GRAND JUNCTION, COLOR ADO
FALL SEMESTER 1986 UNIVERSITY OF COLORAO
COLLECE OF ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING
The Thesis of
Bruce Flynn, Principal Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver Spring, 1987 ----.
anks to my n c It hir: r V. i:CS
ills were p p I') s i m] 0 v able
in preparing this thesis. Thanks Horn.
Thanks should also be given to the rest of my family v;hc ilso aided in putting this information together, along with
nuous moral support.
Jon Schler, with the state of Colorado's Department
cx J_ 1 3. i ~C S f 77 ci s a great help in organizing this prcjec
the Museum Staff, Grand Junction City Government, and ?' (who is aiding in costs associated with the project).
Thanks also to like Perry and the museum Staff Per v/ho gave supportive information for the museum planning
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Con tents
Table of Contents ...........................
Introduction (Statement of Intent) ..........
Thesis Statement ............................
Grand Junction History of the Settler
Museums of the 20th Century ...........
Section I Concerns of the Museum Environment
1.1 Arrival and Orientation ...........
1.2 Pacing ............................
1.3 Human Factors......................
1.4 Types of Learning .................
1.5 User Characteristics ..............
1.6 Security ..........................
Section II Gallery Considerations ...........
2.1 Exhibit Effectiveness .............
2.2 Display Techniques ................
2.3 Graphics and Visual Impact ........
2.4 Conservation ......................
2.5 Lighting ..........................
2.6 Maintenance .......................
i i i i i 1
50 5 7 64
Table ot Ooueats
( Con t inued.)
Section III Site Considerations ....................................... 89
3. 1 Site Analysis 90
3.2 Climate Considerations 96
3.3 Locational Criteria 104
3.4 Zoning Codes 112
3.5 Building Codes 131
Section IV Programming For the Museums Needs .................... 136
4.1 Departmental Descriptions 137
4.2 Survey of Existing Needs 140
4.3 The Integration of Architecture Into the Environment 149
4.4 Programming For the Museums Needs 156*
Footnotes... B ib1i ography
Appendix A Graphic Programming Symbols and Standards
Appendix B Climate Considerations (General)
Appendix C Process Outline
Appendix D Site Maps
Appendix E Solution Proposal ....................................
* Unable to continue pagination at this time until I have approval from a committee in Grand Junction to proceed with drawings in this section.
INTRODUCTION. ((STATEMENT#OF INTENT^
Int roduct i on
The focus of this thesis proposal will seek to answer the question: "What should a museum be in a small community that serves as a regional medium of communication for objects of cultural .and scientific interest? Specifically, Grand Junction, Colorado. Located on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains.
Colorado has inherited the unique responsibility of interpreting the geological and cultural past of a large portion of the western United States. This opportunity is ever present to those who have had, and still have, the good fortune to live there as well as the countless people who have chosen to make it a vacation destination. Translating this type of information becomes the obligation of those commun i ties who take it upon themselves to play an active role in researching the past and then displaying it in some manner' so that an individual can become better aquainted with the vastness of their surroundings.
In exploring the issues that would be involved with this type of learning tool, a set of conditions are outlined that will greatly effect the nature of the museum:
1) The facility will involve the incorporation of existing museums facilities currently located in the downtown central business district of Grand Junction:
Museum of Western Colorado
Dinosaur Valley Museum
Current size 28,000 sq. ft. 12,000
Predicted Expansion 20-30,000 sq. ft. 6-12,000
Total Needs 66-82,000 s<3- ft. 18-24,000
Combined Total 66-82,000 Sq, ft.
2) The site required to build such a facility would need approximately 2.5 6.0 acres of land, and would have to be determined by surveying the appropriate agencies.
3) The museum combination would create eight divisions of curatorial work to be supervised by an additional administrative division.
4) The galleries would range in size from an introductory gallery in the 1obby/reception area (500 sq. ft.) through a gallery of substantial size (10,000 sq. ft.) that would incorporate three-quarter-size mechanically operated dinosaurs.
5) The integration of the museum, into whatever site is chosen, will respond to existing buildings and businesses (possibly annexing ^ the convention center for an additional changing gallery) as well as encouraging new business starts that would enhance the economic viability of the downtown area.
In addition to the programatic responses to the museum merger, a theme will be explored that will related to how individuals can learn from the information set before them when the museum architecture itself responds to the diversity in history of Western Colorado with respect to the geographical, atmospheric, and cultural conditions of the past and present.
This Thesis is intended to explore how an individual can perceive the environment through learning experiences. It will focus on the human condition as it relates to the behavior and values of a given society, as well as the locational and spatial qualities of a "place."
The givens here, will be the devices that humans use to interpret their environment: sensorimotor, tactile, visual, and conceptual.
These devices deal with feeling thought and memory as well as aiding in the understanding of humans as they confront an object or feeling. Memory first recalls what has been learned and retained, then organizes views or principles pertaining to a period, place or time, and finally chooses to react by dwelling or moving' on to the next matter of interest. This contention will serve as a tool for establishing an experiencial environment of interpretation. To explore these matters further, the issues of space and place will be concerned with the geological (physical), atmospheric (ambient) and cultural (behavioral) constituants of Colorados western slope (west of the Continental Divide). The contention here is that the perception of a place is greatly influenced by the spatial qualities, both immediate and recognative, and locational spirit, both the conscious perception as well as subconscious potential for experiencing. Composing places to swell, and spaces to move through will serve as the medium of combining perception of reality and the conscious awareness of time that has passed.
As a means of supporting this argument, this discussion should concern itself with factors that actually constitute Western Colorados history. The diversity ranges from pre-historic geological features, influenced greatly by climatic conditions, and extends to the latter half of the twentieth century. This magnitude of millions of years must be simplified by terms that are comprehendab1e. This will be done by means of first, identifying the evident pattern in geology, atmosphere, or culture that is to be addressed... second, the condition of how it relates to human factors will be discussed no the point that relates experience to environment ... and finally, a diagram will be used to illustrate the relationships discussed.
Opposing Land Forms Grand Junction is located on the cross axis of two major landforms: The Colorado National Monument to the west and the Grand Mesa National Park to the east. They create a line of force" through the city that is unmistakeab1y dynamic.
Integration: an outdoor court yard area within the museum itself could continued the convergence of the movement of the landforms.
Agricultural Valley A typical pattern which suggests itself to most agricultural valley situations is also present in the Grand Valley area. The configuration allows for structures to be built on the higher ground and the agriculture to be irrigated on the lower fertile vailey.
Integration: Interior balconies on second floor circulation space should overlook galleries below.
Fruit Trees in a Harsh Environment A masical identity is associated with the fruit trees as irrigation has overcome the severity of the arid climate. The regular delineation of orchard rows give the individual orientation with a sense of order.
Integration: A rhythm should be established as an integral tread in the modulating system for the building configura-
whole Rocky Mountain region which reflects synclines and antisynclines in the topography. Through the abrupt cascading of landslides, plateaus have been created, which give the onlooker a sense of incorrigable terracing.
Integration: The exterior building form should continue to
stage this terracing motif.
Hiking Trails in Forests A family outing so often takes on the role of using the outdoor spaces as a mode of recreation. A typical outing might involve camping, fishing, picnicing or hiking. Through tge excursion they might sense the changes of light (quantity and quality) from the break-of-dawn, through the twlight hours of dusk and finally night fall. This sensation is often felt through twinkling rays penetrating through the trees, opening in the clouds, or even shows by mountains themselves with an occasional protrusion of rock out croppings.
Integration: The sensation of varriable lighting should also be experience the family outing at the museum should entail. It should begin with the orientation to the entry of the museum and transpire through the entire experience.
Variety of Heights Situated in a valley, the observer can be entertained by canyon walls (stimulating vertical movement) with their multi-colors and obtuse configurations, and the sky (simulating a horizontal flow) which dramatize the ambient environment.
Integration: The variety of wall and ceiling height is essential in making the environment comfortable. The viewer sequence will also be integrated with the lighting.
Gathering Places Gathering places within the geographical features usually identify themselves by significant landmark mg's Two distinct examples might be an open flat area and a pinnical or depression of distinctive form and size. This pattern is also seen in the culture when distinctive meeting places for drop-offs, assemblys, or just common meeting ground.
Integration: Activities of the community will help determine the size of a public square that should be associated with the museum. It will allow crowds and individuals to participate in an appropriate intimate environment.
Integration: An interior courtyard should be a landmark in the interior of the museum. Thus allowing a meeting place for participants as well as facilitating the movement into other areas of the museum.
Connections in the Environment Farm buildings with additions built on overtime add an element to the environment characteristic of time. This sense of permanancy allows the onlooker to believe that all available resources were used and re-used for economic viability as well as the roots that were established.
Integration: Connections to adjacent buildings should be taken advantage of whenever possible.
Material Use Material use, as well as a skilled labor force, for existing buildings has helped ascertain a sense of stability for the community.
Integration: The materials used should be economically sound for the specific community. It should reflect low
energy consumption, as well as respect for the use of depleted resources.
Patterns in geography, atmosphere and culture have been essential to the establishment of Grand Junction in the past. There should be no reason for interupting this sequence of events. The interpretation of these events accumulate throughout the underlying theme of the museum which is to address the diversity in history of Western Colorado. All other sub-references to the overall design should pertain to these matters, addressing first how can the general public more clearly understand the information being presented before them.
GRAND JUNCTION'S HISTORY OF THE SETTLER
GRAND JUNCTION HISTORY
Colorado has an unforgetable past. The landscape with its endless undulations. The prehistoric creatures that unscroupu1ous dominated the land, civilized bands of hunters, gatherers and farm and the pioneers involved in the westward expansion.
The interwoven threads of this heritage have become entangled with the technology of the 20th Century. This change has placed demands on preserving the artifacts of the past and serving the current needs.
"This Colorado has a climate essentially different from that of old Colorado and the country east of the Continental Divio It is the climate of the pacific Coast modified only b> altitude and latitude. The air currents come up over the valleys, plateaus and mountainsides, fresh from the ocean currents that wash the Pacific shores. These ocean streams are heated under an equorial sun and sweeping north around the circle of the earth, temper the whole Western Slope."
Ernest In gers o L1 Crest of the Cout 1 nei: i 1885
-A land of the Anaszai and Ute Indians.
"Lawtons troups and mine camped on the northside of the river, while A. E. Woods troups and Abiel Smiths troups followed in the rear of the indians. Our !ask at the mouth of the Uncompaugre River was to hold back the civillians.
They followed us closely, taking up and "locating" the indian land thrown open for settlement. For obvious reasons it was not desirable to let the civillians come in contact with the indians: thus we were holding back a crown of these people on the south side of the Gunnison until the indians had passed Kahnah Creek, thirteen miles distant."
Captain James Parker The Old Arm\
-A new culture for Western Colorado.
..."As we pushed the indians onward, we permitted the whites to follow, and in three days the rich lands of the Uncompaugr were all occupied, towns were being laid out and lots being sold at high prices. With its rich soil and wonderful opportunities for irrigation, the Uncompaugre Valley before a desert soon became the garden spot of Colorado, covered with fruitful fields and orchards. "
Captain James Parker The Old Army <*> 1929
Development of a town
"I have laid out a town here Grand Junction, which in two or three years will be quite a place. I will have to give it some of ray time and would Like to have some of my people with me. If you can get some money in your property, or part of it, you can come here and invest it and in two or three years you can return rich. The climate will suit you and you will not be in the wilderness long', as the railroad will be running through here from Denver to Salt Lake in less than a year.
Yours, George Crawford
George A. Crawford Collection Colorado Historical Soci e>y
MUSEUMS OF THE 20th CENTURY
MUSEUM OF THE 20TH CENTURY
A museum... What is it? The answer will of course vary depending on who is asking the question and who is answering it. Eluding to the answer allows another question to be raised: In its essence does a museum itself become an art farmjart i fact in and of itself, or does it serve as a backdrop for its treasures. Invariably the final outcome will prove "Museums reflect the changes in society and culture and derive their nature from such."
Museums in the past, primarily in western culture were centers for academic research. They became depositories for collecting and conserving' both donated and purchased artifacts. The educated public was held distinctly separate from the masses of the uneducated, and therefore allowed privilages to view and work with the objects in a museums collections.
As for todays museums? They are asked to demonstrate more directly the "Benefits that accrue from their activities." The new view considering the education of the masses has challenged its predecessor by stating that "Unless the general public is allowed to view these precious collections they will remain uneducated about them. Seen as a medium of communication a museum is. "primarily, but not necessarily exclusively, concerned with the visual communication of objects of'cultural and scientific interest." A recent example of this can be cited in Vancover British Columbia with Aurthur Ericksons design of the "Museum of Anthropology." Visitor differentiation between the casual visitor and the research sohoiac has allowed virtually anyone who visits the facility to take part in instructive recreation.
The operations of assembling the "Ellectric, unique and common place of our culture" must be synthesized with functional, technology and formal considerations. From this will spring forth the essence of the program "Reflecting the spirit of the time and place." Neue Staats Galerie, designed by James Stirling' exemplifies the European outdoor theatre by creating a circular, central court yard. The sculpture garden becomes a stage that allows viewers to 1.1 ok upon ultra v e 1 through. An extrordinary integration with time and place.
Museums in the hierarchy of public building's rate very high: "More than most they attempt, through architecture, to manifest peoples belief in a specialness of their existance. For instance the Guggenheim Museum by Frank L. Wright allows the viewer to deeend through a series of ramps, within the confines of a semi-circular form, letting the participant to "flow through space." This allows the visitor to derrive a metaphor from their experience.
Museums today are taking on dramatically different forms. Once monumental and distinct they remain the symbolic centers of art, history, and science, but are now addressing a new set of criteria. "There is paramount importance of the quality and effectiveness or a museums exhibits and galleries in attaining its objectives." The
National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C., expresses this with strong objects displayed in a building whose extremely well proportioned and massing shows the collections to their advantage. Experiencing' the architecture must be an integral part of a cultural message communicated by the museum. An example might be I.M. Pols east wing addition to the national gallery in Washington, D.C. Pei compliments the powerful size and character of the national gallery by expressing the quality of space and form. Louis Kahns design for the Kimbell Museum in Ft. Worth, Texas, addresses what a museum communicates to the public in terms of its overall image. The series of strong vaulted forms is well sited and gives it a sense of order. The interior communicates with space, light, and volume and derrivss its context from the art on display.
To say a particular style should become a museum r vpe* would be a futile attempt at labeling. A sharp contrast is seen between distinctly individualized interpretation of the term. The national gallery in West Berlin, Germany, is best described by its designer. Ties Van de Rohe: "An elegant container that doesnt compete with the art it contains." He refers here to the pure rectal inear shape u expressed by using a glass curtain wall around its perimeter. It becomes crystal-like in its open field setting. A sharp contrast can be seen in the Oakland Museum, created by John Roche & Kevin Dinkaioo in Oakland California. This earthen structure serves manv roles as it becomes a park in its urban setting while still creating a tunneling experience for the internal museum visitor.
What link is held here, between .the comparatively different museum designs mentioned thusfar. It appears to be the communication between the perceiver and the perceived. A sense of order arrives when it is put in the correct setting.
As for the future, Suzanne Stevens describes what she thinks will be appropriate. "Museums of the future will have to devi tie unique interactions between the exhibited and the viewer." Perhaps the Seattle Acquarium in Seattle, Washington, has taken this step already by switching the roles when it created a domed tank that allows the visitor to walk through and be seen bv the inhabitants of (he water.
The museum environment for the future is still dependant on
basically two thing's: the program of for it which will be set in These factors may become but they will still offer a unique experience in contemplation.
and th e e 11 viroma e n t increasingly comoie:
env i ro nment
CONCERNS OF THE MUSEULM ENVIRONMENT
1.1 ARRIVAL AND ORIENTATION .
Arriva1 and 0rientation
"Making visitors feel both physically and psychologically comforatble is a key to the enjoyment of the museum." 1
The key to orienting the visitor to the museum is a comfortable arrival. This need is emphasized by considering the purpose of the visitors trip and the distance that they have traveled to encounter what has made the museum such a special place to visit:
"Many visitors have made the pilgrimage. They have made a concious decision ... they have come across the street, across the town or across the country in order to see the institution." 2
Visitors such as these need to be welcomed in order to set a precedent for what yet awaits them and should be an unforgetable experience.
Once the visitor has passed through the entry door "A humane introduction by someone who is already familiar with it is the best way to come to know that the museum is an exciting place". 3 The viewer should have a good experience They should be greeted by someone other than the guard." 4
Those who greet the visitor could be staff members, the director, and volunteers, who should all be well informed about the museum facility. This especially applies to those that are handicapped, for they might need special direction that would appropriately suit their specific needs.
Lighting becomes a critical factor as well. It is suggested to treat it as a "Conditioning area in which the visitors eyes are permitted to adjust from the high levels of daylight to the necessary low levels required for conservation."5 The adequate choice of lighting will ensure that the visitor will become acclimated rather than abruptly forced into darkened hallways.
To Gallery Transition
A dichotomy in entrances should also be considered. On occasion, groups will arrive simultaneously with other visitors. Two entrances do not always prove to be necessary, but in this case it might want to be considered.
"A separate entrance for student groups will not only ensure an orderly arrival for students, but will also prevent their interfering with the arrival of the casual visitor." 6
Metropolitan ^ Museum of Art New York
Rafael Larco Herrera
Orienting the Visitor
Approach to the Museum
The integration of locational devices such as maps, brochures, landmarks, and signs will help to clarify the different roles that the museum plays. The sections "Visitation and User Characteristics" defines the role of these activities in further detail but should be looked at as stressing "The availability of a comprehensive orientation system is absolutely essential if the museum is to ensure that the visitors comprehend and appreciate its goals and purpose." 8
Although orienting the visitor about how to tour the museum is important, the museum muse also consider what there is to see. One approach to this is to develop self-guided tours in which the gallery layout informs the view of the sequence of movement. The following diangrams are suggested as criteria to base patterns of desired movement by the visitor.
li=-T" 4 *===11
Room to Room
Corridor to Room Nave to Room
p 1 1 1 % 1 i i # 1
r L J 1 1 I I
c3 a >
0 = d fn
Pacing in this context will refer to both physical and mental fatigue. It is known to result from such factors as "Object satiation, disorientation, lack of contrast as well as physical discomfort (e.g., excessive noise, exhaustion, and heat)." 10
Depending on the visitor, pacing will regard itself to basically three major categories: Groups, Families, or Individuals. These categories subdivide into either self-paced or guided tours. This begins to make notice of the fact that the museum should have clearly marked passages and information available to help make the choices appropriate for their visit. A good example of this is the Maxican National Museum of Anthropology which radiates the galleries around a spacious courtyard.
"This layout permits the visitor to select as many or as few galleries as desired from an easily perceived organizational basis (galleries organized by regions), with contrasting fresh air visits in between or a relaxing break at the pleasant centrally located eating facilities." 11
A variety of experiences can help the individual orient themselves through:
o treating galleries as a collection of individual experiences o emphasizing the unique features of a building o providing contrasts between galleries and the public nongallery spaces. 12
o providing contrasts in each gallery itself to avoide object satiation (similarity of paintings or furniture as regards style, period, subject matter, etc.) 13
The term "gallery" is sometimes taken as a general all encompassing word. To some extent, certain functions such as lighting and orientation in a gallery have to present the character of the sequence through which they are viewed. To take it further, it might even have similar display techniques such as materials, textures and sizes. The point where it differs comes from the nature of the collections themselves. Each gallery should be "appropriate in style and character to the artifacts presented within it."14 If a single gallery type were to present itself for a solution it would have to be analyzed thoroughly, for any single solution would immediately take away any contrasts that the design might have to offer.
Diversity also lends itself lighting contrasts, color highlighting, and spatial differences. Lighting as discussed in the L i ght ing section could be diversified between the circulation spaces and the actual gallery spaces. Colors could be added identify floors, walls and ceilings. Differences in heights of ceilings can also be particularly effective in creating different atmosphere.
Precaution should ber used in creating too much variety in the gallery spaces. Too much contrast could dull the senses and be as ineffective as no contrast at all. The care in using diversity should also delineate a style, or theme, just as the museum itself puts forth a certain unifying element.
In order to accommodate all visitors, a museum should offer a circulation system which allows the visitor to arrive at the destined galleries as directly as possible. The following are further considerations to enable the visitor to proceed with greater ease:15
o Circulation and Choice Lesser important galleries could be arranged so that visitors would have to go through them to get to the major gallery attraction.
o Circulation and Right Handed Preference Most visitors turn to the right when entering an exhibit hall.
o Circulation and Traffic Flow "The actual capacity of a
museum to handle people efficiently is a function not of the area or volume of the museum building, but of the width of its corridors and aisles."
o Circulation for Elderly and Handicapped The physical
arrangement of the museum should minimize changes in elevation to accommodate these special needs.
The following is based on a checklist system of how exhibits in public areas might be examined from the view of accommodating people: 16
Checklist #1 Physical Needs
11luminat ion (light without heat)
Integral, Ambient, Spot, Interfering, Daylight
Direct, Indirect, Diffused, Special distributions
Incandescent, Fluorescent, Other
Glare Direct, Specular, High Spots
Shadowing and Contrast
Surface Colors, Source Colors
Light Sources: Positions and Intensity Fixed
Variable preprogrammed Variable viewer controlled Variable environment
Signal and Warning lights Emergency and Escape lighting
Security lighting potential danger spots and 'dark corners
Sound and Notes
Sources Human Voice Guide, Visitors, Loudspeakers (Public Address
and Recorded), Earphones (Personal receivers and tape recorders), Telephones Display Sound Effects Emergency and Warning
Characteristics Prequency range, Comprehensibility Interference
From other signal sources: Floors, telephones, doors, etc.
From Noise: Quality, Intensity, Pitch, Distant Tones
Frequency, Regularity, Sudden Onset, Prolonged Predictability: Expected and Unexpected Localized or diffuse 'Startle potential
Reverberation, Echoes, Acoustic Damping Acoustics of rooms and spaces Acoustical improvement measures
Effects of visitor density on ambient noise and acoustics Effects of component changes,( e.g., new exhibits) on acoustics Seasonal changes in noise levels,( e.g., air conditioners running up to load, sniffing children and coughing adults)
Temperature, Humidity, Ventilation
Seasonal and diurnal variations Sources of heat, cold, drafts
Temperature, Humidity, Ventilation (continued)
Constraints, e.g., from nature of exhibits User density effects
Effects of positive and negative ions in rooms on users. (There are unproved but supported suggestions that an excess of free negative ions tend to exhilarate and positive ions depress people in a room. Future experiment?
Solid, translucent, mesh, grills, bars, rails, air-curtain
Flat, angled, curved
Texture, hardness, surface characteristics
Light, sounds, vibration transmission
Controls, visitor operated and other
Floor coverings, wall coverings, steps, stairs, slopes, ridges, etc.
Seasonal effects on interface, e.g., in winter people cough, spit, wear rubbers, drip, carry umberellas, come in from the cold, etc.
Wheelab i1i ty
H *? i. Â£ h t o D istances
Angles and projections, steps and wells Movement pathways required from viewer
Accessab i1i ty
Separation from other components
Potential for physical interference, e.g., visitor viewing one display blocks another visitors view of a second display
Access and Escape
Special hazards not covered by above
Visitors clothing and things carried hazard potential (bomb also)
Hazards, e.g., edges, corners, etc.
Floors, e.g., slippery? hard?
Installation, Servicing and Maintenance
Access for personnel and equipment. Standardized parts available. Reachable facilities (e.g., power points). Room to open covers, remove panels, use a screwdriver, see what you are doing, etc.
Checklist #2 Physiological and Anatomical Needs
Neck-bending and head turning Leaning
Climbing carrying trays, children, etc.
Limb Movements required
First Aid and Recovery
Temperature, Humidity, Air Movement, etc.
Strength, e.g., to open doors Dexterity, e.g., to operate faucets
Size and shape of user populations related to component.
Special Physiological Needs:
Diaper changing Infant feeding Disabled visitors Deaf Aged 111
Checklist #3 Psychological Needs
Acuity, near and far vision Color discrimination Depth perception
Eye movements and scan patterns
Selectivity (against interference and ambient noise)
Tactile sensitivity Tactile discrimination
Potential for use as communication channel in Component Olfactory
Smells perfumes, odors, and stenches Mult isensory
Corapatabi1ity between senses Compatabi1ity with other components
Perception & Aperception Complexity levels
Illusions intended and unintended
Recogni t ion
Attention Spans Language levels Complexity of reasoning Decision making Adjacent displays/objects Feedback from user
Display/objects component satiation
Arousal (Exotic, erotic, macabre elements in component) Color
Symbols (Emotional effects)
Checklist #4 Social Needs
Cooperation with other individuals Cooperation with other groups Cooperation with museum staff Control others, e.g., children Readiness to read instructions, etc. Non-interference with objects
Primary Target Groups Secondary Target Groups Other Target Groups
Define in terms relevant to component e.g., age, sex, educational levels, cultural, scientific, and humanistic backgrounds: language skills, occupations (trads, professions, leisure activities)
Cultural/Racial elements in component, e.g., in display 'Personal Space allowed
Social Swirl sociofugal and sociopetal effects Social compatabi1ity with adjacent components (unless social shock is sought)
Interaction among age levels helping relationships
Checklist #5 Educational Needs
Levels of education demanded by users -
Level of literacy
Levels of education demanded by users (continued)
Knowledge of museums in general
Knowledge of other local museums, provincial museums, etc.
Educational Goals of Component
Educational goals defined in objective and subjective terms
Appropriate educational techniques used e.g., redundancy
Self-testing facilities for users
Cross-referncing to library, other components (e.g., exhibits), other museums, etc.
Availability of pamphlets, guides, catalogs, leaflets, tapes, etc.
Relevant references near component (e.g., exhibits) and a place to read them in comfort
Non-verbal, visual and tactile encounters possible with component
Potential for moving users imagination to move backward and forward in time and place
Has component an exotic, erotic, or currently relevant potential which can be brought out to encourage learning?
Is information available in languages other than English?
Are raulti-1ingual guides and instructors available for this component?
What measures will be used to discover components success in approaching educational goals?
Checklist #6 Financial Needs Initial costs Operating costs Maintenance costs Repair costs Rate of deterioration User wear and tear Shut-down costs
Maintenance costs if taken out of use Present financial constraints Probably future trends
Potential for retrenchment in times of financial stringency
Checklist #6 Financial Needs (continued)
Potential for encouraging gifts and endowments museum from users, e.g., a museum archeological project
Potential for demonstrating social value of museum to tax-paying user
Potential for increasing museum income without betraying museums primary objectives, e.g., interesting and unusual foods in restaurant related to exhibits as well as good convential meals. Encouragement of book, catalog, souvenir artifact purchases by mentions of afvai1abi1ity in exhibit labels. Encouragement in membership of museum support groups, etc. (One can imagine some horrible encouragement to hockstering at worst; acquiring some devoted museum adherents at best.)
Any potential for legal action against the museum? e.g., from
falls, infringement of copyright, food poisoning, assault, etc.
Potential for offending special religious, political, racial, etc. groups? (To be aware of potential, not necessarily swayed by it.)
1.4 TYPES OF LEARNING
Eight Types of Learning Gange (1965) 17
Royal Ontario Museum (1976) (Interpretation as it related to a museum)
5: Multiple Discrimination.
The individual learns to make different identifying responses to as many different stimuli, which may resemble each other in physical appearance to a greater or lesser degree.
6: Concept Learning. The learner acquires a capability of making a common response to a class of stimuli that may differ from each other widely in physical appearance. He is able to make a response that identifies an entire class of objects or events.
7: Principle Learning. In simplest terms, a principle is a chain of two or more concepts. It functions to control behavior in the manner suggested by a verbalized rule of the form "If A, then B, where A and B are concepts. However, it must be carefully distinguished from the mere verbal sequence "If A, then B which, of course, may also be learned as type 4.
8: Problem Solving. Problem solving is a kind of learning that requires the internal events usually called thinking. Two or more previously acquired principles are somehow combined to produce a new capability that can be shown to depend on a "higher-order" principle.
e.g., The visitor will correctly identify a Klee, a Miro and a Picasso from a set of three paintings, one by each painter. The visitor will correctly name the major skeletons in the dinosaur exhibit.
e.g., The visitor will be able to select the "odd-man" from the following trios of objects xylophone, piano, harpsichord; whale, porpoise, shark; iron, mercury, lead. The visitor will indicate (via test questions) his understanding that the pulley, the lever and the wedge all provide mechanical advantage.
e.g., The visitor will be able to conduct an experiment to demonstrate the electrical conductivity of various sample materials. The visitor will select the most correct explanation for the Faucault pendulum exhibit from several which are provided. The visitor will learn that some butterflies, like birds, are migratory.
e.g., The visitor will correctly solve several problems requiring specific application of Ohms Law. The visitor will indicate an understanding of harmony by filling in various blanks in a musical score. The visitor will cor rectly select several srticles which would permit survival on the moon for a specific period of t ime.
Types of Learning
The following are examples of learning types. The curator, designer and evaluator will need to examine the viewers experience they will desired when the individual is confronted with the exhibit.
Eight types of Learning A Hierarchy
Gange (1965) Royal Ontario Museum (1976)
(Interpretation as it relates to a museum)
Type 1: Signal Learning. The individual learns to make a general diffuse response to a signal. This is the classical conditioned response to Pavlov.
Type 2: Stimulus-Response Learning. The learner acquires a precise response to a discriminated stimulus. What is learned is a connection (Thorndike) or a discriminated operant (Skinner) sometimes called a instrumental response (Kimble).
Type 3: Chaining. What is acquired is a chain of two or more stimulus-response connections. The conditions for such learning have been described by Skinner and others.
Type 4: Verbal Association. Verbal association is the learning of chains that are verbal. Basically, the conditions resemble those for other (motor) chains. However, the presence of language in the human being makes this a special type because internal links may be selected from the individuals previously learned repertoire of language .
e.g.. The visitor learns to stop in front of exhibits bearing a blinking red light. The visitor learns to avoid touching the surface of any paint ing.
e.g.,The visitor learns to call one group of weapons "muskets", while another group is called "luderbuss". The visitor learns to call one form of column "Ionic" another "Corinthian"; and a third "Doric".
e.g., The visitor will learn to find his or her way from the front entrance to a permanent exhibit on the third floor (without getting lost). The visitor will learn to operate multiple-selection switches on audio-devices so as to hear mini-lectures in an understandable language.
The visitor will detect those qualities in a crystal structure which define it as a "tetrahedron". The visitor will learn the chornological sequence of names describing various periods of glaciation. The visitor will learn to order skulls in terms of cephalic index.
"Each type of learning model is distinct from, but related to the other types above and below it on the list". 19
Problem solving (type 8) requires a prerequisites: Principles (type 7), which require a prerequisites: Concepts (type 6), which require as prerequisites: Multiple discriminations (type 5) which require as Verbal associations (type 4) or other chains (type as prerequisites:
Stimulus-response connections (type 2).
prerequi s i tes:
3), which require
1.5 USER CHARACTERISTICS
User Character is tics
The museum should lend itself to a wide range of user groups. Among these are school children, organizations, groups and tourists. To take it one step further, it must also accommodate the serious researcher as well as offer attractions for the impulse visitor.
The following is a summation of how the museum could offer accessibility to the user groups. It is assumed that the Museum of Western Colorado will function relatively on the same basis of other museums of its type.
A dominant user group of the educational department involves those who are already in a school system. It presently offers lessons as well as tours to those within and outside the community. Travel should be dependant on a major arterial street system. Upon arrival it should offer a safe location for pick-up and drop-off as well as offer a place to park near by. The proximity of the facility should provide convenience for those involved in out-of-town groups so that time can be saved thus providing a longer educational experience as well as safe travel during the daylight hours.
Organizations and Groups
Those involved would visit for both edueat ional offerings as well as other museum affiliated activities. They would also require safe, dependable travel on a major arterial system.
Unlike the school children, they would predominantly arrive in cars and vans. The driver would most likely unload the passengers once in a parking space. This critical element must be afforded a safe circulation system from the parking space to the facility, thus enhancing the experience of the visitor.
The most prominant user of the current facilities are out of state tourists and outside of Mesa County tourists. These users areprimarily interested viewing the exhibits rather than make use of research or educational aspects of the museum. They must also have provisions for safe arrival and departure as well as orientation to the museum from interstates and highways. They must also be directed to the museum and other ammenities surrounding it.
The Serious Researcher
This type of visitor represents an individual that makes a special purpose trip. This person is interested in specific information and might travel great distances to gather it.
Currently, this information is dispursed throughout Western Colorado. The convenience of one location, which is a depository for the area, could offer special attention to provide space for
User Characteristics (continued)
The Serious Researcher (continued)
research of a greater magnitude, thus reducing the number of trips the individual might have to make to find the correct resources to conduct the research.
The Impulse Visitor
This user group is somewhat difficult to define. Those who could not normally patronize the facility in the course of their every day activities or recreational pursuits,"20 may be used for these purposes. The museum might concern itself with captivating this type of audiance with meaningfull and exciting exhibits and services. The new museum might be able to stimulate this viewer by outdoor convenience in activities that a downtown setting might provide.
Factors that, when combined, might begin to address this user group could consist of a combination the novelty of a new building the increased visibility of the new structure and the increased exhibit/gal 1ery size.
Museum collections, like other valuables, should be protected from "tneit, damage, and fire." 21 Devising security systems for this type of prevention is a museums concern that should involve personnel awareness for employees and visitors, as well as an adequate back up system installed for added protection.
"Museum security should include measures for the protection of the building, its contents, its staff and its visitors."22 The integration of this should involve a variety of measures that should be possibly considered as one approach. The following study will involve itself with these measures of need and suggested possible solutions that might affect operational matters, desitgn and arrangement of galleries, and selection of mechanical and electronic devices.
In proposing precautionary measures, the museum must consider the time visitors and employees arrive and leave the premises. Perhaps it is said best in that "a well run checkroom is an efficient security factor and it is also a courtesy to the public." 23 It is suggested that visitors are asked to check in coats and items that might be used to conceal or damage objects. Another suggestion might be to orient visitors and groups about the appropriate behavior that is expected in the museum. Many people do not realize the "necessary 1imitations"24 expected of their behavior. Another major operational precaution involves security guards. Most museums include this in their security measures. As a staff member, the individual has a great deal of public contact with the visitor, and therefore must be courteous as well as being well informed about the subject matter that the visitor perceives.
The following involves further operational considerations that might be applied in the development of the museum design:
Site and Building Characteristics
Public Access Areas
o use different exterior doors and keys than interior ones
o incorporate automatic visitor counting
o check-room for coats and objects restricted from entry
Areas Inaccessible to Public
o loading and unloading area inside behind closed doors
o secure storage or holding area adjacent to receiving-monitored
o director in charge of all delegates responsibi1ity/authority to chief security officer/staff plans, organizes, coordinates and controls all security measures
Site and Building Characteristics(continued)
o people still basis for overall museum security especially during daylight/working hours when many systems are not used o museum should train its own staff for security practices
o when entering museum, objects given a unique and permanent number or code and identification mark o inventory must be made and recorded: 1) deters theft
2)immediate indication of theft 3) descriptive information in case of theft
o all items should be photographed soon after entry supplemented with written description o all records kept locked, secured and safe in file cabinets o logs of admittances to storage areas should be kept
o inform employees about fire protection systems and evacuation o develop graphic symbols for informing visitors about alarm systems, extinguishing and evacuation methods.
Theft and Burglary Protection
o develop system for employee awareness of protection techniques o develop security system with guard protection
o after hours employee entrance and exit other than main entrance
o mechanical locks for door offer least possible fire impediment while providing burglary protection o key cards good system minimize numbers given out register
Interior Control Systems
o emergency lighting and electrical back-up o communication to police and fire stations o monitors for all alarm systems o strictly controlled entry
Design and Arrangement of Galleries
Security also becomes involved in the spatial arrangement of galleries. It becomes a subtle security devine when the physical configuration is considered for their surveillance by guards. The results can be "a compatibility between the desirable location of doors which gives the best circulation for display and an arrangement which enables a guard to see many rooms at one time." 25 One suggestion is to have galleries divided by low walls or partitions instead of full height walls.
Another consideration that might interfere with the viewers intimate relationship with the display is that alcoves are almost unmanageable for the guard. Concealed tampering by the viewer could very well destroy a precious item in the collections which may be irreplaceable. This could be avoided by transparent partitions which to some degree still allow the visitor to perceive the information in privacy.
Three additional suggestions which could enhance security, while still optimizing the viewers relationship to the display have been both traditionally used as well as innovatively altered. The first suggest employing a "sacrificial object." 26 This allows the viewer to touch and feel less precious or artificial objects. The visitor in most cases satisfies their need to actually feel what is being displayed without damaging the 'real thing. 27
Another is to, whenever possible, create a psychological barrier rather than an actual one. Examples of this might be railings, ropes, elevated objects, and gravel or water barriers. When these are applied to the advantage of the display they can still create an effective communication of the object to the viewer.
The following involves further design and arrangement of gallery considerations that might be applied to the development of the museum des i gn:
Site and Building Characteristics o safety and accessibility to public and staff o close proximity for fire and police departments o close proximity of fire hydrants
o easy access to building by emergency service vehicles o reduce recessed windows, doors, corners, overhangs and niches to minimum
o landscape placed to avoid hiding places or giving access to building
Public Access Areas
o reduce number of doors to minimum
o provide logical orientation and space planning to keep guards from having to dispense information o set aside space near entry for assembly and group orientation o place auditoriums and classrooms (night use) away from exhibits o keep orientation and direct circulation good avoid constrictions
o open spaces (courtyards) good for orientation and evacuation o avoid dead ends in galleries and exhibit halls
Design and Arrangement of Galleries (continued)
Areas Inaccessible to Public
o use major structural areas for differentation (walls, hallways, floor levels)
o restrict non-public access
o divide area into two parts: 1) engineering, security,
custodial, mechanical 2) collections storage, registration, restoration and conservation, exhibits preparation, research and offices
o place artifacts storerooms and vaults in inner building away from exterior walls
o more security and protection for storage
o use numerous, smaller storage rooms compartmentalized to prevent fire spread
o designate primary and alternate evacuation routes and a muster point for guards and/or staff in case of emergency
o must break up monotony trade locations, public relations, etc Inventory Control
o place records in a secured area Fire Protection
o separate all combustible materials keep storage of them to a minimum
o separate functional areas and dangerous areas with fire doors and walls
o physically detached from other buildings o fire-resistant materials used
o mechanical systems in fire-resistant enclosure separated form museum
o assign certain spaces for smoking melt and Burglary Protection
o should mix security/alarra systems with basic concept of mechanical security such as: thick walls, steel doors, locks, barred windows and highly resistant glass doors
o windows with molding and hinges only on inside o doors hinged to inside frame to be reinforced
o locks to be dead-locking latches or dead bolts pick resistant tumbler locks with 7 tumblers minimum o doors reinforced with steel plate skylights fitted with cold-drawn steel grille
o armored or laminated glass or glass with alarm system o fit windows and doors with tempered steel bars, shutter, grilles, etc.
o vulnerable points concentrated on: doors, windows, skylights, roofs, ventilation ducts, penetrable walls o no outside circuit boxes o floodlight exterior
Design and Arrangement of Galleries
Interior Control Systems o avoidence of windows
o interior reinforced concrete
Selection of Mechanical and Electrical Devices
The use of mechanical and electrical devices provide security in a third dimension. This is pointed out in the choice of a suited device and that it is dependant upon "the type, size, characteristics, and value of the object to be protected, the environmental conditions in the space, the presence or absence of museum personnel in the area, the type and number of persons expected to use the area as well as the hours invo1ved ."28These considerations in conjunction with the cost and ease of maintenance should remain within the museum to ensure that they are constantly operational during museum open hours and at night.
The following involves further selection of mechanical and electrical devices criteria that might be applied to the development of the museum design:
Site and Building Characteristics o floodlight building exterior
o avoid exterior circuit boxes and single access lines for electricity
Public Access Areas
o all exits to exterior must be controlled by guards or electrical equipment
o doors to have built-in magentic switches o control access from public to non-public spaces o build-in detection devices good with central control panel o prevent air flows that might hinder detection devices
Areas Inaccessible to Public
o install detection and keyed devices for personnel and emergency access
o provided with systems control access communication to police, fire station, hospital
Security Personnel o not applicable
Inventory Control o not applicable
o automatic fire detectors with panel in museum and fire department
thermal detectors in rooms with low ceilings small and inconspicuous
smoke detectors in rooms, elevator shafts and ducts photoelectric detectors slow response to smokeless flaming f ires
Selection of Mechanical and Electronic Devices (continued)
Fire Protection (continued)
ionization detectors recommended slower to respond to smoldering fires recommended for rooms with ceilings over 15 o halon or halogenated hydrocarbons good system no damage potential but expensive to refill danger of toxicity in high concentrations suitable for libraries, computer rooms and engine rooms with flammable fuels o portable fire extinguishers should be located in numerous areas o standpipes and hoses located so every area covered by 2 or more hoses fine spray
o automatic smoke discharge devices on ionization detectors -draw off combustible and toxic gases o mechanical shafts equipped with smoke alarms and damper controls
o dry chemicals good for surface protection leaves powdery residue not for populates areas good for kitchens o sprinkling system highly recommended risk of water damage to paintings, textiles, rare manuscripts or books but good for other areas
o fire doors on automatic close control from ionization detectors o C02 extinguishing systems o lightning protection o electrical installations to code
o mechanical rooms separate from warehouses, storerooms and stocks of combustible materials o fire dampers in ducts piercing fire walls
o restoration work and wood constructionareas well ventilated Theft and Burglary Protection
o key to alarm systems is censor and method of detection -
presence or absence of or changes in physical phenomena like: electic currents, mechanical vibrations, magnetic and electromagnetic fields, electrical fields, acoustic waves, optical and thermal rays
o all electric wiring to be tamper-proof hidden and protected Perimeter Protection
o vibration detectors can respond to traffic or airplanes -good systems though sensitivity adjustable o photoelectric eyes infrared light or laser beams transmitted and received forms screen or protection subject to tampering with electronic devices o magnetic inductive systems two parallel cable loops underground responds to metallic objects sabotage proof few false alarms
o magnetic contact switches doors and windows signals when opened balanced magnetic switches stop magnetic tampering -security only against opening
o metal foil tape glued around window edges connected to signal wire on fixed windows unattractive bypassed if whole window removed
o built-in wires inside glass invisible used night and day expensive bypassed if whole window removed
Selection of Mechanical and Electrical Devices (continued)
Perimeter Protection (continued)
o Piezoelectric glass-breaking sensors sensor inactivated by heat
o control access through doors with remote controls o television cameras controlled or monitored in control room
Interior Control Systems
o television closed circuit 2 cameras diagonally placed in each room depends on human surveillance o absorption radar false alarms probable
o alternative is alarm panel in security office secured and with back-up battery
o can monitor temperature and humidity levels, mechanical equipment and water system
o independent HVAC with higher pressure inside o shielded and grounded to avoid electric interference o sabotage-proof ducts, air outlets and water supplies o contact mats pressure sensitive to steps easy to avoid if location known
o passive infrared devices only a receiver detects thermal radiation reliable limited range o microwave motion detection wave can travel through acoustic tile and so be hidden above ceilings false alarms probably broadcasting license required o photoelectric eyes barriers across rooms and hallways o ultrasonic motion detection reliable false alarms by air motion and ringing telephones PA system
SECTION 2 GALLERY
2.1 EXHIBIT EFFECTIVENESS
Museums traditionally have taken on the role of educational instutions. The discussion that follows will be primarily focussed on how the visitors learn from the experience of interpreting the information set before them. It will serve as a general guideline in outline form.
Learning, in this context, refers to:
"Any measurable changes taking place within the visitor which can be directly attributable to the exhibit experience".2S
- Criteria for exploration of exhibit effectiveness as it pertains to the Museum of Western Colorado.
o Requires existing staff expertise
o Requires only existing material with slight varriances in innovative techniques of handling displays, o Could be applied to new exhibits at a reasonable, or low cost.
- The viewer should understand what you discover by clearly stating:
1) What are the contents of the exhibit
2) How it relates to the visitor
3) Its organization as a display
4) What they could expect to learn about it.
Identifying the Exhibit Content
- Clear identification of the exhibit content includes:
A) Title clear statement focusing upon exhibit content.
B) Personalizing it outline material that would appeal to the visitors interest.
C) Conceptual learning bridge introduce material that has a relationship to the display in which the visitor can better understand the material.
Orientation inform the visitor of:
o What the exhibit was designed to accomplish o What they can expect to learn from it o How it is organized.
Tangible Objectives is all about.
inform the visitor what the exhibit
Suggested typical exhibit information for displays.
One way to further increase active par*icipdtory by the visitor is to state questions they might be asking themselves throughout the display.
Effective questions should:
A) "Relate an important aspect of the exhibit and define an important exhibit objective"30
B) Maintain the visitor focus on the collection direction attention to the objects themselves."
Question examples that could possibly facilitate viewer learning.
- Questions should indicate to the viewer their type
A) General ------ Specific
- Questions should be meaningful and challenging and should apply:
o exhibit facts o concepts
o relative principles involves.
To expect the physical arrangement of a gallery to inform the visitor of its orientation might be placing an un-needed burden upon the visitor. The individual may choose to personalize their own choice for the viewing sequence, thus adding to the complexity of the overall arrangement. The following are suggested examples of how this type of confusion could be resolved.
Organizing Signs Pannel which contains clear statement of the conceptual structure and physical arrangements of the exhibit.
Maps A simple floor plan map of the exhibit showing all important areas and displays.
Self Guiding Materials
Self Guiding Materials Forms used to orient the visitors of the exhibit content could be in the nature of 1) brochures, 2) map hand-outs, or 3) question sheets.
1) Brochures (pamphlets, books, cards) The information that might be contained in a brochure could include:
o clearly stated objectives and organizational plan o directional sequence of movement
o related text to each display o small amounts of visual informat ion
o include landmarks characteristics to note
2) Map Hand-Outs Indicate objectives of the visitors sequence that might include:
o identification of each major exhibit area
o clearly marked path for tours available o numbering or lettering sequence
(note: additional maps could be used for each specific exhib it)
3) Question Sheets Questions could be re-stated for the appropriate exhibit areas
The following are suggested helpful hints when considering the use of labels for an effective viewer experience:
o Content of label should be directly related to exhibit objectives.
o Scale down information to an intermediate learning level, o Direct visitors attention to objects themselves, o Condense information into paragraph form, o Place closely to related object.
o Place at eye level, or below eye level and tilt it up. o Use a clear simple type style.
o Should be clearly visible from a distance, o Use sufficient lighting, o Emphasizing is usually done by underlining or by using larger letter type size.
Question Asking Labels
o Instruct viewers at entry about them.
o Place within the learning material.
o Make questions specific and to the point.
o Place prior to the exhibit.
Audit Response Devices The following incorporate characteristics that could be beneficial in an effective audit program:
o Direct attention to the exhib i t.
o Guide visitors response, o Use music or sound only when appropriate, o Keep sequence of information short.
o Maintain control of content, length, and operation o Make sound quality of utmost importance, o Keep equipment unobtrusice. o Provide for "on-off" and self pacing.
o Indicate how it is used, o Make provisions for re-adaptat ion.
Make provisions for servicing.
Re-Cap of Exhibit Effectiveness
The quality and nature of the exhibit will ultimately dictate th^ information that should be incorporated into a display or sequence.
It should not be an incumberance to the visitor to assimilate the material since the amount of information presented throughout the museum is already in abundance. A few key guidelines will help to measure the adequacy of the system types that have been discussed.
Efficiency They should appeal to a wide range of audiences,
thus allowing the school age children and the sophisticated individual to taker advantage of their learning skills.
Scope They should allow for incidental, as well as specific learning skills.
Flexibility Should allow for small or large learning audiences.
Reliability Displays should be able to exhibit information
without the use of mechanical devices. These devices should be a secondary learning tool.
Ease of Installation They should be easily accommodated for in the spaces provided.
Ease of Utilization Techniques of displays should relay on staff expertise in instructional uses.
Cost Should be minimal in order to represent the information in a cost-effective way.
2.2 DISPLAY TECHNIQUES
Display Techniques and Considerations Wall
Flat Modified Surface Extended Surface
Block Work Movable Screens Timber Screens
Side Supported Cloth Covered Grid Wires
C. Other free standing vertical showcases; several of these methods are equally aoplicable to wall cases.
Opposite a Window
In Front of a Window
Lighted Cases Facing each other
Under Overhead Lighting
Diagram for an Exhibition, Herbert Bayer, 1939
The designer's basic planning should include a V-i
recognition of some physical facts about people. If visitors have headaches, bloodshot eyes, tired backs, sagging arches and burning feet after they have seen the Museum's exhibits, the designer has forgotton to consider how people are built. ^4
elliptical cone of vision (illustrated here) with the apex of the cone at eye-level height. Limits
of comfortable head move-
ments are shown below.
Approximate CORRIDOR requirements
from SIDE to SIDE
Arranging objects and labels beyond these visual and physical limitations will place a strain on seldom-used muscles and produce a severe case of museum fatigue.
mk -k- I I I
Some quite large objects, such as murals, heroic statues, Greek friezes, totem poles or dinosaurs, will inevitably soar above these viewing limits and in this event, the visitor must be permitted space to back far'enough away from the object to comprehend it without becoming a case for an orthopedic specialist.
2.3 graphic and visual impact
This paper is an attempt to distill a large amount of textual matter through the filter of day-to-day experience and to demonstrate the results in a visual-verbal way. The author would like the reader to consider each point carefully and to act upon the principles described. The result should be an effective graphic system for any display. However, an inspired designer might well contradict several of the points the author has raised, and in the process produce a stunning exhibition. Inspiration is a difficult and transitory blessing which no manual can attempt to provide." 40
The first thine one has to eonsidei is the complete alphabet either in capitals (shown below i 41
or in lower case (shown below I ...
nr combined together to make .1 capitals and lower-case set tins:
(shown below 1
Main sources. including the L.os Angeles Trattie Authority. state eategorieally that capitals and lower-case settings are by tar the most legible, since the ascenders and descenders lorm the shape of the word.
The second consideration is whether the alphabet has contemporary alienin': arabic figures or alternately old-style, non-aligning arabic figures. Incidentally, the aligning figures should always be used in conjunction with capital letters; the non-aligning in upper and lower case text setting.
non aligning figures
Below are two examples indicating inadequate and adequate leading (or spacing! between individual lines of type. The setting on the left also demonstrates wide word spacing and you can see the white rivers of word spacing starting to form. The leading, or line spacing should always be greater than the word spacing of any line of type.
This leading is This leading is right wrong because it because it creates
Once .1 letterform and a method of reproducing it lias been chosen, the next consideration is the use ol space in relation to the letter Below you can sec mechanical spacing on the left and visual letterspacing on the right. 1 he goal here is to achieve an equahtv ol tone throughout the word through the addition and subtraction ol space.
Under normal circumstances visual letterspacing should not be used with lower case letters, and never in sizes below 14 point. There are exceptions to this rule: the first being the necessity to cut in letters following the capitals T V W and V. The second occurs in large display sizes where small adjustments might need to be made.
Spacing between words should be kept to an absolute minimum.
Ideally the space should be the w idth ol a lower case i ot the font size used, plus its two non-printing shoulders. What one is attempting to do through minimum word spacing is to create a unitorm horizontal tone to the reading line: one that will reduce the number of vertical rivers of white space throughout the total setting
This spacing is wrong This spacing is right
II s v*u decide to do an assvmmetric design. then continue th:tt scheme throtiehout the tot;il design. Do not mix assymmetry witli symmetry.
This is This
the way is the
ffr out > 1 1 I
wrong ri ill 11
Simplify punctuation wherever possible. Omit punctuation after the tollowing abbreviations and contractions / Mr Mrs Ms Messrs Dr / St / C o j Ave / Inc / Svo / No / am pm
Wherever possible avoid over-capitalization. The World War I adage of when in doubt keep down applies here.
This Is The Way Out
I Mtii'.k quotation marks to indicate a primary quotation. T their is a quotation vdtliin that quotation than use double quotation marks to indicate tire change.
The art-nouveau look
The art-nouveau look
Raise hyphens and dashes to the optical centre of the capital height when using capitals onh or with contemporary aligning figures. Incidentally, always use the fewest possible figures for date or page sequences / 30<>-9. 1940-7. 1^14-18
DROP-IN CENTRE 1975-6
DROP-IN CENTRE 1975-6
These symbols were produced by Cook and Shanosky Associates lor the American Institute of Graphic Arts in connection with a iust completed sttidx for the United States Department ol I ransportation bv the AIC.A. The symbols are to be tested in five cities over the next two years. Thc\ are the synthesis of 24 separate symbol projects, and once tested will form the basis of the American National Standard. These, and several additional symbols within the series, ate recommended highly.
\ sire;il deal h:is been written about colour psychology. most of wliieli lias been ignored in this document. It should be stated here that a north-Ameriean can identify at least I 2 colours in the spectrum and an African tribe may have only two words to describe the same spectrum. In colour use a great deal depends upon cultural information about the \ iewer.
The author has given basic facts concerning the use of colour pigments and he feels that the sophisticated choice of colour for display depends upon the skill of the designer of the exhibition.
On this colour circle, any two colours directly opposite each other are complementary. The physical law of eomplementaries is exact, and has nothing to do with personal taste. A complementary of one primary colour is the sum of the other two primaries.
I hr- i'- the most visible coloui ariangeinenl lor day and night viewi in till opinion of nmih-aincricun traffic engineeis
Tins conclusion is based upon several detailed tests examining male/ female preferences and gives the top choice in the colour spectrum lor both males and females.
black on red black on blue
This is a small demonstration of how reverses (white on black ) absorb loo nuisli light and arc less legible than dark letters on a light ground.
This is the way out
I lie vvuical posinon ot all text signage on walls must fall between > led 1 i i;u lies and 5 led 5 inches in height. T his range represents i lie eve ci n lets ol an eight \ ear old eh lid to an adult. All directional signs can go abo\e the 5 fee! 5 inches height as long, as there is some eonsisleiuA to their position and providing the letters have an absolute minimum vheight ol 1 inch loi every 35 led ol view ing distance.
The conservation issue involved with artifacts becomes a unique problem when faced with presenting them to the public. They vary considerably from display-to-display and must be looked at individually. Generally though, they bear in mind relationships that can be discussed on an equal level of importance with one another. These aspects can be categorized under four topics: Temperature and Humidity, Lighting, Contaminants in the Air and Air Movements, and Monitoring and Handling of Objects.
Temperature and Humidity
"Temperature and Humidity can seriously affect many artifacts." 42 The diversity of elements contained within an object become very sensitive to changes in the environment and can quickly deteriorate under normal and abnormal stresses. Minor changes on the exterior of an object may be in contradiction to the interior fabric, thus being put under stress can increase the likely hood of tearing, transfiguration, and distortion of the original object. Relative humidity compounds this when changes in moisture content changes the physical properties of the object as well.
Four common materials affected by relative humidity
Wood & Fabric
Rusting occurs when oxygen and moisture combine and attach themselves to unprotected components. Hydroscopic particles of dust, fabric, or salt adhering to the surface and absorb water vapor in the air.43
Acids and salts move inward and outward as the changes in relative humidity occur which in turn causes stresses and break-up of the rock parti-cules. 44
Looses moisture when relative humidity drops and re-absorbs it when relative humidity increases.45
"Changes in relative humidity of comparitively short duration can cause dimensional alternations of sufficient magnitude to be damaging.46 Most of these materials can adjust to changes in relative humidity fairly well as long as these changes are not abruptly introduced.
Relative Humidity Ranges
Acceptable Variance If Not Abruptly Changed
While these considerations are rairly normal for relative humidity for the artifacts themselves, they inhibit the structural cohesiveness of the building itsefc. Attention should be placed in proper placement of vapor barriers and insulation.
Cold Moisture condenses and freezes
Vapor pressure migrates through building walIs
Cold Temperatures High Relative Humidity
NEED FOR VAPOR BARRIER
FACTORS EFFECTING RELATIVE HUMIDITY
Mechanical systems are very effective in controlling moisture levels in the air for long duration of time. Problems do arise though when short term conditions such as gusts of wind permeate openings such as entry doors and windows. Short term solutions such as floor coverings with natural-fibre carpeting, and wall coverings like natural-fibre textiles help to maintain a stable level of relative humi di t y.
"One of the most important factors influencing conservation is lighting, as light has the potential for causing deterioration in all substances."47
Not all substances are equally susceptable in lighting but it can change their appearance or composition.
Types of Materials Affection Light
Inorganic Materials Virtually unaffected except for slight
o metals o minerals o jewelry o ceramics
o certain types of stones o glass
Organic Materials Fading and Brittleness o textile fibres
o paper, wood & cellulose materials o thin films of organic material
such as, protien, resins, and gums.
The major conservation considerations for the spectral characteristics of light are Ultraviolet (U-V) and Infrared (I-R)
o Long wave frequency o Ultraviolet o Most destructive over short term exposures
o Short wave frequency o Infrared
o Equally destructive over long term exposures
The illumination level and the length of exposure of light are in direct proportion to one another. For example:
"An object exposed for one hour to a hundred footcandles of illumination will show the same amoung of deterioration as an object exposed to one footcandle for one hundred hours." 48
Methods of Reducing Exposure o Turning off lights at night o Using time-lag switches
o Alternating artifacts on display with those in storage o Keep light levels low (see Lighting section)
o Keep light sources outside of display cases to reduce radiant and ambiant gains. (Relative humidity also changes with temperature fluctuations, so this must be a factor that is also considered.)
Contaminants in the Air and Air Movement
Control of the number and types of contaminants in the air is another conservation requirement.
Types of Air Contaminants
o polution caused by automobiles, factories, fireplaces o dust caused by wind and changes in air pressure o dirt brought in by shoes, cloths, food o salt by product of snow removal on streets
o use of carpeting and wall coverings to trap contaminants o higher atmospheric pressure at entry lobby to cause air to move from inside to outside
o special vacuum cleaners, used on regular rounds, that have pressure gauges and indicate changing of bags, o use of mechanical dry filters in air handling systems
(charcoal filters are particularly affective in areas such as museum laboratories, where sulfer dioxide, ozone, oxides of nitrogen, and gaseous contaminants are generated) o careful placement of artifacts
Monitoring and Handling
The care of objects on display, as well as storage, is an ongoing process. The use of effective programs, procedures and the development of conscientious attitudes will be effective measures in aiding the conservation of museum artifacts.
Significance of Lighting
The most significant factor that can be translated to the viewer in a museum is lighting. To be seen, an object requires light. The amount of light to be applied is not a quality which can be easily identified, but must be dealt with specifically to each situation that it encounters.
A conflict arises when the aesthetic function interferes with other consideration such as the potential for deterioration of sensitive objects. This aspect will be discussed at a later point under Conservation. Although the effectiveness of how it is applied is more of a technical matter, it should react with more of a general concern relating to the impact it will have on the museum visitor.
Lighting, as noted earlier in Orienting the Visitor, upon entering the museum can have a positive or negative effect upon arrival for the visitor. Whether natural or artificial, the total experience can be enhanced by orienting the first impression to a comfortable sequence of events to come. An inadequately or disturbing rendition can create an enduring negative impression which could be falsly interpreted in relationship with the forthcoming sequence.
Choosing the Proper Lighting
"General Rules" are often misinterpreted and do not always apply. Specific types of displays should be treated accordingly to suite their intended purpose. Properly balanced, "A mixture of systems can often increase the enjoyment of the viewing public."49 One method that can be employed to test a particular situation is to do a scaled down mock-up of a specific situation to ensure appropriate selection of the system to be used.
Two types of lighting that uil ^eneraiiy used, in both directed and filtered applications, are incandescent and fluorescent. Incandescent is often used in situations that need accent lighting and fluorescent takes on the role of directing through the major circulation spaces.
The controversial issue of natural lighting concerns itself with issues: it has a deteriorating effect upon objects which is primarily due to its ultraviolet (u.v.) component, and secondly its difficult to control due to is varriabi1ity. It is these two factors that ofen
abandon the use of natural lighting within the design. The human need for natural light was probably best stated by a forerunner of the modern movement of architecture, LeCorbusier:
"One only appreciates space by light." 50
Properly controlled daylight can become an asset by creating vitality within the environment. It becomes advantageous by making us somewhat familiar to our own life patterns when it allows us to view sculpture and large artifacts. Interest evolves through the quality of the space as the viewer is allowed to contemplate their own existance in a naturally lit environment.
"The amount and nature of the light needed to see museum displays cannot be arbitrarily established, as museum viewing consists of appreciably different objects in a sequence."51 The problem here becomes much broader. Not only does the lighting effect a particular object but the viewer must also perceive a sequential relationship with the museum as a whole. One approach to this has been outlined in a series of behavioral tests in which the person viewed a museum through varying levels of light. The accumulated results showed that adaptation generally occures faster if an individual perceives the event by starting with lower light levels and gradually moves to higher light levels, rathern than the opposite.
Recommended Not Recommended
Rest areas were also suggested at intermediate lighting levels between exhibition spaces to help achieve this purpose.
Suggested sequence through the museum involving lighting level changes.
Two factors are to be considered further when illuminating a display. One involves "The lighting level proceeding the display and the second is the relative brightness of an object within its visual field." 52 A suggested approach would allow a means for the display to have a higher level of illumination on the artifact itself, and a lower level surrounding the background.53 This allows the individual to become accustomed to lower levels of light while circulating and have to adapt gradually to each display in the sequence.
General, with separate picture lighting
without separate picture lighting Paintims. on vertical surface lioranes:
Reading Rooms Reading tables
j=nera' offices ;-awing offices-General Boards and Tracing
Laboratcries. general Leather working, grading ano
Ajint works, colour matching 1ery, enamelling, colouring, c.orating
Textile weaving, fine cloth
Gradually lower the illumination when coming from the outside or from bright areas.
Within the museum guide the visitor from lower to higher levels of illumination, coordinating lighting and signing so that the visitor is guided in the right direction.
Use natural light in galleries, where possible,' and in relaxation areas. Natural light is ideal in galleries with objects which would normally have been outdoors, such as statuary.
Provide visual shielding between galleries to avoid reflection of light sources or light spill from one gallery to the next.
9 Maintain the level of background illumination in
galleries so that the contrast between the illumination of the objects and the ambience does not exceed a ratio of 6:1. For example, if the light intensity on the object is 60 footcandles, then the background level of lighting should not be lower than 10 footcandles.
Tne amount df light shdwn td be required in the Cdde is dependent on the refection factdr df the dbiect and the distance al which detail dl a given size has td be viewed and distinguished.
It should be noted that the effectiveness of a display is often dependant upon maintenance and operational costs of the system. The following operational applications should be followed with respect to the following criteria. 55
o Choose light sources and levels of illumination which are efficient in their output and consume a minimum amount of energy for a given result.
o As much as possible without unduly constraining the range of lighting choices, limit the number of different types of light sources used in order to simplify maintenance and stocking.
o Provide three levels of illumination: for display, for maintenance, and for emergency purposes.
o Provide emergency lighting using the same type of fixtures as those used for general illumination, dimmed and controlled so as to be in balance with the regular lighting.
o Provide for flexibility in light level adjustments within
each gallery by installing dimmers in all general and accent lighting circuits.
o Maintenance of lamps in the gallery areas, both on the ceiling and in the showcases, is an extremely delicate operation and should be made as hazard-free as possible.
o A spot re-lamping procedure for incandescent lights (when used for accent lighting) is recommended in gallery spaces, while group re-lamping for fluorescents may be advantageous.
o Provide access points for electric power within each gallery to permit flexibility in the location of showcases and spotlights. Provision of continuous wireways on the walls at different heights and multiple track facilities in the ceiling are highly recommended.
o Provide adequate power for anticipated lighting and power
demands. As a general rule, 5 to 15 watts per square foot of gallery space should be provided. In addition, allow for temporary electrical loads created by photographic and television lighting needs.
Lighting and conservation also become important criteria in choosing a system. The complexity of the matter should be considered with respect to the following suggestions: 5G
o In galleries containing light-sensitive objects, the lamps used should have a minimum ultraviolet radiation content in their spectrum. The ambient illumination should be low and diffuse, so as to allow sufficient contrast between exhibits and the space around them.
o Wherever possible eliminate light sources in cases.
o Where it is essential to have light sources within cases, the cases should permit heat dissipation and provide for easy access to lamps and ballasts for servicing. Where spotlights are used in cases, they should be of a type that eliminates infarared radiation from the main light beam.
o Illumination levels for particularly sensitive objects should be limited to 50 lux. Most museum objects may be illuminated to a level of 100 lux, while those objects that are not sensi tive to light may be illuminated to a level of 300 lux.
The lighting design for outdoor areas is another interest that the museum must consider. The lighting must provide for safety, comfort and convenience of the parking area patrons. Safe nighttime traffic and pedestrian flow must be insured and illumination levels should be sufficient to "afford both users and owners protection against assault, theft, and vandal ism."57 In addition it may also act as an attracting force for the nighttime patrons that it serves as well as the surrounding businesses that also have nighttime operations.
Parking Area Lighting Requirements Area Types and Examples
Medium Activity Levels or
Medium Size Areas Illumination Levels Required by IES
Area shopping centers or strip 1.0 average maintained
malls. Fast food franchises footcandle
Hospital parking areas. Transportation parkingairports, rail terminals, bus terminals.
Area cultural, civic, or recreational events. Local sports facilities, residential complex parking, apartment parking, condominium parking
3:1 average/minimum ( 33 footcandle minimum)
12:1 maximum/minimum (4,0 footcandle maximum)
'Maximum or minimum footcandle level at any point in the parking area 'Considered accepted field practice Not a current IES recommendation
Color of Light
Anoth selection re1at i onsh "color ren primarily of the art does not c that color which pene importance it will be env i ronmen through th
er consideration in disp of lighting that favorab ip to the observed color dering." 58 Sources of 1 from one end of the spec ifact. Color should not ontain the original colo filters do not add colo trate the filter. It is of the effect that it h necessary to maintain p t of the view and add to e displays.
t i f ac t is th e
jects i n
erred to as %
ve le ngth s \
appa rent CO lor
s ourc e that
the c oncl usi on
the colo rs
te th e
also important to note the as on the observer. Because of this roper color to enhance the the experience of the procession
Incandescent vs. Fluorescent
Incandescent o Low color temperature o Room appears light at low levels of illumination
High color t emperature
Room appeal rs darker at
low 1 evels of illumina-
o Use low color temperature light sources to reduce the need for high illumination levels o Lamps should have a good color rendition
o In pit bull areas, where variations in color temperatures are less likely to be of value, lighting should have the same color temperature characteristics.
Recommended Maximum Illumination and Types ol llluminant
Objects insensitive to light (e.g. metal and stone)
Most museum objects, including oil and tempera paintings
Specially sensitive objects (watercolours, textiles, tapestries, etc.)
Daylight. Fluorescent light at about 6.500 K or about 4,200' K
Daylight, Tungsten light. Fluorescent light at about 4,200 K
Preferably tungsten filament lamps
Rarely necessary to exceed 300 lux (30 Im/sq.ft.) except for special emphasis
Not more than
Not more than 50 lux
(5 Im/sq.ft.) andlessif possible
1. The illumination values are the highest that need be used under good conditions of adaptation. In many cases the curator may be able to use lower values, and to use* other devices for keeping sensitive exhibitsout of the light for as long as possible.
2. in order that daylight does not exceed the maximum, there is often no practical alternative to the installation of automatic shutters. Ultra-violet filters should also be ustd.
3. At present the only lamps known to the author in the 4,200c K category with a reasonable colour rendering are the Philips 34 and the A.E.I. (Mazda) Kolor-rite. It is hoped that others will soon be available.
4 Mixtures of fluorescent and tungsten fittings can be used where the technical knowledge is available.
5. Since the illumination values of fluorescent lamps fall after a short initial period, the fixtures may be so arranged as to give up to a third more light when the tubes are new. Evidence suggests that there is no detectable change in colour rendering o< fluorescent lamps as they ago.
(Table and Notes from "A New Look at Colour Rendering. Level of Illumination, and Protection from Ultraviolet Radiation in Museum Lighting by Garry Thomson, in: Studies in Conservation, Vol. 6, No. 2 and 3. 1961. See also Control of deteriorating effects of light upon museum objects by Robert
I Cr.ll/.r ir. Mnt/u.m Wrvl Y\/ll M o 4/u 4 v
The exterior of the museum will be primarily interested in the protective security lighting due to it nature of public access that can often result in vandalizing by intruders. This type of security lighting will be a part of the building security system and will eliminate the use of guards and expensive surveillance systems. Effective security lighting should discourage the intruder by having the intrudor believe that passing pedestrians, the night watchman, or even police patrols, will inevitably detect his presence. This will be done by means of parking lot, building and ground mounted configurations of luminary sources.
Maintenance should be considered in two areas: establishing a good maintenance policy, and in the initial design stages of gallery, and mechanical systems design. The establishment of considerations for maintenance policies is beyond the scope of this thesis.
However, the policies that will develope will be directly related to the final configuration of the museum design. The pay-off of good maintenance might very well be the appreciation and respect of the viewer; "spotless maintenance is a remarkable aid to security." 60
The development of the design of both the museum, and its galleries and exhibits can "establish conditions that determine whether maintenance is easy or difficult, cheap or expensive."61 The following consider issues that should be resolved during the design phase of the gallery development: 62
o Ease of access to the inside of cases (and in some instances to internal ighting) is critical.
o The normal hazards of wear and damage should be considered in the choice of finishing materials for cases. Wherever possible, these should be chosen with a view to strength, durability and ease of cleaning. Projecting edges of materials which might chip, split or be torn away are both a hazard and a potential cost.
o Glass substitutes have been found to be useful for temporary exhibit case construction but they have a number of drawbacks when used on a long-term basis (yellowing, easily scratched, electrostatic and collect dust).
The maintenance concern for dust is also another factor to be considered. A suggested approach would be to remove it from.the air before it comes in contact with the object. This can be done with a proper heating, ventilating and air conditioning system by using filters appropriately. Cases can be protected by means of concealment. In the instances that total enclosure is not suited for a particular artifact vents with filters attachments can prevent dust migration. For which larger displays, a proper "air conditioning" system is most appropriate, particularly for "large and complex installations such as habitat groups, in which most items are immovably attached (and) cleaning, even with the best equipment, is very cos tly."63
Dust and rugs put forth a dilema for applications. In most instances they wear down easily, but when serving as a dust trap they serve as an excellent commodity. In the instance they are used, a good vaccume clearner will compliment their use for maintenance.
"Expose wall coverings should be easily washed, repaired or painted"64Colors and textures should consider the extent that they will be smudged or finger printed.
An overall approach to maintenance obviously includes more than has been discussed. This should serve as a devise to ensure proper gallery design and arrangement, and not as an overall maintenance program for the museum.
SECTION 3 SITE