikes.
Mayor Robert Speer, one of America's most successful city planners, served as mayor of Denver from 1904-1912 and again from 1916-1918. No man before or since has left such a personal stamp on the appearance of Denver. He was a political boss backed by big corporations and supplemented by under-world figures.
Speer achieved many things that Denverites are still grateful for today. The Twentieth Amendment to the Colorado Constitution consolidated five or six communities into a single governmental unit and grated Denver home rule. The Speer Charter that Speer created is a strong system for mayors which allows them to run the city efficiently and economically.
Mayor Speer is best known for his City Beautiful Program which included channelization and flood control of the Cherry Creek through landscaping, an extensive tree planting program, and 18 miles of boulevards and parkways. Under this program the city park increased from 572 acres to 1,183 acres. The following parks and lakes were also developed: Berkeley, Rocky Mountain, Sloan Lake, Cooper Lake, and the south lake of Washington Park. A series of playgrounds, an
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outdoor swimming pool in Lincoln Park, a bathhouse at Washington Park, and the first golf course at Berkeley Park were also built under Speer's direction.
In 1904, more buildings were built under Speer's influence.
The Municipal Auditorium was built where the Democratic National Convention was held in 1908, and the first section of the Colorado Museum of Natural History was completed that same year. In 1909, with a donation from Andrew Carnegie of $200,000 and the taxpayers' money, the original Denver Public Library was opened. This structure is in Civic Center and is now the City and County Annex Three Building.
The best project of all was Denver's Civic Center, an attraction and trademark of the Mile Hi City.
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EXERCISE THREE
Exercise two is to take a walking tour through the center and try to identify some of the statues and buildings, and answer this question: Why do you think the beautification of the city was important?
See map on next page and identify what is at each number.
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Base map from Denver's Civic Center: A Walking Tour
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