Citation
Westland Terrace

Material Information

Title:
Westland Terrace an urban and architectural design proposal
Alternate title:
Westland Terrace condominiums, Lakewood, Colo
Creator:
Strom, Robert K
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
63 leaves : charts, maps, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Condominiums -- Colorado -- Lakewood ( lcsh )
Condominiums ( fast )
Colorado -- Lakewood ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 62-63).
General Note:
Cover title: Westland Terrace condominiums, Lakewood, Colo.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master's degree in Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Robert K. Strom.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
08902348 ( OCLC )
ocm08902348
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1980 .S77 ( lcc )

Full Text
ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARiA LIBRARY
LAND
ERRACE
CONDOMINIUMS LAKEWOOD, COLO.
ROBERT K.STROM THESIS PROJECT
STUDENT PAT"


WESTLAND TERRACE'
An Urban and Architectural Design Proposal Submitted as a Thesis Project in partial fulfillment of a Tasters Degree in Environmental Design
College of Environmental Design The University of Colorado at Denver Mr. John M. Prosser, Resident Dean
by
ROBERT K. STROM December 10, 1980


TA3LE OF CONTENTS
Page
Introduction and Thesis Advisors 1
History 2
Base concepts 4
Site examination:
Regional plan 5
V.C.A.C. proposed development 6
Zoning 8
Contour Plan 9
Utilities 10
Soils report 11
Sensory 25
Traffic 55
Existing surrounding physical environment 56
Climate 57
Regional and local market analysis 42
Housing theory 44
Problem statement and design consideration check list 50
Project explanation 54
Design drawings:
Site and circulation 56
Site plan 56
Tower: Building number 2
Floor plans 57
Perspective 57
Elevations 58
Circulation 58
Terrace: Building number 5
Perspective 59
Elevations 59
Isometric 60
Floor plans 60
Isometric detail 6l
Site plan detail 61
Bibliography 62


INTRODUCTION


INTRODUCTION
Housing, we all need it, and a majority of the world needs it desperately. How is it then that there aren't more than slight efforts to solve some of the existing problems? This thesis project will not attempt to attain a complete answer to all of housing's questions, but raise some points and gain a slightly different perspective on the subject.
Grateful to what has gone on in the past, we continue to learn from both the positive and the negative results. This is a continuous melding process through the synthesis of our own ideas.
This particular project is of good scope because it can allow some consideration of the very large new town designs while limited to a moderate size. The urban planning designed by the City of Lakewood in this vicinity, is to my mind, well related to already existing patterns, minus the new housing, and thus this project.
ADVISORS TO THIS PROJECT
Mr. John M. Prosser, AIA
Resident Dean, College of Environmental Design Director of Urban Design University of Colorado at Denver
Hr. Daniel J. Havekost, AIA
President, HWH Associates Architects, Denver
Mr. Leonard 0. Anderson
President, Anderson Building Company, Arvada
City of Lakewood Consultants:
Ms. Cindi Merrill Planner I
Mr. C. L. Hockey
Special Projects Manager
Mr. John Allman Plan Analyst
Page 1


HISTORY


HISTORY
In an effort to address the problem of long range planning and urban development, the City of Lakewood has adopted the Community Activity Center concept in four key locations throughout this sprawling suburb of Denver. Three sites are located in already developed areas: Villa Italia, J.C.R.S. and Westland Shopping Centers. They center around a commercially zoned district. The fourth, Mt. Carbon, is at this point in time still in the planning stages.
The Westland CAC occupies the northwest comer of Lakewood in about 300 acres of medium-density retail, office and residential, plus a large area of light industrial related facilities connected by rail. This combination, unique from the other sites, allows for the production, acquisition and exchange of goods and services within the proximity of residential pockets which, if planned carefully, will be within walking distance of each other. With this center focused development, more emphasis can be placed on the cultural possibilities and stronger psychological identities of the residents and neighborhood function.
In recent history the trend of outward expansion away from the community activity center, is a negative response to this planning concept. Currently in many instances the suburban communities have already extended beyond the economical installation and upkeep limits of utilities, services, schools and roads. Naturally, the individual homeowner will eventually pay for it. An economical basis of the Westland C.A.C. is to greatly reduce these costs to the homeowner by increasing the density from the metro Denver norm of 5 persons per acre.
Studies by the Denver Regional Council of Governments and the City of Lakewood Planning Department and facts in the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area substantiate that the Westland area is a prime site for a regional urban mixed use facility.
"Because of its unique location and accessibility to major metropolitan Denver institutional, commercial, cultural and recreational facilities, it has significant potential as a multi-use CAC. In particular, it has an outstanding capacity for residential, special industrial, neighborhood community and medium-sized regional retail use, as well as moderate office development." 1.
The location of this CAC is a major key not only to the development of this concept, but in sustaining it with future growth. Colfax Avenue, the strongest artery in Sast/West direction of the Denver metropolitan region, runs through the center of the designated area.
1. Concept Lakewood: The W.C.A.C., Department of Community Development City of Lakewood 12/10/79
Page 2


In the distance from Golden through Aurora it connects with virtually every major facility in the region once, if not twice. Kipling, once completed south of Alameda, will be the cloest link to the foothills from the Ken Caryl Ranch development with north Arvada.
With minor circulation adjustments, the core of the W.C.A.C. can handle the forecasted growth and mode of travel changes predicted for the near future with even greater ease than at the present. Walking time from the site to existing major bus routes in all directions is an average of five minutes.
The site of this project is on the perimeter of the commercial area in the core of the W.C.A.C. This results in a medium to high-density housing project which will meld in existing low-density, quasi-rural and suburban tract neighborhoods, with an active commercial center. The site has remained undeveloped until today.
Page 3


BASE CONCEPTS


BASE CONCEPTS WITHIN THIS PROJECT
Reduction in Urban Sprawl. The design must coincide with a stronger community concept based on higher density. Continuing expansion in typical suburban development, while providing some degree of privacy, secludes the family unit from the numerous beneficial interactions existing in well planned higher density living space.
Alternative Transportation Accessibility. Existing community places precipitate a community design allowing such alternative means of movement as bicycling, walking and bus and light rail for more distant travel, preempting the use of the automobile for routine business.
This will provide not only conservation on a whole, but savings on an individual basis. A pedestrian/auto balance is possible throughout the C.A.C.
Minimizing Pollution. A resulting factor from the alternative transportation just described is the lowering of pollution and noise levels to the degree of which the private auto is not implemented in the immediate area. The site already has a noticably higher count, among other pollutants, of ozone in comparison to the Denver metro area.
Urban Identity. After completion of all stages in the C.A.C., the overall identity of the complex must be focused on the residential community. Through design and planned development, this can be accomplished with a focus on the environmental offerings through each phase of the developing project.
Energy Efficienc:/-. Throughout recent housing history, efficiency is achieved in the massing of units versus individual units. From the distribution of services to opportunities afforded by centralized mechanical systems and construction with industrialized methods, possibilities for energy efficiency are as limited as the imagination.
Quality of Life, //hen the housing and urban design is well planned and executed, the quality of life is improved. The benefits eluded to earlier are realized when a complete psychology of the family structure and of complex urban environmental patterns are understood. The continuous change in this field can best be accomodated in design by reducing to a minimum the constrictions which limit long term change, i.e. utilizing design criteria with the most flexibility.
Page 4


SITE EXAMINATION


LONGMONT
REGIONAL PLAN
BOULDER
h'V HlWfl'R n!MN
o
N Scale; 1 3 miles
BRIGHTON
Page 5


PROPOSED DEVELOBENT Westland C.A.C
///'///^///////'Proposed, upgrading of autoways to streets.
Railroad tracks
(Legend continued on following page)
Page 6


Legend to diagram on preceding -page
LR
MR
HR
ME
HE
TI
LO
MO
ME1
HO
RB
SC
EC
NC
RC
OS
P
PA
RT
Low residential Medium residential High residential Medium residential Elderly High residential Elderly Transportation Special Industry Low office Medium office Medical facility High office Recreation commercial Special commercial Entertainment commercial Neighborhood commercial Regional commercial Open space Public Land Park
Transportation center
Page 7


CHART OF LAND USE REGULATIONS
westland community activity center
ALLOWED USES DWELLING UN ITS/ACRE OR FLOOR AREA RATIO HEIGHT Min. 6 Max. X Min. GROUND PARKING COVERAGE RATIO ARTF.ll- IALS SETBACKS COLL. FRT. REAR ALTERNATE USES*1 ADDITIONAL USEs'^ MIXED USES1*
a 1 Low Rise 1.R 7.5-15 DU 0-35 70 1-5/DU 50 30 10 10 17, , 18 7
5 2 Low Rise Elderly LE 10-30 DU 0-15' 60 .75/DU 50 30 10 10 1, 17, 18 7, 16
: 3 Medium Rise MR 15-30 DU 30-65' 60 1.5/DU 50 30 10 10 1, 2, 17 , 18 7, 11
l 4 Medium Rise Elderly ME 30-50 DU 30-65* 50 75/DU 50 30 10 10 1. 2. 3, 17, 18 7, 11, , H
; 5 High Rise HR 30+ DU 60-110 50 1.5/DU 50 30 10 10 3. 4, 6, 17, 18 1. 2, 7, 11, 16
i 6 Nigh Rise Elderly HE 50+ DU 60-110 60 75/DU 50 30 10 10 3, 4, 5, 17, 18 1. 2, 7, 11, 16
7 l.ow Rise Office; 1.0
Medical Office HE .50:1 FAR 0-65' 90 6/1000 GBA J 50 20 0 10 3, 6, 17 1. 2, 11
? 8 Medina Rise Office M0 1.00:1 FAR 60-85 80 6/1000 GBA 50 20 0 10 5, 6, 7, 17 1,2,3, 6,11,12,13
i 9 High Rise Office HO 2.00:1 FAR 70-175 70 6/1000 GBA 50 20 0 10 5, 6, 8 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 11,
12, 13, 17, 19 ,
J 10 Transportation and
Special Industrial TI 1.00:1 FAR 0-85' 80 2/1000 GBA 50 20 0 10 19 7, 8, 11, 12, 17 1
11 Recreational rommcrcial RH 1.00:1 FAR 65 90 3/1000 GBA 50 0 0 10 17 1. 2, 12
12 Special Commercial SC .50:1 FAR 65 60 5.5/1000 GBA 50 0 0 10 8, 9, 11 , 17 3, 4, 7
i 13 Entertainment Commercial EC .50:1 FAR 65' 60 1/3 SEATS 50 0 0 10 11 3, 4, 11, 17
i 14 Neighborhood Commercial NC .50.1 FAR 60 65 5.5/1000 GBA 50 0 0 10 7, 8, 11 1, 2, 3, 4, 17
; u Community Commercial CC .33:1 FAR 60' 75 5.0/1000 GBA 50 0 0 10 8 3, 4, 7, 11. 13
16 Regional Commercial RC .50:1 FAR 30-80 75 6.5/1000 GBA 50 0 0 10 19 , 20 5.6,8, ,9,11,12,13
17 Recreation Open Space . OS N/A N/A N/A N/A 0 0 0 10 18
18 Schools, Community, Etc.1^ P N/A N/A N/A 1/3 SEATS 50 50 0 0 1 7
1 ransportat ion Center"'1 RT N/A N/A N/A N/A 0 0 0 10 N/A-See Hotel &
Peg i cma1 Comm.
l 20 Parking for respective PA N/A 60 80 N/A ?5 15 15 15 N/A-Use by right to
uses serve uses allowed
on t he parcc1.
-)
b)
c)
Alternative Uses are allowed as long as the overall result will be a mixed use development.
Additional Uses may be substituted for the Allowed Uses or may be mixed in any proportion with the A1lowed and Additional Uses.
Mixed Uses may be substituted for Allowed Uses as follows: Housing uses in the Mixed Uses column may be substituted up to a maximum of 25%, other uses in the Mixed Use column may be substituted up to a maximum of 15%, or housing and other mixed uses may be combined up to a maximum of 10% bousing uses and 15% other uses. A bonus of .3% of peimitted density or floor area is allowed in any area for each percent of Mixed Use that is substituted for an Allowed Use.
I.ouding requirements are existing Lakewood Zoning Hat ios (see Section 3-2(11) of the Lakewood Zoning Ordinance).
Parking requirements for Low, Medium and High Density Elderly uses will he reduced to 0.5 spaces per dwelling unit if the housing is limited to occupancy by low and/or moderate income elderly residents.
Parking requirements for the Medical Office Use will be five spaces per 1,000 square feet of Dross Building Area.
Buildings with a minimum of two floors will be required in areas designated for Kegional Commercial Use.
Ibis slops shall he allowed in any area so long as they are appropriately designed and constructed, and conveniently located for the bus r itiers.


CONTOUR PLAN


UTILITIES
c
o
X----X High tension wires
Sewer Is served by two different districts. There is a moratorium on new taps because of existing conditions of lines. A complete renewal and reevalu ation is expected within 10 years. Closest line is on Simms St.
-vater The Moffat filtration plant is located just north of 20th St. and is not used at capacity. Most water in area comes from the Marston Plant. As with the sewer, the water taps on site are not on file with the city because the land has not yet been declared.
Gas The Public Utilities Commission says gas is available for residential units
----- only on a waiting list basis of 9-12 months. Taps are $300 for duplex.
There exists a 4 millwrap from 20th to 17th-on Oak. A 4" on Owens from Colfax to 17th, and a l£" on Robb from 20th to 17th.
Water All water from 20th St. main, a 6" on Robb, a 6" on Quail, a 6" on Owens, ----- none on Oak. The 12" turns east at 17th to a dead end 8".
Page 10


SOILS
The preliminary soils report which follows was prepared for the current developer. No further action has been taken from this report due to current litigation of project.
This gives an introduction into site conditions. Figure 2 uses the developers proposed building location and has nothing to do with this project's location of buildings.
SCOPE
This report presents the results of a preliminary soils and geologic investigation for the proposed Westland Apartment Complex located on the northwest comer of the intersection of West 17th Avenue and Oak Street, Lakewood, Colorado. The report includes our preliminary conclusions regarding overall suitability of the site for development and preliminary recommendations for design of foundations. A detailed investigation of subsurface conditions in the Phase I area is in progress. The general geologic conditions existing at the site, logs of exploratory borings and preliminary test data are included in this report. The Phase I design study will include recommendations for detail design of the Phase I buildings.
CONCLUSIONS
1. The soils and near-surface sedimentary bedrocks can support structures of the type and height anticipated.
2. The site is underlain at shallow depths by sedimentary bedrock which we believe to be portions of the Denver or Arapahoe formation. Principal geologic concern at this site is the expansive nature of the soils and bedrock.
3. Subsurface conditions were relatively uniform across the site. Generally, the subsoils consist of 2 to 15 feet of sandy clay with sand layers underlain by sandstone and claystone bedrock. Generally, the clay overburden soils are stiff to medium stiff and slightly calcareous. The bedrock consists predominantly of claystone with inter-layered sandstones which are hard to very hard and brown to gray-brown color.
4. Soil characteristics vary from soft material which will settle under light loads to stiff clays and claystones which possess high swell potential.
5. Ground water conditions were variable across the site.
The depth to ground water ranged from 20 to 25 feet at the time of this investigation. This depth is well below
Page 11


the maximum anticipated, depth of excavation. Ground water may influence construction costs of drilled piers, however, we do not anticipate longterm problems.
6. The buildings should be founded with straight-shaft drilled pier foundations bottomed in the underlying sedimentary bedrock. Due to the expansive nature of the soils encountered at the site, spread footing type foundations do not appear feasible at this time.
7. Slab-on-graae.floors will be subject to risk of future movement due to the heave of underlying expansive subsoils. Slab-on-grade heave can be reduced with select fills below critical floor areas.
PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT
We understand the area is to be developed by constructing approximately 10 high-rise apartment buildings. The high-rise structures will be constructed with underground parking facilities. The underground parking facilities will be 1 to 2 stories and will be earth-covered at the ground level and landscaped. There will be several phases of development, which include the construction of 2 to 4 apartment towers during each phase over a period of time. In addition to the underground parking, several open parking lots will be constructed on the site.
We understand the proposed buildings are to be approximately 8 stories in height and may be masonry, steel, or reinformced concrete construction. The site will be developed by overlot grading, installation of utilities and construction of the various buildings and parking garages.
GEOLOGIC CONDITIONS
Geologic mapping of the general area of the site by U.S. Geological Survey and others indicates the site to be underlain by the late Cretaceous and early Tertiary Denver Formation. The site is located several miles east of the Front Range and the Denver Formation in this area is generally flat-lying. Typically, the formation and the surficial soils that mantle the formation exhibit moderate to high swelling potential. In our opinion, the principal geologic hazard which will influence construction at this site is the potential for volume change for both the near-surface soils and the underlying sedimentary bedrocks. The influence of these materials is generally overcome by properly engineered foundation systems.
The site is located in a relatively high area and ground water conditions should be limited to perched water tables associated with intensive surface irrigation.
Page 12


SITE CONDITIONS
The investigated site is located within the NE £ SW £, Sec. 331 T. 3S, R. 69W and the S % of the SE \ NW \ SW £, Sec. 33, T. 3S,
R. 69 W in Jefferson County, Colorado. At the present time the site is bordered on the east by Oak Street, on the west by Robb Street, and on the south by West 17th Avenue. The site is located in a previously developed residential and commercial area with residential subdivision to the north and commercial development to the south.
The lowest portion of the 3ite is located at the southeast comer at an elevation of approximately 5^10 with the highest point toward the northeast comer at approximately an elevation of 5645* There is a ridge which runs through the center of the site in an east-west direction. An existing irrigation canal crosses through the center of the site. At the time of our investigation the site was vacant.
SUBSURFACE CONDITIONS
We investigated the subsurface conditions at the site by drilling 7 exploratory borings at the locations shown on Fig. 2. The borings were drilled with a truck-mounted, continuous flight power auger drill. Our engineer was on the site to locate the borings, log the soils encountered and obtain samples for visual examination and laboratory testing. Logs of the borings are presented on Figs. 3 and 4. Swell-consolidation tests moisture density and onconfined compression strength tests were conducted on selected samples to determine engineering characteristics of the soils.
Subsoil conditions consisted of stiff, sandy clay over sedimentary bedrock. The overburden soils consisted primarily of sandy clays interlayered with clean to clayey sand lenses. The upper soils were underlain by claystone bedrock interlayered with sandstones. The bedrock was encountered at 2 to 12 feet below the existing ground surface and was hard to very hard and brown to gray-brown in color.
The sandy clays exhibit swelling pressures up to 5000 psf with vertical swelling of up to 2 percent. Samples of the claystone bedrock exhibited unconfined compressive strengths varying from 13,000 to 49*000 psf. The strength tests are influenced by sampling disturbance. Field penetration tests indicate high support capacity for the bedrock. Swell-consolidation tests, presented on Figs. 5 through 9 indicate the claystone bedrock was high swell potential. Swell pressures in the range of 2,000 to 20,000 psf were observed in the tests with as much as 2 percent expansion under a load of 1,000 psf when wetted.
Free ground water was encountered at depths ranging from 20 to 25 feet at the time of this investigation. For purposes of design, we believe that the ground water level should be assumed to rise as much as 3 feet. Considering the presently planned lowest floor levels, we do not believe ground water will be a problem at this site.
Page 13


SITS DEVELOPMENT
In general, the site development will consist of overlot site grading and excavations for underground parking.
Site Grading
We recommend planning site grading such that drainage away from buildings is maintained. We recommend that fill be compacted in the range of 95 to 100 percent of standard Proctor density (ASTM D 698-70). All fills should be moisture conditiond to near optimum moisture content at the time of placement. We recommend continuous observation of overlot grading by a qualified soils technician.
Long-term cut-and-fill slopes should not exceed 2:1 (horizontal to vertical). Cuts in excess of 15 feet in height should be analyzed on an individual basis to determine if flatter slopes are appropriate.
Utility Construction
In our opinion, based on the borings drilled, utility trenches can be excavated with conventional heavy duty backhoes or trenching equipment. Trenching equipment will be difficult to use in the vicinity of the hill where the steeper slopes were encountered. Also, some of the bedrock contains extremely hard lenses through which deep utility line excavations will be difficult. Based on the preliminary borings, it appears that excavations more than 10 feet deep in the vicinity of Borings TH-6 and TH-7 may encounter cemented sandstone or other hard to excavate materials. Utility trenches deeper than 5 feet should be sloped back on a 1:1 slope.
BUILDING FOUNDATIONS
Based on our borings, we believe a straight-shaft drilled pier foundation bottomed in the bedrock is the most suitable foundation alternative for this site. This design system is the most suitable for resisting the expansive pressures exhibited by the clays and claystones. Drilled piers should be designed for allowable end pressures in the range of 30,000 to 50*000 psf with side shears in the range of 5*000 to 5*000 psf for the portion of pier in bedrock. The recommended design pressures will depend on conditions encountered at specific building sites.
Where underground construction will consist of basements and underground parking, consideration for lateral earth forces must be taken. At this time we believe equivalent fluid pressures on the order of 50 pcf are applicable, depending on the nature of the backfill, slope conditions, and any surcharge loads.
Page 14


FLOOR SLABS
In general, the subsoils at this site axe expansive and will swell when wetted. For planning purposes, we suggest plans which limit slab-on-grade construction to unfinished basements and garage areas. Due to the highly expansive soils encountered, we recomment structurally supported floor systems in finished living areas. Care should be taken during design to permit movement of heaving floor slabs.
PAV3ENTS
Subgrade soils over much of the area appear to be sandy clays. Generally, these soils require pavement designs of somewhat thicker sections than more sandy soils.
LIMITATIONS
The borings were widely spaced to develop a preliminary picture of the subsoil conditions on the site. Additional foundation investigations are in progress for the Phase 1 building area.
The Soils Report was prepared by the firm of CTL/Thompson, Inc


Scale:
1" = 200'
SOILS REPORT (Continued)
Robb Street
LOCATION OF EXPLORATORY BORINGS
Page


ELEVATION FEET
SOILS REPORT CONTINUED
>650
>640
.5630
5620
610
>600
590
TH-1
EL.5638.6
TH-2 TH-3 TH-4
EL.5635.3 EL.5635.1 EL.5633.6
LOWEST PROPOSED FLOOR ELEVATION
5650
5640'

31/12
'I| 50/11
J* wc=20. o
DD= 105
-1 50/6 -J WC=28.8 DD=94 UC=20,130
50/11 WC=31.1 DD=89
50/3
15
/C=18.1 JC-17310-
50/1
116/12 WC= 33.9 DD=88",,*,
50/7
50/5
/
50/3'
1 7/12 r**WC=13. 3 DD=90
JJ 17/12
50/10
50/3
| 50/4 WC=29.6 DD=94 UC=13,500

133/12 5630
150/11
| 50/9 WC=27.2 DD=98
5620
150/4 5610
50/2
48/12 WC=22.7 *** DD= 106 UC=17,980
Q50/12
5600
5590
>580
5580
LOGS OF EXPLORATORY BORINGS
Page 17
ELEVATION FEET


ELEVATION FEET
SOILS REPORT CONTINUE L
5650
TH5
EL.5641.8
TH6
EL.5621.3
TH-7
EL.5617.1
5650,
5640
5630
5620
5610
5600
5590
50/9
50/4
50/7 WC=25.9 DD=97 UC=15,130. 50/3
50/6 WC=32.1 DO=89
50/1
15
-Q-!
^ ^ 50/12 | 50/9
150/6 I 50/3
5640*
5630'
5620'
31/12
140/9
WC=24.6
DD=99
l5 0/2
5610-
15
30/0 -r
30/0
5600-
50/3
5590*
'5580
50/3
WC=17.0 DD=117 UC=49,700
5580*
LOGS OF EXPLORATORY?aBO^NG:
ELEVATION FEET


SOILS REPORT CONTINUED
LEGEND
CLAY, SANDY, SCATTERED GRAVEL, CALCAREOUS, STIFF TO VERY STIFF, MOIST TO VERY MOIST, BROWN TO DARK BROWN (CL)
SAND, SILTY TO CLAYEY, MEDIUM DENSE TO DENSE, MOIST, BROWN SAND, CLEAN, DENSE, SLIGHTLY MOIST, BROWN (SP)'
WEATHERED CLAYSTONE INTEFLAYERED WITH SANDSTONE, STIFF, MOIST RSSj BROWN
BEDROCK, CLAYSTONE WITH SANDSTONE LENSES, HARD TO VERY HARD, MOIST, BROWN TO GRAY-BROWN
BEDROCK, SANDSTONE, CLAYEY, HARD TO VERY HARD,- MOIST, BROWN
I
L DRIVE SAMPLE. THE SYMBOL 31/12 INDICATES THAT 31 BLOWS OF A 140-
P LB. HAMMER FALLING 30 INCHES WERE REQUIRED TO DRIVE A 2.5 INCH
O.D. SAMPLER 12 INCHES.
0_ DEPTH IEASURED TO FREE WATER LEVEL. NUMERAL INDICATES THE NUMBER OF DAYS AFTER DRILLING THE MEASUREMENT WAS OBTAINED.
NOTES:
1. THE BORINGS WERE DRILLED MAY 7 AND MAY 14, 1979 USING A 4-INCH DIAMETER CONTINUOUS FLIGHT POWER AUGER.
2. THE LOGS ARE SUBJECT TO THE EXPLANATIONS, LIMITATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS AS CONTAINED IN THIS REPORT.
3. ELEVATIONS WERE BASED UPON THE FIRE HYDRANT BENCH MARK, ELEV. 5640.00' LOCATED AT THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF THE SITE.
4. WC INDICATES NATURAL MOISTURE CONTENT (%)
DO INDICATES DRY DENSITY (PCF)
UC INDICATES UNCCNFINED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (PSF)
Page 19


Compression % Expansion Compression % Expansion
SOILS REPORT CONTIN DEI
Swell Consolidation Test Results


7
6
3
4
3
2
I
0
I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
SOILS REPORT CONTINUED
l.o 10
APPLIED PRESSURE ksf
Sample of CLAY, SANDY (CL) Natural Dry Unit Weight : 88
Natural Moisture Content = 33.9
from TH_2 AT 3 pEET pcf
percent
Swell Consolidation Test Results
Page 21


3 (
2|
1 j
I
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1C
11
12
SOILS REPORT CONTINUED
Sample of CLAY, SILTY (CL) Natural Dry Unit Weight = 90
Natural Moisture Content =
Swell Consolidation Test Results
Page 22


Compression % Expansion Compression % Expansion
SOILS REPORT CONTINUED
0.1 1.0 APPLIED PRESSURE 10 ksf 100
| Sample of CLAYSTONE from TH-5 AT 28 FEET
3 Natural Dry Unit Weight = 88 pc f
1 Natural Moisture Contents 32.1 percont
Page 23
Swell Consolidation Test Results


7
6
3
4
3
2
I
0
I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
SOILS REPORT CONTI H USD
APPLIED
Sample of CLAY STONE
Natural Dry Unit Weight = 99.3
Natural Moisture Content : 24.6
PRESSURE ksf
from TH-7 AT 8 FEET pcf
percent
Swell Consolidation Test Results


SENSORY
When present on site, vehicular traffic can he heard from Colfax Avenue with a wind blowing from the south. The same can be heard from 1-70 with wind from north or northwest.
With future increase in rail use on developing sites in and beyond the W.C.A.C., rail noise and possible vibration could be registered.
Current conditions are nonexistent if minimal.
For this site, the air pollution inversion of the Denver metropolitan area is lessened by the distance away from the Platte River Valley (approximately 7 niiles), and increase in altitude (600+ feet). However, it is increased by the prevailing wind direction reversal of the early afternoon hours, pushing against the mountains from the northeast. This harsh condition clears during mid-afternoon through early evening hours as the prevailing breeze returns to south, southwest, many times bringing a distinctive pine odor from the foothills.
From the two particulate averages which follow, and discussion with Mr. Don Barbaric of the Colorado Department of Health on current conditions, the site is in a relatively lower particular count location. Realizing the date on the following information, the experts agree conditions have deteriorated further than charts show.
Page 25


SENSORY REF. ORT S~" (Continued)
t
Fig. D. Average wind during pollution episodes from a.m. .to 10 p.r.i. Values of soiling index from fig. 3 are indicated. Length of arrow indicates .one-hour air movement. j
Page 26


SENSORY REPORTS (Continued)
Fig. 5
(cont.) Average wind during pollution episodes from noon to 6 p.m. Values of soiling index from fig. 3 are indicated. Length of arrow indicates one-ho'ur air movement.
Page 27


Page 28


SENSORY REPORTS (Continued)


Page 30
SENSORY REPORTS (Continued)
TABLE II
DENVER AVERAGE HOURLY WIND VELOCITY (mph) AND PREVAILING DIRECTION j
1 . 11 1 1
j JAN FEB HAR APR MAY jun JUL AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC ANNUAL
Mountain 1
Time Dir 1 Vel.* Dir. Vel. Dir. Vel. Dir Vel. Dir. Vel. 01r. Vel. Dir. Vel. Dir. Vel. Dir. Ve). Dir. Vel. D1r. Vel. 01 r. Vel. Dir. Vel.
; AM 1:00 S 7.2 s 6.9 S 6.9 S 7.0 S 6.5 s 6.3 S 6.3 S 6.2 S 6.3 S 6.7 S 7.0 S 7.3 S 6.7
2:00 S 7.2 S 6.9 S 6.9 S 6.8 S 6.3 s 6.1 S 6.1 . s 6.0 S 6.3 s 6.5 S 7.1 S 7.4 s 6.6
3:00 s 7.2 S 6.9 s 6.8 s 6.8 s 6.0 s 5.9 S 5.7 s 5.9 s 6.1 s 6.5 s 7.1 S 7.4 S 6.5
4:00 s 7.2 S 6.8 s 6.8 s 6.7 s 5.8 s 5.7 s 5.4 s 5.6 s 6.0 s 6.4 s 7.2 S 7.5 s 6.4
5:00 s 7.2 s 6.7 s 6.8 s 6.5 s 5.7 s 5.5 s 5.2 s 5.5 s 6.0 s 6.5 s 7.3 S 7.5 s 6.4
1 5:00 s 7.3 s 6.8 s 6.8 s 6.5 s 5.7 s 5.3 S 5.1 s 5.3 s 5.9 s 6.6 s 7.3 S 7.6 S 6.4
7:00 s 7.5 s 6.8 s 6.9 s 6.6 s 5.7 s 5.3 S 5.0 s 5.1 s 5.9 s 6.6 s 7.4 s 7.6 s 6.4
8:00 s 7.5 s 7.0 s 7.0 s 6.9 s 6.2 s 5.7 S 5.3 s 5.0 s 5.6 s 6.4 s 7.4 s 7.7 s 6.5
9:00 s 7.7 s 7.3 s 7.5 H tt\ 5 6.8 s 6.1 s 6,5 s 5-1 s 5.7 s 6.4 s 7.4 s 7.7 s 6.7
10:00 s 7.7 s 7.6 S 8.0 N 8.0 II 7.6 II 6.7 IT 5.9 NE 5.4 ) S 5.9 s G.L s 7.1 s 7.7 i.
11:00 s B.O s S2 nr -O'-1 NL 8.8 HE 8.3 NE 7.6 NE 6.6 NE 6.3 1 Nl ~rr ~NF~ >. 12:00 s 8.3 KE 5.8 N 9.5 HE 9.4 HE 0.9 NE 8.3 HE 7.2 NE 6.9 NE 7.1 NE 7.6 5 7.8 s 8.1 HE 8.2
PH 1:00 5 9.1 HE 9.5 HE 10.2 HE 10.2 NE 9.6 HE 9.1 NE 7.9 NE 7.7 NE 7.8 NE 8.2 r-nr 0-4 l5- 8.6 HE 8.9
2:00 Ul xr NL 10.0 I 10.7 NE 10.6 HE 10.3 NE 9.6 H 8.6 NE 8.1 NE 8.1 HE 8.7 HE 8.5 N IT. 7 lit 9.3
1 3:00 NE 9.5 NE 10.1 NE 11.0 NE 10.9 NE 10.6 NE 10.2 N 9.4 N 8.7 NE 8.6 NE 9.0 NE 8.6 NE 8.7 NE 9.6
4:00 N 9.1 HE 10.2 HE 11.2 IIE 11.2 NU 10.8 HE 10.5 II 9.6 N 9.1 N 8.8 HE 8.8 NE 8.5 N 8.3 NE 9.7
5:00 NE n.4 NE 9.7 hu 11.1 HE 11.2 HE 10.8 II 10.5 II 9.7 N 9.3 ME 8.7 NE 8.5 . NE 7.7 _il_ __UL NE 9.4
6:00 nr- 1 i ~UL- _a 3- -U- -RL1 -JL 10.6 flE 10,2 HE 10.1 5w 9.3 \ NW fi,6 H 8.0 HE 7.5 fl s 7.0\ |IE 8.7
"7TG0 r m n 7,? 1 II 0.7 NE 9.3 HE $.3 NE 97T ~y 1.5 bt -777- ~TT ~nr ~J7T 5 67S] n£ ~~rr
0:00 s 7.1 S ii- _J.O N _ 8.4 lIE 8.4 MW 8.0 s 7.7 S 7.1 S 5.7 5 5.3 s 6.7 s 7.0 * 5 7.3
9:00 s 7.1 . s 6.9 s 7ll sw 7.7 7.7 S 7.3 s 7.2 S 6.6 5 6.3 s 6.4 s 7.0 s 7.1 S 7.0
10:00 s 7.1 s 6.3 s 6.9 s 7.4 S 7.1 5 6.8 S 6.8 S 6.6 S 6.4 s 6.6 s 7.2 s 7.2 S 6.9
11:00 s 7.2 s 6.8 s 6.9 s 7.1 S 6.8 S 6.7 S 6.7 S 6.4 S 6.5 s 6.8 s 7.1 S 7.3 S 6.9
12:00 s 7.1 s 6.9 s 6.9 s 7.0 s 6.7 S 6.5 s 6.5 S 6.3 s 6.3 s 6.8 s 7.1 s 7.2 S 6.8
Average s 7.8 s 7.7 s 8.2 s 8.3 s 7.8 s 7.5 s 6.9 S 6.7 s 6.8 s 7.1 s 7.4 s 7.6 S 7.5
*1392 to 1930 *1S81 to 1950
Data Source: ESSA Weather Bureau, Stapleton Int. Airport Records.
Location of Wind Vanes: Downtown Denver, rooftop elevations at or near Main Post Office.
1


SENSORY REPORTS (Continued)
TATE CP COLORADO l-" P A i ? T f.i E M T OP HEALTH
4210.EAST 11TH AVENUE DENVER, COLORADO 80220 PHONE 388-6111
R. L. CLEEF.E, M. D., DIRECTOR
July 10, 1972
For Further Information Contact:
Wayne May or Bill Retallack
Air Pollution Meteorologists, ext. 241
Denver Air Quality Index
Starting this fall, the Air Pollution Control Division will begin air quality forecasts for the downtown Denver area. The Denver Air Quality Index (DAQI) will be based on contaminant data from the CAMP station at 21st and Broadway.
The "DAQI" has two components
1. Carbon Monoxide (CO), which is a gaseous contaminant mainly from automobiles, and is measured in parts per million (PPM).
2. Coefficient of Haze, at times called the "Soiling Index," is a measure of the solid contaminants found in 1,000 linear feet of air passed through a paper tape.
The current air pollution dispersal forecasts (using numbers 0 through 100) will be continued until the area coverage of air quality forecasts can be expanded to cover the entire Metropolitan Denver area.
Page 31


SENSORY REPORT S (Continued)
The following tables describe the criteria and terms used:
Carbon Monoxide
(in parts per million)
Descriptive Assigned Color Value
Term Number Code Level
Good 1 Green Less than 10
2 Yellow 10 thru 19
Fair 3 Blue 20 thru 29
4 Orange 30 thru 39
Poor 5 Red 40 or more

Coefficient of Haze
(in 1,000 linear feet)
Descriptive Assigned Color Value
Term Number Code Level
Good 1 Green Less than 1.0
2 Yellow 1.0 thru 1.9
Fair 3 Blue 2.0 thru 2.9
4 Orange 3.0 thru 3.9
Poor
5
Red
4.0 or more


SENSORY REPORTS (Continued)
PARTICULATES 1970 Annual Ave rage
Study Portion of Metropolitan Denver Air Quality Control Region
Page 33


SENSORY REPOSTS (Continued)


TRAFFIC
AVERAGE DAILY TOTALS BOTH DIRECTIONS
1 -
Colfax (west of Kipling) 30,000 4-30-79
Colfax (between Oak & Neilson) 28,000 4-18-79
Kipling (north of Colfax) 32,000 4 79
Simms (north of Colfax) 10,000
20th St. (average between Kipling & Simms) 12,000 4 79
Page 35


Single family residence (i to 2& acre sites)
Scale:
1" = 500 ft.
Row housing, condo or apartment A 2 fir. brick veneer on frame B 2 fir. brick veneer on frame C 3 fir. brick on frame B 2 fir. mostly frame
Commercial
Undeveloped
A ito^-iit filtration plant, mostly grass cover B YKCA park
Page 36


CLIMATE
Scale: 1" = 500 feet
Because of being a hilltop site, this location is exposed to complete exposure of not only sun, but wind and moisture*
Wliro Jefco has radically varying wind conditions within the area.
\ Major wind velocity comes with Chinook (warm) winds varying in direction from southwest to northwest, and northeasters from ~~ ~^ east to northeast. This may differ because of close proximity
to mountains.
Page 37
JUi


Local Climatological Data
Annual Summary With Comparative Data
1978
DENVER, COLORADO
Narrative Climatological Summary
Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration.
Air masses from at least four different sources influence Denver's weather: arctic air from Canada and Alaska; warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico; warm dry air from Mexico and the southwest; and Pacific air modified by its passage over coastal ranges and other mountains to the west.
The good climate results largely from Denver's location at the foot of the east slope of the Rocky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. During most summer afternoons cumuliform clouds so shade the City that temperatures of 90 or over are reached on an average of only thirty-two days of the year, and in only one year in five does the mercury very briefly reach the 100 mark.
In the cold season the high altitude and the location of the mountains to the west combine to moderate temperatures. Invasions of cold air from the north, intensified by the high altitude, can be abrupt and severe. On the other hand, many of the cold air masses that spread southward out of Canada over the plains never reach Denver's altitude and move off over the lower plains to the east. Surges of cold air from the west are usually moderated in their descent down the east face of the mountains, and Chinooks resulting from some of these westerly flows often raise the temperature far above that normally to be expected at this latitude in the cold season. These conditions result in a tempering of winter cold to an average temperature above that of other cities situated at the same latitude.
In spring when outbreaks of polar air are waning, they are often met by moist currents from the Gulf of Mexico. The juxtaposition of these two currents produces the rainy season in Denver, which reaches its peak in May.
Situated a long distance from any moisture source, and separated from the Pacific source by several high mountain barriers, Denver enjoys a low relative humidity, low average precipitation, and considerable sunshine.
Spring is the wettest, cloudiest, and windiest season. Much of the 37 percent of the annual total precipitation that occurs in spring falls as snow during the colder, earlier period of that season. Stormy periods are often interspersed by stretches of mild sunny weather that remove previous snow cover.
Summer precipitation (about 32 percent of the annual total), particularly in July and August, usually falls mainly from scattered local thundershowers during the afternoon and evening. Mornings are usually clear and sunny. Clouds often form during early afternoon and cut off the sunshine at what would otherwise be the hottest part of the day. Many afternoons have a cooling shower.
Autumn is the most pleasant season. Local summer thunderstorms are mostly over and invasions of cold air and severe weather are infrequent, so that there is less cloudiness and a greater percent of possible sunshine than at any other time of the year. Periods of unpleasant weather are generally brief. Precipitation amounts to about 20 percent of the annual total.
Winter has least precipitation accumulation, only about 11 percent of the annual total, and almost all of it snow. Precipitation frequency, however, is higher than in autumn. There is also more cloudiness and the relative humidity averages higher than in the- autumn. Weather can be quite severe, but is a general rule the severity doesn't last long.
noaa
NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION
ENVIRONMENTAL DATA AND INFORMATION SERVICE
NATIONAL CLIMATIC CENTER
asheville, n.c. Page 58


Meteorological Data For The Current Year
Station DENVER# COLORADO STAPLETON INTERNATIONAL AP Standard time used: MOUNTAIN Latitude: 39 45' N Longitude: 104 52 U Elevation (ground) : *283 feet Year: 1978
23042
Month Temperature F Degree days Base 65 F Precipitation in inches Relative humidity, pet. Wind -S a It if £ i 1 I u j! < a Number of days Average station pressure mb
Averages Extremes Weter equivalent Snow, Ice pellets 1 05 i n (Local 1 17 time I 23 Resultant I li < E Fastest mile Sunrise to sunset Precipitation .01 inch or more SB is Thunderstorms £ £ J |6 It Temperature F
Maximum Minimum
ii J If > I X I ! 1 I | 3 1 H .£ S d 2 £ o 8 3 - .S I tf £ (J (N 1 1 i a ? i p £ It s i 5 S a I r | l (b) ll h Si Is b! Elev. 5332 feet m.s.1.
JAN 37.5 14 .1 25.8 55 6 0 1 1206 0 0.27 0.13 15-16 5.5 2.3 23-24 69 53 54 66 04 1.0 5.9 29 NW 25 69 6.9 6 9 16 6 3 0 2 0 9 31 1 834.7
FFB 42.2 20 6 31.4 23 7 17 936 0 0.27 0.13 11-12 6.2 3.1 15-16 76 54 54 73 04 1.8 7.2 38 NE 20 73 6.6 4 11 13 ft 2 0 8 0 7 28 0 833.4
MAR 57.0 29 .6 43.3 77 31 -3 4 665 0 1.07 0.67 22-23 8.6 4.5 2-3 60 39 33 53 34 0.6 8.1 27 W 16 84 6.4 9 8 14 8 4 2 1 0 1 15 2 834.4
APR 63.6 36 .9 50.3 82 7 27 10 435 0 1.82 0.86 9 4.6 4.2 9 64 38 35 51 2*> 1.7 10.3 41 w 17 78 6.4 5 14 11 6 1 3 2 0 0 6 0 831.7
MAY 67.1 41 .7 54.4 87 15 23 7 335 12 3.46 1.12 30-1 13.5 8.9 5-6 69 43 40 61 17 1.7 9.1 54 SE 16 65 6.1 9 8 14 12 3 5 1 0 0 2 0 833.4
JUN 80.6 53 .1 66.9 95 24 41 1 87 152 1.17 0.45 4-5 0.0 0.0 65 39 34 54 16 2.0 7.8 38 N 7 67 5.7 10 9 11 7 0 7 0 ll 0 0 0 837.5
JUL 90.* 59 .0 74.7 25 50 23 0 308 0.54 0.21 29 0.0 0.0 62 30 26 43 16 1.4 8.3 34 NW 16 73 4.3 12 14 5 5 0 11 1 22 0 0 0 838.1
AUG 85.5 53 .7 69.6 94 17 44 15 20 171 0.26 0.11 2-3 o.o 0.0 63 31 30 52 1ft 1.3 8.2 42 N 1 73 4.7 10 14 7 7 0 6 0 12 0 0 0 838.8
SFP 81.2 46 .7 65.0 94 6 32 21 96 103 0.07 0.07 19-20 T T 20 51 25 20 40 17 2.4 8.1 30 S 7 83 2.5 21 7 2 2 0 1 0 7 0 1 0 837.1
OCT 68.2 37 .9 53.1 86 1 28 23 366 2 1.45 1.24 21-22 2.7 1.7 22 54 31 28 49 1ft 0.9 7.2 26 NE 4 74 4.0 19 5 7 3 2 0 0 0 0 8 0 839.5
NPV 49.8 25 .7 37.6 78 8 8 27 811 0 0.50 0.35 25-26 6.9 4.8 25-26 66 45 46 63 04 0.3 7.2 26 NW 28 46 6.0 11 6 13 5 2 0 4 0 5 24 0 835.8
DFC 36.9 12 .3 24.6 57 4 -10 8 1245 0 0.82 0.38 5-6 14.2 7.3 5-6 65 50 56 62 19 0.9 8.4 35 NE 5 72 5.3 10 10 11 7 4 0 1 0 9 31 4 832.4
JUL DEC OCT HAY MAY
YFAR 63.3 36 .1 49.7 98 25 -10 8 6202 748 11.70 1.24 21-22 62.2 8.9 5-6 64 40 38 56 1ft 0.6 8.0 54 SE 16 72 5.4 126 115 124 74 21 35 20 52 31 146 7 835.6
Normals,
Means, And Extremes
Means and extremes above are from existing and comparable exposures. Annual extremes have been exceeded at other sites in the locality as follows! Highest temperature 105 in August 1878; maximum monthly precipitation 8.57 in May 1876; minimum monthly precipitation 0.00 in December 1881; maximum precipitation in 24 hours 6.53 in May 1876; maximum monthly snowfall 57.4 in December 1913; maximum snowfall in 24 hours 23.0 in April 1885; fastest mile of wind 65 from West in May 1933.
() Length of record, years, through the current year unless otherwise noted, based on January data.
(b) 70 and above at Alaskan stations.
* Less than one half.
T Trace.
NORMALS Based on record for the 1941-1970 period.
DATE OF AN EXTREME The most recent In cases of multiple occurrence.
PREVAILING WIND DIRECTION Record through 1963.
WIND DIRECTION Numerals Indicate tens of degrees clockwise from true north. CO Indicates calm.
FASTEST MILE WIND Speed Is fastest observed 1-minute value when the direction Is 1n tens of degrees.
V_M
VO


Average Temperature Heating Degree Days
Year Jan | Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug | Sept Oct | Nov D.c Annual Season July Aug Septj Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May June Total
1939 23,1 J".l 4", 60.3 76.2 71.2 66,0 33.3 41.11 38.0 51.3 1958.39 14 4 106 342 724 898 101 968 541 372 273 23 384"
19*0 21.4 33,( M.2 .7.. 6.a 7..a 70.1 66.7 54.6 33.. 33.3 30.3 1959-60 0 6 191 31" 813 876 U31 US 827 434 243 38 626ft
1941 32.4 36,a 36. 46,1 39. l( 69.1 72.1 71.2 61. C 49,4i 43.4 31.6 30.6 1960-61 7 13 90 396 759 1187 1026 "28 804 360 299 63 6034
1942 27.7 21.8 36,1 30,4 53.4 64.1 72.6 71.2 61,4 51.0 42.4 36.4 49.3 1941-62 14 0 273 459 902 1130 1411 976 914 437 173 72 6801
1993 33.7 39,5 39.7 54,1 52.9 63.9 73. * 74.2 65.2 53.0 40.1 14. 31.9 1942-63 0 19 1 u 35? ,70 3 661 U17 768 848 442 156 30 3829
1944 32,4 39.4 42,1 38.C 67.C 71.1 72.1 65,e 54,3 40,1 30.' 49.7 1943-64 6 7 2* 229 640 1125 1039 1082 982 J45 210 72 6056
1945 31." 33,3l 41,4 41.0 s.3 61.4 72.4 71.! 59,9 53.. 41.3 30.4 49.6 1944.63 0 14 123 37" 743 981 921 1044 1108 *11 243 63 603ft
1946 31.4 33,7 .... 33.1 51.6 6M 74,4 71.2 65,* 4,2| 33.* 37.6 51.2 1943-66 6 7 296 30? 645 24 1122 loir 691 604 204 82 3900
1947 30.8 28,4 36.5 43.' 55,t 62. C 72.5 72. 66.2 33.6 33.1 33. 49.4 1946-67 0 9 64 19, 649 1018 954 832 679 498 388 133 566*
1946 26.4 26,4 31.4 31.6 3*. 7 66.4 72.* 72.? 66,9 31.9 36.4 29.4 49.2 1947-68 4 16 10# 386 729 1186 1086 883 731 633 343 38 6l9ft
1949 16.3 30.4, 39.5 49,2 37.0 63.C 72.4 71." 65,2 49,9 48,6 32.! 49,6 1948-69 10 35 143 399 871 1114 923 821 1011 378 204 144 6037
1950 29.4 3..1 3" 1 47.7 55.C 66.4 68, 6.1 60.! 39,9 36.1 90.. 1949-70 2 0 36 801 769 998 1061 734 969 612 200 78 6300
1951 26.9 33, <* 3.N 49,3 57.3 60.1 73.5 70,1 61.9 48.ll 38.1 29.0 48.3 1970-71 0 0 19#] 584 770 977 1018 958 817 S0 329 23 6184
1952 34.9 35,<7 39,4 48.2 56.a 72.: 73.1 72.3 65,6 33.3 32.1 32.6 50.8 1971-72 24 0 213 *79 771 1019 1061 *32 621 486 246 4 3818
1953 39.6 32.1 49.4 42, 53.4 69.1 74,a 71. 66,0 34,4 43.1 31.4 31.8 1972-73 *2 15 107 397 960 1239 1162 820 *771 646 290 36 6303
1954 36.1 43.1 33,4 59.6 57.2 69.3 -6.9 72.1 65,7 32.9 44,3 34.7 53.5 19T3.74 8 0 166 321 738 1029 1277 831 671 30 7 137 67 3772
1935 27.2 23.1 J*'! 30.1 5..C 64.0 73,9 73. 6,., 5*.fl| 36.2 33.4 30.2 1974-73 0 9 199 381 803 1043 1024 937 832 621 332 83 6106
1956 27,7 46,1 43.3 60, li 73.? 72.2 6.1 65.5 53,9 37.^ 33.1 31.3 1973-74 0 4 195 163 840 843 1006 740 839 469 2341 64 3637
1937 25." 40,7 39.1 41.4 51.9 63.9 7J.! 72.* 61.41 51.4 36.9 39.6 50.2 1976-77 0 7 142 304 739 907 1103 749 771 414 137 0 3300
1936 32.9 37.* 32.8 44,6 61.7 68.1 70.11 73.* 64.4 33.9 40,6 33.8 91.* 1977-78 2 14 1# 16" 717 920 1206 936 663 433 333 87 3731
1939 30.0 30,2 37,6 43,6 56.2 70.9 72.6, 71.C 61.1 4 8,1) 37.s 36.5 90.0 1978-79 0 20 96 366 811 1243
i960 27.6 3" 1 30,3 57.Z 68.a 7>.S 75.. 65.01 52.0 33.5 26.9 49,7
1961 1962 31.7 19.8 33,2 29,? 3*, 91 34.6, 46,0 30.J 55.7 39.8| 66.1 63.S 71.si 72.9 72.2 72.! q 50.0) 33,i 34.7 41.3 27.7 33.8 48,9 49.7 Cooling Degree Days
37,? 27,4 27.4| 37.9 39,0 76.5. 68.1 70,A 70.2 61.71 * 30.8 49.7 49.6
1964 1965 30.6 46,6 3 81 65 i 9 63.9 52,7* i Year Jan Feb Mar Apr jMaylJune July Aug Sept 1 Oct Nov Dec Total
37,1 1949 0 0 0 0 15 44 312 284 46 0 0 0 721

1966 28.6 28.4 4.S 44,4 5.7 64.6 76,9 70,. 65.0 32,2! 41.5 31.9 90.9 1970 0 0 0 0 16 93 222 282 40 0 0 0 431
1967 34.0 35.1 42. 4",; 52.S 60.6 69,1 68.; 62.1 32.9 40.5 26.! 49.4
1966 29.7 34,2 40.4 43,0 33.9 67.a 71.7 68. 60. 31.9 33.71 28.9 48.9 1971 0 9 0 0 0 149 203 248 33 0 0 0 631
1969 35.0 33,4 32.2 32.2 59.1 61.5 74.T 71 1 64,9 39,a 39.1 32.5 49.9 1972 0 0 0 ft 6 110 210 207 28 1 0 0 362
1970 30.6 38,6, 39.5 41. 63.2 72.0 73.1 59.9 43,9 39.1 33*1 49.3 1973 0 0 0 0 2 138 199 270 21 1 0 0 631
1974 0 0 0 0 36 176 307 137 19 0 0 3 713
1971 32.1 30,6, 3".5 47.3 39.2 69.0 70.6, 72.1 57.! 49,41 39.1 11.9 49.3 1973 0 0 0 ft 3 69 246 192 39 3 0 0 334
1972 30. ! 36.2 44,5 48,3 37.3 6".i 70.2 7i.i 62.1 32.11 32*2 24.1 49.9
1973 27.1 33.* 39,4 *3.; 53. * 67.9 7i.a 73.; 39.9 34,9 39.9 31.6 49.9 1976 0 0 0 ft 3 112 324 176 32 0 0 0 669
1974 23.7 33.2 49,2 47.1 61.* 6.4 74.T 49.- 39.4 32.4 38.0 31.i 30.3 1977 0 0 0 2 11 214 297 182 93 0 0 0 799
1973 31.7 30.4 17.X 44.1 5..a 72.7 70.8 55.3, 35.a 36.8i 37.3 49.4 1978 0 0 0 0 12 152 308 171 103 2 0 0 748
1976 32.1 39,5 37.1 49,2 36,7] 66.3 75.1 70.2 61.a 48,4| 39. J 33.! 91.0
1977 29.2 38,0 J.,. 31. L 60.7 71.9 74,3 70.; 66,6 33.31 40.3 33. 52.9
1978 RECORD 25.8 31*4 44,3, 30,1 59.4| 66.9 74.71 69.* 65.e 31* U si.al 37, 24.6 49.7
MEAN 30. 32,; 3".l 47.! 56.7 66.1 72.1 71. 62.1 39.6 32. 90.2
HA* 42. *3.1 31.4 60, 69.5 80.6 86,5 85. 76.9 63.9 32.6 44.1 63.4
MIN 17.4 20,3 26.1 34,1 4>.7| 31.7 38.4 ST.* 48.9 39,6, 26.6 19.4 37,0
Precipitation
Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July | Aug { Sept Oct | Nov Dec Annual
19|9 0.82 1.14] 1.06 1.08 1.23 1.06 0.17 0.13] 0.29 0.971 0.09 0.37 8.43
1940 1.01 0.67 2.26 1.44 1.99 0.10 1.24 0.23 4.09 0.3i| 0.76 0.A6 14.30
1941 1.11 0.26 1.21 3.2 3.71 2.93 1.29 1.8*] 2.48] 2.941 0.62 0.6 22.03
1942 0.66 0.91 0.68 4.17 1.12 3.0* 1.02 0.77 0.81 2.94, 0.28 0.15 16.56
1943 0.23 0.12 0.41 1.04 2.96 1.22 0.72 1.28 0.07 0.27' 0.91 0.37 6.12
19*4 1.08 0.25 2.89 3.92 1.73 0.92 3.3* 0.46 T 0.061 0.32 0.37 13.3*
19*3 0.70 0.49 0.11 2.13 2.32 2.02 2.19 2.33 1.17 0.78 0.90 0.06 13.36
19*6 0.64 0.27 0.5? 2.09 1.95 0.82 1.60 1.38 1. IS 0.811 2.97 0,04 14.34
19*7 0.37 0.67 1.04 1.30 4.61 2.76 1.32 1.27 0.91 3.911 0.73 0.27 16,06
19*8 1.44 0.44 1.71 2.32 1.84 1.94 0.80 0.41 0.45 0.14 0.65 0.26 12.62
19*9 1.17 0. U3 2.29 1.46 3.31 4.27 1.35 0.92 0.28 1.39 0.01 0.33 16.78
1930 0.47 0.20 0.31 2.98 2.10 3.32 0.56 0.27 1.38 0.12 1.00 0.32 13.93
1931 0.51 0.78 1.47 2.01 1.78 2.27 0. .3 4.47 0.97 2.161 1.17 0.66 16,43
1932 0.01 0,68 2.1? 2.73 3.06 0.12 1.06 1.41 0.34 0.18 1.31 0.16 13.41
1933 0.39 1.39 1.13 1.29 2.66 1.46 1.98 1.23 0.20 0.9*1 1.00 1.02 14.21
1934 0.23 0.04 0.44 0.88 0.60 0.66 1.99 0.51 0,77 0.061 0.37 0.7l 7.51
1933 0.23 0.63 1.14 0.48 2.47 1.39 2.99 2.41 2.72 0,66] 0.56 0.13 16.03
1936 0.39 0.77 0.89 0.72 2.9. 0.44 4.17 1.83 0.01 0.27] 1.25 0.62 11.72
1937 0.32 0.71 1.09 * 1 3 7.31 1.0* 1.29 2.0B 0.42 2.62 0.97 0.06 21.38
1958 0.73 1.00 1.48 1.73 4.46 1.47 3.30 1.17 1.31 0.37| 0.74 0,64 18.80
1959 1.24 1.31 2.#9 1.35 3.33 0.44 0.83 0.23 1.82 2.46i 0.40 0.26 16.34
i960 0.77 1.64 0.89 2.36 2.2? 0.63 1.31 0.06 0.38 2.96| 0.49 1.50 14.98
1961 0.07 0.66 2.51 1.06 4.12 l.W 1.60 1.21 4.67 o.tt 0.93 0.30 19,01
1962 1.31 1.05 0.31 1.13 0.8* 1.52 0.34 0.46 0.19 0.031 0.68 0,17 8.45
1961 0.7l 0.21 1.4? 0.03 0.68 3.39 0.35 2.32 1.25 0.31' 0.45 0.51 12.23
1964 0.26 1.04 1.38 1.23 2.33 0.82 0.72 0.27 0.41 o.iil 0.88 o.*o 10.14
1963 1.00 1.27 1.20 1.0*| 1.82 4.1* 6.41 1.06 2.38 0.**l 0.36 0.53 21.87
1966 o.Jo 1.28 0.32 1.44 0.34 1.41 1.04 2.06 1.13 0.96, 0.32 0.17 10.81
1967 0.84 0.39 0.79 3.93 *.77 4.69 3.29 0.81 0.60 1.13 l. 01 1.06 23.31
1968 0.31 0.74 0.85 2.J9 0.71 0.50 1.34 2.39 0.39 0.75' 0.71 0.51 12.13
1969 0.17 0.43 1.10* 1.31 0.12 2.99 1.81 0.79 1.67 4.17! 0.62 0.32 21.52
1970 0.10 0.01 1.34 0.97 0.6* 3.83 1.67 0.34 2.47 O.Mj 1.19 0.09 13.73
1971 0.39 0.7i 0.53 1.98 1.36 0*2.1 1.20 0.85 2.85 0.9*1 0.16 0.29 10.96
1972 0.36 0.44 0.50 3.32 0.49 2.9* 0.61 2.71 2.07 o.*r 1.69 0.7o 16.87
1973 1.31 0.16 1.76, 3.711 3.06 0.20 2.47 1.28 2.85 0.97] 0.83 2.84 22.96
1974 1.01 0.82 1.3? 2.28 0.06 2.01 2.34 0.16 0.98 1.68. 1.06 0.29 14,03
1973 0.23 0.37 1.19 1.1* 2.80 2.11 2.78 2.00 0.24 0.301 1.88 0.47 13.51
1976 0.19 0.54 1.34 l.*7 1.34 0.63 2.31 2*30 1.88 0.91! 0.32 0.16 13.41
1977 0.16 0.27 1.24 2.13 0.9* 1.02 2.90 1.00 0.10 0.981 0.39 0.01 10.34
1978 RfCCRO 0.27 0.27 1.07 1.82 3.46 1.17 0.34 0.26 0.07 1.99 0.30 0.82 11.70
MEAN 0.47 0.58 1.10| 2.01 2.3> 1.49 1.70 1.38 1.12 i.oei 1 0.66 0.61 14.50
Snowfall
Season JulyAugS.pti Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr | Mayjjune]Total
1919-40 0.0 0.0 0,0 7,6 0.5 4.9 13.7 6.1 11.7 T 0,0 0,0 44,8
1940.41 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,0 7.0 6.0 9.0 1.9 10.2 8.2 0.0 0.0 48.4
19*1-42 0.0 0.0 T T 2*2 8.7 8.0 11.3 7.6 8.3 1.7 0,0 *8,2
19*2-43 0.0 0.0 0.4 9,6 4.1 4.3 3.0 1.6 7.3 T 4.3 0,0 36.8
19*3-44 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 2.3 3.0 12.1 3.1 20.1 23.6 7.7 0,0 81.1
l94*-43 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,0 3.3 3.9 12.2 6.2 3.0 23.0 T 0,0 33.8
1945-46 0.0 0.0 T 2,1 3.8 0.8 10.2 4,6 3.2 T 0.8 0,0 23.7
16*6-47 o.c 0.0 0.4 1." 39.1 0.7 7.3 12.3 12.0 4.7 1.3 T 81.6
i9*7-*e 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.1 6.4 6,4 23.7 7.3 22.0 3.3 T 0,0 74,4
l9*8-*9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,8 6.7 4.8 20.3 0.4 14.2 12.7 T 0,0 60.1
19*9-50 0.0 0.0 0.0 7,2 0.0 6.0 8.8 2.9 3.4 9.0 11.6 0,0 58.
1950-31 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,0 ii.9 3.9 13.7 10.5 17,6 12.9 o.o 0.1 74,8
1951-32 0.0 0.0 4.2 7.7 14.3 11.2 0.3 10.2 23.2 11.2 T 0,0 84.3
1982-53 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 14.3 3.1 7.4 16.3 11.0 12.0 1.7 0,0 68,2
1953-3* 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 7.2 14.4 2.7 0.6 6.3 7.6 2,6 0,0 1.3
1954-33 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,4 3.9 8.6 3.5 12.2 19.3 4.9 0.0 0,0 33.0
1953-36 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.1 7.3 2.9 6.3 10.3 13.0 3.7 r 0,0 7,8
1956-57 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,6 21.3 8.1 5 1 1.6 8.9 23.3 0.3 0,0 70.1
1957-38 0.0 0.0 T 1.9 3.0 0.8 0.9 12.0 14.4 14.1 0.0 0,0 37,1
1958-59 0.0 0.0 T 2.6 9.7 7.7 17.4 17.3 26.0 17.6 T 0,0 99,3
1959-6C 0.0 0.0 12.9 11.8 3.3 2.7 10.7 1*.J 9.0 6.3 T 0,0 80,0
1960-61 0.0 0.0 0.0 *.0 3.1 17.8 1.0 7.9 29.2 1.6 6.4 0,0 80.6
1961-62 o.c 0.0 5.6 6.2 11.4 1.8 17.2 U.3 6.8 10.0 0.0 0,0 72.3
1962-63 0.0 0.0 0,7 0,0 3.0 1.2 9.1 2.1 18.0 0.2 0.0 0,0 36.3
1963-6* 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 3.3 1.9 2.6 12.7 18.4 12.1 1.0 0,0 37,1
1964-65 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 6.0 ... 13.2 17.1 14.9 0.1 T 0,0 31.
1965-66 0.0 0.0 5.5 0,0 3.5 1.6 3.6 16.6 2.8 6.4 2.9 0,0 6.9
1966-67 0.0 0.0 T 8.1 3.0 1.9 9.9 *.* 6.6 3.6 3.0 0,0 *0.7
1967-6B 0.0 0.0 9.0 1.7 9.4 13.1 3.0 7.3 9.2 11.1 T 0,0 31.8
1968-69 0.0 0.0 9.0 0.4 3.8 6.9 2.8 *.2 13.2 T 0.0 0,0 33.3
1969-70 0.0 0.0 0.0 31.2 5.1 3.1 0.9 0.3 10.5 6.7 T 0,0 63.8
1970-71 0.0 0.0 4.0 3.9 9.2 0.9 8.6 11.9 9.6 6.0 T 0,0 36.7
1971-72 0.0 0.0 17.2 3.1 1.4 8.4 10.9 ..i 7.1 17.2 0.0 0,0 74,4
19T2-73 0.0 0.0 0.0 9,7 19.4 9.8 12.1 3.0 13.1 24.8 1.0 0.0 94,9
1973-7* 0.0 0.0 0.0 2,1 9.3 30.8 8.2 10.3 12.8 17.8 0.0 T 91.3
1974-75 0.0 0.0 1.# 1.0 11.9 2.1 3.6 ..0 14.3 10.9 6.1 0,0 >.?
1973-76 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.7 15.2 7.3 3.2 6.4 18.7 1.2 0.0 0,0 34.7
*976-77 0.0 0.0 0.0 7,2 4.3 8.1 2.4 3.1 9.6 4.7 0.0 0,0 34,6
1977-78 0.0 0.0 0.0 1,3 4.1 0.7 3.3 6.2 0.6 4.6 13.3 0,0 *6.3
1978-79 0.0 0.0 . T 2.7 6.9 14.2
REC0R0
MEAN 0.0 0.0 1.7 3.8 7.7 6.4 7.9 T.r 12.6 *.6 1.8 T 39,0
* Indicates a station move or relocation of instruments. See Station Location table.
Record mean values above are means through the current year for the period beginning in 1872 for temperature and precipitation, 1935 for snowfall. Temperature and precipitation are from City Office locations through 1934. Heating degree days are from City Office locations through June 1939. Snowfall if from City Office locations through Jime 1934. Otherwise the data are from Airport locations.
Page 40


STATION LOCATION
DENVER, COLORADO
Elevation above
Sea Ground
level
Location Occupied from 2 1 a l 8 i = III 1 3 i 2 ill Latitude North Longitude West a ** a a at u 12 SZ 5i Wind instruments i t I 0 a e A V a (d S 3 0 A >> £ 1 1 A O >- S 2 "5 H 3 9 A 9 If a -a 1 1 | A 0* 1 * 1 a a CO u A i e o A O h as s Remarks
COOPERATIVE
One or more locations 11/ ?/59 12/ ?/73 Voluntary observers, broken record.
CITY
16th (formerly G Street) & Larimer Streets 11/10/71 3/15/73 39* 45' 105* 00' 5177 51 e20 e20 48 e Estimated.
Woodward Building on Market (formerly Holiday Street) between 15th & 16th Streets 3/15/73 11/30/75 400' WNW 39 45' 105 00' 5212 71 37 36 52
McClintock Block 16th Street 11/30/75 7/01/77 350' ESE 39 45' 105 00' 5214 e70 e32 e32 e50 e Estimated.
Broadwell Block on Larimer Street 7/01/77 6/13/81 200' ENE 39* 45' 105* 00' 5214 80 45 44 60
Tabor Block, 16th & Larimer Streets 6/13/81 12/01/87 200' WSW 39 45' 105 00' 5204 109 73 72 86
Patterson & Thomas Block 17th & Curtis Streets 12/01/87 5/01/91 1100' ESE 39* 45' 105 00' 5218 103 86 86 79
Club Building 1700 Block on Arapahoe Street 5/01/91 10/01/95 375' N 39* 45' 105 00' 5229 121 108 107 97 97
U. S. Post Office 16th & Arapahoe Streets 10/01/95 12/08/04 600' SV 39* 45' 105 00' 5214 151 a79 a79 74 74 a 83 feet to 6/13/96.
Boston Building 17th £> Champa Streets 12/08/04 1/29/16 800' E 39* 45' 105 00' 5219 >172 129 128 119 119 b 136 feet to 3/1/10.
New Post Office Building 19th & Stout Streets 1/29/16 Present 1000' ENE 39* 45' 105 00' 5221 :113 106 108 c98 d98 c98 c Removed 4/1/50. d Added 4/1/50.
AIRPORT
Administration Building Stapleton Airfield 9/15/31 6/25/47 39 46' 104* 53' 5292 59 46 46 5 42
WB-FAA Building Stapleton Airfield* Stapleton International Airport 10/1/64. 6/25/47 5/07/69 0.3 mi.NV 39 46' 104 53' f 5283 g20 6 6 4 6 5 e5 e Commissioned 5200 feet ESE of thermometer si-te 8/1/60. f 5292 feet to 8/1/60. g 72 feet to 7/8/60. Fastest mile data from 40 feet prior to 7/12/60.
W. 3. Forecast Office Stapleton International Airport 5/07/69 Present 1.7 mi.ESE 39* 45' 104 52' 5283 h20 5 5 4 4 4 h5 h Same site as prior to move of 5/7/69.
iS!2riPS!5-PSC!: !2;55 year datf and annual s**1*?- Foreign mailing $1.85 extra. Single copy: 20 cent, for monthly or annual
NOAA S^d ILiLJIt- 1 i!? Charg*j ?f SJ*00 for order of shelf-stocked issues of publications. Make checks pavable Co Department of Cotanerce,
OAA. Send payments, orders, and inquires to Publications, National Climatic Center, Federal Building, Asheville, NC 28801/
I certify that this is an official publication of the National Oceanic and National Climatic Center, Asheville, North Carolina 28801.
Atmospheric Administration,
and is compiled from records on file at the Director, National Climatic Center
USCOMM-NOAA-ASHEVILLE 1800
U S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL CLIMATIC CENTER FEDERAL BUILDING ASHEVILLE, N.C. 28801
AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER
POSTAGE ANO FEES PAID U.S DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
210
FIRST CLASS
I
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I
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Page 41


MARKET ANALYSIS


REGIONAL ANALYSIS
All population projection studies through the year 2000 show Jefferson County growing. Information from the Denver Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA) and the Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) show Jefferson County population increasing from 391*400 in 1980 27% by 1990 and 53% by 2000. This is above the five-county region as a whole (as averaged 21% increase by 1990, 41% by 2000) and behind only Arapahoe County (having 35% increase by 1990, 63% by 2000).
The following chart illustrates the natural increase and net migration of the five-county region, putting Jeffco into perspective.
Components of Change. 1978-79 by DRCOG
1979 1978 Natural Net Net %
County Population Population Increase Migration Change Change
Adams 244,900 242,000 3,400 -500 2,900 1.00
Arapahoe 275,300 260,600 2,900 11,800 14,700 5.64
Boulder 196,200 189,100 1,400 5,700 7,ioo 3.75
Denver 521,700 522,500 3,200 -4,000 -800 -0.15
Jefferson 378,600 365,900 3,200 9,500 12,700 3.47
5-County 1,615,700 1,580,100 14,100 22,500 36,600 2.26
Total
The yean 1979 saw Jeffco with 130,170 households, second to Denvers
219,780. The population in households of Lakewood is 2.87 x's that for 374,050 persons. Denver is 2.31 xs for 507,450 persons.
Locally the City of Lakewood will increase in population from 161,500,
27% by 1990 and 55% by 2000, with the overall percentage deviation exceeding year 2000 of 21.7%.
The 1979 census shows 1120 total households, a population of 2950, in the tract of W. Colfax Avenue to 20th St. and Kipling to Carr Streets. This is up 5% from 1978. The area has not experienced a lot of growth recently in terms of new housing, just an occasional new apartment building or house. Commercial-retail continues to grow, however, at a slow, but steady rate.
Prom SMSA and DRCOG come the following employment statistics:
- Jeffco is second only to Denver in county employment by place of work with 126,500 in 1979*
Page 42


- Under the Denver Water Board allocation program, residential building permits in jurisdictions served primarily by DWB Lakewood is up 72% over 1978*
- In proposed regional employment allocations Lakewood is up 62% (not including the 10 year projections of the Federal Center tripling in capacity).
These in-county employment figures show the need for increased housing development. But one must not forget that the county primarily houses commuters for out-of-county work. The site of this project thus takes on more significance of being minutes away from the Federal Center (by car or bus), and minutes away by foot from the projected area transport center on the main artery from Golden to Aurora.
LOCAL MARKET ANALYSIS
Seventy-five to eighty percent of the commercially related development referred to on the WCAC proposed development map is already present and thriving. There is no question that there will be an increase of further interest in this area with even the mention of a planned development of higher housing density.
Page 43


HOUSING THEORY


HOUSING THEORY
"The workers and this is the essence of the matter see in the dreadful monotony of endless rows of identical houses arid bungalows an assault upon their personality, upon their freedom, upon their humanity; this kind of housing turns one into a herd animal, a serf, a dependent. And this is understandable. For after a long period of guardianship and distribution systems imposed on them from above, they fear that they will again be cut off from any say and initiative which they had slowly gained in the manner of their dwelling. And now this proposed form of housing (massed, industrial form), which has already been drastically characterised in a revolutionary organ as "one uniform, one fodder, one kennel," means to them being stacked away in some sort of cellular prison."
- Dr. H. P. Berlage "Standardization in Housing"
The Amsterdam Housing Congress of February 1918
This concerns the way in which people shall be housed as much as the housing shortage, which today, as in Berlages day, demands a solution. 3erlage has stated the method which from the professional point of view still holds credence and the instinctive reaction against it on the part of the user.
A strictly uniform solution is considered today undesirable. We can, and do cover the whole of an urban district according to a severely standardized system, bringing instinctive opposition, even though no one disputes the effectiveness of the system. The question evolves around the extent to which one can accept the full technical and economic implications of such a method. But this problem has been in debate long before 1918 and in looking for the root of the division, many theories take for granted the important point that conflict existing between man and method in the field of housing indicates a connection between the two. N. J. Habraken proposes that the housing shortage, or rather its apparent insolubility, is caused by the antithesis of man and method.
Habraken further issues that the denial of involvement and initiative to the inhabitant of mass housing is the basis for the aroused resistance and long term growth of disinterested laisez-faire attitudes among the users. He is not the only one to profess this side of the argument.
This is not to give free reign to the average dweller but an effort to wake up the professional and ready him for some possible new methods in the solution of the problem. I feel that this is not only true but that the existing influence of the dweller to his abode and vice versa projects into far reaches of the sociological aspects of his environment.
The return of consultation and involvement on the part of users, in literal terms, must in reality be accepted by the professionals if the door of future housing is to open more completely, revealing a multitude of as yet unthought of alternatives to the mass house.
"The reality of the building does not consist in roof and walls, but in space within to be lived in." Laotse
Page 44


The housing shortage, and this housing "problem" must be referred to as a whole concept. When highrises were introduced in the 60's to the masses in Peru and Caracas, the people moved in, grateful for a roof, along with their country life. After the realization that the cows and chickens were not doing well in the building, one by one, the buildings emptied, the people returning to the shacks on the hillsides. This is not so much a lack of industrial design, but a lack of communication and understanding by the designer.
When the difficulties connected with living and building fall together one problem causes another. The engineer cannot hope for higher production without creating many non-technical problems which he cannot comprehend or solve. The architect cannot give new impulse to housing as he conceives the dwelling as the result of technical and economic forces. He most likely produces another variation on the theme given him.
If in the housing "problem" the entire concept is dealt with the following major relationships are bom:
The engineer creating higher production creates non-technical, natural problems.
The architect conceiving the problem in relation to existing technological and economic forces limits creativity.
The town planner conceiving a town which is based on many factors over which he has no control.
The inhabitant filling in questionnaires dealing with the provision of a dwelling in which he is likely never to live.
As is evident, mutual relationships develop around the housing question.
Comprehensive evaluation of this mutual situation gives rise to the realization of which impulses and influences contribute to the creation of towns and building of dwellings. Hot only do national considerations like construction, finance and organization influence the development, but also considerations of biological nature, i.e. fundamental relationships of human existence.
Hass Housing: A Means
The rise of mass housing development stems primarily from necessity, both here and abroad. The provision of a large number of dwellings is seen as a single project in most cases and likewise the design of a large number of dwellings becomes a single problem.
Mass housing is generally considered as a method and therefore appears to be only a factor in the organization and technique of housing. Influence on other aspects, sociological, psychological and physical is recognized but influence of these aspects emerging in the process is not often seen. On analysis of this method of universally applied mass housing, three points emerge: Are the dwelling and mass housing related as ends and means? Is mass housing the 3ole means? And is mass housing the correct means? It certainly is a primary one.
Any particular method of providing dwellings is the representation of technical and organizational factors. Mass housing certainly is this
Page 45


case, if consultation with the individual inhabitant about the manner in which his dwelling is realized. This seems to be interference with the forces acting on the housing process. In thinking of the user we are dealing with an actual force in the total process. If this were not so, there would be no reason to fear his involvement as a disturbing and interacting influence.
Mass housing seems today to be the universal way and in housing the whole of society the involvement of the individual is deemed undesirable. This is fundamentally different from earlier history.
Society has accomplished improvements in housing in the last 50 years without mass housing. As we are confronted with the possibility of the entire society living in mass housing and because few escape its implications, we begin to realize the contours of a process which reflects the negation of the individual.
Mass housing allows us to build many dwellings in a short time. But that is not enough. With the introduction of the machine there is an industrial method enabling us to produce so much that in many respects consumption becomes a greater problem than production. But the housing shortage still has not been eliminated, bringing to mind that industrialization may not be so related to mass housing as we are led to believe. Industrialization and standardization should be supporting housing even stronger than at present, but within a different framework.
Psychological and Sociological Factors.
Mass housing approaches mans requirements with the possibility of translation into solid shapes. The success depends on research into solid shapes which do not become products but which are themselves productive when used. Current thought says the dwelling is a consumer article and the dweller is the consumer. This may be the case with single family, detached units where the dweller can mold and shape his environment, but with most mass housing the facility is not there, though the will is. Activities of the occupant should not be considered separately, or by the designer, but with activities related to the building and the dwelling itself.
With the advent of mass housing, the means of self expression is limited to a fraction of the potential. A look through many projects here, or abroad where for instance a balcony has been given' the residents, and one sees unthougnt of ways to transform that small space to an individuals need. The opportunity must be there for the inhabitant. If there are no inhabitants, the structure ceases to be a dwelling, proof that the individual is the driving force, the necessary ingredient. His action and interaction with the immediate and surrounding environment is a big part of the meaning of dwelling.
When man controls his own environment in individual housing units, the units grow old, but a wide range of possibilities exist to renew, recreate that island environment, make it new to current thought. Generally, mass housing severly limits this ability as most possibilities
Page 46


for continuous human involvement are eliminated in constricting design and fabrication. Thun the building grows old with little hope for updating to current usage needs in a given period of time.
Practical Factors
North American methods of construction try to eliminate come of the 'aging' problems of buildings with more cover-up than solution. With less expensive construction, amortization comes more quickly than with more extensive, permanent methods. Thus the units may be torn down sooner, and updated or renewed to current trends. If however, a more permanent, adaptable solution were constructed which allowed for change, in the long run, wouldn't less energy be consumed than in the build-tear down, build process? And in housing cannot an equitable basis be set for the capitalization of the financier with equal economical amortization through several periods of time and continuous new investment and owners? Northern European economic structures are exploring methods to these ends. Unfortunately, any shift at home will come only out of economic necessity (based on energy costs) or by a "money making brainstorm" of the investor.
In the future as these ideas become more prominent communities, towns and then cities will begin to reshape in more continuity (to the pleasure of planners) and the natural relationships within these forms, the necessary ingredient, will continue to grow and evolve.
Page 47


CUEBENT EVALUATION
What has been discussed so far is overview, for which there is certain to be many exceptions. There have been a few individuals who, throughout the years, have come forth with new and radical ideas to break through the "problem" in discussion. Corbusier in 1917 announced his Dom-ino Project which gave the users the ability to adjust products to meet their changing needs. Ten years later Buckminster Puller's Dynaxion I house displayed a new efficiency breakthrough in manufacture and use. Tv/aity years after that, in the 40's, the Lustron House was proving new on site construction of factory panels. Each time the prefab or industrialized housing industry moved forward in the thirties, fourties and sixties, it seemed to miss the idea that there is more to it than mass production.
In conversations with Professer Aunger, Lean of the Technical School and head of the Planning Department in Munich on this subject, he underscores that not only were objectives missed in mass housing productions, but new objectives were developing even as the projects were in progress that had not previously been thought of. As the dweller began usage, the permanent errors became more evident. But even as we spoke (Pall of 1978), new town mass housing projects were under construction in several areas outside of munish where it was evident to this observer many more new objectives can and should be in the offing.
The W.G.A.C. project in many ways does not come close to the scope of projects I studied and observed first hand in Europe. My ideas in regard to theory grow more limited as I look at a smaller project in some respects, but increase in others.
The following examples of housing projects address in one way or another problems previously outlined and are also chosen for relationship with the scope of the project at hand.
- Carlton, Australia. Johnausgroup 1967-70, Grahame Shaw, Denton
and Corker, Architects
- Stuttgart, Vest Germany. Housing in Tapachstrasse 1965-70.
Faller and Schroder, Architects
- London, England. Foundlingestate, Bloomsbury 1968-72, Hodgkinson
and Sir Leslie Martin, Architects
- Vejlesoparken, Denmark, Eolte 1968-70, Ole Hagen, Architect
- Jemaldervej, Brabrand, Denmark. Holmstrup Terrasseme, 1975-80,
X. Blach Petersen, Architect
- Tastrup, Harlev, Parum, Kokkedal and other towne in Denmark,
UNIC 119 Typified, single family houses, Johannes Lundberg
and Vagn Us sing I/S Architects
- Parum, Denmark. Parum Midtpunkt, 1970-75* The Paellestegnestuen
Group, Architects
Page 48


Hjortekaer, Denmark. Eaemitageparken 1968-70, Juul Holler and Erik Korshagen, Architects
Visp, Switzerland. Units by Andre M. Studen, Architect
Heidelberg, Boxberg, West Germany. Units by Herkommer, Alchen, Bergen, Kiesewetter and Otto, Architects
Munich, West Germany. Units by Walter Ebert, Architect
Page 49


.
DESIGN CHECKLIST


PROBLEM STATEMENT AND DESIGN REQUIREMENT CHECKLIST
Design a middle to high-density housing community within the framework of the City of Kalewood's C.A.C. concept proposed for the Westland Center.
This should be a quality development, efficiently built to yield maximum return and efficiently designed to ensure maximum environmental conservation.
Requirements to be considered within this framework are:
User
Market
Dwelling Units Buildings Services Storage
Social and recreational Mechanical Services
Plumbing
Electrical
- types, numbers of, lifestyles, sociological and psychological presuppositions and expectations.
- type of ownership of units and approp-
riate financing.
- types of and appropriate mixtures of,
components and arrangements of.
- types, orientation to site, to commun-
ity needs.
- parking routine living, security and
ammenities.
- in accordance with different user needs.
- goals of private, group, community.
- types, location, extent of, with type of
construction chosen.
- types of, individually and project wide
requirements.
- operation-ownership type, extent of usage.
Page 50


The following specific considerations axe listed from Mascaxi's "Housing" list section: <
User:
Age, family size, occupation, lifestyle, All types, except large
previous housing family
Market:
Sponsorship (private or institutional), Private ownership and
ownership, rent or sales structure, financing
completion, financing (requirements of private and government lending institutions)
Dwelling Unit:
Mix-percentage of various types*
Unit size defining of gross square footage
Room size use approximate terms, height is usually 8
Living space where do optional activities take place?
Dining state alternatives Kitchen amount of counter space, cabinet space in linear feet Bed bedrooms as living space?
Bath complete or powder, stalls or tubs, compartmentalization?
Storage in linear feet
Entry size and function, reception
Sound separation
3uilding:
Type, privacy versus community, orientation
See site plan See floor plan
See floor plan
See floor plan
See floor plan Tower: Min. 10^ Max. YJ1 Terrace: min 11^ Max 197 Yes
Complete, custom
Varies to unit size
Yes
Yes
Privacy with community
Services:
Parking off street, controls, self or attended, one way or two way Minimum walking distance to unit Laundry individual or communal, social magnet Refuse methods
Delivery and pickup loading and transport
Moving furniture -Mail -
Window washing -Storage:
Tenant type, size and location
General
Bicycles
Off street by self
Varies with building Communal
Communal shute Main door
Horizontally through garage to elevator Main lobby By owner
Varies
Under building In garage
* The two best family psychological studies relating to design of the home environment and its spatial relationships were found in Deilmann's "Dwelling" and Kennedy's "Housing and the Art of it's Design."
Page 51


Mixed
Social and Recreational:
Goals is purpose to ensure maximum privacy of units? To what degree should it 3e?
Recreation child-adult mixed?
Indoor? Outdoor?
Child Care
Commercial Space;
Parking
Security:
Needs, control
Mechanical:
Heating: gas, oil, coal, electricity? Central or individual -
Exposure control fenestration
Insulation
Humidification -
Cooling central or individual?
Energy source cooling absorption refrigeration, electricity, heat pump well owner, individual occupant or an organization of occupants pay fuel and energy costs for heating and cooling. Maintenance and replacement of system? Ventilation of bathrooms and/or kitchens, central, individual or combination of individual control & central collection
80% outdoor, YMCA adjoins Yes, on site
n/a
Yes, grounds patrol
Gas HVAC, electric hot water
Tower: all central HVAC
Terrace: Individual
Balconies
See floor plans
Individual
Tower: central
Terrace: individual
Heat pump
Recirculation
Plumbing:
Central metering or individual?
Domestic water heating central or individual?
Detail of fixtures
Laundry facilities central or individual?
Eire protection
Electrical:
Is owner-operated total energy" plant feasible?
If purchased electricity understanding of various rates for intensities of use
Are heating & cooling systems electrically powered?
Also domestic hot water
Quality of switches and receptacles -the usual low installation cost combined with higher maintenance and replacement costs for minimum quality specifications or converse
Stationed
Individual insta-hot Central
HVAC, sprinkler system, +construction type
Yes, through solar
Yes
Yes
Yes
The converse
Page 52


Electrical (Continued)
Electric or gas ranges Auxiliary electrical systems options: Front and rear door bell Voice communication with remote doors Closed circuit television surveillance of entrances Central television antenna Intercommunication systems of varying inclusiveness
Burglar alarm and security systems Emergency alarms Smoke and fire alarms Emergency light and power
Electric
Yes
Yes
In tower
Yes
No
Individual preference
Yes
Yes
Yes
Page 53


DESIGN
EXPLANATION


PRO J E C T EXPLANATION
Each project has a site with unique characteristics. This is no exception. The site is very long and narrow with limited access. Because of the extreme soils condition the type of construction is restricted by the economics of a housing project. An excellent vista is experienced in 560 degrees. The hilltop is exposed to any minor change in climate.
The consideration of the W.C.A.C. master plan and the prominence of the site over the C.A.C. are factors. The low density of neighboring properties require a maximum low profile of new units to continue a visual image of open space. The expanse of asphalt, concrete and automobiles in the shopping centers below the site, generate a response from the structures on the site and in the vegetation around those structures.
Two forms of buildings developed from these and many more influences: the tower and the terrace. I will mention the terrace first.
In response to the typical medium density housing projects in metro Denver, I looked for some form which, in standing up to the test of time, would relate to the hilly site. I also wanted an individualistic character to each building on the public side and to each unit on the semi-public side. Thus, a staggering, terracing form with variety, based on the 11 foot-6 inch square module of the atrium-corridor (see isometric drawing). This gives the freedom to direct the building to best fit the site circulation and open space requirements with minimal dominance of buildings containing up to 119 living units. The rising up to 6 floors and returning down to three, softens as well, the impact on neighboring properties.
The construction method cannot be separated from this design. This is be -cause the use of all prefabricated concrete panels (above foundation of caisson and gradebeam) allows the pattern freedom to exist. At the same time it reduces the otherwise exorbitant cost of this complicated design found in more common construction methods. In keeping the number of different panels to approximately 25 for 649 units, the cost is cut by a large factor.* Exterior walls onto the balconies are finished in a variety of woods which will change colors at discretion of owners. Concrete panels in key visual areas (i.e, entrance and end walls) will be finished in different textures and color dyes. Varieties of vegetation in the balcony planters individualize each unit further. In the unheated atrium-corridor, the concrete walls are sprayed with foam insulation and covered with a light shade stucco paint. Wood accents the railing planters and colors will coordinate entrance porches.
The garages remain as unpretentious as possible in riding the hillside in two levels of each building. Ground level is either burmed up to, or covering the roof to increase insulation and lawn acreage.
The location of the two tower buildings results from, among other considerations, the relationship of a nine story building in a low-density
* This is based on poured in place, on the site construction, and
construction loans running for longer periods of time, than with the prefabrication erection processes.
Page 54


neighborhood. They must have a minimal impact, but still remain strong in the total site plan. Open space on all sides of both buildings and the topography of each location improve this situation. While building # 2 carries a strong impact on the shopping area to the south, it ends the long zone of surface parking on the site at 17th Street. Building # 12 in the same manner ends the open space alley along the ridge from the hilltop at the east end of the site.
The shape of the tower grows out of the terrace buildings while influenced by a common highrise construction method. Prefabricated T-beams rest on post and beam concrete poured in place. The exterior comer columns are tipped in 11 degrees to allow each balcony to recess 2 feet progressing upward. This gives more light into each unit where a solid facade balcony exists. Each unit in moving upward is 64 square feet less than the unit below, altering the room arrangement or "feel" of the apartment. The hall carries a T/o efficiency rating and storage rooms for each unit are located on each respective floor.
As in the terrace buildings, interior stairwells exist through a rated passage to the outside in case of emergency.
The area northeast of building # 12 is designated "for future club."
This will utilize the garage roof for large function rooms. Lockers, administration and a snack bar-lounge are located closer to the pool and tennis courts. Extra parking is provided with the short term spaces of building # 12*
Page 55


DESIGN DRAWINGS


^ itiij] jlllliiili
WESTLAND
Ierrace
CONDOMINIUMS LAKE WOOD, COEO
I HI SIS PROJECI ROBERI SIROM Uol COIOai DENVER COL.of l NV. DESIGN DEC. 10, IV0
SITE & CIRCULATION
TOPO SEC I ION
SITEPLAN

>
Paye





SOUIH
SCALE 1/16-1 WESI
TOWER:
BUILDING NO. ?
T>
nO
<3&
ELEVATIONS


V
CIRCULATION


Pa-oeF^


[


TERRACE:
RLIIDINC. NO. l-NORIH END
ISOMETRIC
n
'<3^
O
If > 5 V3
FLOORPLANS O---


BLDG, i
BLDG. 4
BLDG. 2
BLDG. 5
SITEPLAN
SCALE 1-50 IERRACE UNITS TOWER UNITS IOTAL
Pd-qefa I


BIBLIOGRAPHY


BIBLIOGRAPHY
________ Annual Report on Regional Growth and Development, 1979. Prom Denver
Regional Council of Governments
Apartments, Townhouses and Condominiums, Elizabeth Thompson, ed., N.Y., McGraw-Hill 1975
Aegger, Hans and Glaus, Otto, Kighrise 3uildings and Urban Design, N.Y. Praeger, 1967
Barkley, J, D,, "Room Space and its Relationship to Mental Health,"
Journal of Housing, March 1973
Boekhalt, J, N, et.al., Variations, Systematic Design of Supports,
Cambridge, Mass., M.I.T. 1976
__________ Concept Lakewood: The Westland Community Activity Center, Department of Community Development, City of Lakewood, 1979
Deilmann, Harold et.al., The Dwelling, Stuttgart, Karl Kramer Verlag
1973
________ Environmental Psychology: Man and His Physical Setting,
Preshansky, ed. N.Y., Holt-Reinhart, 1970
________Form of Housing, Sam Davis, ed., N.Y., Van Nostrand Reinhold,
1977
Habraken. N. J., Supports: An Alternative to Mass Housing, N. Y.,
Praeger, 1972
Hoffman, Hubert, Row Houses and Cluster Houses, N.Y, Praeger 1967
Jenson, Rolf, High Density Living, N.Y., Praeger 1966
Keiser, Marjorie B., Housing: An Environment for Living, N. Y.,
MacMillan 1974
Kennedy, Robert woods, Housing and the Art of its Design, Krieger,
1945
Kjeldsen, Marius, Industrial Housing in Denmark, Copenhagen, Danish Building Center, 1976
Mackey, Daniel, Multiple Family Housing, N.Y., Architectural Book Publishing Co., 1977
Marcus, Clare C. and Hogue, Lindsay, Design Guidelines for Highrise Family Housing Human Response to Tall Buildings. Douden, Hutchenson and Ross, 1977
I
Page 62


Mascari, John et.al., Housing, John Wiley Inc., 1976
Morris, A. E. J., Precast Concrete in Architecture. Watson-Guptill-Whitney Library, 1978
Morris, E. W. and Winter, M., "Theory of Family Housing Adjustment," Journal of Marriage and Family. February 1975
________ Population and Household Estimates 1979. From Denver Regional
Council of Governments
________ "Psychological Dimensions of Architectural Space," Professional
Architecture, April 1965
Safdie, Moshe, For Everyone a Garden, Cambridge, Mass., M.I.T. Press
1974
Schmid, Thomas and Testa, Carlo, Systems Building An International Survey of Methods, N.Y., Praeger, c 19^9
Schwagenscheidt, Walter, Die Nordweststadt, Idee una Gestaltung, Stuttgart, Karl Kramer Verlag, 19o4
Sherwood, Rodger, Modem Housing Prototypes, Cambridge, Mass.,
M. I.T. Press 1978
Untermann, Richard and Small, Robert, Site Planning for Cluster Housing,
N. Y., Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1977
Vetter, "Architecture's Prehistoric Heritage," Architectural Record November 1955
Page 6$